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The 23 rd International Conference The Knowledge-Based Organization

ISSN 1843-682X

CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS 1

MANAGEMENT AND MILITARY SCIENCES

ISBN 978-973-153-273-8

The 23 r d International Conference The Knowledge-Based Organization MANAGEMENT AND MILITARY SCIENCES CONFERENCE

The 23 r d International Conference The Knowledge-Based Organization MANAGEMENT AND MILITARY SCIENCES CONFERENCE

The 23 rd International Conference The Knowledge-Based Organization

MANAGEMENT AND MILITARY SCIENCES

CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS 1

15-17 June 2017

7

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© 2017 Nicolae B lcescu” Land Forces Academy

Copyright: out of charge, all reproductions are authorized provided that specific references are made.

Nicolae B lcescu” Land Forces Academy Address: 3-5 Revolu iei Street, Sibiu Tel.: 0269/432990, Fax: 0269/215554 E-mail: office@armyacademy.ro E-mail: editura@armyacademy.ro web: www.armyacademy.ro web: www.armyacademy.ro/editura

The authors take full responsibility of the content of their articles.

ISSN 1843-682X ISBN 978-973-153-273-8

TABLE OF CONTENTS

MILITARY SCIENCES. SECURITY AND DEFENCE

Role of Women in Security and Defense: Bulgarian National Policies and Experience, Nevena ATANASOVA-KRASTEVA, “Vasil Levski” National Military University, Veliko

Tarnovo, Bulgaria

9

Distribution of Combat Capabilities on Objectives by Using a Transport Problem, Alexandru , Alina

15

Creation of a Model for Social Defense in Case of Disasters for the Citizens of the Republic of Bulgaria, Georgi BAEV, Miroslav DIMITROV, Ivan DIMITROV, “Vasil

Levski” National Military University, Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria

21

Manners of Performing Terrorist Attacks, Tomasz

25

WICS Model’s Impact Upon Successful Military Leaders, -Ioana ,

32

The Forest Offences and the National Security of Romania, Anca Elena ,

38

Security and Privacy in Smart Devices Era, Laviniu BOJOR,

44

Complex Challenges, Complex Responses and the State, Gábor BOLDIZSÁR,

53

Military Education and Training Supported by Blended Simulation, Pavel , Vladimír ANDRASSY,

61

Perspectives and Options for the Development of Virtual Teams for Command of Units in Operations, Jiri CERNY, Jaromir PITAS,

66

3

The Hybrid Warfare in the 21st Century: an Old Concept with a New Face, Alin

74

CÎRDEI,

Constellation of Cubesats to Monitor the Environment for the Benefit of Europe, Ivan DIMITROV, Miroslav DIMITROV, Georgi BAEV, “Vasil Levski” National Military

University, Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria

 

79

Challenges

of

the

Security

Environment

Before

the

Correlation

“Resources-

University, Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria

Capabilities

Effects”,

Sevdalina

DIMITROVA,

“Vasil

Levski”

National

Military

89

Using Geopolitics in the Comparative Analysis of Two International Systems Based on Factors Considered Relevant, Anca DINICU,

94

Towed Anti-Tank Guns Renaissance of Almost Forgotten Weapons in Ukrainian

100

Conflict, Lukáš ,

Revolution in Military Affairs and Outer Space, Jakub ,

106

The Operational Environment Influence on the Development Level of Military Structures, Constantin ,

112

Emergence and Development of Civil-Military Cooperation, Grigor GRIGOROV,

119

“Vasil Levski” National Military University, Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria

Improving Coordination, Interaction and Cooperation in Humanitarian Aid Operations, Grigor GRIGOROV, “Vasil Levski” National Military University, Veliko Tarnovo,

Bulgaria

124

EU Policy Initiatives in the Mediterranean Region, Mariya HADZHIPETROVA-

130

LACHOVA, -West Universit

Hybrid Warfare – a Form of Asymmetric Conflict, Laura-Maria , -

135

-

Wargaming and Challenges in the Experimentation Domain, Jan HODICKY,

144

Keystones of Irregular Warfare, Michal ,

150

Cyberwarfare, Petr HRUZA, Jiri CERNY,

155

Cultural Interoperability – Prerequisite for the Response to Hybrid Threats, Lucian ISPAS*, Paul TUDORACHE**, *

