You are on page 1of 205

Network+

Basics
1
Networks
What’s Network?
Why We Need Networks?

2
Network+; First Step to the
Net World
Microsoft: MCSE2003, MCITP2008, MCSE2012
MCSE2003 - MCSE2003 R2
MCITP2008 - MCITP2008 R2
MCSE2012

Cisco
Linux

3
Microsoft:
MCITP:
MCITP Windows 7 Configuration (70-680)
MCITP Active Directory Configuration (70-640)
MCITP Network Infrastructure Configuration (70-642)
MCITP Application Infrastructure Configuration (70-643)
MCITP Enterprise Administration Configuration (70-647)

MCSE:
Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2012 (70-410)
Administering Windows Server 2012 (70-411)
Configuring Advance Windows Server 2012 Services (70-412)
Design and Implementing a Server Infrastructure (70-413)
Implementing and Advanced Server Infrastructure (70-414)
4
Network+; First Step to the
Net World
Cisco:
CCNA:
ICND1 (100-101)
CCNA (200-120)
ICND2 (200-101)

CCNP:
CCNP Route (642-902)
CCNP Switch (642-813)
CCNP T-Shoot (642-832)

5
Network+; First Step to the
Net World
Linux:
LPI 1 (101)
LPI 2 (102)

6
Network History
First Local Net created by Xerox and called PARC
Ethernet (Ethernet I) (Palo Alto Research Center)
Next versions improved by DEC and Intel and called
DIX Ethernet

7
Internet History
1950s: ARPA (Advanced Research Project Agency)
1962: ARPA Net
1982: TCP/IP
1986: NSF Net (First Backbone)
1993: InterNic (Internet Information Center)
1995: VBNS (VeryHighSpeed Backbone Network
System)

8
Internet History
1990s: Web (CERN: Tim Berners-Lee)
(Center Europeen de Recherche Nucleaire = European
Nuclear Research Center)

9
Network Types
LAN
WAN
MAN
PAN

10
Network Types

11
Network Connection Concepts
Internet
Intranet
Extranet

12
Network Connection Concepts
Segment
Backbone

13
Network Connection Concepts
Client/Server Networks
Point-to-Point Networks

14
Network Connection Concepts
Unicast Address
Broadcast Address
Multicast Address

15
Responsible Organizations for
Network Protocol Standards
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers )
IEEE802.x

ISO (International Organization for Standardization)


Covers all standards except Electrical & Electronic Standards

IAB (Internet Activities Board)


IRTF (Internet Research Task Force)
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)

16
Responsible Organizations for
Network Protocol Standards
TIA/EIA (Telecommunicational Industry Association
/Electronic Industries Alliance)
Physical Layer

ANSI (American National Standard Institute)


Private Organization

17
Network Models

OSI Model (Open System Interconnection)


TCP/IP Model (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol)

18
OSI Model

19
PDU

APDU

PPDU

SPDU

Segment

Packet

Frame

Bit

20
Same-Layer Interaction &
Adjacent-Layer Interaction
Concept Description
Same-layer interaction on The two computers use a
different computers protocol to communicate with
the same layer on another
computer.

Adjacent-layer interaction On a single computer, one


on the same computer layer provides a service to a
higher layer

21
TCP/IP Model
TCP/IP

Application

Transport
Internet

Network Access
(Host-to-Network)

22
OSI vs TCP/IP

OSI TCP/IP
Application
Presentation Application
Session
Transport Transport

Network Internet

Data Link Network Access


Physical (Host-to-Network)
23
Some OSI & TCP/IP
Protocols

24
Hybrid Model
Hybrid Model

Application

Transport

Network
Data Link
Physical
25
OSI Layer and Their Functions
Layer7: Application
Provide an Interface Between Communication Software's in
two Separate Computer
 Authentication

26
OSI Layer and Their Functions
Layer6: Presentation
Negotiate & Define Data Format
Encryption
Compression

27
OSI Layer and Their Functions
Layer5: Session
Defines How to Start, Control, and End Conversations
Control and Management Bidirectional Messages

