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BP North Sea SPU Drilling & Completions

BP North Sea SPU Drilling & Completions Wellsite Leader’s Handbook
BP North Sea SPU Drilling & Completions Wellsite Leader’s Handbook

Wellsite Leader’s Handbook

BP North Sea SPU Drilling & Completions

Wellsite Leader’s Handbook

NSDC-00X-001.00U

Document No.

NSDC-00X-001.00U T01

Revision:

1.00U

Authors:

A. Barron, I.Tinegate

Approver:

R. I. Smith

Date:

April 2010

Copyright © BP Exploration Operating Company Limited 2010

All rights reserved.

None of the contents shall be disclosed, except to those directly concerned with the subject and no part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any way or stored in any retrieval system without prior written permission of general management, BP Exploration Operating Company Limited.

BP North Sea SPU Drilling & Completions

Wellsite Leader’s Handbook

Contents

NSDC-00X-001.00U

1. Introduction

1

1.1 Purpose

1

1.2 Planned Future Content

1

1.3 Amendments

1

1.4 Amendment Record

2

2. Functional Expectations of Well Site Leaders

3

2.1 General

3

2.2 HSE

3

2.3 Cost Management

5

2.4 Well Control

6

2.5 Drilling and Completion Operations

7

2.6 Casing/Tubing Running Operations

9

2.7 Cementing

10

2.8 Fluids

11

3. General Practices

12

3.1 Flow-checks

12

3.2 Washouts in the String

13

3.3 (General)

Pressure Testing

17

3.4 Leak-Off Testing

21

4. North Sea Practices and Regulations

28

4.1 Golden Rules

28

4.2 Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER), (UK)

32

4.3 Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (UK)

42

4.4 COSHH Requirements

50

4.5 Chemicals and Bulks requirements (OCR and OPPC etc.)

52

4.6 Working with Radiation

59

4.7 Reporting of Injuries, Diseases & Dangerous Occurrence Regulations, (UK)

60

4.8 Master Equipment List (MEL) Procedures, Roles and Responsibilities

61

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5. Well Control

63

5.1 Kick Tolerance

63

5.2 Shallow Gas

67

5.3 Well Control Practice and Procedures

72

6. Mud Property Trends

98

6.1

Mud Property Changes and Trend Analysis

98

7. Drilling Practices

101

7.1 General Drilling Practices

101

7.2 Tripping Practices

101

7.3 Bits

114

7.4 Rules for Optimising Hydraulics

118

7.5 Hole Cleaning

119

7.6 BHA Design

126

8. Directional Drilling and Surveying

128

8.1 Roles and Responsibilities

129

8.2 General

130

8.3 QA Checks and Survey Procedures

134

8.4 Clustershot Surveys

135

8.5 Anti-Collision

136

9. Sidetracking

138

9.1 Open Hole Sidetracking

138

9.2 Casing Exits

140

10. Stuck Pipe and Fishing Operations

144

10.1 Considerations when Dealing with Stuck Pipe

145

10.2 Stuck Pipe Mechanisms and Responses

151

10.3 Best Practice when Dealing with Stuck Pipe

154

10.4 Best Practice when Dealing with Stuck Wireline

159

10.5 Best Practice when Required to Back-Off

161

10.6 Best Practice when Fishing

164

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11. Casing Running

174

11.1 Preparation of Casing on Deck

175

11.2 Preparing the Casing Tally

176

11.3 Casing Tallies Versus Liner Tallies

177

11.4 Example Casing Checklist

179

11.5 WSL's Casing Checks

184

11.6 Best Practice when Running Casing

185

12. Cementing Practices

190

12.1 2009 Wellsite Cementing Checklist for WSLs

192

12.2 Example Cementing Checklist

192

12.3 Best Practice when Loading the Cement Head

199

12.4 Best Practice when Cementing Casing

200

12.5 Typical Cement Calculations for a 13 3/8" Cement Job

203

12.6 Best Practice when Pumping Cement as a Plug

204

12.7 Example Cement Calculations for a Balanced Cement Plug

208

13. Appendices

209

13.1 Appendix A - Clair Drilling Practices

209

13.2 Appendix B - Examples of Casing Tallies

217

14. Reference Documents and Links

226

BP North Sea SPU Drilling & Completions

Wellsite Leader’s Handbook

1. Introduction

NSDC-00X-001.00U

1.1 Purpose

This document is intended to provide a handbook that can be used by the wellsite leaders and wellsite engineers as a quick reference during rig site operations of 'best practice' derived over many years from our most experienced wellsite personnel. The handbook is not intended as textbook, it is an attempt to pass on rigsite knowledge and 'tricks of the trade', to plug the gap between "theoretical" and "practical" knowl- edge. It's also about sharing tools that are considered as Best Practice. The writing style is less about being "prescriptive" and more about being "advisory"; it highlights the things which should be considered before doing a particular task.

The Handbook is a Guidance Document as defined by the D&C Document Architecture, and is defined as the 'Preferred way'.

1.2 Planned Future Content

The next release of this Handbook (planned for July 2011) will contain sections on:

Data Acquisition

Completions

Workovers

Well Testing

Well Services

Wellheads and Trees

Sub Sea Operations

Reporting Guidelines (Openwells, etc.)

1.3 Amendments

Suggestions for alterations, additions or corrections to the Handbook should be emailed to Richard Smith at smithris@bp.com. Please also contact him if you would like to be involved in contributing to the planned future content detailed above.

BP North Sea SPU Drilling & Completions

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1.4 Amendment Record

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Amendment Rev. Amender Date No. Name Amendment April 2010 1 First Issue of Handbook
Amendment
Rev.
Amender
Date
No.
Name
Amendment
April 2010
1
First Issue of Handbook

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2. Functional Expectations of Well Site Leaders

The role of the Wellsite Leader (WSL) is to ensure that the well operations which are under their control are carried out safely and efficiently, following good BP and industry practices.

Good practice includes, but is not limited to, the expectations below based on the North Sea Functional Expectations of Wellsite Leaders (Rev. 4, April 2008).

2.1 General

The WSL shall:

1. Determine for which disciplines a written handover is required and ensure this takes place on a daily basis between day shift and night shift and at the end of each trip offshore.

2. Ensure that an accurate account of workplace activity is recorded in DIMS.

3. Ensure that a process for Well Handover and Ownership is in place and adhered to (this is to include ownership of wells for cuttings reinjection, CRI, if used).

4. Ensure that appropriate levels of communication are occurring with production departments (particularly with respect to annulus pressure monitoring and injec- tion on adjacent wells while drilling a reservoir section).

2.2 HSE

The WSL shall ensure:

1. Adherence to GHSER, BP's Golden Rules of Safety, any legislative lifting regula- tions and the Installation safety management system, SMS. An auditing pro- gramme shall be in place to confirm compliance with this.

2. That visitors meet the Minimum Standards of Training.

3. That BP staff and Contractors participate in the rig Safety Observation and Safety Intervention systems that are being used.

4. That all incidents are reported, investigated, the root cause established and actions tracked through the Tr@ction system. A culture of open reporting should be encouraged.

5. That all planned activities are risk assessed and adequate mitigations are in place.

6. That there is a process for assessing and controlling risks associated with Simultaneous Operations.

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7. That there is a programme in place for Safety Critical Maintenance and that it is being followed.

8. That there is an effective process in place to manage all lifting equipment and that the equipment is fully certified.

9. That lifting operations are carried out in accordance with local BP and legislative regulations.

10. That all portable equipment supplied for use on the rig is inspected and assessed in line with legislation requirements.

11. The transportation, storage and use of Radioactive sources is in line with the installation SMS requirements.

12. That all chemicals used on site are in accordance with local environmental legis- lation

13. That procedures exist for the segregation of waste and that all waste materials backloaded from the rig are done so in accordance with company and legislative requirements.

14. The DROPS process is implemented and adhered to throughout the rig.

15. There is adequate spill preparedness.

16. Active participation in or lead safety meetings, such as JSAs, prejob safety meet- ings, weekly HSE meetings.

17. Implementation of the installation's EMS (environmental management system).

18. Encouragement of people to "Stop the Job" if they have any safety concerns and to immediately address any reported unsafe acts or behaviours.

In addition to the expectations listed above, following a world-wide Control of Work Review completed in autumn 2009, the following Recommended Practices for the WSL have been added to the HSE Functional Expectations:

Ensure that you fully understand the Drilling Contractor's and BP's (BP owned sites) SMS in use at your site, with particular attention to the requirements related to hazard identification, risk assessment, work authorisation, lifting, isolations and confined space entry.

Ensure that the BP Golden Rules are visible, understood and being fully complied with by everyone on site.

Ensure the Bridging Document is fully understood by site leadership team and that any requirements are being implemented at the site.

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Support the Drilling Contractor in communicating clear expectations on the appli- cation of the SMS to both BP's and the Drilling Contractor's Third Party service providers.

Complete a minimum of one Control of Work Audit every day (this can be part of an existing STOP tour or previously agreed audit plan). Focus on the quality of the hazard identification, the controls in place and the involvement of the supervisor. Use a “coaching” style to work with the team/individuals to help them raise their standards. Where possible, complete this audit with a member of the Drilling Contractor's leadership team.

Ensure that the third party service providers are not ignored. Support them as detailed above at least once per week.

Take part in Tool Box Talks. Facilitate REAL engagement in the TBT by asking ques- tions (e.g. Have all of the hazards been identified? What if….? How are you going to do that? Do you understand what your role is? Are you authorised to approve this work? What would prompt you to STOP the job? Etc.). Coach the TBT leader by holding a follow-up Lessons Learned review with the leader of the TBT after it is complete, aiming to improve the standard of engagement and the quality of the hazard identification.