161

4

Hungarian Security Policy and the Migrant Crisis (2015-2017), Diana IVANOVA,

166

-

Modern Approaches in the Training of Military Police Cadets at “Vasil Levski”

National

Military

University,

Krastyu

KRASTEV,

“Vasil

Levski”

National

Military

University, Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria

 

172

The Importance of Developing Security Culture Among Military Personnel as a Way to Mitigate the Terrorist Threat, -Leonard ,

179

Security, Defence and Armed Forces – Public View, Frank LIBOR, University of

184

Commander’s Managerial Competences in the Czech Armed Forces, Pavla , HODNÝ, Jan ZEZULA,

189

Deployability of Armed Forces in the Current Armed Conflicts, Ivan MAJCHÚT,

195

Military Terminology – Meanings and Grammar Approach, Ileana-Gentilia METEA,

200

Competence to the Leadership and Its Concept in the Army of Czech Republic, MIKULKA, Ivana NEKVAPILOVÁ, Roman , University of Defence, Brno,

205

Defending the Truth and Counter Information Warfare in Europe, Silviu NATE*, Aurelian

213

Physiognomy of the Operations Against Terrorism, Mihai-Marcel NEAG, “Nicolae

220

Criteria Determination for Obstacle Effectiveness Evaluation, Tibor PALASIEWICZ,

227

Jan KYJOVSKÝ,

Comparative Analysis of National Approaches to Military Capability Planning, Zdenek PETRAS, fence, Brno,

233

Leadership in the Process of Command and Control, Place and Role of Commander- Manager, Milan PODHOREC, Pavel , Gustav , University of Defence,

241

Prevention and Crisis Management, POP,

246

Diplomacy and Security, POP,

5

251

Some Considerations on SEEDRO (South Eastern Europe Disaster Relief Operations)

256

Concept, Ioan-Dan POPA

Brexit – Major Consequences on the Process of European Military Integration?,

260

Marius PRICOPI,

Civil Preparation of the Battlespace – Necessity in the Irregular or Hybrid Warfare,

265

Aurelian ,

Slovak Troops in Italy During Second World War, ,

271

Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield as a Part of Knowledge Development, Pavel SKALICKÝ, Tibor PALASIEWICZ,

276

Principles and Their Significance in Military Art, Ján , University of Defense,

281

Theoretical and Methodological Aspects on Military Students’ Education, Robert , Stelian POPESCU,

286

Didactics of the Military Specialty – Pedagogic Process with Major Implications in the Curricular Architecture of Military Leaders’ Training, Robert , Elvira BELDIMAN

292

Non-Military Intervention Through Sanctions, Veronika STOILOVA, “Neofit Rilski”

298

-

The Drones and Issues Connected with Their Use in Contemporary Conflicts, Richard

305

STOJAR,

Paratroopers in the Intelligence Confrontations During the Second World War, Mircea

,

311

Is Russia that Powerful in Hybrid Warfare?, , “Nicolae

317

The Relation Cultural Awareness – Tactical Multinational Military Structures’ Effectiveness, Paul TUDORACHE*, Lucian ISPAS** National Defence University,

325

Opinions

Regarding

the

Fundamental

Domains

of

National

Security,

Gheorghe

UDEANU,

331

The Vicious Circle of Subsidised Employment, Boryana VARBANOVA, “Vasil

339

Levski” National Military University, Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria

6

Considerations on the Necessity of Modernization of Engineer Forces from NATO Members Countries, Mircea VLADU, Ioan-Dan POPA,

344

MANAGEMENT

The Relationship Between Leadership and Employees, Oana Georgiana ANDRONIC,

348

,

Translation of Capability Requirement into Management by Objectives Environment, Fabian BAXA,

354

Knowledge Management Via Erasmus Programmes, Irina Ioana BOCIANU*, Sorin Adrian CIUPITU** of

360

Aspects of the Management of Negotiating Class II Material Resources for the

Sevdalina

DIMITROVA, Donika SHOPOVA, “Vasil Levski” National Military University, Veliko

Tarnovo, Bulgaria

366

Bulgarian

Armed

Forces

under

the

Conditions

of

Resource

Limitations,

Leadership and Corporate Social Responsibility, Hortensia GORSKI, -

372

The Organization’s Internal Environment and Its Importance in the Organization’s Development, Elisabeta-Emilia HALMAGHI*, Dumitru IANCU*, Marinela-Lidia , *

