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Answer Key-PRE-BOARD II (2018-19)

CLASS – X

SUBJECT: SCIENCE

Duration: 3 hours ​Maximum Marks: 80


General Instructions:
(i)​ The question paper comprises of five sections – A, B, C, D and E. You are to attempt all the sections.
(ii) ​All questions are compulsory.
(iii) I​ nternal choice is given in sections B, C, D and E.
(iv) ​Question numbers 1 and 2 in Section-A are one mark questions. They are to be answered in one word
or in one sentence.
(v) ​Question numbers 3 to 5 in Section-B are two marks questions. These are to be answered in about 30
words each.
(vi) ​Question numbers 6 to 15 in Section-C are three marks questions. These are to be answered in about
50 words each.
(vii) ​Question numbers 16 to 21 in Section-D are 5 marks questions. These are to be answered in about
70 words each.
(viii) ​Question numbers 22 to 27 in Section-E are based on practical skills. Each question is a two marks
question. These are to be answered in brief.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SECTION A

1. Name the bacteria whose presence in water that indicates water pollution. [1]
Ans-Coliform

2 ​ ame the common nutrient that is absorbed in the small intestine and reabsorbed
N [1]
by kidney tubule.
Ans:Glucose

SECTION B

3. Differentiate between roasting and calcination with the help of an example. [2]
Any one difference - Definition or kind of ores that are subjected to calcination or
roasting (½ + ½ mark)
Equation for each (½ + ½ mark)

1
4. (a)Why is sustainable management of natural resources necessary ? [2]
(b)Out of the two – reuse and recycle – which, in your opinion, is better to
practise ? Give reason.
Ans:(a)It is necessary to ensure that there is enough for the future generations
keeping in mind not to harm the environment.(1)
(b) Reuse is better as when you recycle you use more resources and cause more
pollution.(1)

5. An object is kept 40 cm in front of a concave mirror of focal length 20 cm. Find [2]
the position and nature of the image. Draw a ray diagram to show the formation
of image in this case.
​ OR
An object of height 1.2m is placed before a concave mirror of focal length 20cm
so that a real image is formed at a distance of 60cm from it. Find the position of
the object. What will be the height of the image formed?
SECTION C

6. a. How is Plaster of Paris prepared? [3]


Plaster of Paris is prepared by heating Gypsum. (½ mark)
Equation (1mark)
b. Why is it important to store Plaster of Paris in airtight containers?
It is important to store Plaster of Paris in airtight containers so that it doesn’t
absorb moisture from the atmosphere and turn to gypsum. (½ mark)
Equation (1 mark)

7. An element ​X with electronic configuration (2, 8, 3) combines separately with [3]


chloride (Cl​-​) and phosphate (PO​4​3-​) ions.
a. To which group and period of the Modern Periodic Table does the
element ​X​ belong?
The element belongs to group 13. (½ mark)
b. Write the formula of the two compounds formed.
The element is Aluminium (working out - ½ mark)
AlCl​3 (½
​ mark)
AlPO​4 (½
​ mark)
c. What is the nature of the two compounds formed - Ionic or covalent?
Explain.
The two compounds are ionic in nature. (½ mark)
Because Aluminium is a metal and metals combine with non-metals and
polyatomic ions to form ionic compounds (Cl​- is a non-metal and PO​4​- is a
polyatomic ion (½ mark)

​OR
a. Name the element that lies in group 17 and 3​rd period of the periodic
table. Write its electronic configuration.
Working for group (½ mark)
Working for period (½ mark)
b. Compare the size of an atom of this element with an atom of element
that lies in group 2 and 3​rd​ period.
State the size of the atom compared to the element in group 2 and 3rd period -
(½ mark)
Reason - (½ mark)
c. Give one point of difference between Mendeleev’s Periodic Table and the
Modern Periodic Table
Any one point of difference - Periodic Law or Basis for classification or Gaps for
undiscovered elements (½ mark each *2 = 1 mark)
8. a. Give the IUPAC names the following carbon compounds and write their [3]
structural formulae:
i. second member of alkynes - ​Propyne (1 mark)
ii. branched chain isomer of butane - ​2-methylpropane (1 mark)
b. Butane or Butyne - Which one is a more efficient fuel? Give reasons.
Butane is a more efficient fuel. (½ mark)
Butane is saturated hydrocarbon and saturated hydrocarbons are more efficient
fuels as they do not produce unburnt carbon particles. (½ mark)

