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CONCEPT ESSENTIALS OF CHEMISTRY

Some important formulae, trends and terms for a 'quick recap'. Class XII

Physical Che Inorganic Ch Organic Che


mistry emistry mistry

The Solid State General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Z´M
l Density of unit cell : d = g cm -3 Main steps involved in extraction of metals : l Reactivity order : RI > RBr > RCl; 3° > 2° > 1°;
a3 ´ NA l Concentration of the ore : Hydraulic separation : SN1 reaction : 3° > 2° > 1°; SN2 reaction : 1° > 2° > 3°
l Total no. of atoms per unit cell : for oxide ores; Froth floatation : for sulphide ores; l Dipole moments :
sc bcc fcc Electromagnetic separation : for magnetic – CH3Cl > CH3F > CH3Br > CH3I
1 1 1 1 impurities/ores; Leaching : chemical method – CH3Cl > CH2Cl2 > CHCl3 > CCl4(zero)
8´ =1 8 ´ +1´1 = 2 8 ´ + 6 ´ = 4 l Conversion of ore to oxide : Calcination : for Adsorption>Isotherms
– o -Dichlorobenzene m -dichlorobenzene
8 8 8 2
carbonates and hydrated oxides; Roasting : for ~ chlorobenzene > p-dichlorobenzene (zero)
l Relation between d, a and r sulphide ores.
d a d a
sc : r = = ; fcc : r = = ; bcc : r = d = 3a l Reduction of oxide into free metal : Smelting : Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
2 2 2 2 2 2 4 Reduction with carbon; Alumino-thermite process :
l Coordination number and packing efficiency l Acidity : Phenols > water > 1° alcohol > 2° alcohol >
Reduction with Al; Auto-reduction : for less
3° alcohol
sc : CN = 6, PE = 52.4%; bcc : CN = 8, PE = 68%; electropositive metals; Electrometallurgy :
l Distinction test of alcohols :
fcc : CN = 12, PE = 74% Electrolysis of fused oxide
l Refining of crude metal : Liquation : for metals
Alcohol Dichromate Victor Lucas
l Size and no. of voids :
(Oxidation) test Meyer’s test test
Type Size No. of Voids having low b.pts.; Distillation : for volatile metals;
1° Acid Blood red No
Octahedral 0.414 R N Poling : for metals having own oxides as impurities;
(Orange solution colour turbidity
Electrorefining : for Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Cr, Al;
Tetrahedral 0.225 R 2N becomes green)
Zone refining : for Si, Ge, Ga.; van-Arkel method : 2° Ketone Blue Turbidity
for Ti, Zr; Chromatography : for elements available (Orange solution colour in 5 minutes
Solutions
in minute quantities. becomes green)
l Expression for concentration of a solution : 3° No reaction Colourless Turbidity
w2 ´ 1000 w ´ 1000 The p-Block Elements
M= ;N= 2 immediately
M2 ´ V(in mL) E2 ´ V(in mL) l Group 15 (Nitrogen family) : l Distinction test of phenol :
n2 n1 w2
x2 = , x1 = ; ppm = ´ 106 – Bond angle, Thermal stability and Basic strength : Test Observation
n1 + n2 n1 + n2 Msoln. NH3 > PH3 > AsH3 > SbH3 > BiH3 FeCl3 test Violet colour
l On mixing solutions : N1V1 + N2V2 = N3(V1 + V2) ; – B.Pt. : PH3 < AsH3 < NH3 < SbH3 < BiH3 Br2 – H2O test White ppt.
M1V1 + M2V2 = M3(V1 + V2) – M.Pt.: PH3 < AsH3 < SbH3 < NH3 Liebermann's nitroso test Deep green/blue
l For liquid solutions : pA = xA × p A° ; pB = xB × p B° ; – Reducing nature : NH3 < PH3 < AsH3 < SbH3 < BiH3 (NaNO2 + conc. H2SO4) colour which changes
pA – Bond angle : PF3 < PCl3 < PBr3 < PI3 into red on dilution.
Ptotal = pA + pB; yA = , y = 1 – yA
p A + pB B – Lewis acid strength : PCl3 > AsCl3 > SbCl3; Azo dye test Orange colour