378

The Role of Computer Systems in the Management of Hotels in Veliko Tarnovo Region, Bulgaria, Olga MANCHEVA-ALI, Vanya DIMITROVA, “Vasil Levski” National Military

382

University, Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria

Validating a Defense-Specific Cluster Conceptual Model Using Statistical Instruments,

387

Gabriel , “

The Manager Competences for Risk Management in the Public Sector, Ivana

393

NEKVAPILOVA, Jaromir PITAS,

Appointed

Logistics Officers, Nikolay NICHEV, “Vasil Levski” National Military University, Veliko

Tarnovo, Bulgaria

399

Research

on

the

Preparation

and

Professional

Realisation

of

Newly

Risk Management in the Decision Making Process Concerning the Use of Outsourcing Services in the Bulgarian Armed Forces, Nikolay NICHEV, “Vasil Levski” National

405

Military University, Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria

7

New Approach – Quadrangle of Knowledge Based Sustainability, Ovidiu NICOLESCU*, Ciprian NICOLESCU**

411

Security Management of University Campuses, Constantin OPREAN, Mihail Aurel

418

, Cristina ,

Applied Research on Strategic Management of SMEs in Romania in the Digital Age, Dan POPESCU*, Cristina STATE*, Livia TOANCA**, Ioana PAVEL*, *

423

Empirical Study Regarding the Influence of Communication Upon the Purchasing Decision, Dan POPESCU, Alina DINU, Cristina STATE, PICU, The Bucharest

430

Bucharest,

Considerations Regarding the Redesign of Management System of an Organization, Alexandru Marius RIZESCU*, George , *

438

The Role of Emotional Intelligence in the Implementation of Vision, Vasile ROMAN,

444

Diagnostic Management – Method of Increasing the Potential of Research and Development Station for Cattle from Arad, ,

452

Vlaicu”

Intangible Resource Management – An Organisational Approach, Sebastian Emanuel

456

STAN

Intellectual Capital in Knowledge-Based Organization. Implications for the Military Environment, Leontin STANCIU, Cristian-Lucian STANCIU,

461

Analysis of the Use of Outsourcing Services for Maintenance and Repair of the Equipment and Armament Available in the Structures of the Bulgarian Armed Forces, Nikolay STEFANOV, “Vasil Levski” National Military University, Veliko Tarnovo,

Bulgaria

467

Analysis of Some of the Applicable Outsourcing Services in the Structures of the

Levski” National Military

Bulgarian

University, Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria

Armed

Forces,

Nikolay

STEFANOV,

“Vasil

473

The Place and Role of Intellectual Property Policies in an Advanced Scientific Research and Education University, Mihail Aurel , Constantin OPREAN*, Sebastian STAN*, , **“Lucian Blaga” University o

479

-

8

International Conference KNOWLEDGE-BASED ORGANIZATION Vol. XXIII No 1 2017 ROLE OF WOMEN IN SECURITY AND

International Conference KNOWLEDGE-BASED ORGANIZATION

Vol. XXIII

No 1

2017

ROLE OF WOMEN IN SECURITY AND DEFENSE: BULGARIAN NATIONAL POLICIES AND EXPERIENCE

Nevena ATANASOVA – KRASTEVA

“Vasil Lesvski” National Military University, Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria nevena_atanasova@abv.bg

Abstract: The paper focuses on the policies for gender equality which can and should be understood as a long-term investment, not as a situational solution or a short-term cost, especially in military environment. On the basis of the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 - "Women, peace and security", the National plan for implementation of the Resolution 1325 in the MoD in Bulgaria has been analyzed. New policies or initiatives concerning the implementation of gender in the Bulgarian Armed Forces are included with the actual information about female active duty military personnel and the perspectives to overcome the prejudices and stereotypes in people's minds.

Keywords: gender, implementation of good policy, UNSC Resolution 1325

“The world of humanity has two wings - one is women and the other men. Should one wing remain weak, flight is impossible” Baha’i writings just society and therefore the opinion of the

same civil society is important for the discussions in the biggest and most influential words communities and organizations. That’s why the understanding of the equality between men and women has a long history during its implementation and implications for the society. “….the equality of women and men is a facet of human reality and not just a condition to be achieved for the common well-being. What makes human beings human - their inherent dignity and nobility - is neither male nor female. The search for meaning, for purpose, for community; the capacity to love, to create… has no gender. This has profound implications for the organization of every aspect of human society.” [7]. We can add that the gender issue is not only connected with social justice and diversity in the surrounding social environment.

