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Essay on Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan is a country on the border of Europe and Asia. Borders with Russia, Georgia, Armenia,
Iran, and Turkey. The total area of Azerbaijan is 86,600 km2. The capital of the country is Baku. The
total number of inhabitants (according to the 2011 estimate) is 9.165.000 [1]. It is an independent
state since 1991, and before that it was a republic within the Soviet Union.

It is a continental state because there is no exit to the sea or the ocean.

The Azerbaijani language, spoken by the majority of the population, is a member of the Turkish
language group (the most famous member of this group is Turkish). The most represented religion is
Islam, and most Muslims in Azerbaijan are Shiites.

Heydər Əlirza oğlu Əliyev (Nahichevan, May 10, 1923 - Cleveland, December 12, 2003) was President
of Azerbaijan from 1993 to 2003. During the Soviet Union, he was Chairman of the State Security
Committee (KGB) in the Azerbaijani SSR from 1967 to 1969, and then the first secretary of the CP of
the Azerbaijani CP from 1969 to 1982. He is a member of the Politburo of the CC of the CPC of the
USSR and Deputy Prime Minister of the Soviet Government from 1982 to 1987, when Mikhail
Gorbachev was dismissed by him as an opponent of the reform policy.

After returning to Azerbaijan he acted as a nationalist. He left the Communist Party in 1991 and
became president of parliament in Nakhichevan AO. In June 1993, he removed President Əbülfəz
Elçibəy from power and became president of the state. [2] As the president of Azerbaijan, in 1994, he
signed a peace agreement with Armenia that ended the war in Nagorno-Karabakh, and Armenia
retained power over the Nagorno Karabakh enclave, which was the cause of the war since 1988. [1]
His coming to power was interrupted by a period of instability. American and other oil companies
have been involved in oil exploration. The Əliyev regime was marked by corruption and nepotism.
Due to illness, he resigned in power in 2003, and his son, İlham Əliyev, was elected President.

The war in Karabakh was an armed conflict between Armenians in Gorski Karbah, supported by the
Republic of Armenia and Azerbaijan, which took place between February 1988 and May 1994 in the
province of Gorski Karabakh. As the war unfolded, Armenia and Azerbaijan, both former Soviet
republics, entered a hurried, unpublished mountain war in the province of Karabakh, because of
Azerbaijan's desire to prevent the separation of the same province from its borders. The People's
Assembly of the Caribbean voted in favor of unifying Karabakh with Armenia, while a referendum
was also held that was mostly boycotted by the Azeri people in Karabakh, where most of the
population voted for independence. The demand for unification with Armenia, which reached its
peak in the late 1980s, began as a quiet undertaking. However, in the following months, as the Soviet
Union collapsed, the movement developed into a violent conflict between Armenians and Azeri,
which resulted in claims on ethnic cleansing on both sides.

The inter-ethnic conflict soon flashed after the Parliament of the Autonomous Region of Gorki
Karabakh on February 20, 1988 voted to decide on joining the province of Armenia. The emergence
of the Armenian separatist movement also eased the situation in the then Soviet Union. While
Azerbaijan declared independence from the USSR by removing the peculiarities of the enclaves'
government, the Armenian majority voted in favor of secession from Azerbaijan by proclaiming
internationally unrecognized Republic of Gore Karabakh.
The widespread fighting erupted in the winter of 1992. International mediation of several groups
including the European OSCE, was not successful in passing a resolution that both sides would be
satisfied with. In the spring of 1993, the Armenian forces captured areas outside the enclave, thus
leading to the inclusion of other countries in the region into the conflict. By the end of the war in
1994, the Armenians had full control over the majority of the enclave and held about 9% of the
Azerbaijani territory outside it. As a result of the conflict, about 230,000 Armenians from Azerbaijan
and 800,000 Azeri refugees from Armenia and Karabakh have been displaced. The crackdown was
signed with Russian mediation in May 1994.

The colorful national culture of Azerbaijan, which dates back to ancient times, has incorporated in
itself the best tradition of the East and the West.

There are many different sources that speak of the ancient period of Azerbaijani culture. The
valuable writings of historians, collectors of folklore, ethnographic material, and illustrations of
contemporary painters bring us into the fascinating ancient world of poetic works, games, ritual
dances, wise and naive fairy tales that have absorbed totemic and historical-mitological motives.

In the territory of Azerbaijan, there is also the oldest archaeological and paleontological material,
which confirms the origin of the lives of primitive people before 1.7-1.8 million years ago.