28
OSI Layer and Their Functions
Layer4: Transport
Error Control
Flow Control
End to End Connection
Segmentation and Order a Large Data
Multiplexing
Connection Establishment & Termination

29
OSI Layer and Their Functions
Layer3: Network
Logical Addressing
Routing
Path Determination

30
OSI Layer and Their Functions
Layer2: Data Link
Define Header and Trailer Format
Define FCS Field
Error Detection

31
OSI Layer and Their Functions
Layer1: Physical
Refers to Medium Standards from Other Organizations

32
OSI Layer and Their Functions
Layer Name Protocols and Devices
Specifications
Application, Telnet, HTTP, FTP, Firewall, Intrusion
Presentation, SMTP, POP3, VoIP, Detection System
Session (Layers 5–7) SNMP
Transport (Layer 4) TCP, UDP
Network (Layer 3) IP Router
Data link (Layer 2) Ethernet (IEEE 802.3), LAN Switch, Wireless
HDLC, Frame Relay, Access Point, Cable
PPP Modem, DSL Modem
Physical (Layer 1) RJ-45, EIA/TIA-232, LAN hub, Repeater,
V.35, Ethernet (IEEE Cables
802.3)
33
A Way to Memorize

OSI:
All People Seem To Need Data Processing (Layers 7 to 1)

TCP/IP:
ATIN (Layer 4 to 1)

34
Physical
Layer
35
Cable Topologies

Bus
Ring
Star
Mesh

36
Bus Topology

37
Ring Topologies

38
Mesh Topologies

39
Star Topologies

40
Cable Types

Twisted Pair:
UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair)
STP (shielded Twisted Pair)

Coaxial
Fiber Optic

41
UTP Cable

42
STP Cable

43
Most Common Types of Ethernet

Common Speed Alternative Name of Cable Type,


Name Name IEEE Maximum
Standard Length
Ethernet 10 Mbps 10BASE-T IEEE 802.3 Copper, 100m
Fast Ethernet 100 Mbps 100BASE-TX IEEE 802.3u Copper, 100m
Gigabit 1000 Mbps 1000BASE-T IEEE Copper, 100 m
Ethernet 802.3ab
Gigabit 1000 Mbps 1000BASE-LX, IEEE 802.3z Fiber,
Ethernet 1000BASE-SX 550m(SX) 5km
(LX)

44
Coaxial Cable

45
Coaxial Cable
(Original Ethernet Standards)

Name Cable MAX Nodes


10Base5 Thick Coax 500m 100

10Base2 Thin Coax 185m 30

46
Fiber Optic Cable

47
UTP Categories
Category Bandwidth
Cat1 0.4 MHz
Cat2 Token Ring
Cat3 16MHz
Cat4 20MHz
Cat5 100MHz
Cat5e 100MHz
Cat6 250MHz
Cat6e 250MHz (500MHz according to some)
Cat6a 500MHz
Cat7 600MHz
Cat7a 1000MHz
Cat8 1200MHz 48
Ethernet UTP Cabling
(Unshielded Twisted Pair)

Straight Through
Cross Over
Roll Over

49
UTP Cabling Standards

TIA/EIA 568A :
TIA/EIA568B:

(Telecommunicational Industry Association /Electronic


Industries Alliance)

50
UTP Cabling Standard Colors

Green/White Green
Orange/White Orange
Blue/White Blue
Brown/White Brown

51
TIA/EIA 568A

52
TIA/EIA 568B

53
Straight Through (1)

54
Straight Through (2)

55
Cross Over

56
Roll Over

57
Roll Over

58
Device Connections

PC to PC: C
Switch to Switch: C
Router to Router: C
PC to Switch: S
Switch to Router: S
PC to Router: C