1. Introduction.

One of the most widely discussed and promising topics, quite relevant since the beginning of the 21st century, is related to gender issues. Terms such as gender equality, equality between men and women, gender mainstreaming are very common in public and scientific space. According to many authors, the equality between women and men is not a factor whose influence will be applied to half of the mankind. Its impact will affect all sides of the society. Nowadays many organizations and people work hard to support different activities and efforts to protect human rights and at the same time to promote the real place of women and girls in all aspects of life. Improving the status and well-being of women is a popular tendency because of the world processes connected with the perspective to create more coherent gender equality mechanisms. In that case all people must be participants in the formation of the

DOI: 10.1515/kbo-2017-0001 © 2015. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License.

9

The equality appears to be a condition for achieving the goals of each organization, the existence of competitiveness and creating opportunities for social cohesion.

2. Body. Different practices have shown that investing in policies for gender equality has turned out to be a sustainable and timely solution to old and new problems and challenges in the last 15 years. Therefore when we’re analyzing the content of a number of international documents – for example - UN resolutions and national strategies and plans for their implementation, we can make the conclusion that the policies for gender equality can and should be understood as a long term investment, not as a situational solution or a short-term cost. Many of the contemporary publications are devoted to the real place and problems of women at the different levels of political, economic and social life. An important part of scientific and popular research is aimed to the female participation in the decision making process. According to V. Norville “Building lasting peace and security requires women’s participation. Half of the world’s population cannot make a whole peace.” [3] With relation to this, we should point out that the adoption of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 in 2000 is seen as a historic recognition by the international community of the negative effect that armed conflicts have on women and children in particular, as civilians, refugees or internationally displaced persons. The UNSC Resolution 1325 “Woman, peace and security” totally changed the focus of the important roles which women play as leaders and participants in security efforts – for example, prevention of or helping in conflicts, peace building, developing postconflict reintegration efforts, and improving the standard of life. Women insist that their knowledge and skills, their leadership abilities, their full potential be

10

tapped in the governance. “Today, this is increasingly framed as not only the “right” thing to do, but also the “smart” thing to do.” [2] In the context of the Armed Forces, where the working environment is gender – mixed, it is particularly important that both women and men feel engaged in gender issues. Additionally the two sexes have to be convinced of the benefits of efficient gender equality policies for the society as a whole. To achieve progress in this direction, an essential role in the changing of the still existing negative stereotypes and attitudes is attributed to the education of people, media messages and the government’s practices. Unfortunately, gender stereotypes in society continue to persist and to be transmitted through modern education and developed culture. In most countries, women and men often follow the traditional models of education that actually lead to career opportunities for women in professional fields with lower wages. That is why, one of tasks is to advise and encourage young men and women to choose non-traditional routes / areas in their educational development. But to be honest, more than 10 years after the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 1325 with the recommendation to increase women’s participation in issues of global security, the numbers of women with real participation in peace solutions remain marginal. And in spite of all improvements which have been made, women still remain underrepresented in public office, at the negotiating table or in peacekeeping missions. It should not be forgotten that the continuing lack of physical security and the existence of serious legal constraints in postconflict societies hamper women’s integration into economic life and leadership. [3] The service in the Armed Forces of the Republic of Bulgaria is a good example of the entry of female soldiers in the so-far purely "male territory" of the Bulgarian Army.

The national plan for implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 in the Ministry of Defence of Bulgaria exists from 2011. At a national level the body responsible for consultations, cooperation and coordination among the governmental and Non-governmental organizations in the

implementation in the structures of the

ARMED FORCES WOMEN’S ASSOCIATION" – BUAFWA. This organization was established in 2006 as an NGO, and as a logical consequence of the increased proportion of women in the military units in the BG Army. The mission of BUAFWA is to promote and endorse the

elaboration and realization of the national policy on gender equality is the National Council on gender equality under the

prestige and social status of women in the Armed Forces and to protect their common interests.

Council of Ministers.