9. (i) (i) Where is the medulla oblongata located in our body? Give one function of [3]
the medulla.
(ii) Which endocrine gland is present in the brain? What problem is caused due to
the deficiency of the hormone released by this gland ?
(iii) ​Give an example of a plant hormone that promotes growth. Where is it
synthesized ?
Ans:(i) hind brain ( ½ ), ​involuntary actions like- blood pressure, salivation,
vomitted controlled by medulla ( any one) ( ½ )
(ii)Pituitary gland(½) present in the brain is responsible for body growth,
development of bones and muscles (if excess-gigantism) (if less-dwarfism).(½)
(iii)Auxin.(½)It is synthesized at the shoot tip.(½)

10. What was Chipko Andolan”? How did this Andolan ultimately benefit the local [3]
people and the environment?
Answer:
Chipko Movement. Chipko Movement is an example of sustainable management-
grassroot level effort to end alienation of people from the forests(½). The Chipko
Movement also called ’​Hug the tree​’ movement originated from an incident in a
remote village called ’​Reni’ in Garhwal (Himalayas)( ½), where the people of this
village clasped the tree trunks with their arms to protect them from being cut
down by a contractor’s workers.(1) ​The people acted this way because they
knew that this mass deforestation would spoil their healthy environment. The
forest trees were thus saved.
The Chipko Movement quickly spread across all the communities and helped in
the ​conservation of forests and thus helped in ​safeguarding the environment​-
led to conservation of natural replenishable resource - efficient management of
forests(1)

11. State the laws of refraction of light. Explain the term absolute refractive index of
a medium and write its expression with respect to speed of light in vacuum.
Laws of refraction of light are

- The incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal to the interface of two
transparent media at the point of incidence, all lie in the same plane. 1
- The ratio of sine of angle of incidence to the sine of angle of refraction is ​a
constant, for the light of a given color and for the given pair of media. 1
This law is also known as ​Snell’s law of refraction.​

This constant value is called the refractive index of the second medium with
respect to the first.

If c is the speed of light in the air and v is the speed of light in any medium then
refractive index n​m of the medium would be
1

OR

The sun is located near the horizon of the earth during sunrise and hence light
travels a longer distance through the earth's atmosphere. the particles that are
suspended in the air ​scatter the light of ​shorter wavelength like the blue
colour​. the light that reaches the earth is of longer wavelength that is red​.t has
it appears red.

This phenomenon will not be observed by an astronaut because on the moon


there is ​no atmosphere​, hence there will not be any scattered light and it will
appear dark

12. Write the expression for Joule’s law of heating and what does each symbol
represent.
Show how would you join three resistors, each of resistance 9 ohm so that the [1]
equivalent resistance of the combination is (i) 13.5 (ii) 6 ?
Expression for Joule’s Law of Heating -
H = I​2​Rt where
H - amount of heat produced in joules
I - amount of current flowing in the conductor in amperes
[1]
t - time for which the current flows in seconds
R - resistance in ohms

[1]

1/R = [1/(9 + 9) ]+1/9 R = 9 + (9/2 )


= 1/18 + 1/9 = 9 + 4.5
= 1/6 R = 13.5Ω
R = 6Ω

13. Two metallic wires A and B are connected. The wire A has length l and radius [½]
[½]
r, while wire B has length 2l and radius 2r. Find the ratio of the total resistance of
[½]
series combination of A & B to the resistance of wire A, if both the wires are of
same material?
R = ⍴l/Πr​2 [½]
R​A​ = ⍴l/Πr​2​ and
[½]
R​B​= ​⍴2l/Π4r​2
R​A​ Πr​2​/l = R​B​Π4r​2​/2l
[½]
R​A​ = 2R​B
Total resistance of series combination = R​A​ +R​B​ ​= 3/2​ ​R​A
Resistance of​ ​R​A
Ratio = 3/2 R​A​ : R​A​ = 3:2

14. a. Nuclear fission [1]


b. Nuclear fusion [1]
c. Fission is the splitting of a heavy, unstable nucleus into two lighter nuclei, [1]
and ​fusion is the process where two light nuclei combine together
releasing vast amounts of energy

15. a) a)What are biodegradable and non biodegradable substances? Select two [3]
biodegradable pollutants from the following-
Sewage, DDT, plastics, agricultural waste
b) Why did the United Nations act to control the production of
chloroflorocarbons that are used in refrigerators?
​OR
a) a) What is the role of decomposers in an ecosystem?
b) b) Name any two decomposers operating in our ecosystem.
Ans)Biodegradable- substances broken down biological processes