In the developmental period, until the middle of 1 millennia before the new era, ancient cults
(animism, ancestor cult, etc.) in Azerbaijan were suppressed by the religion of zoroastrians. As one of
the oldest religions in the world, Zoroastrizam practiced the concept of dualism, which governs the
world (good and evil, Ahura Mazda and Ahriman). One of the main spiritual obligations of the faithful
Zoroastrizam was the concept of choice.

"Novruz" (in translation "new day") has become one of the most important holidays, celebrating the
victory of good over evil. Today, Novruz has lost the sense of the Zoroastrian holiday. In Azerbaijan,
today, it is a spring holiday, which falls on the spring solstice on March 21st.

Great attention is drawn to the fragments carved on the walls of Gobustan (near Baku, 7000 - 2000
BC), examples of the Pehlevian inscription, Arabic inscriptions, which still exist on preserved parts of
old buildings, and also records and objects relating to ancient Christian advanced countries In the
northern part of Azerbaijan.

At the end of the seventh, beginning of the 8th century, when most of the city population received
Islam, many Muslim educational institutions, Mekteba or Madras, were opened, where, along with
the Kuran, he learned Arabic, mathematics, medicine, astronomy, philosophy and other sciences.
During this period, and later, there were large construction works. Many cultural objects (churches,
mosques), bridges, castles, fortifications, irrigation systems were built during the 11th-12th. Century,
which marks the period of revival in Azerbaijan.


Azerbaijan - the cradle and country of the poet. Already during the Arab caliphate, the
representatives of the Azerbaijani literature - Ismail Ibn Jassar and Musa Shehvat are mentioned in
the 11th-century manuscripts "Kitabul-Agani" ("The Book of Poems") by Abul Faraj Isfahana.
A period of 8-10 centuries known by Azerbaijani scientists - doctors, lawyers ... At the Museum of
Literature of Azerbaijan we can learn about the poet and scientist Hatib Tabriz, about the
philosopher Bahmaniar (talented student Ibn Sina (Avicena)) and get acquainted with the national
heroic epic "Kitabi Dede Korkud ", which originated in X-XI v.

Bahmaniar wrote "Book for Education", "Book of Decoration in Logic", "Book of Beauty and
Happiness." The manuscript of his book "Al Tahsil" is still kept in collections of manuscript funds of
London, Cairo, Tehran, Beirut. The Azerbaijani literature was also celebrated by the brilliant poets of
the East, such as Nizami, whose five-volume "Hamsa" was properly included in the treasury of world
literature, and its contemporaries are Afzaladdin Hagani, Mehseti Gengdui, Muhammad Fizuli, Mola
Panah Vagif, Hurshud Banu Natavan.


Azerbaijan has given the world to great music theorist, Safiatdin Urmavia, the founder of the new
musical system of music in the 13th century. Along with the names of the great Azerbaijani scientist
and musician Safiaddin Urmavia and his follower Abdulgadir Maragi, the flourishing of musical-
theoretical thought in the XIII-XV centuries in the Middle East is connected.

Maraghi was a very talented and versatile, educated musician, singer and performer on many
instruments. In addition to musical compositions, Maraghi created works that had a great influence
on the development of musical-theoretical thought. English scientist-orientalist Anri D. Farmer called
Maraghi "the last classicist" of medieval music science. Isfizari (XV century) claimed that Maragi has
three talents - musicians, calligrapher and poet. In "Firman" (Decree), Timur (1397) called Maraghi
"the fall of all musicians".

In the early stage (late XIX - early XX century), the formation of the Azerbaijani opera and symphonic
music is primarily associated with the great - truly selfless - musical, artistic and social activities of
Uzeir Gadzibekov, the founder of modern professional music of Azerbaijan. Uzeir Gadibekov is also
the creator of the first opera in the east ("Lejla and Hungun", 1908). His associates were prominent
composers M. Magomayev and Z. Gadžibekov. Azerbaijani operas and musical comedies originated
from the depths of the national oral tradition of music art and are directly related to it. The basis of
the musical material of the first Azerbaijani opera is mugam. Mugam - a musical phenomenon, not
only national but also world music. Among 90 minutes of music sent by the US Voyager satellite in
1977 to other civilizations, 2 minutes 20 seconds takes up the mugam. In the middle of the 20th
century in Azerbaijan, the original school of composition was formed (K. Karaev, F. Amirov, Hadziev,
S. Hadzibekov, Nijazi, S. Rustamov, T. Guliv A. Melikov, J. Dzhangirov R. Hadziev), which Celebrated
Azerbaijan far beyond its borders. The names of Bulbul, Rasheed Behbudov, Vagif Mustafe-Zade
were entered in the golden fund of performing arts.