A

good example of new policies or

The Deputy Defence Minister is a member of the National Council on gender equality. The Council of Ministers has adopted an Annual national action plan for promotion of gender equality. This plan follows the goals, set out in the National strategy for promotion of gender equality for the period

initiatives concerning the implementation of gender equality in the Bulgarian Armed Forces is connected with one of the guidelines in the National plan for implementation of UNSC Resolution 1325. This measure refers to the removal of the informal restrictions for women in

2009 – 2015. The plan for the implementation of Resolution 1325 of the UN Security Council in the Ministry of Defense is a serious and responsible sign to the Bulgarian and international community of the priorities and main steps of the management of the Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces with the idea to implement the Euro-Atlantic policies in this area. The goals in the Action plan for

professional fields, majors, specializations, degrees and forms of education in applying for acquisition of Bachelor Degrees in “Military field" with professional qualification - “Officer". Thanks to the cooperation agreement signed between the MoD and the BUAFWA and after long creative discussions the above mentioned obstacle had been overcome. And this is already a fact – there isn’t a quota for "men" and "women" applicants in

implementation of United Nations Security

the

military academies. In the last 3-4 years

Council Resolution 1325 at the Ministry of

the

trainees and future officers have been

Defence are as follows: [1] 1. Provide mechanisms for the full

Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces of the principles set in Resolution 1325 of the UN Security Council.

classified on the basis of their results achieved on admission exams. And both sexes receive equal opportunity for development and further advancement. According to the statistical data, prepared for the NATO Committee on Gender

2.

Guarantee to the partners from the UN,

Perspectives, in the last years more than 15

EU, NATO and other international

organizations with common values and principles that there is provided adequate

% of the total number of cadets at Bulgarian military educational institutions are females.

contribution to allied operations.

A

proof for the right direction of the

3.

An affirmation of Ministry of Defense of

understanding of gender mainstreaming or

the Republic of Bulgaria as a leader in Southeast Europe in the implementation of policies on gender.

gender perspective in MoD is the place Bulgaria takes with respect to the number of women in the armed forces as compared

The plan for the implementation of

to

other NATO member nation in 2015.

Resolution 1325 in MoD of Bulgaria was

The 2015 Summary of the National Reports

developed jointly with the "BULGARIAN

of

NATO member and partner nations to

11

the NATO Committee on Gender Perspectives (NCGP) on the implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security represents active duty female military personnel in the Armed forces of NATO member nations in 2015, by country. This statistics Bulgaria is in the 7-th place with 15,2 % active duty female military personnel, after Hungary, Latvia, Slovenia, Greece, USA and France. [6]. Furthermore, comparing the number of men and women in the armed forces of NATO member nations in 2015, it is important to point out that Albania, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, and USA are above the NATO average, which is 10.8% for women and 89.2% for men. In the part “Retention Statistics in 2015” of the Report there is an analysis of the percentage of NATO member nations with retention policies that specifically target women.” While 81% of NATO member nations have retention policies, 11% of them have particular retention policies for women.” [6] There are provided the best examples among NATO member nations with regards to the adoption of specific retention policies for women in use in 2015. And in these examples we see Bulgaria with Spain and United Kingdom where specific retention policies for women are in place. Another good gender policy in the Bulgarian Armed Forces can be defined as parental life and rights. Pursuant to the information in the National report of Bulgaria, the legal social support is given to mothers during pregnancy and both parents of a new-born child. According to the Labour Code, maternity leave is 410 days for each child and parental leave is 52 weeks for the mother as well as for the father and it is transferable between parents. Besides, there are specific programmes to support the work-life balance for military personnel such as the list of female military

personnel which will have flexible working schedules. Another useful practice is the part-time employment and flexible hours which are allowed in case of parental leave and caring for elderly and sick people. There are special programmes to support parents when both serve in the armed forces

or if parents are divorced or single. There is

a child-care policy that includes provisions

protecting parents from being deployed, breastfeeding breaks, policy on duty assignments, night duty, overtime work, flexible working and service hours or variable start/finish times during the working day. All these good benefits as a result of the implementation of the different polices connected with gender equality in military

environment provoke the new requirements for the leaders from all levels. It means that not only the military personnel from the lowest levels have to be educated and prepared but the new approaches and skills must be acquired from the seniors. We have to emphasize that the following is stated in the Plan of Implementation of Resolution 1325 in the Ministry of Defense on preparation and standards of conduct: To develop materials (manuals, lectures, promotional materials, standards of conduct