SECTION D

16. a. Name two elements whose oxides can be reduced using carbon. [5]
Any two relevant elements - (½ + ½ mark)
b. What is the thermite reaction? Where is it applied in our lives?
Definition or description with equation (½ + ½ mark)
Use - Iron is produced in molten form (½ mark) and is used to repair broken
railway tracks (½ mark)
c. Help Anurag conduct the electrolytic refining of silver by selecting a
suitable material for the -
i. Anode - ​impure silver rod (½ mark)
ii. Cathode -​ ​Pure silver rod (½ mark)
iii. Electrolyte - ​AgCl or AgNO​3 or
​ any other silver salt (½ mark)
iv. At which electrode can Anurag expect to collect pure silver metal?
Pure silver will be collected at the cathode (½ mark)

17. a. Explain the cleansing action of soaps and detergents. [5]


Coherent explanation with mention of key terms - Hydrophobic tail and
hydrophilic head of the molecule align to form micelles (1 mark). Dirt at
the centre of the micelle (½ mark). With the scrubbing action and flowing
water, the micelle pulls the dirt off the cloth and carries it along with it.
Diagram of a micelle. (½ mark)
b. Differentiate between soaps and detergents.
Any one point of difference - Definition or biodegradablity or lather/scum
formation (½ mark each = 1 mark)
c. Briefly explain the industrial application of saponification reaction.
Saponification reaction (½ mark) & equation (1 mark)
Use in industry - Break down ester to make soap (½ mark)
OR
a. An organic compound ​A (C​2​H​6​O) forms a compound ​B (C​2​H​4​O​2​) on being
heated with alkaline KMnO​4​. Litmus test of a solution of ​B indicates that it
is an acid. Compound ​A on being heated with conc. H​2​SO​4 forms
compound ​C which decolourises bromine water. When a mixture of
compounds A and B are heated with conc. H​2​SO​4​, a sweet smelling
compound ​D​ is formed. ​Identify A, B, C and D​.
A = Ethanol structure
B = Ethanoic acid structure
C = Ethene structure
D = Ethyl ethanoate structure (½ mark each = 2marks)
b. Write all associated equations.
3 equations - Ethanol to ethanoic acid, ethanol to ethene, formation of ethyl
ethanoate (1 mark each * 3 = 3 marks)

18. (a)What is meant by the term speciation? [5]


(b)List four factors which could lead to speciation.
(c)With the help of suitable example explain natural selection.
Ans:(a)​Speciation is the evolution of reproductive isolation among once
interbreeding population.
(b)Factors which can lead to speciation are:
1. Genetic drift: Over generations, genetic drift may accumulate which leads
to speciation.
2. Natural selection: Natural selection may work differently in different
location which may give rise to speciation.
3. Severe DNA change.
4. A variation may occur which does not allow sexual act between two
groups.
(c)Let us assume that there exist a group of red beetles in some green bushes​.
Due to variation during sexual reproduction one green beetle evolved among
them. This green beetle can pass the colour to its progeny which are green
beetles.
Crows cannot see green beetles in green bushes and therefore, cannot eat them.
The progeny of green beetles are not eaten while the progeny of red beetles
continued to be eaten. As a result there are more and more green beetles in the
beetle population. The progeny of green beetles increase due to natural
selection which gives survival advantage.

19. a) Draw a labelled diagram of LS of pistil of a flower, showing the germination of [5]
pollen grains.
b) Explain what happens when -
i) Planaria is cut into many pieces.
ii) Buds are formed on the notches of bryophyllum leaf.
​OR
a) Draw a neat labelled diagram of the female reproductive system.
b) Name the parts in male reproductive system that :
i. Secretes the hormone testosterone
ii. Transports the male gamete from the primary reproductive organ
c) What is the function of the prostate gland?

20. Analyse the observation table showing variation of image distance ‘v’ with object [5]
distance ‘u’ in case of a convex lens and answer the questions that follow,
without doing any calculations.

S.No Object distance u in cm Image distance v in cm

1 -90 +18
2 -60 +20

3 -30 +30

4 -20 +60

5 -18 +90

6 -10 +100

a. What is the focal length of the convex lens ? Give reason for your
answer.
b. Which serial number of the observation is incorrect? Why do you
think so?
c. Take appropriate scale and draw the ray diagram for serial no 4
and find the approximate magnification value.
21. State Fleming's left hand rule.
If the forefinger,the middle finger and thumb of
left hand are stretched so that they are
[1]
perpendicular to each other then
if the current flowing through a conducting wire
is represented by the middle finger, and the
external magnetic field by the forefinger,then the
conducting wire experiences a force
perpendicular to both that field and to the
direction of the current flow and is along the
direction in which the thumb points.