59
Device Connections

Devices That Transmit on 1,2 Devices That Transmit on 3,6


and Receive on 3,6 and Receive on 1,2

PC Hub/Switch
Cross

Router Hub/Switch

Straight

60
RJ45 Socket

61
Required Devices for Cabling

RJ45 Socket Pliers


RJ45 Socket
UTP Cable

62
Transmission Methods

Simplex
Half Duplex
Full Duplex

63
CSMA/CD Algorithm
A device that wants to send a frame, waits until the
LAN is silent -in other words, no frames are currently
being sent- before attempting to send an electrical signal
If a collision still occurs, the devices that caused the
collision wait a random amount of time and then try again

64
CSMA/CD Algorithm

65
Back Off
After a collision occurs and all stations allow the cable to
become idle (each waits the full interface spacing), then the
stations that collided must wait an additional and potentially
progressively longer period of time before attempting to
retransmit the collided frame
The waiting period is intentionally designed to be random
so that two stations do not delay for the same amount of time
before retransmitting, which would result in more collisions
66
CSMA/CD Algorithm
Using Full Duplex cause disable CSMA/CD algorithm

67
Repeater
A repeater is a network device used to regenerate a signal
Repeaters regenerate analog or digital signals distorted by
transmission loss due to attenuation
A repeater does not perform intelligent routing

68
The 4 Repeater Rule

The Four Repeater Rule for 10-Mbps Ethernet should


be used as a standard when extending LAN segments
This rule states that no more than four repeaters can
be used between hosts on a LAN
This rule is used to limit latency added to frame travel
by each repeater

69
Hub

Hub is a Shared Ethernet


It means bandwidth is
shared between hosts
Hubs cannot manage the
network traffic
Hub is a Physical
Layer Device
70
Switch

Is a Switched Ethernet


It means bandwidth is
not shared between hosts
Switch has ability to
manage the network traffic
Switch is a Data Link
Layer Device
71
Router
Routers have all capabilities of the previous devices
Routers can regenerate signals, concentrate multiple
connections, and manage data transfers
They can also connect to a WAN, which allows them
to connect LANs that are separated by great distances
Router is a Network Layer Device

72
WAN Connections
CSU/DSU:
DCE:
DTE:
Clock Rating:
Serial Interface:
Leased Line:

73
WAN Cabling Standards

74
Building a WAN Link in a LAB

75
Data Link
Layer
76
Ethernet Addressing
IEEE 802.3 Committee (MAC Committee) worked on
Ethernet Addressing
MAC address is 48 bits in length and expressed as
twelve hexadecimal digits
MAC addresses are sometimes referred to as burned-in
addresses (BIA) because they are burned into read-only
memory (ROM) and are copied into random-access
memory (RAM) when the NIC initializes
77
Ethernet Addressing
Two format to show MAC address:
Six Octet, Each one 8 bits:00-27-19-EC-97-35
Or
Three Parts, Each one 16 bits: 0000.0C12.3456

78
Ethernet Addressing

79
LAN Addressing Terminology
Term Description
MAC Media Access Control. 802.3 (Ethernet) defines the MAC
sublayer of IEEE Ethernet
Ethernet Address- Other names often used instead of MAC address. These
NIC-LAN terms describe the 6-byte address of the LAN interface card
Unicast Address A term for a MAC that represents a single LAN interface

Broadcast Address An address that means “all devices that reside on this LAN
right now.” (FFFF.FFFF.FFFF)
Multicast Address On Ethernet, a multicast address implies some subset of all
devices currently on the Ethernet LAN (0100.5exx.xxxx)

80
LAN Header Format
DIX
Preamble Destination Source Type Data & Pad FCS
8 6 6 2 46-1500 4

IEEE 802.3
Preamble SFD Destination Source Length/ Data & Pad FCS
7 1 6 6 Type 2 46-1500 4

81
Encapsulation
It’s a way for data framing
This protocol works on layer 2

82
Encapsulation Types
HDLC (High Level Data-Link Control):
Cisco Proprietary

PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol):