/ ethics, etc.) for the implementation of

Resolution 1325 in order to integrate the Policy of equality at all levels of the Armed Forces. In this regard, the education in gender issues in the Bulgarian military academies started in 2015. The aim is to support the increased awareness on gender perspective in military operations for the future officers and to assist NATO Allies and Partners to build their gender capacity and capabilities. Topics related to issues of gender equality, gender practices, the main international documents of the UN and NATO were offered on the website of NATO Strategic Command – SACT [4]. Special attention is paid at the National Military University to leadership training that takes place in regular academic hours

12

on a modular basis, with theoretical and practical exercises throughout the whole course of education. On this occasion, as a result of an active dialogue between Ministry of Defense and the representatives of BUAFWA and recommendations of NATO, steps were taken to major changes in the curricula, in modules of the Leadership Training Course. The following topics have been included in the Leadership training module which has 4 parts:

“The essence of Gender Equality Policies. International framework and documents. "- lecture; workshop and exercise; "National framework and policies of the implementation of gender equality" – lecture and workshop; "Integration of Gender Equality Policies in the planning, implementation and evaluation of military operations and missions." – lecture and exercise. To summarize some of the shared examples from the Bulgarian experience and according to the 2015 Research Questionnaire UNSCR 1325, the main areas of employment where women serve are as follows (the number of women that serve in each applicable area):

- Administration 2,08%;

- Communications 5,07%;

- Logistics 1,4%;

- Finance 0,3%;

- Infantry 0,54%;

- Intelligence 0,54%;

- Legal 0,004%;

- Musicians 0,06%;

- Public Affairs 0,06%;

- Other 3,7%, Common: medical, surveyor,

meteorologist. It is obvious that the measures taken by the Ministry of Defence of Bulgaria to remove the legal and organizational barriers to implement gender perspective and to create good organizational climate in the military units are yielding results. Women in uniform can live with dignity and with

13

expectations for career development and social support. Sometimes the problems with overcoming the prejudice and stereotypes in people's minds can delay the process which requires targeted policy, systematic work and education. To follow the active attitudes in the military and to take adequate decisions regarding gender balance in the army, sociological research on the topic of "Organizational climate in formations and structures of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Bulgaria" has been done by the MoD. [5] It is a positive tendency that in the last years the research has included questions about the attitudes towards the service of women and people from different ethnic and cultural groups in the army. The analysis of the data shows that women soldiers are perceived as being in a relatively privileged position as compared to their male colleagues, while the presence of such a privilege for men is lacking. At the same time, the study proves that there are no signs of organizational discrimination towards females in the military. These results require research attention to the factors which are underlying the differences in the perception of men and women soldiers regarding the privilege of two sexes in the military.

3. Conclusion. To finalize all reflections full of good examples, working policies and expectable troubles, the opinion of the author is that the initiatives related to gender equality will contribute to the development of the modern and affluent society. The continued empowerment of women is a responsible task both for the state authorities and for the ordinary people. It is more important to believe and to do our best, with small steps to move in the right and desired direction……as The Universal Declaration of Human Rights reads: ” All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights”.

References [1] Action plan for implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 at the Ministry of Defence, www.mod.bg/en/doc/gender [2] Chang P., Alam M., Warren R., Bhatia R. , Turkington R. , Woman leading peace, Georgetown Institute for Women, Peace and Security, 2015 [3] Norville V., The Role of Women in Global Security. Special report, United States Institute of Peace, www.usip.org [4] Package of training and education tools - SACT, NATO, www.act.nato.int/gender- training [5] Report about the results of a sociological survey: "Organizational climate in formations and structures of the Armed forces of the Republic of Bulgaria", MoD - Defense Advanced Research Institute, Sofia, 2015 [6] Summary of the National Reports of NATO member and partner nations to the NATO Committee on Gender Perspectives (NCGP), 2015,

www.nato.int/nato_static_fl2014/assets/pdf/pdf_2017_01/20170113_2015_NCGP_Natio

nal_Reports_Summary.pdf

14

International Conference KNOWLEDGE-BASED ORGANIZATION Vol. XXIII No 1 2017 DISTRIBUTION OF COMBAT CAPABILITIES ON

International Conference KNOWLEDGE-BASED ORGANIZATION

Vol. XXIII

No 1

2017

DISTRIBUTION OF COMBAT CAPABILITIES ON OBJECTIVES BY USING A TRANSPORT PROBLEM

, Alina-

“Nicolae B

Abstract: The transport problem finds its application in situations where the upper echelons must draw up an optimal plan of resources allocation for combat capabilities on objectives. In order to achieve more reliable results for the real problem, the data needed to formulate the mathematical model are extracted from an order of operations. This paper presents the optimization of military action, showing how to solve a practical problem using the transportation problem.