Write the principle of working of an electric motor. [½]

Electric motor works on the principle of conversion of electrical energy to [½]


mechanical energy
A current carrying conductor when placed in a magnetic field experiences a force
such that the direction of the force is governed by Fleming's left hand rule .
Explain the working of the following parts of a an electric motor:
a. Split rings
b. Amature [1]
c. Carbon brushes
(​a) Split Ring:​ It helps to reverse the direction of current in the circuit.
[1]
(b) Armature: It is a rectangular iron core wrapped by the copper coil through
which electricity passes and due to magnetic field it experiences a
force and rotates. [1]
(c) Brushes: It conducts current between stationary wires and moving parts,
most commonly in a rotating shaft.

​ OR
[1]
In household domestic wiring, why is earthing important?
Earthing or grounding means to connect any electrical appliance, machine or
equipment at ​zero potential of earth with wire connected with the earth
electrode buried in the earth [1]
Earthing is as important as the fuses in the wiring circuits i.e.in the case of short
circuits or overloads, the heavy current flows through the wires and fitting etc.
which melts the fuse wire and stops the flow of current in the circuits, thus
save the whole circuit from being damaged.
Does earthing and fuse have the same function? If yes, then can one substitute
for the other?

[1]
Similarly, when any live or phase wire touches the metal part of the fitting,
appliance, machine or equipment, the current passes through the earth wire
which serves as low resistance conducting path. If the appliance, equipment or
machine etc. are connected with proper earth connection, ​blows the fuse at
once and saves the operator from getting shock. In case the current is not
sufficient to blow the fuse or MCB still ​it reduces the potential of the appliance
to safe values. Thus to avoid these dangers, all metal parts of the fitting,
appliances, equipment, machines etc are earthed
Is overloading a consequence of short circuit or vice versa? Differentiate [1]
between them.
The short circuit occurs in the system when the neutral and the live wire comes
in contact with each other, whereas overload occurs when the number of
electrical equipment connects to the same socket [1]

During the short circuit, the resistance of the path of current becomes low due to
which the heavy current flow through the circuit whereas in overload condition
the magnitude of the current is high but appreciably low as compared to short
circuit current.

SECTION E (Practical Based Questions)

22. On heating a blue coloured powder of copper(II) nitrate in a boiling tube, black [2]
copper oxide, oxygen gas and a brown gas X is formed.
a. Represent the reaction in a balanced chemical equation.

Equation (½ mark)

Balancing (½ mark

b. Identify the gas X.

The brown gas is nitrogen dioxide. (½ mark)

c. Identify the type of reaction described above.


Decomposition reaction (½ mark)

23. a. Arrange the metals iron, magnesium, zinc and copper in the increasing [2]
order of their reactivity.
Copper, iron, zinc, magnesium (1 mark)
b. List two observations made by the student when iron filings are added to
copper sulphate solution?
Any two observations (change of colour of solution or deposit of copper at the
bottom of the tube or exothermic reaction) (½ mark + ½ mark)
​OR
a. Why do we store silver chloride in dark colored bottles?
Silver Chloride is photolytic in nature (½ mark)
Dark coloured bottles prevent exposure to sunlight and prevent photolysis to
some extent. (½ mark)
b. How will you prove the basic nature of metallic oxide in a lab?
Add the metallic oxide in water and shake. (½ mark)
Use red litmus paper and blue litmus paper to check the nature. (½ mark)

24. ​Draw the diagrams in correct sequence showing budding in yeast. [2]
​OR
Draw a diagram showing the different parts of an embryo of a dicot seed.
Ans:

:
25. ​ student is to conduct an experiment to show CO​2 is released during
A [2]
respiration. List two precautions that he/she must take for obtaining correct
observation.
Ans:(i) Take seeds which are living
(ii) Keep the set up air tight
(iii) Take freshly made KOH
(Any two points - 1 mark each)

26. The values of current I flowing in a given resistor for the corresponding values [2]
of potential difference V across the resistor are given below:

Plot a graph between V and I and calculate the resistance of the resistor.

Answer.

The plot for V vs. I for the given data is shown below:

The voltage is plotted on ​x​-axis and current is plotted on​ y-​ axis.
27. Draw a path of light ray passing through a prism. Label angle of incidence and [2]
angle of deviation in the ray diagram.

Answer.
Diagram showing the path of light ray passing through a prism, is given below:

Here, ​i​ = angle of incidence

e ​= angle of deviation

​OR
For  tracing  the  path  of  ray  of  light  through  a  rectangular  glass  slab,  what 
should be the range of angle of incidence? 

How  does  the  lateral  displacement  of  the  emergent  ray  depend  on  the 
width of the glass slab and angle of incidence? 

Answer: 

30° to 60° 

Lateral displacement of emergent ray is directly proportional to 

● the  thickness  of  the  glass  slab  for  a  given  angle  of  incidence 
and a pair of media.
● the angle of incidence for the given thickness of the glass slab 
and a pair of media.