Painting, decorative and applied art

One of the recognized masterpieces of world art is the Azerbaijani medieval miniature. Illustrations
for the poems of Firdousi and Nizami, as well as works by other poets, made by distinguished
craftsmen (Behzad and his followers), Azerbaijani Literary Miniatures, are adorned by many
museums around the world (Great Britain, USA, France etc.) The most striking follower of medieval
masters The minijaturist was Behruz Kengerli in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In recent
times, the colorful images of Sattar Bahlulzade, paintings by Tair Salahova, Mikail Abdulayev and
Togrul Narimanbekov are adorned by many private collections and museums all over the world.
Stone plastics

Stone plastics and the art of carving of stone are characterized by diversity: here are round
sculptures, as well as burning, and shallow engraved figures. From time to time, foreign travelers
visiting Azerbaijan were surprised by the abundance of incredible relief with figures of animals,
people, themed compositions, carved on facades of houses and tombstones. Sculptures are often
performed in the plains of Širvan, Mugana, in the plains of Karabakh. Some of the monumental
monuments reach a height of 3 meters or more. In addition to purely ceremonial moments, these
monuments glorify the idea of invincibility and great possibilities of the people. Of the medieval
stone stones of Azerbaijan, the so-called. Bailovsky stones - a relief of stone slabs from the 13th
century, which were removed from the bottom of the Caspian Sea.


Azerbaijan is one of the unique carpet regions in the world. For centuries, the art of the master has
reached perfection. They created the best examples of carpets and carpets, from the simplest -
palaces, to the most complicated carpets - halcha.

Archaeological monuments tell us that the art of weaving veils in the territory of Azerbaijan was
already known in the ninth century BC. Azerbaijan is now known in the world as fiberglass carpets
(palas, carpets, sumas, zils, sands and crests), as well as 600 types of fibrous carpets, made by
masters from Guba, Shirvan, Ganja, Nagorno-Karabakh, Tabriz and Ardabila.


The ceramics of Azerbaijan counts for several millennia. A rich collection of pottery of the Museum of
the History of Azerbaijan belongs to the epoch to the Bronze Age. Here, they have collected cymbals,
bowls of various shapes, dishes ... Well-made and decorated dishes, as well as jewelry made of metal,
stone, bones, talk about the flourishing of crafts during the bronze age, and also the high artistic
taste of old masters. We should mention the richly painted ceramics found during the excavation of
the medieval towns of Azerbaijan: Bajlakana, Bakua, Barda, Gandje, Šamahia. Many products are
made with perfect skill, subtle elegance and are considered to be the true pearls of the applied art of


Azerbaijan is a treasure trove of architectural monuments. In the territory of Azerbaijan there are
ruins of ancient and medieval cities. The capital cities, crafts and culture centers in Nakhchivan,
Kabala (Kabala), Barde (Partav), Ganja, Sabran, Oren kala (Bejlagan), Shemaha, Halhal and others
have attracted invaders from ancient times. Remains of many fortresses - fortresses and towers -
Cirakkala, Didvan and others, erected at the beginning of our era, and later, to defend against the
invasion of the nomadic tribes and foreign invaders. Of special interest are complex defense
structures in Apsheron. Tower of the Apsheronian Peninsula: in Mardakan, Nardaran, Bilgah, and
others. Symbol Baku - Devojačka Tower (unbeatable) - eight-storey monumental building from the XII
century with a height of 28 meters and a wall thickness of 5 meters.

In Azerbaijan, many churches - temples, monasteries and churches - were built in different periods of
history. From the 12th century, the strengthening of statehood and the development of cities began,
where architectural schools were formed. Founder of Nahichevan school - celebrates throughout the
East of the architect Abubakr Ajami son Nakhichevan. Architectural masterpiece - the work of
Mausoleum Tenth Momin Khatun, the total height reaches 34 m.

The tomb is artistically decorated with complex geometric patterns and inscriptions of ceramics. In
addition to the Nakhichevan school, Shirvan-Absheron, Aranska and others were formed. Fortress
towers, castles, palaces and other buildings in XII-XV are included in the golden fund of the
architectural monuments of Shirvan. The pearl of the palace of Azerbaijan - Shirvanshah Palace in
Baku (mid-15th century). Currently, he is a public museum-reservation.

During feudalism, chhan palaces and fortifications were built. The masterpiece of this period - Sheki
Khans Palace (XVIII century) .. The main facade of the palace is decorated with beautiful stained-glass
windows and wooden shebeke. The interior of the palace is richly painted with drawings of plants,
animals and birds, geometric arabesques, scenes of fighting and hunting.