,

Introduction Emerged from military needs, the operational research essentially deals with the decision optimization by using mathematical modeling and data provided by an action generically called operation. The transport problem finds its applicability in situations where the upper echelons have to draw up an optimal plan for the distribution of combat or fire capabilities on the targets. For the results to be as reliable as possible for the real problem, the data required to formulate the mathematical model are gathered from a realistic scenario. should be divided into sections, each with a

The information about the situation is generally related to the forces of the enemy and our own forces, namely their location and the main courses of action. So, we suppose to have 3 mechanized infantry battalions found in a defense situation to stop the enemy offensive on their directions of attack. With the support of the upper echelon and effectively using the technical-tactical characteristics of the weapons, exploiting on the natural properties of the battle field and performing numerous offensive retaliation, the subunits managed to stop the enemy offensive. The execution instructions are divided into three categories: intent, design and coordination instructions. In this case the superior echelon intends to make a series of trips on three main directions of attack. The embarquement will take place on three aerodromes, on the available airplanes. After landing, the permanent passes will be investigated from the immediate vicinity, then the enemy device will be searched, the officers will be captured, the armored vehicles and the communications points destroyed.

We need information about the tactical situation information, mission statement, execution, necessary logistic support, and command and communications instructions. From these sets of information, we extract only those necessary to translate the problem into practice into a mathematical model that once solved will provide the optimal solution.

DOI: 10.1515/kbo-2017-0002 © 2015. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License.

15

Ultimately, the destruction of the enemy command point is attempted. For better efficiency, mixed teams of the three units will be created after landing.

- In order to prepare the mathematical model, the following notations will be made:

(i = 1,2, … , m),

(1)

The number of available fighters prepared for boarding in each of the three units ;

(2)

The number of fighters to be parachuted on each enemy target in the landing districts to cover the entire area of operations; , The number of troops that can

be transported

aerodrome

calculation of this data set were taken into account the standard aircraft loading capacity, the distance from the aerodrome to the target, the flight height, the flight speed and the weight of the battle load, etc;

( = 1, 2, … , ),

by

airplanes

from

the

to

objective .

Into

the

, The number of troops that can

be

aerodrome to objective during the whole operation; , Number of flights / airplane from aerodrome to objective during

the whole operation. In order to make the optimal flight chart, it is therefore necessary to determine the values so that:

- Each aerodrome will send all

available personnel ( ) to maximize the chances of success of the operation;

- To send to each objective the

number of fighters ( ) which was predicted

to cover the whole area of operations in an efficient manner;

- The whole operation must be

carried out with a limited number of aircraft

and with a minimum number of flights. The mathematical model of a problem of this kind will look like this

transported

by

airplanes

from

the

/

 

1

 

2

 

3

1

 

12

 

10

 

8

120

 

11

12

13

2

 

16

 

15

 

12

100

21

22

23

3

 

35

 

40

 

46

175

31

32

33

 

134

 

156

 

105

395

Figure1: Problems mathematical model

The numbers above the diagonal are the number of fighters that can be transported by each of the three aircrafts. Optimized function whose minimum is sought is therefore:

3

5

3

5

= =

=1 =1

=1 =1

(3)

In order for this minimum to be realized,

values must be determined

the

corresponding to the highest values of . For this purpose, the maximum matrix element method is applied because:

3

5

.

=1 =1

3

5

= .

=1 =1

.

(4)

The following basic initial solution will be obtained which contains the number of soldiers assigned to each goal:

16

34

86

0

100

0

0

0

70

105

Figure 2: Initial basis solution

Starting from this solution, the end result is optimized. We check whether the solution is degenerate or not with the formula m+n- 1= nr. values >0 so: 3+3-1=5 bigger values than 0 (34,86,100,70, and 105) it results that the solution is non-generated, so the distributive method can be directly applied.