l Colligative properties : DTb = iK b ´ m PF3 > PCl3 > PBr3 > PI3
Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
n p° - ps l Group 16 (Oxygen family) : Bond angle and
DTf = iK f ´ m; p = i RT ; = ix2
V p° Thermal stability : H2O > H2S > H2Se > H2Te l Reactivity order towards SN reactions : HCHO >
i -1 n – Volatility : H2S > H2Se > H2Te > H2O RCHO > PhCHO > RCOR > RCOPh > PhCOPh
a(disso.) = ; a(asso.) = (1 - i)
n -1 n -1 – Acidic strength and Reducing nature : l Distinction test of aldehydes & ketones :
Mc Co
i= or (where M = molar mass, H2O < H2S < H2Se < H2Te Test Aldehydes
Adsorption Isotherms Ketones
Mo Cc C = colligative property) – Stability : SF6 > SeF6 > TeF6 Schiff 's reagent Pink colour No colour
l Group 17 (Halogen family) : Adsorption
Fehling's solution Red ppt. Isotherms
No ppt.
Electrochemistry – Oxidizing power : F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > I2 Tollens' reagent Silver mirror No ppt.
V 1 a l – B.Pt. and M.Pt. : HF > HCl < HBr < HI
l R= ; G = ; r = R ;k = G ´ l Acidity : Carboxylic acids > Phenols > Alcohols
I R l a – Dipole moment and Thermal stability :
HF > HCl > HBr > HI l Distinction test of carboxylic acids :
1000 1000
l Leq = k ´ V = k ´ ; Lm = k ´ V = k ´ – Bond length, Acidic strength and Reducing Test Carboxylic acids
Adsorption Phenols
Isotherms
N M
nature : HF < HCl < HBr < HI NaHCO3 Brisk effervescence of No reaction
¥ ¥
l Lcm = Lm - b C ; Leq = lc¥ + la¥ ; L m
¥
= x lc¥ + y la¥ CO2 gas
– Acidic strength : HClO < HClO2 < HClO3 < HClO4;
Lcm HOCl > HOBr > HOI; HClO4 > HBrO4 > HIO4 FeCl3 Buff coloured ppt. Violet colour
l a= ¥
; DG ° = -nFEcell
° = - RT ln K
c
Lm – Oxidizing power : HClO > HClO2 > HClO3 > HClO4
W1 E1 ° l Group 18 (Noble gases): M.Pt., B.Pt., Ease of Amines
lW = ZIt ; = ; E = E(cathode)
° - E(anode)
°
W2 E2 cell liquefaction, Solubility, Adsor ption and l Basic nature : Aliphatic amine > NH3 > aromatic
0.0591 1 0.0591 Polarizability : He < Ne < Ar < Kr < Xe amine; 3° > 2° > 1° > NH3 [in gas phase/in non-aq.
l Ecell = Ecell
° - ° =
log n+ ; Ecell log K c
n [M ] n – Thermal conductivity : He > Ne > Ar > Kr > Xe solvent]; 2° > 1° > 3° > NH3 [in aq. phase, only —CH3 subs.
amines]; 2° > 3° > 1° > NH3 [in aq. phase, only —C2H5
Chemical Kinetics d- and f-Block Elements subs. amines]

l Expressions for different orders : l d-block elements : (n –1)d1–10ns0–2 l Distinction test (Hinsberg's test):
Rate law Integrated rate law Half-life – 3d series : 21Sc – 30Zn C6H5SO2Cl + 1°, 2° or 3° amines
Rate = k[A]0 [A]t = –kt + [A]0 t1/2 = [A]0/2k – 4d series : 39Y – 48Cd; 5d series : 57La, 72Hf – 80Hg KOH
Clear solution Soluble salt [1° amine]
[0 order] – 6d series : 89Ac, 104Rf – 112Cn KOH
Rate = k[A]1 ln[A]t = –kt + ln[A]0 t1/2 = 0.693 k ppt. No reaction [2° amine]
– Acidic character : MnO < Mn3O4 < Mn2O3 < MnO2 No reaction [3° amine]
[1st order]
Rate = k[A]2 < Mn2O7; Ionic character : MnO > Mn3O4 > Mn2O3
1/[A]t = kt + 1/[A]0 t1/2 = 1/k[A]0 – ArN2+X– are more stable than RN2+X–.
[2nd order] > MnO2 > Mn3O7
1 [ B] [ A] – EDGs stabilise while EWGs destabilise the
Rate = k[A][B] kt = ln 0
[ A]0 - [B]0 [ A]0[B] 1/2
t = 1/k[A]0 l f-block elements : (n –2)f1–14(n –1)d0–1ns2
[2nd order] – La(OH)3 to Lu(OH)3 : Basicity decreases; La3+ diazonium salts.
1
(n - 1)kt = n-1 -
1 2n-1 - 1
Rate = k[A]n n-1 t1/2 = to Lu3+ : Tendency to form complexes increases
[nth order]
[ A] [ A0 ] k(n - 1)[ A]n0 -1
Biomolecules
l Arrhenius equation : Coordination Compounds l Reducing sugars : All monosaccharides
k Ea é T2 - T1 ù Ligand
k = Ae - Ea /RT ; log 2 =
Central metal ion l Non reducing sugars : All polysaccharides and
ê ú
k1 2.303 R ë T1T2 û K4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] disaccharides like sucrose.
Counter ion Coordination number l Fat soluble vitamins : A, D, E and K.
Coordination sphere/entity
Surface Chemistry l Water soluble vitamins : B1, B2, B6, B12 and C
l –vely charged sols : Metals, sulphides, acidic dyes, l Spectrochemical series :
starch, clay, silk. I– < Br– < SCN– < Cl– < S2– < F– < OH– < C2O42– < Polymers
l +vely charged sols : Metal hydroxides, oxides, H2O < NCS– < edta4– < NH3 < en < NO2– < CN– < CO l Addition homopolymers : Polythene, polystyrene
basic dyes, haemoglobin. 4 l Condensation homopolymers : Nylon-6, PHB
l m = n(n + 2) B.M.; Dt = D o ;
l Hardy–Schulze rule : Coagulation power for 9 l Addition copolymers : Buna-S, Buna-N
–vely charged sols : Al3+ > Ba2+ > Na+ l CFSE = (– 0.4x + 0.6y)Do where, x = no. of e–s in t2g l Condensation copolymers : Nylon-6, 6, Nylon-6, 10
+vely charged sols : [Fe(CN)6]4– > PO43– > SO42– > Cl– orbitals, y = no. of e–s in eg orbitals. l Biodegradable copolymers : PHBV, Nylon 2- nylon 6.