Perform an act of positive recognition of good HSE behaviour/leadership particu- larly in the areas of hazard identification, lifting and isolations.

Ensure Major Accident Risks are not ignored but considered in Risk Identification (i.e. Well Control, Fire, Marine Risks, H 2 S, Lifting, High Pressure, Structural Failure).

2.3 Cost Management

The WSL shall:

1. Ensure there is a process in place to track and optimise expenditure on high cost rental tools.

2. Ensure that boats, helicopters and POB are managed to ensure that personnel and equipment are available when required but not for longer than necessary.

3. Review the daily CTX report to identify unnecessary expenditure through pur- chase of tangibles, bulks and rental of equipment.

4. Ensure they have an awareness of the contractual arrangements for the remu- neration of service providers.

5. Ensure service provider performance is monitored and accurately reported, NPT is captured and the UFR process is utilised.

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6. Drive the Continuous Improvement / Technical Limit process.

7. Ensure that the offshore leadership team are engaged and active in managing costs.

8. Ensure that there is an efficient operational planning process that minimises rig downtime.

9. Identify opportunities to manage peripheral operations off the critical path.

10. Assist the Drilling Contractor with the scheduling of critical maintenance to min- imise operational impact.

11. Ensure there is an awareness of NPT statistics and the offshore team are engaged in continuously improving NPT.

12. Encourage the planning and execution of SIMOPs when this can be done without introducing significant or unmanageable risk.

13. Ensure that equipment is ready and accessible prior to and during periods of inclement weather.

2.4 Well Control

The WSL shall:

1. Ensure that the agreed well control procedures are adopted, practiced and under- stood (BP's preferred method is the "Fast" shut in). This shall include posting of well control procedures in the doghouse and auditing of D1-D6 drills.

2. Ensure that containment of the wellbore is possible at all times and that a kick sheet is updated daily.

3. Ensure that the well is always flowchecked prior to tripping, after pulling into the casing shoe and before the BHA enters the BOP. The minimum length of a flow- check will be 15 minutes.

4. Ensure that the BOP testing procedure is designed so that there is a leak path below the test plug which will prevent pressure from being applied to the casing/open-hole. The WSL shall witness the first test to ensure that the plug has landed properly. If BOP testing is done without a leak path being available then volumes for subsequent tests shall be clearly communicated with an instruction not to proceed if these volumes are exceeded.

5. Be present on the rig floor to observe the first 10 stands pulled on every trip out of the hole, and until such times as he/she is satisfied that the hole fill volume is correct. The WSL should continue to monitor the trip until back into old hole or inside casing.

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6. Verify the integrity of the pressure tests and operation of all well control equip- ment and all pressure containing equipment installed in the well (casing, plugs, packers, completion, etc.). This shall include witnessing of all downhole tests by the WSL during the drilling phase and by either WSL or WSS/CS during the com- pletion phase.

7. Be familiar with the operation of any equipment installed on the rig for stripping operations. This equipment should be kept in good working condition.

8. Ensure pressure containment barrier policy compliance.

9. Witness and sign off FITs and LOTs.

10. Ensure adequate kick tolerance calculations for next 24 hours.

11. Witness SCRs each tour.

12. When pressure test witnessing is delegated (e.g. BOP testing), the testing pro- cedure and acceptance criteria shall be agreed and the WSL shall check the test records/charts and sign them to confirm acceptance of the test.

2.5 Drilling and Completion Operations

The WSL shall:

1. Ensure that all downhole tools are visually inspected prior to running in hole (i.e. thread conditions, seal areas, jet size and bit type). Any new tools should be drifted.

2. Be aware of the hole condition at all times and be able to communicate this to the onshore team as required.

3. Ensure that the dimensions of any item run in the hole are recorded, correct for their application and a fishing diagram is available.

4. Ensure that first line fishing equipment is available at the wellsite.

5. Brief the BP Contractors as they arrive on the installation regarding their duties and BP's expectations for HSE and Operational Performance.

6. Ensure that a copy of the Drilling Programme (plus any subsequent amendments) is distributed to the Drilling Contractor, Key Service Company Personnel and Other BP Supervisors (e.g. WSS/CS).

7. Ensure that equipment is run within its operating limits and is rated for the intended purpose.

8. Ensure that adequate communication occurs and as a minimum daily meetings are held between the WSL, Rig Site Geologist (if present), service company per-

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sonnel and contractors' personnel to discuss topics including the forward pro- gramme, equipment out of commission that may affect drilling operations and any other matter that may affect ongoing operational or safety performance.

9. Verify that the personnel conducting operations understand the written work instructions and are conducting the operations in accordance with them.

10. Ensure that Well Surveying is conducted in line with the programme. In particular travelling cylinder limitations should be adhered to.

11. Ensure that deviations from the approved programme/plan are discussed with town. Operations shall only continue after an agreed forward programme is established, with risks understood and the Management of Change process com- pleted if required.

12. Ensure that adequate precautions are being taken to prevent anything from being dropped down the hole.

13. Ensure that a planning process is established to ensure that rig equipment and tools are inspected and prepared before they are required. Best endeavours should be made to prepare equipment, procedures and plans off the operational critical path.

14. Ensure that any pressure applied during operations or testing does not exceed the pressure rating of the casing or associated equipment.

15. Ensure that the Cement/Test pump has been checked and pressure tested in advance of it being required for critical path operations.

16. Ensure that the drilling contractor is given written instructions prior to performing any operation on the well. These instructions shall include:

a) The sequence of operations.

b) The parameters to be used (WOB, tripping speed, etc.).

c) The maximum overpulls to be applied to the string while tripping or jarring.

d) Contingency operations if a known problem could be encountered (losses, connection overpull, etc.).

e) Instructions on when the WSL should be informed at specific milestones or deviations from the plan.

f) The instructions shall be signed by the WSL and Toolpusher. The instructions should be made available to all rig personnel.

17. Verify drill pipe tallies.

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18. Ensure procedures for stuck pipe are available and known.

19. Ensure alternative breaks in trip schedule.

20. Review BHA make-up and lay down.

2.6 Casing/Tubing Running Operations

The WSL shall:

1. Ensure that all equipment has been ordered and is on-site prior to the start of a casing job.

2. Ensure that all pipe has been strapped and drifted (this may be done onshore, but the WSL should have written verification of this).

3. Ensure that a pipe tally is prepared and that the number of casing/tubing joints on deck is known at all points in the operation (the running tally shall be checked by at least one independent source).

4. Ensure that all running tools and equipment are in good condition, are the correct rating for the job and have valid certification.

5. Witness the make-up and testing of the float equipment as the shoe-track is being run, ensuring that the required joints are Baker-Locked as per the pro- gramme.

6. Ensure that the casing is made up to the correct torque.

7. Verify correct centralizer installation and placement.

8. Issue written instructions for casing running speeds and circulation requirements, giving due consideration to swab and surge calculations.

9. Complete a deck check to confirm the remaining number of joints before picking up the hanger.

10. Ensure that the relevant Service Providers have checked their tools and equip- ment in preparation for use. This should include operability and critical measure- ments.

11. Verify critical wellhead measurements.

12. Where possible, any tight spots should be wiped out on the trip before running casing. The depth of ledges etc. should be recorded and included on the casing tally.

13. If differential float equipment is being used, the WSL shall ensure it is tripped prior to entering a hydrocarbon bearing zone.

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2.7 Cementing

The WSL shall:

1. Supervise the cementers and drilling contractors in the performance of their duties.

2. Prepare the calculations for the cement job to include slurry volumes, displace- ment volumes and cement/additive quantities. The calculations shall be verified by a minimum of two independent sources including the Cementing Service Provider.

3. Agree pit management plan.

4. Ensure that 100% back-up chemicals for the cement slurry are available onsite.

5. Ensure that the mud loggers and drillers are informed of the volume and type of

mix water for the lead and tail slurries, which mud pit will be used for each mix

water, expected total volume of returns during the cement job and the increase in pit volume.

6. Co-ordinate the execution of the cement job, ensuring that all relevant personnel

are issued with a detailed programme highlighting individual responsibilities. This

must include volumes, pressures and pump rates for the cementing and dis- placement operations. Contingency plans should be drawn up for any equipment failure, etc.

7. Ensure that the cement recipe has been approved by the SDE onshore, mix water

has been checked for contamination and where possible samples of cement, mix

water and additives have been sent into town for testing.

8. Be aware of the setting times for the cement, monitoring the remaining time available throughout the cement job.

9. Ensure that the correct amount of cement is pumped during the cement job (this should include checking of bulk and additive usage).

10. Witness the loading of the cement head and supervise the release of darts and plugs.

11. Witness the shearing and bumping of the plugs, if applicable.

12. Supervise the hanger setting.

13. Ensure that chemicals and volumes to be used for a cement job are in accordance

with local environmental legislation. Ensure that at all times during a cement job

the bottom hole circulating pressure when pumping spacer and slurry is greater

than formation pressure.

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14. Where a computer based liquid additive system (LAS) is used, the WSL will verify that the correct information has been loaded on the computer system.

2.8 Fluids

The WSL shall:

1. Ensure that the mud is maintained in specification and suitable materials are held onboard to enable the system to be weighted up by 1 ppg.

2. Ensure that a detailed plan is available for the displacement of a well to comple- tion fluid. This shall include a plan to clean pits and surface lines to ensure no con- tamination of clean fluids pumped into the well.

3. Ensure there is no single point failure mechanism within the fluids containment system. This should include mud pit valves, flow line valves and overshot packers.

4. Monitor and optimize shaker screen usage, residual oil on cuttings, cutter dryer efficiency monitoring (if applicable).

5. Confirm correct fluid testing and QA/QC procedures, LCM contingency and sweep plans.

Where CRI is used, the WSL shall ensure that procedures for this operation are in place and adhered to. This shall include maximum pump rates, pressures and post injection flush requirements.

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Wellsite Leader’s Handbook

3. General Practices

3.1 Flow-Checks

NSDC-00X-001.00U

References:

Functional Expectations of WSL

• 2.4.3 The WSL shall ensure that the well is always flow-checked prior to trip- ping, after pulling into the casing shoe and before the BHA enters the BOP. The minimum length of a flowcheck will be 15 minutes.

3.1.1 Planned Flow-Check, i.e. Before POOH

1. Make sure the mud weight in and out are balanced.

2. Position the string as low as possible however leave sufficient height to be able to slump down if necessary.

3. Whenever possible, break off the TDU to help stop the drill pipe contents U- Tubing into the annulus.

4. Should hole conditions dictate e.g. potential differential sticking, then keep the TDU installed and slowly rotate the string.

5. On fixed installations do not rely on sensors or floats while flow-checking. A phys- ical check must be made. On floating rigs the trip tank may be the only accurate method of flow-checking.

a) Position one man on the flowline to watch for flow.

b) Position a second man, looking down the well, to monitor for losses.

c) WSL to check both the Flowline and Downhole during the flow-check.

6. If returns are seen at the flowline, then check the fluid level in the drill pipe.

7. When displacing to cold brine, a certain amount of thermal expansion can be expected.

8. If necessary, time return flow using a quart cup and monitor for a decreasing trend.

9. After the flow-check, move the string down to confirm the pipe is free.

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3.1.2 Unplanned Flow-Check, i.e. Pit Gain While Drilling

1. Driller to pick up and space out the string for closing the BOP.

2. Make sure the mud pump and charge pumps are switched off.

3. If TDU height could cause the mud to U-Tube then close in the auto kelly-cock.

4. Shaker hand to check at the flowline that the well stops flowing.

5. Compare last mud weight in with the last mud weight out.

6. If flow is confirmed, then shut in the well.

7. If no flow is seen, then notify the WSL and go back drilling.

3.2 Washouts in the String

References:

Functional Expectations of WSL

• 2.4.6 The WSL shall verify the integrity of the pressure tests and operation of all well control equipment and all pressure containing equipment installed in the well (casing, plugs, packers, completion, etc.). This shall include witnessing of all down hole tests by the WSL during the drilling phase and by either WSL or WSS/CS during the completion phase.

• 2.4.11 Witness SCRs until confident the correct procedure is being used and thereafter ensure SCRs are taken on each tour.

• 2.4.12 When pressure test witnessing is delegated (e.g. BOP testing), proce- dure and acceptance criteria shall be agreed and the WSL shall check the test records/charts and sign them to confirm acceptance of the test.

• 2.5.1 The WSL shall ensure that all down hole tools are visually inspected prior to running in hole (i.e. thread conditions, seal areas, jet size and bit type). Any new tools should be drifted.

• 2.5.7 Ensure that equipment is run within its operating limits and is rated for the intended purpose.

• 2.5.19 Ensure that alternative breaks are made while tripping.

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3.2.1 Best Practice When Dealing with a Washout

Best Practice when dealing with a washout includes:

1. As with all down hole problems, prevention is better than cure. The best way to prevent washouts is to handle all tubulars correctly:

All threads and seal faces are to be inspected before make-up.

Correctly clean and dope all tool joints.

Ensure the correct make-up torque is being applied.

Always use protectors to prevent damage to threads and seal areas.

Maintain good drilling practice to prevent all string vibrations.

All tubulars are to be inspected to a standard and at a frequency commensu- rate with operating conditions and in accordance with both business unit requirements and API RP7G.

2. While washing to bottom, check that the actual system pressure drop matches the calculated figure.

3. Both the Driller and Data Engineer must be kept aware of any mud weight changes or work being done on the mud system which may affect the system pressure loss. (Circulating a heavy slug down hole can closely mimic the pressure drop normally associated with a washout.)

4. Both the Driller and Data Engineer must stay alert and report any unexplained pressure fluctuations.

5. Washouts will typically display a characteristic sudden pressure drop followed by

a

slower yet continual reduction in circulating pressure.

6. a washout is suspected then the following action should be taken.

If

Check that the pressure drop is not associated with a drop in the pump strokes.

Come off bottom and stop circulating immediately.

Have the surface system, e.g. rotary hose, drag chains, HP pipework, etc., checked for leaks and potential spills to sea.

Stop rotating but continue working the pipe.

Check the string weight has not changed.

If no leak is found, then restart the pumps, but keep people clear of the floor while pulling the stand back up through the rotary.

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Derrickman to sound the pumps and check the pop-offs, etc.

Driller to change over to a second pump or pump combination and double check the pressures.

Checking against previous SCR figures is unlikely to be of help as the circu- lating pressures involved are often too low to be of value.

Well Site Leader to check the pressure chart and look for signs of characteristic pressure drops or indication that the pressure loss may be attributed to a nozzle clearing or a heavy slug being circulated around the system.

If an MWD tool is in the string, check to see if it is still pulsing OK (lack of a pulse could indicate a washout has taken place above the tool).

Is the system pressure fluctuating more than normal as the string is worked up and down? (Longitudinal cracks can open and close as the string goes from tension into compression.)

If unable to establish any problems with the surface equipment, then consider carrying out a pump test as detailed in section 3.2.2 below.

If no pump test data is available, then close in the IBOP (or Standpipe valve if the IBOP is not designed to hold pressure from above). Then using the mud pump, pressure test the surface system to the previous circulating pressure.

7. Once it has been established that the pressure loss is indeed down hole than the Well Site Leader must decide whether to circulate clean or not. This decision can only be taken at the time and with the full understanding of hole conditions etc. (Normal practice would be to pull straight out without circulating, however cir- cumstances such as having Nuclear Sources sitting in the reservoir, may dictate otherwise. String rotation should be avoided with a washout in the string.)

8. A better understanding of the position of the washout may be established by using one of the techniques detailed in section 3.2.2 below.

9. In order to allow for easier detection, do not pump a slug but make sure the floormen are not at risk of being sprayed with mud when the wash arrives back at surface.

10. Floormen should inspect each tool joint as it is broken and pay particular attention to the connection upsets and slip areas.

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3.2.2 Considerations when Dealing with a Washout

Considerations when dealing with a washout include:

1. When trying to find a washout, it is often useful to pressure test the surface system against the IBOP or standpipe valve, as mentioned in step 3.2.1.6 above. It is important however, that the WSL has witnessed this test in advance and understands the normal leak rate which can be expected when testing against mud pumps.

2. A more accurate and potentially less damaging option to carrying out a static pressure test is to conduct a dynamic surface test through a fixed choke. The base line pressures can be checked while RIH, but should only be carried out while still inside casing:

Line up to have only one pump online.

Close off the rotary hose and line up to circulate from the standpipe through the fully open fixed choke.

Bring in the pump and establish what pump rate is achieved against a fixed pressure of 2000 psi.

Test each pump in turn and record the pump rate achieved in each case.

This test will need to be repeated when a new size of Liner is fitted or if a sig- nificant change is made to the mud weight.

3. If deemed appropriate, then the WSL may try to find where the washout is by using either of the following methods:

If a water-based mud is in use, then a carbide bomb may be dropped and the resulting gas peak lagged to show the depth of the washout.

If there is no MWD in the string, then a softline tell-tale may be used. Tie a large stopper knot in a 12" length of softline and then unravel the strands. Pump the softline down the string and watch for a slight pressure rise as the string partially plugs the washout. The pump strokes at this point can then be used to calculate the position of the wash (additionally the softline will make it easier to spot the wash while POOH).

4. After POOH and if no sign of a wash can be found, then consideration should be given to running back to bottom making and breaking each connection. If this again proves unsuccessful, then it may be necessary to pressure test the string in stages.

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References:

Functional Expectations of WSL

• 2.4.4 The WSL shall ensure that the BOP testing procedure is designed so that there is a leak path below the test plug which will prevent pressure from being applied to the casing/open hole. The WSL shall witness the first test to ensure that the plug has landed properly. If BOP testing is done without a leak-path being available, then volumes for subsequent tests shall be clearly communi- cated with an instruction not to proceed if these volumes are exceeded.

• 2.4.6 WSL shall verify the integrity of the pressure test and operation of all well control equipment and all pressure containing equipment installed in the well (casing, plugs, packers, completion, etc.). This shall include witnessing of all down hole tests by the WSL during the drilling phase.

• 2.4.12 When pressure test witnessing is delegated (e.g. BOP testing), the testing procedure and acceptance criteria shall be agreed and the WSL shall check the test records/charts and sign them to confirm acceptance of the test.

• 2.5.14 The WSL shall ensure that any pressure applied during operations or testing does not exceed the pressure rating of the casing or associated equip- ment.

• 2.5.15 The WSL shall insure that the Cement/Test pump has been checked and pressure tested in advance of it being required for critical path operations.

SMS Documentation

• GP 10-45 - Working with Pressure.

• UKCS-SSW-001 - Safe Isolation and Reinstatement of Plant.

• UKCS-TI-026 - Pressure (Strength) Testing Procedures.

3.3.1 Considerations while Pressure Testing

Considerations while pressure testing include:

1. Is a Permit To Work required for the testing operation?

2. Who or what other activity may be affected by the pressure testing?

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3. Have the flexible hoses and temporary lines been inspected and tagged in the last 12 months?

4. Are all flexible hoses and temporary pipework hobbled?

5. What is the setting of the PSV or emergency shutdown system?

6. Has the chart recorder been calibrated in the last 12 months?

7. Are the gauges and chart recorder suitable for both low and high pressure testing?

8. Has

Responsibilities; Tannoy

Announcements; Barrier Requirements; Minimum Manning Levels, Spotter

a

TBT

been

held

to

discuss;

Roles

and

Duties?

9. Is it possible to pressure test surface lines in advance?

10. Are there any High Pressure to Low Pressure interfaces within the system?

11. Are there any check valves in the system?

12. Are there reservoir fluids involved and if so could hydrates become an issue?

13. What is the burst rating of the weakest component?

14. What is the density of the fluid inside and outside the test envelope?

15. What are the minimum design factors for the casing?

16. What effect will the testing have on the casing tensile load?

17. Is the test pump emergency stop button fully functional?

18. Is there likely to be a system temperature change during the test?

19. If the casing has already been drilled through, what affect will wear have on the maximum safe test pressure?

3.3.2 Best Practice when Pressure Testing

Best Practice while pressure testing includes:

1. All testing is to be recorded on a calibrated Chart Recorder which is capable of recording both Low and High pressure tests.

2. When closing valves make sure to count the turns and/or measure the actuator volumes pumped or returned.

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3.

Make sure that potential leak paths are opened and being monitored from a safe distance during the test.

4.

All pressure tests will include a low pressure test of typically 200 - 300 psi before going onto the high pressure test.

5.

A

satisfactory test during routine testing operations, e.g. pressure testing BOPs,

is held for a minimum of 5 minutes after the pressure has stabilised (allowable

drop rate is 10 psi/min).

6.

A satisfactory test on well integrity equipment, e.g. casing strings will be held for

a minimum of 30 minutes or as directed in the programme after the pressure has

stabilised (allowable drop rate is less than 5 psi/min over the last 15 mins).

7.

The preferred test medium is water. If it is not possible to turn the entire volume over to water then try at least to have water in the pump.

8.

Always flush through the system to clear any air from the lines.

9.

Have the expected test volume calculated before starting to pump.

10.

PSVs will not be set above 95% of the maximum operating pressure of the testing equipment.

11.

Never test tubulars to over 90% of API burst, or to over 80% of the triaxial stress nominal yield.

12.

Never test connections to above the connection rating or 75% of the tensile rating.

13.

The WSL should confirm that the line up on the pump is correct and make sure that a minimum of two independent pressure readings are available.

14.

Start the pump in the highest gear possible and listen to the pump/engine note to confirm when the unit comes under load.

15.

Build pressure in stages, to the low pressure value and allow the pressure to steady at each stage.

16.

Record the volume pumped against the pressure attained at each stage.

17.

Build pressure in 1000 psi or 25% stages to the high pressure value, again record the volume against pressure reached at each stage.

18.

By pumping at a constant rate, an early indication of a leak will be seen as the rate of pressure increase will slow down.

19.

While staging up the pressure, check the gauges agree with the chart.

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20. Pressure pulses or "bounce" on a high volume test is a good indication that the integrity of the system is sound.

21. If testing long rotary hoses etc., reduce the pumping rate to allow for expansion of the elastomers and wire core.

22. Air in the system will be evident if the pressure dips but then starts to steady. If this air effect is seen, then simply bump the pressure back up and compare the result.

23. Should the pressure leak off, then record the drop rate seen.

24. Do not allow crew members to investigate a leak with full pressure on the system.

25. Before bleeding off the pressure, ensure the trace on the chart is acceptable.

26. At the end of the successful test, bleed back the test pressure slowly so as to avoid shocking the system.

27. While bleeding down the pressure, check the volume returned against the pres- sure reading.

28. Once all pressure is bled down compare the volume pumped against the volume returned.

29. Finally examine and sign off the chart.

Note:

Test Volume (bbls) = Pressure Increase (psi) x Volume to be pressured (bbl) Compression Factor

Common Compression Factors:

Water/Brine

= 275,000

OBM

= 250,000

Base Oil

= 200,000

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References:

Functional Expectations of WSL

• 2.4.6 The WSL shall verify the integrity of the pressure tests and operation of all well control equipment and all pressure containing equipment installed in the well (casing, plugs, packers, completion, etc.). This shall include witnessing of all down hole tests by the WSL during the drilling phase and by either WSL or WSS/CS during the completion phase.

• 2.4.9 Witness and sign off on FITs and LOTs.

• 2.4.12 When pressure test witnessing is delegated (e.g. BOP testing), proce- dure and acceptance criteria shall be agreed and the WSL shall check the test records/charts and sign them to confirm acceptance of the test.

• 2.5.14 Ensure that any pressure applied during operations or testing does not exceed the pressure rating of the casing or associated equipment.

• 2.5.15 Ensure that the cement/test pump has been checked and pressure tested in advance of it being required for critical path operations.

SMS Documentation

• Drilling Operations Guidance - Section 8100 .

3.4.1 Leak-Off Tests - General

Leak-Off Testing and Formation Integrity Testing is performed by pumping at a con- stant slow rate (max. 0.25 BPM) while recording pressures versus volume pumped on graph paper. This test is the equivalent of strength testing of metals.

The four phases when pressure is being applied to a formation are:

1. Elastic Phase: where pressure increases at a constant rate per unit of volume pumped (straight line on pressure versus volume pumped graph). The analogy for tensile testing of a piece of metal is that in the elastic phase the tensile force can be applied and then removed without deforming the metal as it would return to it's original dimensions.

2. Plastic Phase: where pressure increase per unit volume pumped is less than recorded in elastic phase (the data points deviate from a straight line). The leak- off point is defined as the last point on the straight line before deviation is

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observed. Leak-off test will be stopped after pumping a maximum of 0.75 to 1 bbls past the leak-off point. The test should be stopped immediately deviation is observed to prevent going to third phase. The analogy for tensile testing of a piece of metal is that in the plastic phase the tensile force applied and then removed will result in permanent deformation of the metal as it would be longer and narrower (necking) than it's original dimensions.

3. Breakdown Phase: If the Leak-Off or Formation Integrity Test is not stopped when leak-off is observed (deviation from the straight line) then the pressure will reach a point where the formation catastrophically fails and the pressure the for- mation can support will be significantly less than before the test. If the formations are broken down then this could compromise the ability to the drill the well. The point at which the pressures suddenly drop is called the Fracture Initiation Gradient. The analogy for tensile testing of a piece of metal is this is the tension at which the metal fails and parts into two pieces. If the leak-off test is taken to Formation Breakdown then it could significantly impact the ability to drill the well.

4. Injection Phase: If fluid is continued to be pumped into the formation then the pressures will stabilize at a constant injection pressure value which is called the Fracture Propagation Gradient.

Note:

Unless completing an extended LOT, all formation testing (both leak-off and formation integrity tests) must stop when the end of the Elastic Phase is identified (i.e. when observing deviation from a straight line) and before the Breakdown Phase is entered.

Four Phases as Pressure is Applied to a Formation

Plastic Breakdown (Fracture Initiation) Elastic Injection (Fracture Propagation) Pressure
Plastic
Breakdown (Fracture Initiation)
Elastic
Injection (Fracture Propagation)
Pressure

Barrels Pumped

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Leak-Off Testing: After drilling out of the casing or liner shoe 3 to 4m of formation is drilled below the rat hole. Pressure is then applied above the mud weight until devia- tion from a straight line is observed. Once deviation from a straight line is observed the test should be stopped to prevent breaking down the formation. The leak-off pres- sures is the last point of the elastic phase (end of straight line).

Formation Integrity Testing (Limit Test): After drilling out of the casing or liner shoe 3 to 4m of formation is drilled below the rat hole. Pressure is then applied above the mud weight to a defined pressure limit (if no deviation from a straight line) or test stopped early if deviation from a straight line is observed (leak-off). If leak-off is observed during the Formation Integrity Test, then the test must be reported as a "Leak-Off Test" to avoid confusion.

Formation integrity pressure achieved or the leak-off pressure applied to the formation is then used in the Kick Tolerance calculations to determine the volume of influx that can be circulated out without exceeding the strength of the formations at the shoe when drilling to the planned section depth.

3.4.2 Considerations when Conducting Leak-Off Tests

1. Leak-off tests (also known as Formation Intake tests or Formation Integrity tests) are carried out for three main reasons:

To test the cement job.

To determine the leak-off gradient of the open formation.

To collect regional data to optimise future well design.

2. "Limit tests" are those where the formation is tested to a pre-determined pres- sure or Equivalent Mud Weight (EMW) that is known will be sufficient to cover any potential mud weight increases.

3. Leak-off or Formation Integrity tests are carried out on each casing and liner shoe (except conductor shoes) before drilling ahead.

4. Leak-off and Formation Integrity tests will be limited to the lesser of the following factors:

Formation leak-off, i.e. deviation from the straight line on the Psi/Barrels graph.

Casing test pressure.

Wellhead test pressure.

BOP test pressure.

75% of the casing burst pressure.

5. The requirement to carry out an integrity test may be relaxed in certain circum- stances, however relaxation will only be granted if there are good indications of a

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successful cement job and once a documented risk assessment has been carried out. Some situations where dispensation to policy may be given include:

Casing string is not a pressure containment string.

Exposed formations are very vulnerable to damage and such damage will sub- sequently increase the level of risk.

Casing shoe is set by design within the target reservoir.

Where air or under balanced fluids are the primary circulating medium.

6. If the formation integrity test fails to meet the prerequisite standard then reme- dial corrective action may well be required.