Standard Protocol

83
Ethernet LAN
Switching
Concepts
84
Historical Progression: HUB

85
Historical Progression: Bridge

86
Historical Progression: Switch

87
Switching Logic
The IEEE defines three general categories of Ethernet
MAC addresses:
Unicast Addresses: MAC addresses that identify a single
LAN interface card
Broadcast Addresses: A frame sent with a destination address
of the broadcast address (FFFF.FFFF.FFFF) implies that all
devices on the LAN should receive and process the frame
Multicast Addresses: Multicast MAC addresses are used to
allow a dynamic subset of devices on a LAN to communicate
88
Switching Logic
Switches do three main job:
Deciding when to forward a frame or when to filter (not
forward) a frame, based on the destination MAC address
Learning MAC addresses by examining the source MAC
address of each frame received by the bridge
Creating a (Layer 2) loop-free environment with other bridges
by using Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

89
Decision Making

90
Decision Making

91
Learning MAC Addresses
Switches build the address table by listening to incoming
frames and examining the source MAC address in the frame
If a frame enters the switch and the source MAC address is
not in the MAC address table, the switch creates an entry in
the table

92
Flooding Frames
When there is no matching entry in the table, switches
forward the frame out all interfaces (except the incoming
interface)
Switches forward these unknown unicast frames (frames
whose destination MAC addresses are not yet in the bridging
table) out all other interfaces, with the hope that the unknown
device will be on some other Ethernet segment and will reply,
allowing the switch to build a correct entry in the address table
93
Attention
All these words are the same:
MAC Address Table = Switching Table = Bridging Table
= Content Address Table

94
Internal Processing on Cisco
Switches
Switching Description
Method
Store-and- The switch fully receives all bits in the frame (store)
forward before forwarding the frame (forward). This allows the
switch to check the FCS before forwarding the frame
Cut-through The switch forwards the frame as soon as it can. This
reduces latency but does not allow the witch to discard
frames that fail the FCS check
Fragment-free The switch forwards the frame after receiving the first
64 bytes of the frame, thereby avoiding forwarding
frames that were errored due to a collision

95
Collision Domains

A Collision Domain is a set of network interface cards (NIC) for


which a frame sent by one NIC could result in a collision with a
frame sent by any other NIC in the same collision domain

96
Broadcast Domains
A Broadcast Domain is a set of NICs for which a broadcast
frame sent by one NIC is received by all other NICs in the
same broadcast domain

97
Virtual LAN

98
What IEEE 802.1d Does

99
Three Classes of Problems
Caused by Not Using STP

Problem Description
Broadcast Storm The forwarding of a frame repeatedly on the same links,
consuming significant parts of the links’ capacities
MAC Table Instability The continual updating of a switch’s MAC address table with
incorrect entries, in reaction to looping frames, resulting in
frames being sent to the wrong locations
Multiple Frame A side effect of looping frames in which multiple copies of one
Transmission frame are delivered to the intended host, confusing the host

100
What IEEE 802.1d Does
Prevent loop in layer 2 Switches
Its enabled by default in Cisco Switches
Switches information multicast by BPDU messages
STP block all ports that play a roll in loop
If Network changes, SPT will decide again about blocking
port
For determining which port should be block, an election will
be occurred
101
Campus LAN Design
Terminology

102
Network
Layer
103
IP Address
IP Address is a unique address that identify a device
on the network
IP Address is 32 bits
4 Octet, Each one 8 bits:
Example: 160.5.73.2

104
IP Classes

105
IP Packet/Header

106
IP Addresses
Class A:
Network: 128
Host: 16,771,216 (256*256*256)

Class B:
Network: 16,384 (64*256)
Host: 65,536 (256*256)

Class C:
Network: 2,097,152 (32*256*256)
Host: 256
107
IP Addresses

Class A Class B Class C


First Octet Range 1 to 126 128 to 191 192 to 223

Valid Network 1.0.0.0 to 128.0.0.0 to 192.0.0.0 to


Numbers 126.0.0.0 191.255.0.0 223.255.255.0
Size of Network Part 1 2 3
of Address (Bytes)

Size of Host Part of 3 2 1


Address (Bytes)

108
Network and Host Parts and
Default Masks
Class of Size of Network Part Size of Host Part Default Mask for
Address of Address in Bits of Address in Bits Each Class of
Network
A 8 24 255.0.0.0

B 16 16 255.255.0.0

C 24 8 255.255.255.0

109
Network and Host Parts

11
0
Network and Host Parts

111
Network and Host Parts

112
RFC 1918 Private Address Space

Class of Private IP Networks OR


Networks
A 10.0.0.0 through 10.255.255.255 10.0.0.0/8

B 172.16.0.0 through 172.31.255.255 172.16.0.0/12

C 192.168.0.0 through 192.168.255.255 192.168.0.0/16

113
IP Configuration

114
Why We Use Subnetting?

115
3 Math Operations for Subnetting

Converting IP addresses and masks from binary to


decimal, and decimal to binary
Performing a binary math operation called a Boolean AND
Converting between two formats for subnet masks: dotted
decimal and prefix notation (CIDR Notation)

116
Memorize
255 127 63 31 15 7 3 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 128
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 192
1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 224
1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 240
1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 248
1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 252
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 254
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 255
117
Classful and Classless Subnetting

118
Address Formats When
Subnetting is Used

119
Analyzing Subnet Mask
Number of Network Bits: Always defined by Class A, B, C
Number of Host Bits: Always defined as the number of
binary 0s in the mask
Number of Subnet Bits: Two Ways:
32 - (Network Size + Host Size)
24 - (Host Size) or 16 - (Host Size) or 8 - (Host Size)
H
Number of Host Per Subnet: 2 - 2
S
Number of Subnets: 2
120
Exercise
8.1.4.5 /8
130.34.21.7 /16
200.23.1.77 /24
8.1.4.5 /18
102.4.102.1 / 21
130.4.102.1 /22
199.1.1.100 /27
199.1.1.100 /30
121
ICMP (Internet Control
Messaging Protocol)

Ping
Tracert
Traceroute

122
Ping

123
ARP
(Address Resolution Protocol)
ARP is a layer3 protocol for finding MAC address
from IP address

124
RARP

Reverse ARP is a layer3 protocol for finding IP


address from MAC address

125
ARP

126
DHCP (Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol)

DHCP is a Layer3 protocol that give IP Address,


Subnet mask and other network settings to the Host or
Client

127
DHCP

128
Routing
Routing Protocols
Routed Protocols

129
Types of Routing Protocols

 Static Routing Protocol


 Dynamic Routing Protocol

130
Static Routing Protocol

 Static Route
 Default Route

131
Dynamic Routing Protocols

 IGP (Interior Gateway Protocols):


 RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
 EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)

 EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocols):


 BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)

132
Fundamentals
of Transport
Layer
133
Main Layer4 Protocols

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)


UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

134
Main Layer4 Concepts
Connection Oriented
Connection Less

135
TCP Header

136
UDP Header

137
Popular Applications and Their Well-
Known Port Numbers
Port Number Protocol Application
20 TCP FTP Data
21 TCP FTP Control
22 TCP SSH
23 TCP Telnet
25 TCP SMTP
53 TCP, UDP DNS
67, 68 UDP DHCP
69 UDP TFTP
80 TCP HTTP (WWW)
110 TCP POP3
161 UDP SNMP
443 TCP SSL
16384 - 32767 UDP RTP Based Voice & Video 138
QOS

Bandwidth
Delay
Jitter
Loss

139
Application
Layer
Protocols
140
Main Application Layer Protocols
Telnet
SSH
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol: Send)
POP3 (Post Office Protocol v.3: Receive)
IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol: Receive)
HTTP
HTTPS

141
Main Application Layer Protocols
DNS
FTP
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol)
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)

142
DNS

143
DNS

144
VM Ware

145
Packet Tracer

146
GNS3

147
Main
Concepts
148
Main Concepts in Network
Client OS
Server OS

149
Main Concepts in Network
Workgroup
Domain

150
Main Concepts in Network
Permission
Share Permission
NTFS Permission
Effective Permission

151
Main Concepts in Network
Simple Sharing
Advanced Sharing

152
Main Concepts in Network
Switching
Routing

153
Main Concepts in Network
IP
Subnet Mask
Wild Card Mask
Gateway

154
Main Concepts in Network
Policy
Group Policy

155
Main Concepts in Network
SID:
New SID
Sysprep

156
Main Concepts in Network
Access Point (AP)
Switch

157
Main Concepts in Network
AAA:
Authentication
Authorization
Accounting

158
Main Concepts in Network
Disk Types:
Basic:
Default Mode
For OS installation

Dynamic:
Has more features like Span, RAID (Redundant Array of
Independent Disks)

Attention: OS disks should be Basic (not Dynamic)


Dynamic disks could not be Repaired or Upgrade
159
Main Concepts in Network
Partition Styles:
MBR (Master Boot Record)
Three Primary and any Extended
GPT (GUID Partition Table)
No limitation on Primary
Must use in more then 2TB disks

160
Disk Management: RAID
(Redundant Array of Independent Disks)

What is RAID?
Types of RAID:
Hardware RAID
Software RAID

RAID Goals:
Fault Tolerance
Performance
161
Main Concepts in Network
RAID:
RAID 0
RAID 1
RAID 5
RAID 6
RAID 0+1 or 1+0

162
Main Concepts in Network
Clustering
Scalability
High Availability
Load Balancing

163
Main Concepts in Network
Clean Installation
Upgrade
Migrate
Windows Easy Transfer

164
Main Concepts in Network
Role
Feature

Server Roles

165
Main Concepts in Network

Firewall Types:
Host Base Firewall
Software firewalls on OS

Infrastructure Edge Firewall


Hardware firewalls such as Juniper FW, ASA FW, PIX FW. .

166
Main Concepts in Network

Firewall Profiles:
Home or Work (Private) Network Location Setting
Public Network Location Setting
Domain Network Location Setting

167
Main Concepts in Network

Inbound Traffic:
Outbound Traffic:

168
Main Concepts in Network
Backup
Full
Incremental
Differential
Copy (Mirror)

Restore

169
Main Concepts in Network
Backup Tools:
Microsoft Backup Tools
Norton Ghost
Acronis
Backup exeC

170
Main Concepts in Network
Hot Standby
Cold Standby

171
Main Concepts in Network
Design
Configuration
Trouble Shooting

172
Main Concepts in Network
RADIUS
Kerberos

173
Main Concepts in Network
Remote Desktop
Remote Assistant
Terminal Service

174
Main Concepts in Network
Internet Connection Sharing

175
Main Concepts in Network
Software Restriction
AppLocker

176
Main Concepts in Network

Users
Groups

17
7
Main Concepts in Network

EFS
BitLocker

178
Trouble Shooting
Layer 1:
Check devices position: Turn On / Off
Check connection between devices
Check cable: Straight / Cross
. . .

179
Trouble Shooting
Layer 2:
Check TCP/IP Stack:
ping 127.0.0.1
Check Network Adapter

180
Trouble Shooting
Layer 3:
ipconfig/all Command
ping Command
tracert Command

181
IPV6

182
Why We Need IPV6?

183
IPV6 Advantages

Increased address space


Automatic Address Configuration
Network level security
Routing table size
Header size and extension headers
Removal of broadcast traffic

184
IPV6 Addressing and
Summarization Rules
2001:0db8:0012:0000:0000:0000:1234:56ab
2001:db8:12:0:0:0:1234:56ab
2001:db8:12::1234:56ab

2001:0000:0000:0db8:0012:0000:0000:56ab
2001::0db8:0012::56ab
2001::0db8:0012:0:0:56ab
185
Kinds of Addressing
Unicast:
Global Unicast: 2000::/3 (001)
Site Local: FEC0::/10 (Similar to A, B, C Private Addresses)
Unique Local: FD00::/8 (Private-EUI64 )
Link Local: FE80::/10 (APIPA-Non Routable)

Multicast: FF00::/8
Anycast

186
Common Multicast Addresses

Purpose IPv6 Address IPv4 Equivalent


All IP nodes on the link FF02::1 Subnet broadcast address
(RA; Send By Router to Hosts)
All routers on the link FF02::2 N/A
(RS; Send By Hosts to Router)
OSPF messages FF02::5, FF02::6 224.0.0.5, 224.0.0.6

RIP-2 messages FF02::9 224.0.0.9

EIGRP messages FF02::A 224.0.0.10

DHCP relay agents (Routers that FF02:1:2 N/A


forward to the DHCP server)

187
Some Reserved Addresses
::1 127.0.0.1
:: 0.0.0.0
3FFF:FFFF::/32
2001:0DB8::/32
2002::/16

188
IPv6 Address
Configuration Options
Static or Option Portion Configured
Dynamic or Learned
Static Do not use EUI-64 Entire 128-bit address

Static Use EUI-64 Just the /64 prefix

Dynamic Stateful DHCPv6 Entire 128-bit address

Dynamic Stateless Autoconfiguration Just the /64 prefix

Extended Unique Identifier-64

189
NAT

190
NAT and PAT
Network Address Translation
Port Address Translation

191
NAT and PAT

192
NAT and PAT
Inside Local
Inside Global
Outside Local
Outside Global

193
NAT and PAT
200.1.1.1

194
Types of NAT
Static NAT
Dynamic NAT
PAT

195
Wireless
196
197
Organizations That Set or
Influence WLAN Standards
Organization Standardization Role

ITU-R Worldwide standardization of communications


(International that use radiated energy, particularly managing
TelecommunicationUnion- the assignment of frequencies
RadioCommunication)
IEEE Standardization of wireless LANs (802.11)
Wi-Fi Alliance An industry consortium that encourages
interoperability of products that implement
WLAN standards through their Wi-Fi certified
program
Federal Communications The U.S. government agency with that regulates
Commission (FCC) the usage of various communications frequencies
in the U.S
198
WLAN Standards
Feature 802.11a 802.11b 802.11g
Year ratified 1999 1999 2003

Maximum speed using DSSS — 11 Mbps 11 Mbps

Maximum speed using OFDM 54 Mbps — 54 Mbps

Frequency band 5 GHz 2.4 GHz 2.4 GHz

Channels (Nonoverlapped) 23 (12) 11 (3) 11 (3)

199
Encoding Classes and IEEE
Standard WLANs
Name of Encoding Class What It Is Used By

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) 802.11

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) 802.11b

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing 802.11a, 802.11g, (802.11n)


(OFDM)

200
WLAN Modes and Names

Mode Service Set Name Description

Ad hoc Independent Basic Allows two devices to communicate


Service Set (IBSS) directly. No AP is needed
Infrastructure Basic Service A single wireless LAN created with
(one AP) Set (BSS) an AP and all devices that associate
with that AP
Infrastructure Extended Service Multiple APs create one wireless
(more than one AP) Set (ESS) LAN, allowing roaming and a larger
coverage area

201
Wireless LAN Security

To reduce the risk of attacks, three main types of tools


can be used on a WLAN:
Mutual Authentication
Encryption
Intrusion tools

202
WLAN Security Standards

Name Year Who Defined It


Wired Equivalent Privacy 1997 IEEE
(WEP)
The interim Cisco solution while 2001 Cisco, IEEE 802.1x Extensible
awaiting 802.11i Authentication Protocol (EAP)

Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) 2003 Wi-Fi Alliance

802.11i (WPA2) +2005 IEEE

203
Troubleshooting Wireless
Networks
Check Signaling
Check Wireless AP to work correctly
Check technology: b, a, g, n
“b” and “g” technologies are not compatible with “a”

204
205