Azerbaijan - intersection of important trade routes. On the roads in the cities and many
caravansarays were built - (Baku, Absheron, Nakhchivan, Karabakh, Ganja, Sheki, Fizuli Shemakh,
etc.). A significant place among the architectural monuments of Azerbaijan occupy bridges. The
durability of the preserved bridges (XI-XIII century) speaks of the high skills of the Azerbaijani

Museums and galleries

The cultural heritage of Azerbaijan is represented in 150 museums and galleries in the Republic.
Among them are the Museum of History of Azerbaijan, State Museum, Shirvan Palace, Museum of
Art, Museum of Carpet and Decorative Applied Art, Museum of Azerbaijani Literature. Books are
represented in 4,650 public libraries. There are hundreds of culture palaces and clubs, 25 state
theaters, Philharmonic Orchestra, Music Academy, Academy of Arts and many other educational
institutions in the field of culture.

Azerbaijan, one of the former Soviet republics, could in the future be imposed as a leader among the
countries of the South Caucasus. This conclusion was made by RIA "Novosti" after a recent visit by
Russian President Vladimir Putin to Baku. At the same time, the agency adds that the US influence in
this part of the world, imposed after the breakup of the Soviet Union, began to decline rapidly after

The weakening of the American influence, as well as the arrival of the Russian state delegation to the
Azerbaijani capital, fit into the strategy of the head of the Russian state to tie the former Soviet
republics to Moscow more firmly than the Baltic ones. The jumping of Russia into an empty space
that the Americans leave behind is a logical step. Current President Ilham Aliyev welcomed a Russian
colleague at a time when Azerbaijanis are preparing to leave for the presidential election on October
9th. Moscow's pre-election support is reflected in the fact that in Putin's world there were, among
others, Minister of Foreign Affairs Sergey Lavrov, Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu and Minister of
Energy Alexander Novak.

The previous "visible presence" in the former Soviet republic was of great importance to Washington.
For several reasons: the first is certainly the fact that Azerbaijan is extremely rich in energy products,
important not only to the United States, but also to its allies, especially in the Middle and Far East
areas. But Russian and Russian "Lukoil", "Rosneft" were thrown around there by oil and gas sources
Also, the strategic position of this country, the region's largest, with slightly more than nine million
inhabitants, as well as its most direct connection between the west of Asia and the east of Europe, at
one time gave birth to the idea of forming a permanent US military base in Azerbaijan. Easier for
Afghanistan, especially at the moment of withdrawal, while simultaneously controlling the situation
in Iran, Turkey, Georgia, Armenia ...

What did not go wrong with the Americans is that President Aliyev is more inclined towards Putin, as
a close neighbor. His father, Gaidar Aliyev, who had led the country since 1993, considered Moscow,
even after the collapse of the USSR, to be a strategic ally. Also, it is known that Ali's elder to death
(2003) was in extremely good relations with Putin.

When it comes to Azerbaijan and Putin's support for Aliyev, analysts of the Russian agency RIA
"Novosti" point out that the Russian president's resolve to maintain this friendship, after all, is
initiated by the fact that in Baku they do not hide the desire for a firmer political link with Ankara and
Brussels. At one point there was even news of the possibility of creating joint military forces of
Azerbaijan and Turkey.

This was confirmed by Baku's incompatibility with any economic or military-political structures in the
post-Soviet space, such as the Eurasian Economic Union, the Customs Union and the Collective
Security Treaty Organization (ODKB). This is exactly the strategic goal of the current government in
the Kremlin.

The US decision to withdraw from Afghanistan, albeit welcomed in Baku, creates a new situation in
which much returns to the 1991 start position when post-Soviet states gained independence. A
situation arises that creates a dilemma to which the strategic partner is inclined. Now it's not just
about Russia and the United States, but also about the ever-firmer China, and the powerful Turkey,
which is seeking to gain membership in the EU. However, this does not change business matters "on
the ground." Moscow and Baku are linking serious links within the Organization of Black Sea
Economic Cooperation. Azerbaijan is Russia's largest economic partner in the South Caucasus. It is
not surprising that in the aforementioned Putin delegation that was in Baku there were oil magnates
Igor Sechin and Vagit Alekperov. Since the end of the "energy talks" has not been disclosed, it is
undoubtedly that the Azerbaijanis seek to free Russia's influence on the sale of energy products to
foreign, especially western markets. Ilham Aliyev does not doubt victory in the upcoming elections.
There is no doubt about Moscow, which wants to strengthen the influence of the post-Soviet space.
The visit to Baku aimed to show this not only to Azerbaijani voters, but also to the main presidential

Azerbaijan is Bosnia's friendly country.