7. Only suitably accurate pressure gauges are to be used for leak-off testing and all results will be recorded on a chart.

8. Only the cement pump or a similar low volume pumping unit will be used for leak- off testing. Rig pumps are never to be used for leak-off testing.

9. The displacement tanks on the cement unit are to be calibrated in ½ bbl incre- ments in such a way as to allow for a good estimate of ¼ bbl to be made.

10. The back pressure of the column of test fluid between the cement unit and the rig floor should be calculated before the job. If this value is significant then it should be subtracted from the pressures recorded at the unit during the test.

11. It is not normal practice to take the gelation effect of the mud into account, however cross-referencing the leak-off test results against the PWD readings will help guard against any gross errors being made.

3.4.3 Best Practice when Conducting Leak-Off Tests

There are two acceptable methods of carrying out a leak-off test. The "hesitation" method involves increasing the pressure in stages and recording both dynamic and static pressures whereas the "constant pump" method only stops when a deviation from the straight line is seen.

The constant pump method is more useful in elastic formations whereas the hesita- tion method can offer earlier detection as both the dynamic and static pressure trends can be monitored. It is the hesitation method which is described below.

Best practice is to pump down both the drill string and the annulus to prevent forma- tion debris being sucked into the bit nozzles when the pressure is bled down.

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1. Drill 4m of new formation, then if drilling with a rotary steerable system, down- link and set the tool to "Ribs Off" before carefully pumping back up inside the shoe.

2. Once safely inside the shoe, set the tool to "Steer Force Zero", and circulate till clean and the mud weight in and out are balanced. If vibration is a problem then do not rotate while circulating.

3. While circulating, carry out the following preparations:

Assistant Driller to confirm we have fluid to surface but no pressure reading on the casing annulus.

Cementer to pressure test surface lines to 2000 psi and function test his over- pressure limit.

Toolpusher to confirm that all pressure gauges are online and working. Well Site Leader to be made aware of any gauge discrepancies.

Well Site Leader to calculate the expected leak-off pressure and test volumes. Drilling Engineer to check these figures.

Use the previous casing pressure test details to help verify these calculated figures and prepare a graph charting barrels pumped on the "X" axis and pres- sure on the "Y" axis.

Hold a Toolbox Talk with everyone concerned.

Position a man at the wellhead to monitor the casing annulus pressure.

Space out the string in readiness for closing in the well. Have the TDU as low in the derrick as possible.

Erect signs and barriers and make tannoy announcements alerting personnel to the risks of pressure testing.

Derrickman to transfer Active mud to the Cement unit.

Mud Engineer to confirm the final mud weight in and out.

4. Once the mud system is in balance, flowcheck the well looking for both losses and gains.

5. Driller to close off the mud pumps and line up the cement unit to pump down both the Kill Line and the Drillstring.

6. Cementer to flush active mud down through the Kill Line till returns are seen at the shakers. Once returns are seen, then stop pumping and close in the Kill HCR.

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7. Cementer to flush active mud down the Drillstring till returns are seen at the Shakers. Once returns are seen, then stop pumping, close in the Upper Pipe Rams and open the Kill HCR. Well Site Leader to record both the Cement Unit and the Cameron Choke Manifold pressure gauge readings.

8. Cementer to pump at a slow and steady pace aiming at ¼ bbl/min but certainly no faster than ½ bbl/min.

9. Once pressure registers on the Choke Manifold gauge, stop pumping. Well Site Leader to record volume pumped and all gauge readings. An adjustment for rig floor height, mud gelation pressure and gauge inaccuracy can now be made.

10. Position a man at the Shakers to watch for any fluid by-passing the Upper Pipe Rams. Be aware of the possibility of ballooning from the next casing annulus.

11. Using the same slow and steady pump rate of around ½ bbl/min, pump away ¼ bbl active mud. Well Site Leader to record the "dynamic" pumping pressure just before the pump is stopped and then the semi stabilised "static" figure after 2 minutes. Plotting the test results on the run will often give the first indication that leak-off has been reached.

12. Continue pumping in these ¼ bbl increments plotting both the dynamic and static pressures. By continuing to pump at the same slow and steady pace, a reduction in the rate of pressure increase will be the first sign that leak-off has been reached. This is particularly notable when using a digital pressure gauge.

13. Once the leak-off or limit pressure is reached, stop pumping and hold the pres- sure for a further 10 minutes. N.B. The point of leak-off is taken as the moment where the pressure plot deviates from the straight line. Well Site Leader to confirm with the Shaker hand and the man at the wellheads that no flow is being seen through either of these potential leak paths.

14. Calculate the Equivalent Mud weight using:

EMW (ppg) = Leak-Off Pressure (psi) + Hydrostatic of Mud to Shoe (psi) TVD of Shoe (ft) x 0.052

15. Bleed back the pressure slowly to the cement unit and record the volume returned and lost downhole. N.B. Take care to allow for line returns during this exercise.

16. Driller to open up the well and line back up for drilling, meanwhile again flowcheck the well looking for both losses and gains.

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17. Restart the pumps and if available have the MWD engineer confirm the maximum pressure recorded by the downhole tools. Well Site Leader to compare this pres- sure with the surface leak-off value.

Typical Leak-Off Profile below a 13 3/8" Shoe

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Static Pressure
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
Static Pressure

Barrels Pumped

Pressure (psi)

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4. North Sea Practices and Regulations

4.1 Golden Rules

BP's safety policy states no harm to people and no accidents. Everyone who works for, or on behalf of, BP is responsible for their own safety and the safety of those around them.

The following safety rules will be strictly enforced to ensure the safety of our people and our communities. Although embedded in each of these rules, it is important to emphasize that:

Work will not be conducted without a pre-job risk assessment and a safety dis- cussion appropriate for the level of risk.

All persons will be trained and competent in the work they conduct.

Personal protection equipment will be worn as per risk assessment and minimum site requirements.

Emergency response plans, developed from a review of potential emergency sce- narios, will be in place before commencement of work.

Everyone has an obligation to stop work that is unsafe.

4.1.1 Permit to Work

Before conducting work that involves confined space entry, work on energy systems, ground disturbance in locations where buried hazards may exist, or hot work in poten- tially explosive environments, a permit must be obtained that:

Defines scope of work.

Identifies hazards and assesses risk.

Establishes control measures to eliminate or mitigate hazards.

Links the work to other associated work permits or simultaneous operations.

Is authorized by the responsible person(s).

Communicates above information to all involved in the work.

Ensures adequate control over the return to normal operations permit to work.

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4.1.2 Energy Isolation

Any isolation of energy systems (mechanical, electrical, process, hydraulic and others) cannot proceed unless:

The method of isolation and discharge of stored energy are agreed and executed by a competent person(s).

Any stored energy is discharged.

A system of locks and tags is utilized at isolation points.

A test is conducted to ensure the isolation is effective.

Isolation effectiveness is periodically monitored.

4.1.3 Ground Disturbance

Work that involves a man-made cut, cavity, trench or depression in the earth's surface formed by earth removal cannot proceed unless:

A hazard assessment of the work site is completed by the competent person(s).

All underground hazards, i.e. pipelines, electric cables, etc., have been identified, located and if necessary isolated.

Where persons are to enter an excavation:

A confined space entry permit must be issued if the entry meets the confined space definition.

Ground movement must be controlled and collapse prevented by systematically shoring, sloping, benching, etc., as appropriate.

Ground and environmental conditions must be continuously monitored for change.

4.1.4 Confined Space Entry

Entry into any confined space cannot proceed unless:

All other options have been ruled out.

Permit is issued with authorization by a responsible person(s).

Permit is communicated to all affected personnel and posted, as required.

All persons involved are competent to do the work.

All sources of energy affecting the space have been isolated.

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Testing of atmospheres is conducted, verified and repeated as often as defined by the risk assessment.

Stand-by person is stationed.

Unauthorized entry is prevented.

4.1.5 Working at Heights

Working at heights of 2 metres (6 feet) or higher above the ground cannot proceed unless:

A fixed platform is used with guard or hand rails, verified by a competent person, or…

Fall arrest equipment is used that has:

A proper anchor, mounted preferably overhead.

Full body harness using double latch self.

Locking snap hooks at each connection.

Synthetic fibre lanyards.

Shock absorber.

Fall arrest equipment will limit free fall to 2 metres (6 feet) or less.

A visual inspection of the fall arrest equipment and system is completed and any equipment that is damaged or has been activated is taken out of service.

Person(s) are competent to perform the work.

4.1.6 Lifting Operations

Lifts utilizing cranes, hoists, or other mechanical lifting devices will not commence unless:

An assessment of the lift has been completed and the lift method and equipment has been determined by a competent person(s).

Operators of powered lifting devices are trained and certified for that equipment.

Rigging of the load is carried out by a competent person(s).

Lifting devices and equipment have been certified for use within the last 12 months (at a minimum).

Load does not exceed dynamic and/or static capacities of the lifting equipment.

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Any safety devices installed on lifting equipment are operational.

All lifting devices and equipment have been visually examined before each lift by a competent person(s).

4.1.7 Driving Safety

All categories of vehicle, including self-propelled mobile plant, must not be operated unless:

Vehicle is fit for purpose, inspected and confirmed to be in safe working order.

Number of passengers does not exceed manufacturer's design specification for the vehicle.

Loads are secure and do not exceed manufacturer's design specifications or legal limits for the vehicle.

Seat belts are installed and worn by all occupants.

Safety helmets are worn by riders and passengers of motorcycles, bicycles, quads, snow-mobiles and similar types of vehicle.

Drivers must not be authorized to operate the vehicle unless:

They are trained, certified and medically fit to operate the class of vehicle.

They are not under the influence of alcohol or drugs, and are not suffering from fatigue.

They do not use hand-held cell phones and radios while driving (best practice is to switch off all phones and two-way radios when driving).

4.1.8 Management of Change

Work arising from temporary and permanent changes to organization, personnel, systems, process, procedures, equipment, products, materials or substances, and laws and regulations cannot proceed unless a Management of Change process is completed, where applicable, to include:

A risk assessment conducted by all impacted by the change.

Development of a work plan that clearly specifies the timescale for the change and any control measures to be implemented regarding:

Equipment, facilities and process.

Operations, maintenance, inspection procedures.

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Training, personnel and communication.

Documentation.

Authorization of the work plan by the responsible person(s) through completion.

4.2 Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER), (UK)

References:

Functional Expectations of WSL

• 2.2.8 The WSL shall ensure that there is an effective process in place to manage all lifting equipment and that the equipment is fully certified.

• 2.2.9 The WSL shall ensure that lifting operations are carried out in accordance with LOLER and BP's North Sea Lifting Rules.

SMS Documentation

• UKCS-SOP-043 - Crane Lifting and Slinging Safe Operating Procedures.

• UKCS -TI-10 - Practical Guide to LOLER.

• UKCS-TI-012 - Guidance on Lifting Equipment Supply, Control and Operations.

• UKCS-TI-013 - Colour Coding procedure for Portable, Fixed and Circulating Lifting Equipment.

• UKCS-TI-014 - Guidance on the Categorisation/Planning/Risk Assessment and Implementation of Lifting Operations.

4.2.1 North Sea Lifting Rules

The following fundamental rules will be applied to all lifting operations with zero tol- erance:

1. All personnel must keep out of any area where they might be injured by a falling or shifting load. Do not stand below loads. Never stand between loads and walls/bulkheads, etc. Always ensure an escape route is available.

2. Immediately a lift deviates from plan or any complication arises, the lifting opera- tion must be stopped and made safe. All personnel should remain in positions clear of the lift until reassessment/replanning of the lift is carried out.

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3. Lifting operations will be undertaken by a minimum of three competent people:

crane operator, banksman/flagman and load handler.

4. The banksman/flagman controls the initial lifting of the load, laydown of the load and lifts that are out of the line of vision of the crane operator. The crane operator is responsible while the load is in the air. The banksman must:

a) Ensure that he/she is easily identifiable from other personnel by wearing a hi- vis jacket or waistcoat, which is clearly marked to indicate that he/she is the authorized crane banksman.

b) Not touch the load. He/she must stand back from the load being handled in a prominent position where he/she has a good view of the lifting activities.

c) Remain in communication with the load handler and crane operator at all times.

d) Keep the load handler in sight during the lifting operation.

5. The load handler must:

a) Stand clear while a load is lifted clear of the deck and landed, while slack is taken up with or without a load on the hook and must confirm to the banksman that he is clear.

b) Not touch a load being landed until it is below his/her waist height and never attempt to manually stop a swinging load.

c) Be easily identifiable, and distinct from the banksman.

6. For BP operated installations and onshore sites there will be no stacking of con- tainers, baskets, tanks and half heights.

4.2.2 LOLER Regulations

Lifting incidents account for a significant number of all serious accidents. BP recog- nises the importance of safe lifting practices and has included Lifting Operations within its "Golden Rules of Safety".

Lifting is controlled under the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER), which came into force in December 1998.

The regulations deal with both portable and fixed equipment and apply on any site where the Health and Safety at Work Act operates. All lifting equipment and acces- sories are covered and once more it is the employer, who shoulders the main respon- sibility.

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A comprehensive list of roles and responsibilities is available within UKCS-TI-10, however the main responsibility of the employer ensures:

that competent people are appointed to risk assess, plan, supervise and carry out all lifting operations;

that sufficient, suitable and certified lifting equipment is supplied, checked and sited by competent persons;

that lifting equipment is suitably marked with SWL and comprehensive records of certification are maintained;

that examinations are carried out by an impartial inspector and that any equipment which fails examination is immediately withdrawn from service;

that only equipment deemed suitable as per Regulation 5 will be used for the lifting of personnel.

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4.2.3 LOLER - Risk Assessments and Lift Plans

An example of a typical Risk Assessment and Lift Plan, in this case covering a wire- line logging run, is detailed below.

4.2.3.1 Risk Assessment Form for Rigging and Lifting Operations

Risk Assessment Form for Rigging and Lifting Operations

Assessment No./Job Title: Rig-up of the Wellserv Slick Wire Line Unit

Lift Plan No. A1D. 012

The object of the risk assessment is to identify and eliminate any hazards in the lifting operation, define the level of difficulty of the task and determine the skill level of the personnel required to perform that particular activity safely. This document will also highlight any needs for further training.

Category of lifting operation:

ROUTINE DRILLING & WELL SERVICES LIFT

Person responsible for lifting operation:

DRILLER

Performing Authority:

DRILLER

Personnel to be involved:

Drillcrew and Wellserv Service Hands

Date of lift:

Please complete the result table below once the relevant parts of the risk assessment have been completed.

Result of risk assessment (tick appropriate box)

Result of risk assessment (tick appropriate box)

1. STOP! - Further engineering input required

2. CAUTION! - Rigging personnel must perform operation

3. GO - Proceed with lifting operation

NO

NO

input required 2. CAUTION! - Rigging personnel must perform operation 3. GO - Proceed with lifting

If the lift is to proceed, please enter in the box below, any special instructions and/or safety measures to be taken.

Name: JOCKY RIDDOCH

Job Title: Sparrows Lifting Co-ordinator

Date: 12-11-04

Once the lift has been safely completed, please note in the box below any problems encountered and how they were overcome, also any suggestions for doing the lift more efficiently/safely.

Name:

Job Completion Feedback:

Job Title:

Date:

BP North Sea SPU Drilling & Completions

Wellsite Leader’s Handbook

NSDC-00X-001.00U

4.2.3.2 Lift Categorisation Assessment Part 1 - Routine Lifts

Seven Basic Questions

Yes

No

1.

Has the lifting operation been performed before?

 
1. Has the lifting operation been performed before?  

2.

Is there a documented procedure?

2. Is there a documented procedure?  
 

3.

Are you experienced with all the lifting equipment to be used?

3. Are you experienced with all the lifting equipment to be used?  
 

4.

Has the load been checked and made ready for lifting (e.g. sea fastenings released, hold-down bolts removed)?

4. Has the load been checked and made ready for lifting (e.g. sea fastenings released, hold-down
 

5.

Have you the experience to lift a load of this weight?

5. Have you the experience to lift a load of this weight?  
 

6.

Is the lift in an area free from obstructions and other possible hazards?

6. Is the lift in an area free from obstructions and other possible hazards?  
 

7.

Can the lifting operation be carried out without the use of soft eye flat webbing slings?

7. Can the lifting operation be carried out without the use of soft eye flat webbing
 

If the answer to any of the above is 'No', go to Part 2 of the Lifting Operation Assessment Procedure.

 

If the answer to all seven questions above is 'Yes', proceed with the routine lifting operation in accordance with the relevant lifting plan and/or risk assessment.

Assessment Part 1 performed by:

JOCKY RIDDOCH Job title: Sparrows Lifting Co-ordinator Date: 12-11-04

BP North Sea SPU Drilling & Completions

Wellsite Leader’s Handbook

NSDC-00X-001.00U

4.2.3.3 Lift Categorisation Assessment Part 2 - Simple Lifting Operations

 

Questions

Yes

No

1.

Is the lifting operation to be undertaken by a single lifting appliance?

 
1. Is the lifting operation to be undertaken by a single lifting appliance?  

2.

Do you know the weight of the load and does the lifting operation appear to be straightforward?

2. Do you know the weight of the load and does the lifting operation appear to
 

3.

If the load is heavier than you normally handle, do you have the relevant permission and/or permit?

3. If the load is heavier than you normally handle, do you have the relevant permission
 

4.

Is there a crane or certified support steelwork (e.g. runway beam or lifting eye) directly above the load?

4. Is there a crane or certified support steelwork (e.g. runway beam or lifting eye) directly
 

5.

Does the load have certified lifting points (lifting eyes/collar eyebolts, etc.) fitted and if not, can slings be wrapped around easily (e.g. no sharp edges, load not fragile, etc.)?

etc.) fitted and if not, can slings be wrapped around easily (e.g. no sharp edges, load
 

6.

Is there ample headroom for the lifting appliance and slings?

6. Is there ample headroom for the lifting appliance and slings?  
 

7.

Is the lift stable (e.g. centre of gravity below lifting points)?

7. Is the lift stable (e.g. centre of gravity below lifting points)?  
 

8.

Is the lift balanced (e.g. centre of gravity in the middle) or fitted with special slings to compensate?

8. Is the lift balanced (e.g. centre of gravity in the middle) or fitted with special
 

9.

Is the load free to be lifted (e.g. sea fastenings released, all hold-down bolts removed, not jammed etc.)?

9. Is the load free to be lifted (e.g. sea fastenings released, all hold-down bolts removed,
 

10.

Is the removal route clear of any obstructions?

10. Is the removal route clear of any obstructions?  
 

11.

Can the removal (lift, transfer and landing) be performed without cross hauling?

 
11. Can the removal (lift, transfer and landing) be performed without cross hauling?  

12.

Is there a suitable laydown area and does the load come within the allowable load bearing capacity of the ground/deck?

there a suitable laydown area and does the load come within the allowable load bearing capacity
 

13.

Are you experienced in using all the lifting equipment and gear involved?

13. Are you experienced in using all the lifting equipment and gear involved?  
 

14.

Can the lifting operation be carried out without the use of soft eye flat webbing slings?

14. Can the lifting operation be carried out without the use of soft eye flat webbing
 

If the answer to any of the above is 'No', go to Part 3 of the Lifting Operation Assessment Procedure.

 

If you can answer 'Yes' to all the above, proceed with the lift as per the BP requirements for simple lifts.

Assessment Part 2 performed by:

JOCKY RIDDOCH Job title: Sparrows Lifting Co-ordinator Date: 12-11-04

Note (1): To Supervisors: If you can give solutions to the above negatives to allow the lift to proceed safely, write the instructions in the box below. If you cannot supply a solution, seek guidance from the Lifting Co-ordinator before proceeding with the lifting operation.

Solutions to overcome the above problems: Refer to Lifting plan A2G.018 (Transfer of Equipment Under 5te from Pipe Deck to Rig Floor).

BP North Sea SPU Drilling & Completions

Wellsite Leader’s Handbook

NSDC-00X-001.00U

4.2.3.4 Lift Categorisation Assessment Part 3 - Complicated Lifts

Must be carried out by qualified Riggers, or personnel with similar qualifications and skills in dealing with awkward loads.

The personnel about to perform the lifting operation shall complete the table below. Tick against factors which are applicable to this specific lifting operation and indicate whether or not you have the relevant experience to deal with them.

 

Experience

Identified Hazard

App

Yes

No

1.

Load has C of G above the lifting points or a high C of G.

     

2.

Load has an offset centre of gravity.

     

3.

Load has to be cross-hauled or restrained.

YES

YES

 

4.

Load does not have specific lifting attachments.

     

5.

Load is fragile.

     

6.

Load has a large surface area which may act as a sail.

     

7.

Load requires two sets of rigging or two appliances for tandem lifting.

YES

YES

 

8.

Load has to be rotated (overturned).

     

If you answer "No" to any of the above, go to Part 4 of the Lifting Operation Assess- ment Procedures.

If you answer 'Yes' to all of the above, proceed with the lift as per the BP Require- ments for complicated lifts.

(N.B. This text has been corrected from TI-014.)

 

Assessment performed by:

Endorsed by:

JOCKY RIDDOCH Job title: Sparrows Lifting Co-ordinator Date: 12-11-04

Job title:

Date:

Note (1): To Supervisors: If you have any experience and can advise personnel involved in the lifting operation how to deal with the complication, allow the task to proceed but only under your guidance. However, if you decide that the operation is outwith the scope of your compe- tence, please indicate the reasons applicable in the table in Part 4 - Complex Lifts before passing it to the nominated Technical Authority for lifting operations on the site.

BP North Sea SPU Drilling & Completions

Wellsite Leader’s Handbook

NSDC-00X-001.00U

4.2.3.5 Lift Categorisation Assessment Part 4 - Complex Lifts

Lifting operations or conditions which would merit additional engineering input.

Reasons for Requesting Engineering Input

Tick box where applicable

1.

The lifting operation involves divers.

 

2.

The lifting operation is subsea.

 

3.

The load will be travelled over unprotected process plant/machinery.

 

4.

The load is extremely heavy.

 

5.

The lift involves a floating crane.

 

6.

The load is extremely valuable >£10,000.

 

7.

The lift is in a confined space.

 

8.

The lift is in an area with very restricted headroom.

 

9.

Other reason:

 

Lifting Plan/Method Statement and Risk Assessment Part 4 Performed by:

Job title:

Date:

Approved/Endorsed by (delete as applicable):

Date:

BP North Sea SPU Drilling & Completions

Wellsite Leader’s Handbook

NSDC-00X-001.00U

Lifting Operations Plan

Lifting Operations Plan

Page 1 of 2

Description Of Lifting Operation: Remove and install Wellserv slickline unit on pipe deck - rig up lubricator and required accessories.

Plan Number:

A1D.012.

Location: Clair

Area: Drill Floor and Pipe Deck

 

Is a diagram/sketch of lifting operation enclosed? Yes

 

Weight of load: Slickline unit - assessed - 2000 kg.

Lubricator - assessed - 2000 kg.

Lifting equipment and accessories to be used (specify type, SWL and colour code): 2 x 16” 4Te SWL sheaves, varied amount of 3.25Te, 4.75Te, 12Te, 25Te SWL bow shackles, 1 x 10Te SWL T-bar lift nubbin, 2 x 1.8Te SWL x 6 metre Dyform soft eye wire slings. 500Te SWL travel block, 50Te SWL North Pedestal Crane. 2 x 8Te SWL x 8 metre crane pen- nants. 500Te SWL bales. 2 x 3Te SWL lever hoists, various lengths of 3Te SWL soft eye wire slings.

All lifting operations require the following to be considered but this list is not exhaustive:

• Is the lifting equipment designed for the task?

• Is the SWL marked on all lifting equip- ment and accessories?

• Weight, size, shape and centre of gravity of load.

• Method of slinging/attaching/detaching the load.

• Availability of approved lifting points on load.

• Working under suspended loads.

• Overturning/load integrity/need for tag lines.

• Environmental conditions including weather.

• Pre-use equipment checks by operator.

• Experience, competence and training of personnel.

• Number of personnel required for task.

• Proximity hazards, obstructions, path of load.

• Conflicting tasks in area.

• Communication requirements.

Pre-task activity: Remove conveyor (refer to Lifting Plan - A1D.003).Transfer equipment under 5Te from pipe deck to rig floor (refer to Lifting Plan - A2G.017). Pre-assemble lubricator and BOP on catwalk. Pre-rig load cell and sheave.

Transfer of wire line BOP and accessories from pipe deck to drill floor:

 

1.

Adhere to Clair Lifting Plan A2G.017 - Transfer of Loads under 5Te SWL from Pipe Deck to Drill Floor using Draw Works.

Installation of slick wire line unit:

 

2.

Attach the slick line unit to the north 50Te SWL pedestal crane using the pre-rigged 5 leg SWL bridle assembly and land the unit on the pre-fabricated base frame on the pipe deck, at the designated worksite, south of the knuckle boom crane. Unhook the 50Te SWL pedestal crane and de-rig the 5 leg SWL bridle assembly. Slick line unit may need to be anchored to the pipe deck using 2 x 3Te SWL lever chain hoists and 4 x 3Te SWL of suitable length soft eye wire slings.

BP North Sea SPU Drilling & Completions

Wellsite Leader’s Handbook

NSDC-00X-001.00U

Installation of Lubricator:

 

3. Attach 2 x 1.8Te SWL x 6 metre Dyform soft eye wire slings to the pre-assembled lubri- cator with a double turn and choke method.

4. Attach suitable length of tag line. Attach the 2 x 1.8Te SWL x 6 metre soft eye wire slings to the 2 X 8Te SWL x 8 metre crane pennants on the north crane and hoist up to the required height and slew in a westerly direction, towards the drill floor and hold. Lower off on the crane and land the lubricator on suitable dunnage and unhook the 2 x 8Te SWL x 8 metre pennants. Attach the 500Te SWL travelling block to the 10Te SWL T-bar lift nubbin assembly master link using a suitable length 2 x 3Te SWL soft eye wire slings choked round the 500Te SWL bales and joined with a 3.25Te SWL safety pin bow shackle.

5. Attach 1 x 8Te swl x 8 metre pennant to the lubricator at the opposite end, using 1 x 1.8Te swl x 6 metre soft eye wire sling double wrapped and choked. Hoist up on the crane and travelling block in unison to the required height and hold. Transfer the lubricator by lowering off on the crane and hoisting up on the travelling block. Once the total weight of the lubricator is on the travelling block, lower off on the crane and unhook. Lower off on the travelling block and land the lubricator on the BOP and secure. Take the agreed amount of strain on the travelling block and hold. Maintain the tension on the travelling block throughout the wire line operation.

TO REMOVE OR RE-INSTATE, USE THE ABOVE METHOD IN REVERSE.

 

Steps taken to eliminate danger to personnel involved and others, including barriers where appropriate:

• Crane operations to be carried out in accordance with SOP-043. Wear correct PPE. Barrier the work area. Safety Harness and Inertia to be worn if working at a height where there is a possibility of falling. Maintain good communication between all work parties involved in the task. Use correct manual handling techniques.

De-brief and learning points:

 

Prepared By:

Jocky Riddoch

Signature:

Date: 22-11-04

Authorised By: Gary Taylor

Signature:

Date: 18-07-08

BP North Sea SPU Drilling & Completions

Wellsite Leader’s Handbook

NSDC-00X-001.00U

4.3 Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (UK)

References:

Functional Expectations of WSL

• 2.2.7 The WSL shall ensure that there is a programme in place for Safety Critical Maintenance and that it is being followed.

• 2.2.10 The WSL shall ensure that all portable equipment supplied for use on the rig is inspected and assessed in line with legislative requirements.

• 2.5.7 The WSL shall ensure that equipment is run within its operating limits and is rated for the intended purpose.

SMS Documentation

• UKCS-SOP-005 - Control of Hired and Transportable Equipment.

• UKCS-TI-017 - Guidance On PUWER.

4.3.1 PUWER Statutory Instrument

The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (PUWER) was first introduced in 1992 and then updated through SI 2306 in 1998.

The Statutory Instrument stipulates that any risk arising from equipment used in the workplace is to be eliminated or controlled. Mitigation of risk may be achieved by using either "hard controls" such as guards, interlocks, etc., or by using "soft controls" such training or procedures.

PUWER covers both fixed and mobile equipment and requires that all tools, devices and plant are:

Suitable for their intended use.

Safe for use, that it is maintained in a safe condition and when necessary, inspected to ensure that this remains the case.

Used only by people who have received adequate information, instruction and training.

Accompanied by suitable safety measures, e.g. protective devices, markings and warning signs.

BP North Sea SPU Drilling & Completions

Wellsite Leader’s Handbook

NSDC-00X-001.00U

The regulations apply to any site where the Health and Safety at Work Act operates. All equipment, from a sledgehammer to the Topdrive, is covered and it is the employer alone who is deemed the responsible party.

The full life cycle is covered, including equipment construction, installation, starting, stopping, repairing, modifying, maintaining and transportation.

4.3.1.1 PUWER Assessments

PUWER assessments are typically carried out using structured checklists. Two exam- ples are shown below; one covers temporary or hired equipment, while the other deals with permanent rig equipment.

Hired or Temporary Equipment PUWER Assessment Checklist  

Hired or Temporary Equipment PUWER Assessment Checklist

 

Equipment Description and ID

 

Intended Installation

Assessment Carried Out By

 

Date of Assessment

Requirement

Yes

No

Comments/Exclusions

Is the equipment of a suitable design and intended for the task and location for which it is to be used?

     

Is there documentary proof of regular maintenance?

Can all required maintenance be carried out?

Is use and maintenance of the equipment restricted only to authorised, trained personnel?

Are persons who will use the equipment, including standby/watchkeeping personnel, adequately trained?

Has equipment been inspected before first use?

Has sufficient, easy to understand information been pro- vided to enable safe use of the equipment?

Have risks of using this equipment been fully identified, assessed, documented and controlled?

Is protection provided to protect persons from danger caused by moving, rotating, hot or cold parts?

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Wellsite Leader’s Handbook

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Requirement

Yes

No

Comments/Exclusions

Are controls provided to start, stop and isolate the equip- ment from power sources, in both normal and emergency situations?

     

Is equipment subject to CE marking and if so is it affixed?

Are systems in place to ensure no persons are exposed to risk as a result of equipment starting or operating?

Where appropriate, have visible or audible warning devices and barriers been put in place?

Is there sufficient lighting?

 

Is equipment stable and properly anchored in place?

Are passengers prohibited from riding on equipment?

Is equipment provided with a means to stop unauthorised use?

Are controls fitted for braking and stopping?

Are there emergency controls to brake and stop if main controls fail?

Does the equipment operator have an unrestricted view of the work environment?

Has the equipment itself and the area in which it will be used been checked for potential dropped objects?

Equipment Supplier:

Name:

Sign:

Date:

Equipment Supplier:

Name:

Sign:

Date:

BP North Sea SPU Drilling & Completions

Wellsite Leader’s Handbook

NSDC-00X-001.00U

PUWER Assessment Checklist (Rig Equipment)

Asset Assessor Equipment/System Description

Assessment No. Equipment System No.

Item

Question

Yes

No

N/A

1.

Are there any dangerous parts of machinery? If work equipment could cause injury if it is being used in a foreseeable way, it can be considered a dangerous part.

     

2.

Is the equipment unsuitable for its intended use? Typically, incorrectly rated, there is a requirement for improvisation, etc.

     

3.

Is there alternative equipment that could be used that may prove to be less hazardous? Example: scissors instead of knives, electrical as opposed to pneumatic power, etc.

     

4.

Is there a requirement to modify the design, equipment layout, access, working height, reach distances, etc. to make the equipment (more) com- patible for equipment users?

     

5.

Are there any hazards associated with using this work equipment in the pro- posed or existing work location? Example: exhaust fumes build-up in an enclosed space.

     

6.

Is there a reasonable likelihood of any article or substance being ejected or falling from the equipment, any part of the equipment rupturing or disinte- grating, the equipment catching fire or overheating, or of the equipment or any article or substance produced, stored or used by it exploding?

     

7.

Are there any other likely foreseeable uses this equipment could be used for, for which it is not suitable? Non-intended use/abuse.

     

8.

Is there still a requirement for the equipment to be tested and commis- sioned?

     

9.

If testing has been performed and there is a requirement for the test status to be known, is the test status unclear?

     

10.

If this is temporary portable equipment, is the last inspection report unavail- able?

     

11.

Are the means of access for performing maintenance, inspection or test activities likely to put personnel at risk?

     

12.

Does this equipment appear to be poorly maintained or has it deteriorated into a hazardous condition?

     

13.

Are there likely to be any hazardous substances generated by the equip- ment, or nearby equipment, that may cause harm when performing mainte- nance, inspection, cleaning tasks, etc. Typically, brake dust, decomposed oils, etc.

     

14.

Are the anticipated tools and processes necessary to perform mainte- nance, inspection, testing, etc. likely to be unsuitable for the area where the equipment is located, e.g. electrical test equipment?

     

BP North Sea SPU Drilling & Completions

Wellsite Leader’s Handbook

NSDC-00X-001.00U

Item

Question

Yes

No

N/A

15.

Is

there a requirement to have operating instructions attached/placed near

     

to the work equipment? Information and instructions require to cover health and safety aspects arising from the use of the equipment, limitations on the equipment’s use(s) and any foreseeable difficulties that could arise and the methods to deal with them.

16.

Are additional warning or prohibitive signs required for the reasons of safety?

     

17.

Is there a requirement to deny the use of this equipment to non compe- tent/ trained personnel through locks, passwords, etc?

     

18.

Could personnel be injured through contact with hot or very cold equip- ment, parts of work equipment, or articles or substances in the equipment?

     

19.

Do you consider that there is a requirement to have personnel trained in the use of this equipment? Typically, training, or further training is required when the risks to personnel change due to changes in their working tasks, when new technology or equipment is introduced, or if the system of work changes.

     

20.

Do the equipment's controls/isolations fail to activate the equipment's functions as intended? Alternatively, could the activation of the controls result in the equipment performing in a hazardous manner? Answer NO if you have had the opportunity to function check the controls and the controls reacted as intended. Answer YES if you have not had the opportunity to func- tion check all the controls, or you have function checked the controls and they did not perform as required.

     

21.

Can the equipment be started by any other means other than that of the control purposely fitted for starting the equipment?

     

22.

Upon restoration of the power supply, or for example after an interlocked hatch has been closed, will the equipment start up without a control being activated?

     

23.

Is it possible to change the operating conditions of this equipment (speed, pressure, temperature, power) without the activation of a control, unless the change does not increase risk to personnel?

     

24.

Is the operator of this equipment put at risk by the location of the con- trols?

     

25.

Is

there a requirement to add any markings or signs to the controls in order

     

to clearly identify their function?

26.

Is it possible for the stop functions not to override the start functions? Answer YES if you have not had the opportunity to function check all the stop controls.

     

27.

Is the position of this equipment's controls likely to result in the controls being inadvertently activated?

     

28.

Are the controls likely to become inoperable due to damage, contamina- tion or build-up of residue, dust or other contaminants?

     

29.

Are any of the required indicators out of sight of the operator stationed at

     

a

control position?

30.

Is

there a requirement to give a warning of imminent start-up of the equip-

     

ment to personnel on or around the equipment?

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Wellsite Leader’s Handbook

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Item

Question

Yes

No

N/A

31.

Where equipment is fitted with more than one start control, is it possible for operators to put each other in danger? Typically, if there are two start buttons at different locations.

     

32.

Does the equipment require an emergency stop?

     

33.

Does the equipment require additional emergency stops? Typically when the equipment is located between 2 rooms, or, danger zones are located in several areas not in view of the operator.

     

34.

Does the location or visibility of controls, i.e. emergency stop(s)/isola- tion(s) make them obscure to persons requiring to activate them?

     

35.

Could the location of the controls, i.e. emergency stop(s)/isolation(s) be improved in anyway to enable them to be activated more expediently?

     

36.

If the equipment is linked, or works in conjunction with other equipment, is there a requirement for the emergency stops to be linked?

     

37.

Does the emergency stop permit any function or control of the equipment to continue after it has activated? Answer NO if there is a continued func- tion or control if it is for the purposes of reducing risk. Answer YES if you cannot function the emergency stop(s).

     

38.

Would the failure of one power supply when the equipment has multiple power supplies leave the equipment in a hazardous situation? Example: If there was a loss of air supply, would the fact that the electrical supply remained cause a hazardous situation?

     

39.

Would the failure of the power supply result in a dangerous situation? Typically, dropping of a load or leaving the equipment out of sequence.

     

40.

Is lighting in the area where the equipment is located, will operate in , inad- equate for all foreseeable operations?

     

41.

Is the lighting likely to dazzle personnel, cause dangerous shadows, or obscure monitor screens?

     

42.

Is there a requirement for suitable lifting points to be fitted in order for the equipment to be moved in a safe manner if necessary? Example: mainte- nance activities.

     

43.

If the equipment is hand portable, is there a need for suitable handles or handholds to be fitted in order for the equipment to be moved in a safe manner?

     

44.

Does it appear that the equipment is, or could become, unstable during any stage of the equipment's life cycle?

     

45.

Could feeds/returns to/from the equipment constitute a trip or snag hazard?

     

46.

Could feeds/returns to/from the equipment become unsafe due to insuffi- cient support or routing?

     

47.

Could the equipment’s power supply become unsafe due to insufficient support or routing?

     

48.

Is it likely that the equipment's power supply could be inadvertently re- connected due to the lack of suitable, clearly marked, lockable isolation point(s)?

     

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Item

Question

Yes

No

N/A

49.

Is it likely that residues, cuttings, etc., will be discharged/disposed of in an unsafe and/or environmentally unacceptable manner?

     

50.

Does the location of this equipment produce or contribute to any collision points