The scope function is calculated as follows:

=34÷12+86÷10+0÷8+100÷16+0÷15+0

÷12+0÷35+70÷40+105÷46=3+9+7++2+3=

24 flights.

The solution obtained is passed to the following table (bold values are the number of fighters to be transported to each goal in

order to be optimized):

(5)

/

1

2

3

1

 

12

 

10

 

8

120

0

86

0

 

2

 

16

 

15

 

12

100

0

100

0

0

 

3

 

35

 

40

 

46

17570 0

0

70

105

13434 0

15686 0

105 0

395

Figure 3: Initial basis solution and intermediate calculations

We check whether the solution obtained is the optimal one by calculating the differences so we obtain:

13 = 8 10 + 40 46 = (negative difference) 22 = 15 16 + 12 10 = 1 23 = 12 16 + 12 10 = (negative difference)

31 = 35 40 + 10 12 = (negative difference) It follows the correction of the negative

differences, so the

=-23. Because not all the differences are positive it means that the initial basis solution is not the optimal one. The negative difference was given by the corresponding box 13 =-8, so the cycle will form from the box as follows:

differences 13 =- 23

/

1

2

 

3

1

86

 

0

120

-19

-86

+105

     
 
     
   

2

100

 

0

2 100   0   100
 

100

3

0

3 0 70   105   175

70

 

105

 

175

+19

+86

 

-105

134

156

 

105

 

395

Figure 4: First formed cycle and intermediate calculations

17

By doing similar to 23 and 31 we eliminate the negative differences and come to the solution:

/

1

2

3

1

 

12

 

10

 

8

120

0

0

2

 

16

 

15

 

12

100

86

0

3

 

35

 

40

 

46

175

0

70

105

134

156

105

395

Figure 5: Final solution problem

The new function is:

3

5

=1 =1

=

120

0

8 + 14

0

12

16

+

10 +

+

86

+

0

0

70

40 + 105

15

12 +

35 +

46

=10+1+62+3=22

flights (transport), 22<24 so it's easy to see

that the new solution is better than the

previous one. To eliminate as far as possible human computational errors, we check whether the solution obtained is the optimal one with The Scientist Manager.

obtained is the optimal one with The Scientist Manager. Figure 6: Application interface (main menu) We

Figure 6: Application interface (main menu)

We

enter

the

necessary

data

into

the

origins, respectively aerodromes and

application

(the

number

of

sources

and

objectives in this case):

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Figure 7: Variable numbers settings The initial values are added , i as follows :

Figure 7: Variable numbers settings

The initial values are added , i as follows :

initial values are added , i as follows : Figure 8: Initial data insertion When selecting

Figure 8: Initial data insertion

When selecting the type of the objective function, the maximization option is chosen because we set it at first:

3

5

.

=1 =1

3

5

= .

=1 =1

.

After running the program we get the following solution which is coincident with the original:

following solution which is coincident with the original: Figure 9: Final result By making the divisions

Figure 9: Final result

By making the divisions ( ÷ ), we will then get the number of flights / airplane from each of the three aerodromes at each

of the 3 objectives. The optimal flight schedule is shown in the following table:

19

/

1

 

2

 

3

1

 

12

 

10

 

8

120

0

0

2

 

16

 

15

 

12

100

1

6

0

3

 

35

 

40

 

46

175

0

3

3

134

 

156

 

105

395

Figure 10: Optimal flights graph

If this plan is respected, the entire number of fighters required for the mission will be carried by air, with the foreseen restrictions on the number of available aircraft at a minimum cost and in the shortest possible time. Another graph that leads to fewer transports under the given conditions cannot exist

If these methods of operational research are accepted and applied in the decision- making process, they will only develop analytical thinking among the officers, and so they will be able to cope with the demands of the modern battlefield, making more and more rational decisions.

[1] ., Stoian, I., [2] Grad, V., Stoian, I., Kovacs, E., Dumitru, V., [3] Sibiu, [4] Maurice, K., Operational Research in War and Peace, Londra,Editura Imperial College Press, 2003.

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International Conference KNOWLEDGE-BASED ORGANIZATION Vol. XXIII No 1 2017 CREATION OF A MODEL FOR SOCIAL

International Conference KNOWLEDGE-BASED ORGANIZATION

Vol. XXIII

No 1

2017

CREATION OF A MODEL FOR SOCIAL DEFENSE IN CASE OF DISASTERS FOR THE CITIZENS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA