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CHAPTER -II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

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2.1 OVERVIEW
In general, the Promotion Mix of a company includes the following tools:

1. Advertising: It is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion


of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor.

2. Direct Marketing: It refers to the use of mail, telephone and other non-
personal contact tools to communicate with or solicit a response from specific
customers and prospects.

3. Personal Selling: Face to face interaction with one or more prospective


purchasers for the purpose of making a sale refers to personal selling.

4. Public Relations and Publicity: It refers to the variety of programs designed


to promote and or protect a company’s image or its individual products.

5. Sales Promotions: The short-term incentive to encourage trial or purchase of


a product or service refers to sales promotion. Whereas advertising offers a
reason to buy sales promotion offers an incentive to buy. Since sales
promotion directly push up the sales, increasing number of companies are
undertaking sales promotion activities.

2.2 SALES PROMOTION AND THEORY


Sales promotion refers to the short-term incentives to encourage sales of a
product or service. It consists of a diverse collection of incentive tools, mostly short-
term, designed to stimulate quicker and greater purchase of products or services by
consumers.

Sales promotion consists of a diverse collection of incentive tools, mostly


short term, designed to stimulate quicker or greater purchase of particular products or
services by consumers of the trade.

Sales promotion tools vary in their specific objectives. Incentive type


promotion is used to attract new tiers, to reward loyal customers and to increase the
repurchase rates of the occasional users. Sales promotion often attracts the branch
switchers, because users of other brands and categories do not always notice or act on
a promotion.

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In using the sales promotion a company must establish its objectives, select
the tools develop the program, a pretest the program, implement and control it and
evaluate the results.

Where advertisement offers a reason to buy, sales promotion offers an


incentive to buy. Sales promotion includes tools for consumer promotion (samples,
coupons, cash refund, price off, premiums, prizes, patronage rewards, free trials,
warranties, tie-in-offers cross promotion, point of purchase displays and
demonstration);trade promotion(price off, advertising and display allowances and free
goods);and business and sales force promotion(trade shows and conventions, contests
for sales reps and specialty advertising).1

Sales promotion is the process of persuading a potential customer to buy the


product. It can be part of the personal selling process.

2.2.1 Sales Promotions Objectives :

 To introduce new products

 To attract new customers and retain the existing ones

 To maintain sales of seasonal products

 To meet the challenge of competition

 The specific objectives set for sales promotions will vary with the type of
the target market. For consumer promotions, objectives include
encouraging purchasing of larger sized units, building trial among non-
users and attracting switchers away from the competitor’s brands. For
trade promotions, objectives may include; including retailers to carry new
items and higher level of inventory, encouraging off-seasonal buying, of-
setting competitive promotions, building brand loyalty of retailers and
gaining entry into new retail outlets. The sales force promotions help in
encouraging support of a new product or model, encouraging more
prospecting and stimulating off-seasonal sales. But most importantly, sales
promotion should be focused on consumer relationship building.

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2.2.2 Importance of Sales Promotions :
From manufacturer point of view:

1. Increases the volume of sales

2. Helps to introduce new products in the market

3. Enables quick disposal of existing stocks

From the point of view of consumers

1. Goods are available cheaper rate

2. Financial benefits to the customers

3. Generates awareness about new

4. Stabilizes the volume of sales

5. Creates confidence in the mind of customers regarding quality

6. Raise standard of living

2.2.3 Purpose of Sales Promotion :


Sales promotion tools vary in their specific objectives. They may be used to
attract new customers, to reward loyal customers and to increase the repurchase rates
of occasional users. Sales promotion usually targets brand switchers because non-
users and users of other brands do not always notice a promotion. Sales promotions
are thus also seen as a tool for breaking down loyalty to other products.

Sales promotions also let manufacturers adjust to short term changes in supply
and demand and differences in customer segments. They also let manufacturers to
experiment by varying prices. Sales promotions also lead to greater consumer
awareness of prices.

To use sales promotion, a company must set objectives, select the right tools,

develop the best program and implement it and evaluate the results.

2.2.4 Sales Promotion Tools :


Many tools can be used to accomplish sales promotion objectives.
Descriptions of the main promotional tools are as follows:

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1. Consumer Promotion Tools: The main consumer promotion tools are as follows:

A. Samples: They are offers of a trial amount of a product. It consists of


inviting prospective purchasers to try the product without cost or at a lower cost in the
hope that they will buy the product. Samples may be free or discounted.

B. Coupons: Coupons are certificates that give buyers a saving when they
purchase a specified product. Coupons can be mailed, placed in advertisements or
included with other products.

C. Price Packs: Cents-off deals or price packs offer consumers savings by


way of reducing prices that are marked by the producer directly on the package.

D. Premiums: These are the goods offered either free or at a low cost as an
incentive to buy a product. Premiums may be in-pack or on-pack (outside the pack).

E. Prizes: They are offers of chance to win something such as cash, trips or
goods –by luck or through extra efforts. Contests of talent and sweepstakes or draws
the most popular prize offering promotions.

F. Tie-in promotions: involve two or more brands or companies that team


upon coupons, refunds or contests to increase their pulling powers.

G. Cross Promotions: Cross promotions involve using one brand to advertise


non-competing brand.

H. Advertising Specialties: These are useful articles imprinted with an


advertiser’s name, given as gifts to consumers.

I. Patronage Rewards: They are cash or other awards for the regular use of
company’s products or services. They are values (in cash otherwise) that are
proportional to one’s patronage of a certain vendor or a group of vendors. They aim at
building brand loyalty.

J. PoP Promotions: Point of purchase (PoP) includes displays and


demonstrations that take place at the point of purchase or sale.

2. Trade Promotion Tools:

More money is spent by companies on trade promotion (58%) than on


consumer promotions (42%). The major trade promotion tools are as follows:

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A. Discounts: It is also known as price-off or off-invoice or off-list. Discounts
price cut off the list price on a particular quantity purchased during a stated time.•

B. Allowances: They are the amount offered in return for an agreement by the
retailer to feature the manufacturer’s products in some way; displays, advertising or
otherwise.

C. Free Goods: Free goods are the extra merchandise offered to middlemen
who buy a specific amount of a product. Companies also offer push money and
specialty advertising items to the middlemen.

3. Business Promotion Tools:

Companies spend huge amount on promotions focused on industrial consumers. The


major business promotion tools are as follows:

 Trade Shows and Conventions

 Sales Contests

Clearly, sales promotions play an important role in the total promotion mix. To se it
well, the marketer must define the sales promotion objectives, select the best tools,
design the sales promotion program, pretest and implement the program and evaluate
its results.

2.2.5 Types of Sales Promotion :


1. Consumer oriented sales promotions: Targeted to the ultimate users of a
product or service. Coupons, sampling, premiums, rebates, contests,
sweepstakes, and POP materials are induced the sales

2. Trade oriented sales promotions: Targeted toward marketing intermediaries


such as retailers, wholesalers, or distributors. Promotion allowances,
merchandise allowances, price deals, sales contest and trade shows.

2.3 THEORIES OF SALES PROMOTION


“Sales promotion comprises a range of tactical marketing techniques designed
within a strategic marketing framework to add value to a product or service in order to
achieve specific sales and marketing objective.”

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Sales promotion is a technique which has significant potential to improve
short term sales and like direct response work; its effectiveness can be tightly
measured. Although its strategic value is the subject of considerable debate,
nevertheless, it is an important tool of marketing. There are few markets or products
where it cannot be used and few brands to which it cannot be applied.

The traditional business world suggests that there are three different types of
sales promotion techniques: the push, the pull, and the combination.

(i) The push theory of sales promotion techniques supports that you promote
your goods to a retailer, who will then pass the wares along to their consumers. A
“push” promotional strategy makes use of a company's sales force and trade
promotion activities to create consumer demand for a product. The producer promotes
the product to wholesalers, the wholesalers promote it to retailers, and the retailers
promote it to consumers. A good example of "push" selling is mobile phones, where
the major handset manufacturers such as Nokia promote their products via retailers
such as Car phone Warehouse. Personal selling and trade promotions are often the
most effective promotional tools for companies such as Nokia - for example offering
subsidies on the handsets to encourage retailers to sell higher volumes. A "push"
strategy tries to sell directly to the consumer, bypassing other distribution channels
(e.g. selling insurance or holidays directly). With this type of strategy, consumer
promotions and advertising are the most likely promotional tools.

(ii) The pull theory varies by focusing on the consumer himself. Go directly
to the source to introduce your goods, and encourage a direct purchase.

A “pull” selling strategy is one that requires high spending on advertising and
consumer promotion to build up consumer demand for a product. If the strategy is
successful, consumers will ask their retailers for the product, the retailers will ask the
wholesalers, and the wholesalers will ask the producers. A good example of a pull is
the heavy advertising and promotion of children's’ toys – mainly on television.
Consider the recent BBC promotional campaign for its new pre-school programme –
the Fimbles. Aimed at two to four-year-olds, 130 episodes of Fimbles have been made
and are featured everyday on digital children's channel CBeebies and BBC2.As part
of the promotional campaign, the BBC has agreed a deal with toy maker Fisher- Price
to market products based on the show, which it hopes will emulate the popularity of

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the Tweenies. Under the terms of the deal, Fisher-Price will develop, manufacture and
distribute a range of Fimbles products including soft, plastic and electronic learning
toys for the UK and Ireland.

(iii) The combination theory is a slight part of both. You may supply a
retailer with your consumable. He or she will then offer this to a customer with
incentives for shopping with them. This strategy is usually used if the distributor is
hesitant to carry a product, since it gets its required consumers without having to go to
retail outlets. “Car dealers often provide a good example of a combination strategy. If
you pay attention to car dealers’ advertising, you will often hear them speak of cash-
back offers and dealer incentives.”

Because sales promotion is an initiative carried out by an organization to


promote a product to ensure increase in sales so it has varied methods of promotion.
Most of the time, sales promotions are creative and original therefore providing a
comprehensive list of all methods is not possible, however some examples of the
regularly used sales promotions activities are as follows:

 Buy-One-Get-One-Free

 New Media

 Merchandising

 CRM (customer relationship management) • Free gifts

 Discounted prices

 Free samples

 Vouchers & coupons

 Joint promotions

 Competitions and prize draws/Cause-related or fair

 Finance deals

Sales promotion is directed at sales staff, customers and distribution channel


members which may include wholesalers, retailers etc. When targeted at consumers it
is called consumer sales promotion, when it is targeted at wholesalers and retailers it

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is called trade sales promotions. However by many it is considered as ‘gimmick’
because of the unusual methods some marketers use for sales promotion.

All of these sales promotion strategies can be victorious. Your business may
choose to use one or all of them when trading your products. When working to
implement your technique, you may also want to utilize some other methods. Allow
people to try samples of your goods. Engage the free advertising of in-store
demonstrations and exhibitions. All of these can be wonderful sales advancement
strategies for your business.

2.4 SALES PROMOTION METHODOLOGY


Sales promotion is giving the customer something extra, rewarding them for
their behavior on this particular purchasing occasion. There are several theories which
support the concept of reward as a motivator. The conditions of sales promotion are
classical and operant conditioning. Whereas classical conditioning is largely
associated with advertising operant conditioning is seen as an explanation for
consumer behaviour in relation to sales promotion. Operant conditioning suggests the
response of the individual is likely to be affected by positive reinforcement (reward)
or negative reinforcement (punishment), although the affect is likely to cease when
these reinforcements are taken away. Edward Thorndike suggested that the ‘law of
effect’, which had to do with positive and negative consequences of actions, is also
relevant to sales promotion. The law states that the consequences of behavior now
will govern the consequences of that behavior in the future. In other words once a
buying pattern is achieved it will continue into the future. John Watson, US
psychologist and founding father of American behaviorism, introduced the concept of
Shaping, chaining, and priming.

Shaping: John Watson states shaping suggests that a final response can be
explained as ‘appearing after preceding acts which; taken together, constitute a chain
of successive approximations’. Shaping breaks the desired behaviours in a series of
stages and the parts are learnt in sequence.

Chaining: Chaining suggests behavior emerges from sequences of actions in


which the preceding action becomes the discriminative stimulus for the final response
(inducement > purchase).

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Priming: De Pelsmacker states, priming suggests that a short exposure to a

particular stimulus can evoke an increased drive to consume more of a product. So

this all theories offer reasons why we can motivate people to buy more by offering

incentives although the continuation of these behaviuor is open to doubt.

2.5 ADVERTISING
Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of
ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor. It is paid communication because
the advertiser has to pay for the space or time in which his advertisement appears.

Advertisers include business firms but also museums, charitable organizations,


and government agencies that advertise to various target publics. Advertisements are a
cost effective way to disseminate messages, whether to build brand preference or to
educate a nation’s people.

Organizations handle their advertising in different ways. In small companies,


someone handles advertising in the sales or marketing departments, who works with
an advertising agency. A large company will often set up its own advertising
department, whose manager reports to the Vice President of marketing. The
advertising department’s job is to develop the total budget, and handle direct-mail
advertising, dealer displays and other forms of advertising not ordinarily performed
by the agency. Most companies use an outside advertising agency to help them create
advertising campaigns and to select and purchase media. Global companies that use a
large number of ad agencies located in different countries and serving different
divisions have suffered from uncoordinated advertising and image diffusion.
Advertising agencies need to redefine themselves as communication companies and
assist clients in improving their overall communication effectiveness.

2.5.1 Importance of Advertising

 To create widespread visibility in the market and access those pockets which
are not approachable by the sales force. Quoting a customer, “Make the
customers come to you rather than trying to approach all the potential
customers.”

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 As a symbol of sound financial position of the company and also to make the
statement that the company is here to stay!

 To aid in easy brand recall and also create a top of mind awareness of the
brand.

 To make maximum potential customers aware of the new offerings and


schemes of the company and initiate enquiries about the same.

 To establish a strong brand image in the market so as to give the company an


edge over its competitors.

2.5.2 Five M’s of Advertising :


1. Mission: What are the advertising objectives?

2. Money: How much can be spent?

3. Message: What message should be sent?

4. Media: What media should be used?

5. Measurement: How should the results be evaluated?

2.5.3 Strengths and weakness of Advertising as a promotional tool

Strengths :

 It offers planned and controlled message.

 It can contact and influence numerous people simultaneously, quickly, and at a


low cost per prospect. Hence, it is called Mass Means of Communication.

 It has the ability to deliver messages to audiences with particular demographic


and socio-economic features.

 It can deliver the same message consistently in a variety of contexts.

 It can reach prospects that cannot be approached by sales man.

 It helps to pre-sell goods and pull the buyers to retailers.

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 It offers a wide choice of channels for transmission of messages such as visual
(by sights), aural, (by ear) aural and visual.

 It is very useful to create maximum interest and offer adequate knowledge of


the new product when the innovation is being introduced in the market

Weakness :
 It is much less effective than personal selling and sales promotion at later
stages in the buying process, e.g.: in convincing and securing action.

 It is less flexible than personal communication. It cannot answer objections


raised by prospects.

 It is essentially one-way means of communication. It cannot obtain quick and


accurate feedback in order to evaluate message effectiveness.

 It is most efficient communication (very low cost per prospect) but it is least
effective as a tool of a communication.

 It is unable to reach prospects when they are in a buying mood. Hence


advertisements have to be repeated and repetition involves additional cost.

 Advertising, many a time lacks credibility and trustworthiness.

Communication goals of Advertising:

Advertising should concentrate on clear and measurable communication


objectives known as DAGMAR (Defining Advertising Goals, Measuring Advertising
Results). Advertising objectives must be oriented around the process of
communication.

Communication tasks are:

1. Developing brand awareness.

2. Changing consumer attitudes.

3. Associating desirable themes with products, and

4. Informing consumers about product attributes.

The ultimate purpose of most advertising is to help the probability of the sale of the
product or a service. Advertising as a mode of promotion increases propensity to
purchase-moving the prospect steadily, inch-by-inch, closer to a purchase decision. Of

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course, advertising is only one of several communication forces. It moves the
consumer through successive levels such as unawareness, awareness, comprehension
or recognition, conviction (intention to buy) and action purchase.

Advertising goals may be divided into four stages of commercial


communication as follows:

Awareness: the prospects must become aware of the existence of the brand or
company. Awareness is the bare minimum goal of advertising.

Comprehension: the prospect must understand what the product is and what it will
do for him. Comprehension level indicates that people are not only aware of the brand
or company that they know the brand name and can recognize the package or trade
market. But they are not yet convinced that they must want to buy.

Conviction: the prospect must be mentally convinced to buy the brand or the product.
The conviction level shows brand preference and intention to buy the product in the
near future.

Action: the prospect takes meaningful action. Purchase decision is duly taken.

Choosing among major media types:

The media planner has to know the capacity of the major media types to deliver reach,
frequency, and impact. Media planners make their choice among media categories by
considering the following variables:

Target-Audience Media habits: for example radio and television are the most
effective media for reaching teenagers.

Product Characteristics: Media types have different potentials for demonstration,


visualization, explanation, believability and color. Women’s dresses are best shown in
color magazines, and Polaroid cameras are best demonstrated on television.

Message characteristics: timeliness and information content will influence media


choice. A message announcing a major sale tomorrow will require specialized
magazines or mailings.

Cost: Television: is very expensive, whereas newspaper advertising is relatively


inexpensive. What counts is the cost-per-thousand exposures.

2.5.4 Essentials of good Advertisement :

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A good advertisement must have the right message communicated through a
right media. It must reach the right people and prospects and that too at a right time
and at the right cost. Right timing of an advertisement needs no emphasis. It should
fulfill its sole purpose, viz., gain sale or action from the prospects and the cost of
communication should be reasonable.

The task assigned to the advertisement can be successfully fulfilled when:

 It is seen by the desired prospects.

 It is read by them with interest.

 It is properly understood by them exactly as the advertiser wants.

 It is believed by them and it wins their confidence and trust and above all it
succeeds in igniting their desire to purchase the product or service offered or
sale.

Effective advertisements take the prospect near about the point of closing the sale
so that actual sale may be easily completed by the sales force. Each advertisement
must be a unique selling proposition, invoking maximum force of persuasion to
convert a prospect into a customer.

Creating Advertisements That Attracts Attention

The attention filter operates at various levels of effort and consciousness. At


one extreme is the process of active search wherein a receiver actually seeks
information. He or she might solicit opinions of friends or search through magazines
not normally read. Another level could be termed passive search. A receiver searches
for information only from sources to which he or she is exposed during the normal
course of events. The final level might be called passive attention. Here a receiver has
little immediate need for the information and makes no conscious effort to obtain it,
but some information may nevertheless enter the system. At all three levels, it is
appropriate to discuss why a person obtains information so that ads can be designed to
maximize attention. There are, of course, as many reasons as there are situations and
individuals. However, it is instructive to examine four general motives for attending
to informative stimuli.

A first motive is to obtain information that will have a high level of utility for
a person. In an advertising context, an individual will obtain product information that

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will help make better purchase decisions. Second, people may be motivated to expose
themselves to information that supports their opinions- supportive exposure-and to
avoid discrepant information. Third, there is a desire to be exposed to information that
stimulates. Finally, people are motivated to find stimuli that are interesting to them.
These motives will be examined in turn.

2.5.5 Advertising Strategies :

Strategy provides the link between advertising objectives and plans and paves
the ground for their implementation. It can be instrumental in prioritizing various
objectives, taking into account the attitudinal framework as well as corporate and
marketing goals, and the market situations and characteristics.

Advertising strategy is based on consideration such as the following:

 Advertising objectives.

 Advertising budgets.

 Selection of target audiences.

 Advertising message.

 Media decision.

 Media space decisions.

 Company’s standing and it s strength and weaknesses.

 Product history and its life cycle stage.

 Positioning of the product as indicated by perceptual mapping.

 Existing and anticipated competition.

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CHAPTER-III

INDUSTRY PROFILE

AND

COMPANY PROFILE

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INDUSTRY PROFILE

The company's international blitz began in 1926 when company President Robert
Woodruff signed Coca-Cola as a sponsor of the 1928 Olympic Summer Games in
Amsterdam. The U.S. Olympic Team and 1,000 cases of Coca-Cola arrived at the
games by freighter. Since then, the relationship between the Olympic Games and
Coca-Cola has only grown!

Many Coca-Cola divisions around the world sponsor individual athletes or teams as
well.

 1928 was also the first year the Olympic flame was lit, and women were
invited to compete.

 1952 -- The Summer Games in Helsinki - Coca-Cola shipped 300,000 cases of


bottles and donated it for sale by the Disabled Ex-servicemen's Association.

 1952 -- The Winter Games in Oslo - The local Coca-Cola bottler chartered a
helicopter for advertising. In 1952 most people had never seen anything like a
helicopter and they were utterly fascinated. At the close of the games, the
helicopter was given to the city to help direct traffic.

 1960 -- The Summer Games in Rome - Italian bottlers welcomed athletes,


officials and spectators to Rome with a 45 rpm record of "Arrivederci Roma."

 1964 -- The Summer Games in Tokyo - This marked the first year Coca-Cola
aided the athletes, spectators and media with guide maps, sightseeing
information and a phrase book. The idea was so popular, it was adapted for
use in Mexico City, Sapporo (Japan) and Munich.

 1979 -- The Coca-Cola company worked with the Olympic Committee to


create the U.S. Olympic Hall of fame.

 1988 -- The Winter Games in Calgary - Coca-Cola orchestrated a world


children's chorus. Also, Coca-Cola opened the venue for what would later be
deemed the games number-one spectator sport -- The Coca-Cola Official
Olympic Pin Trading Center.

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 1996 -- The Summer Games in Atlanta - The Games' centennial, as sole
sponsor of the Olympic Torch Relay, Coca-Cola brought the flame to more
than 350 cities and towns during the 94-day run.
You may know someone who got to run with the flame! I was fortunate enough
to watch the flame's progress through Clark County, Indiana into Louisville,
Kentucky. I even got my picture taken with one of the runners, as I held the
torch!! AND I was there as the flame entered our nation's capital, Washington,
D.C. through Fairfax County, Virginia!

Olympic Commemorative Cans

1928 1948 1964 1992 1996

Amsterdam London Tokyo Barcelona Atlanta

MODERN TRADE

Modern Trade is the process of doing business by utilizing and implementing latest
trends in the business with the help of technology to reach the target customer.Now a
day’s each and every one in the market is implementing these practices and having
successful business.Modern format retail is witnessing phenomenal growth, driven by
the impact of increasing urbanization, the new well-traveled, knowledgeable Indian
consumer and a youth-driven culture. In its official estimate for the current fiscal
ending in March, the government said that the economy, Asia's fourth largest, was
expected to grow at 9.2 per cent. All these factors are rapidly changing the needs and
aspirations of consumers. Schedules are also getting tighter, with the time for
professional commitments and regular chores getting limited. Hence, the
"convenience" factor has a major influence on purchase decisions. Modern trade, the
characteristic of which is having everything under one roof and with a great array of

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products displayed in an uncluttered fashion where the touch and feel factor prevails,
is providing an environment to access products driven by convenience and fashion.

Evolution of Modern Trade

When we discuss modern trade, the terms large-scale; modern-format and


organized are used rather synonymously in India. However, the three terms
need not necessarily mean the same thing. Large-scale refers to the scale of
operation of retail business - which in turn implicitly refers to a chain of stores.
Modern-format basically refers to self-service. However, many of the self-
service stores which call themselves ‘Supermarkets’, are in the range of 500
sq.ft. or less in size and are nothing more than independent mom-and-pop
stores. And organized retail typically means large-scale chain stores which are
corporatized, apply modern-management techniques and are very likely to be
self-service in nature. Most of the estimates of organized retail market size
refer to only large-scale retail. For us modern-retail in this paper means self-
service in both large-scale as well as small-scale. Contrary to the popular view
where-in all credit for growth of modern retail goes to the consumer and their
increasing purchasing power, it is found that consumer’s manufacturers and
retailers – all three – have been impacting the evolution process.

MODERN TRADE IN INDIA

Indiaonce again topped the world in the ACNielsen Consumer Confidence Index for
the third time in a row since the index was established in early 2005, with the highest
score of 181 in the last leg of the survey, conducted in November 2009.Strong
economic growth has brought with it new sets of Indian consumers. The booming
young adult population with unprecedented levels of disposable income is more
conscious of the latest trends and fashion. Enhanced media penetration and greater
connectivity also are making consumers more knowledgeable and discerning.Modern
trade is an old saga in India with about 7.8 million retail stores, but most of those are
traditional ones, which only recently started making way for hypermarkets,
supermarkets and specialty stores. Modern trade in India is witnessing tremendous
growth, especially in Tier I cities

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It accounts for 4 per cent of urban FMCG sales but for the top 15 metros it is about
10.7 per cent of the total FMCG sales. For South Indian metros it touches about 19
per cent, because modern trade started there a little earlier. There are more than 3,840
modern trade stores in India now.

IMPACT OF MODERN TRADE ON FMCG

Looking at the kind of consumer patronage a modern trade format store has in terms
of an urban population growing rich, there are a few segments in the FMCG range of
products that have experienced good growth from the modern trade format. In the
food segment, processed food products (23 per cent), impulse food products (32 per
cent) and packaged grocery (38 per cent) are the segments that have witnessed
immense growth from urban Indian modern stores. Similarly, in the home and
personal care segments it is household cleaning products (38.1 per cent), fabric care
(23 per cent) and categories related to grooming, viz. hair care (28.3 per cent),
fragrances (26 per cent) and skin/body care (23 per cent) that have recorded
considerable growth from urban modern format stores. An increasing number of
working women and nuclear families are some reasons behind the growth in the food
categories. Packaged grocery is a very convenient product for people who are busy
and hence we see it doing so well. Again the young adult population of India is
ambitious and hardworking, and has the money to spend on lifestyle. They are brand-
conscious and aware of what their counterparts in the West are wearing and buying.
No wonder products related to grooming like like skin care, hair care, and fragrances,
or, for that matter, products like household cleaners are witnessing growth. These
consumers represent the target for manufacturers and retailers, who want to capture a
share of the booming consumer markets in India. Manufacturers, on their part, are
investing aggressively to capture the minds of today's and tomorrow's generations.
With more modern format stores setting up shop in the country we are also witnessing
an expansion in these segments in terms of availability of innovative packaging sizes,
product innovation and overall ranges. Modern trade and food as a category: Food
accounts for about 48 per cent of FMCG sales in the country and for modern trade the
number is even higher, at 51.3 per cent. Like other Asia-Pacific markets, in India too,
among the processed food segments, the breakfast cereals category is exhibiting a
stupendous 40 per cent growth rate. Other growing categories are biscuits (26 per

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cent), vermicelli & noodles (28 per cent), beverages (24 per cent) and ketchup and
sauce (29 per cent). Indians have an old fascination for home-cooked food, especially
when it comes to lunch and dinner. With the changed lifestyle, the trend is changing
and people have started showing interest in ready-to-cook foods. However, even
today a majority of these consumers are willing to restrict the experiment to packaged
foods and accompaniments meant for breakfast and snack time.

Chocolates (28 per cent) and namkeens (37 per cent) are two major categories of
impulse food products showing good growth, along with packaged rice (92 per cent)
in the packaged grocery segment. Modern trade and home and personal care products
(H&PC): As far as H&PC is concerned, from modern trade it has witnessed a growth
rate of about 23 per cent, which is at par with the overall growth. Modern trade brings
with it a great shopping experience, with good product displays, making selection far
easier. Under household cleaners it is floor cleaners (88 per cent) and toilet cleaners
(37 per cent) that are growing well; in hair care, it is hair conditioners (43 per cent)
and hair oil (35 per cent), and for the skin care segment, it is skin creams (35 per cent)
that are driving the H&PC sales in modern stores. With the overall economy doing
well and basic necessities mostly taken care of, people are now keener to look and
feel good and are ready to devote time and money on that. Unlike in the past, when
there was one product used for all household cleaning, people now are willing to
experiment with specific products meant for cleaning glasses, utensils, floors,
etc.THE emergence of modern trade (or organized retail) is currently the biggest
challenge facing FMCG manufacturers, who could see increasing pressure on sales
margins as a result. Citing as an example the situation in the US where retailer Wal-
Mart is much bigger than any of the FMCG companies, he said such a scale would
give modern trade the power to negotiate. "Today, I give 13 per cent (margin).
Modern trade won't settle for anything less than 20 per cent," he said, addressing
students of the ICFAIBusinessSchool as part of a BL Club lecture.

22
INTRODUCTION FOR COCA COLA COMPANY
You may know The Coca-Cola Company.as the largest beverage company with the
most extensive distribution system in the world. You may know us simply as Coca-
Cola--the world's most valuable brand and a global icon.

The Coca-Cola Company is the world’s leading manufacturer, marketer, and


distributor of nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups. Its world headquarters
is based in Atlanta, Georgia. The company and its subsidiaries employ nearly 31,000
people around the world. The Coca-Cola Company manufactures syrups, concentrates
and beverage bases for Coca-Cola, the company’s flagship brand, and also produces
over 230 other soft-drink brands sold by and its subsidiaries in nearly 200 countries
around the world. Some of Coca-Cola’s latest domestic marketing strategies include
Coke dominating fountain sales. Thousands of consumers visit fast-food restaurants
every day and Coke feels that it is very important to have the consumer see and drink
their product at such chains as McDonalds, Burger King, and Domino’s Pizza. Coca-
Cola is also testing a new plastic cup in the famous Coca-Cola.

Let us introduce you to The Coca-Cola Company you may not know.

The Coca-Cola system's customers are the grocers, retailers, street vendors and store
owners who sell our products to our consumers. We have millions of these partners in
the more than 200 countries where we operate.

The Coca-Cola Company was first established in 1886 by Dr John Styth Pemberton.
Today, the company is the world's leading manufacturer in the beverage industry,
operating globally in more than 200 countries with its head office located in Atlanta,
USA. It produces more than 300 beverage brands and over 1.06 billion drinks are
consumed per day around the world.

Mission Statement

The Coca-Cola Company's mission statement is:

'Remind Coca-Cola is the real thing' but their motto now has changed to 'To benefit
and refresh everyone who is touched by our business.'

23
Also Coca-Cola would hope to provide the best quality drink for everyone, all the
employees working for them being at their top and fullest. Approximately 50 billion
times a day, someone drinks a beverage. Our beverages are enjoyed more than 1.3
billion of those times. That means there are over 48 billion beverage choices to
capture. We built on our formidable assets: our brands, financial strength, unrivaled
distribution system and our people. And we have made progress toward sustainable
growth. We sharpened our focus on what the world wants to drink and why, and we
continued our efforts with local leaders to support communities around the world. We
have a lot of good news to share, and we're just getting started. The Coca-Cola
Company manufactures, distributes, and markets nonalcoholic beverage concentrates
and syrups worldwide. It principally offers sparkling and still beverages. The
company’s sparkling beverages include nonalcoholic ready-to-drink beverages with
carbonation, such as energy drinks, and carbonated waters and flavored waters. It’s
still beverages consist of nonalcoholic beverages without carbonation, including non-
carbonated waters, flavored waters and enhanced waters, juices and juice drinks, teas,
coffees, and sports drinks. The Coca-Cola Company also offers fountain syrups,
syrups, and concentrates, such as flavoring ingredients and Sweeteners. The Company
markets its nonalcoholic beverages under the Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta, and Sprite
brand names. The Coca-Cola Company also owns mineral water brands Kildevaeld
and Kurvand in Denmark and soft drink brand Hyvaa Paivaa in Finland. It sells its
finished beverage products primarily to distributors, and beverage concentrates and
syrups to bottling and canning operators, distributors, fountain wholesalers, and
fountain retailers. The company was founded in 1886 and is headquartered in Atlanta,
Georgia.

The Coca-Cola Company's products include beverage concentrates and syrups, with
the main product being finished beverages. The business has over 300 brands of
beverages around the world with the main ones being Coke, Fanta, Lift, Sprite,
Frutopia 100% Fruit Juice, and PowerAde.

The Coca-Cola Company packages its beverages into plastic bottles of sizes 2 liters,
1.25 liters, 600mL and 300mL. These are also available in aluminum cans of
375mL.Coca-Cola is the most well-known trademark, recognized by 94 per cent of
the world's population. The business is very successful and holds a very good

24
reputation. The Coca-Cola Company uses marketing strategies to differentiate its
product from its competitors to gain a competitive advantage. These are listed in the
table below.

The Coca-Cola Company.


In 1886, we introduced Coca-Cola to Atlanta, Georgia. One product, a simple
moment of refreshment. In 120 years, a lot has changed. We now have more than 400
brands in over 200 countries.

The real story of The Coca-Cola Company lies in what we're doing today to build a
sustainable-growth business for tomorrow.

What does sustainable growth look like to us? In 2005, we mapped a long-term plan
for our business, Our Manifesto for Growth. It includes working closely with our
bottling partners in the following key areas:

People: We want to be a great place to work, where people are inspired to be the best
they can be.

Portfolio: We bring to the world beverage brands that anticipate and satisfy people's
desires and needs.

Profit: We strive to provide maximum return to our shareowners while being mindful
of our overall responsibilities.

Partners: We actively nurture a winning network of partners and build mutual loyalty.

Planet: We act as a responsible global citizen who makes a difference.

Sustainable growth means meeting our short-term commitments while investing to


meet our long-term goals. We are beginning to see results.

On the pages that follow, we'll discuss how our plan is changing the way we think and
the way we operate, and you'll see evidence of the progress we're

The Coca-Cola Company brands include:

25
 Barq's
 Coca-Cola
 Coke Zero
 Dasani water
 Diet Coke
 Glacéau
 Fanta
 Fresca
 Full Throttle
 Fuze
 Hi-C
 Kinley
 Lift
 Lilt
 Mello Yello
 Minute Maid
 Monster Energy distributed by Coca-Cola, made by Hansen Natural
 Oasis
 Odwalla
 Powerade
 Pibb
 Relentless
 Sprite
 Tab
 Thums Up
 Urge
 Vault

1886 - Drink

26
Slogans from the 1900's

 1904 - Delicious and Refreshing

 1905 - Wherever you go ... you will find

 1905 - Revives and Sustains


 1906 - The drink of quality. The Great National Temperance

 1907 - is full of vim, vigor and go


 1908 - Get the genuine

 1909 - Whenever you see an arrow, think of


 1911 - Enjoy a glass of liquid laughter
 1917 - Three Million A Day

Slogans from the 1920's

 1920 - Drink with soda, The hit


that saves the day
 1922 - Thirst knows no season
 1923 - Refresh yourself, There's nothing like it when you're thirsty

 1924 - Pause and refresh yourself

 1925 - Six Million A Day


 1926 - Stop at the red sign
 1927 - Around the corner from anywhere, at the little red sign
 1928 - A pure drink of natural flavors
 1929 - The pause that refreshes

Slogans from the 1930's

 1930 - Meet me at the soda fountain


 1932 - The drink that makes the pause
refreshing

27
 1933 - Don't wear a tired, thirsty face

 1934 - When it's hard to get started, start with a

 1935 - All trails lead to ice-cold


 1936 - Get the feel of wholesome refreshment
 1937 - Stop for a pause...go refreshed
 1938 - Anytime is the right time to pause and refresh, Pure as sunlight
 1939 - Thirst stops here. Makes travel more pleasant.

Slogans from the 1940's

 1940 - The package that gets a welcome at home


 1941 - A stop that belongs on your daily timetable

 1942 - The only thing like is itself


 1943 - A taste all its own
 1944 - High sign of friendship

 1945 - Coke means


 1947 - Relax with the pause that refreshes

 1948 - Where there's there's Hospitality


 1949 -Along the highway to anywhere

Slogans from the 1950's

 1950 - Help yourself to refreshment

 1951 - Good food and just naturally go together


 1952 - Coke follows thirst everywhere
 1953 - Dependable as sunrise
 1954 - For people on the go
 1955 - Americas preferred taste
 1956 - Feel the difference, Makes good things taste better
 1957 - Sign of good taste
 1958 - Refreshment the whole world prefers
 1959 - Make it a real meal

28
Slogans from the 1960's

 1960 - Relax with a Coke, Revive with a Coke


 1961 - Coke and food
 1962 - Enjoy that refreshing new feeling
 1963 - Things go better with Coke
 1964 - You'll go better refreshed
 1965 - Something more than a soft drink
 1966 - Coke...after Coke...after Coke

Coca-Cola Jingles
These Jingles are taken from '60s radio air checks.

Slogans From the 1970's

 1970 - It's the real thing


 1971 - I'd like to buy the world a Coke
 1972 - Coke . . . goes with the good times
 1975 - Look up America, see what we've got
 1976 - Coke adds life

Slogans From the 1980's

 1980 - Have a Coke and a smile


 1982 - Coke is it

 1985 - We've got a taste for you. America's real choice


Classic!
 1986 - Catch the Wave. Red, white and you!
 1988 - Can't beat the feeling
 1989 - Official Soft Drink of Summer

29
Slogans From the 1990's

Ads of company

HISTORY OF COCA COLA

A pharmacist named Dr. John Stith Pemberton invented the refreshing taste of Coca-
Cola in 1886. Concocted by a mixture of caramel-colored syrup in a three-legged
brass kettle while in his backyard. He then decided to try to “market” the drink at
Jacobs’ Pharmacy in his hometown of Atlanta, Georgia. For five-cents, customers
were able to enjoy a glass from the soda fountain. An average of nine drinks were
sold a day. In 1891 Dr. John Stith Pemberton sold Coca-Cola for 2,300 to an
entrepreneur named Asa G. Candler. Within the next four years Coca-Cola was
distributed throughout the whole nation. 1893 the Cola-cola trademark and script were
patented. The “two C’s were though to look well for advertising”. In 1899 large-scale
bottling becomes possible when Asa Candler grants Joseph B. Whitehead and
Benjamin F. Thomas exclusive rights for one dollar. But in 1919 Coca-Cola was sold
for $25million to a banker in Atlanta name Ernest Woodruff and a group of investors.
That same year, Coca-Cola sold its first share of stock for forty dollars a share.
Assuming all dividends were reinvested, those original shares would have been worth
approximately $6.7 million at the end of the year. Coca-Cola (Coke), the world’s
largest carbonated soft drink (CSD) manufacturer had built its brand over the years
through consistent and effective advertising campaigns making history over the years.
In the recent times the company had suffered serious setbacks with a number of
controversial and negative allegations leveled against it. Coke was increasingly being
associated with health hazards and was under threat in many of its key markets.
Consumption of CSD, which was its core business, had decreased and sales fell in
Western Europe, Philippines and India. Active anti-Coke movements had triggered
severe criticism from many segments of society including students, environmentalists,

30
Labor-rights activists, employees and shareholders. In 2004, Neville Isdell, Coke
Chairman and CEO devised a plan to revive Coke. Called the ‘Manifesto for Growth’,
the plan included several strategic initiatives including innovation, increasing
marketing investment and introducing new products in the non Carbonated Soft Drink
market. As part of the plan to revive the Coke brand, ‘The Coke side of life’, a new
global marketing platform was launched in December 2005. The company believed
that this global campaign would return the company to its former glory. Marketing
experts were however skeptical about this. They wondered if the new marketing
campaign would help offset the myriad charges that beset Coke and help to revive the
brand.The case enables students to appreciate the advertising campaigns that helped
build the Coca-Cola Company into a strong brand. It also enables discussion on the
new campaign launched by Coke and its effectiveness in overcoming its problems.

One great earmark that the Coca-Cola Company has is helping the people of
Atlanta. They accomplish this through scholarships, hotlines, donations and
contributions. Another large accomplishment that the Coca-Cola has, is being the
first company to make and use recycled plastic bottles. One way to see all of the
achievements of the Coca-Cola company is to visit the World of Coke in Atlanta. It
houses a collection of memorabilia, samples of the products, exhibits, and many other
exciting items. All of what has been said is the basis of what Coca-Cola was built on.
Without societies help, Coca-Cola could not have become over a 50 billion dollar
business. Keep on consuming the world's favorite soft drink, Coca-Cola.

Until the 1960s, both small town and big city dwellers enjoyed carbonated beverages
at the local soda fountain or ice cream saloon. Often housed in the drug store, the soda
fountain counter served as a meeting place for people of all ages. Often combined
with lunch counters, the soda fountain declined in popularity as commercial ice
cream, bottled soft drinks, and fast food restaurants came to the fore.

 The term "soda water" was first coined in 1798.


 In 1810, the first U.S. patent was issued for the manufacture of imitation
mineral waters.

 The first soda fountain patent was granted to Samuel Fahnestock in 1819.

31
 In 1858, G.D. Dows invented and operated the first marble soda fountain,
which he patented in 1863.
 In 1883, James W. Tufts patented a soda fountain, which he called the Arctic.
Tufts went on to become a huge soda fountain manufacturer.
 On January 25, 1870, Gustavus Dows patented a modern form of the soda
fountain.
 In October of 1874, Robert M. Green created the first ice cream soda.
 In 1903, a revolution in soda fountain design took place with the front service
fountain patented by Dr. Heisinger.

More fun facts and trivia


 Coca-Cola can be used to bake a ham. Pour one can into the baking pan,
rap the ham in aluminum foil, and bake. Thirty minutes before the ham has
finished cooking, remove the foil, allowing the drippings to mix with the
Coca-Cola to make a delicious brown gravy.
 Mexico and Iceland have the highest per capita consumption of Coca-Cola.
 Coca-Cola translated to Chinese means, "To make mouth happy".
 Every second over 7,000 Coca-Cola products are consumed.
 The tallest Coca-Cola bottling plants are in Hong Kong. The plant in
QuarryBay is 17 floors, and the plant in Shatin is 25 floors.
 The bottling plant at the highest elevation in the world is located in Bolivia, at
12,000 feet.
 The world's longest Coca-Cola truck is in Sweden. It is 79 feet long with a
four-azle trailer.
 The best selling non-carbonated soft drink in Japan is a product of The Coca-
Cola Company named "Georgia", a coffee flavored beverage.
 Coca-Cola first crossed the Atlantic on board the Graf Zeppelin, the German
dirigible.
 The Varsity Restaurant in Atlanta, Georgia, has earned the distinction of
serving the highest volume of Coca-Cola anywhere. It dispenses nearly 3
million servings of Coca-Cola annually.

32
 If the Coca-Cola company constructed a sign like the ones McDonald's uses
to count their millions of customers, by 1983 it would have read "over 1
trillion served."
 If all the Coca-Cola ...
o ever produced were in 6 1/2 oz. bottles and placed end to end
they would wrap around the earth more than 11,863 times.
o sold in 1994 were in 8-ounce bottles laid end-to-end, those
bottles would reach to the moon and back 76 times.
o vending machines in the U.S. were stacked one on top of each
other, the pile would be over 450 miles high.
o ever produced were to erupt from "Old Faithful" at its normal
rate of 14,000 gallons per hour, the geyser would flow
continually for 1,577 years.
o Products sold in 1994 were flowing over Niagara Falls at its
normal rate of 1.5 billion gallons per second, the falls would
flow for three hours.
Ingredients of Coke

 Carbonated Water
 High Fructose Corn Syrup
 Caramel Color
 Phosphoric Acid
 Natural Flavors
 Caffeine

Description:
This company profile offers a comprehensive analysis of the organization, its
business segments, and competitors. It analyzes the business and marketing strategies
adopted by the company, toga in a competitive edge in the industry. The profile also
evaluates the strengths of the company and the opportunities present in the market.
This profile is of immense help to management consultants, analysts, market research
Organizations and corporate advisors.
The objective and scope of various sections of our company profile has been
discussed below.

33
Company Summary
This section presents the key facts & figures, business description, products &
services offered and Corporate timeline of the company.
Company Analysis
It involves analysis of the company at three levels - segments, organizational structure
and ownership composition. Both business and geographic segments are analyzed
along with their recent financial performance. It further discusses the major
subsidiaries of the company and the recent merger & acquisitions.

Business Developments
This section examines the significant developments that have taken place in the
company. It is form of news analysis where the most critical company news is
discussed.
Discussion of Business Strategies
This section talks about the current and future strategies of the company. All business,
marketing, financial and organizational strategies are discussed here.
SWOT Our SWOT Analysis is a valuable step in assessing your company’s strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. It offers powerful insight into the critical
issues affecting a business.
Financial Performance
It discusses the most recent financials of the company and also compares the
historical sales & income figures with the current and projected figures. The objective
is to evaluate the financial health of the company. The analyst opinion and stock
performance help us in evaluating the performance of the company from an investor’s
viewpoint.
Competition Synopsis
This section compares the company with its peer group. The comparable analysis and
stock movement are aimed at giving an overview of the competitive landscape in the
industry and the company’s positioning in its peer group.

Analysis Soft Drink


1 Analysis of the U.S. soft drink industry, based on the competitive forces model of
Michael Porter.

34
In the soft drink industry the entry of new competitors depends on the barriers to entry
that are present, and also the reaction from existing competitors that the entrant can
expect.

35
CHAPTER IV
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS

36
This chapter presents main analysis of data collected through questionnaire
from sample size of 50 respondents. This analysis is done with the help of tables and
graphs.

4.1 Gender Distribution

Table no 4.1
Gender Distribution
Options No. of respondents Percentage
Male 20 40
Female 30 60
Total 50 100
Source: Survey

Figure no 4.1
Gender Distribution

0% 0%

40%
Male

Female
60%

Interpretation
The above table reveals that 60% of the sample respondents are female and
40% of the respondents are male.

It can be concluded that most of the sample respondents are female.

37
4.2 Age Distribution
Table no 4.2
Age Distribution

Options No. of respondents Percentage


Below 25 years 17 34
25 to 35 years 21 42
35 to 40 years 7 14
40 above 5 10
Total 50 100
Source: Survey
Figure no 4.2
Age Distribution

10%
Below 25 years
14% 34%
25 to 35 years
35 to 40 years
40 above

42%

Interpretation
The above table reveals that 42% of the sample respondent are in the age group
of 25 to 35 years, 34% of the sample respondents are in the age group of below 25
years, 14% of the sample respondents are in the age group of 35 to 40 years and 10%
of the sample respondents are on the age group of above 40 years.

Hence it can be concluded that most of the sample respondents are in the age
group of 25 to 35 years.

38
4.3 Distribution of qualification
Table no 4.3
Distribution of qualification
Options No. of respondents Percentage
Under graduation 12 24
Graduation 15 30
Post graduation 18 36
Other specify 5 10
Total 50 100
Source: survey
Figure no 4.3
Distribution of qualification

10%
24% Under graduation
Graduation
Post graduation
36%
Other specify
30%

Interpretation

The above table reveals that 36% of the respondents are the post graduates,
30% of the sample respondents are the graduates, 24% of the sample respondents are
the under graduates and 10% of the sample respondents are from others.

It can be concluded that maximum of the respondents are post graduates.

39
4.4 Distribution of occupation
Table no 4.4
Distribution of occupation
Options No. of respondents Percentage
Govt Employee 4 8
Pvt Employee 13 26
Businessman 4 8
Student 11 22
Other Specify 18 36
Total 50 100
Source: survey
Figure no 4.4
Distribution of occupation

8%

Govt Employee
36%
26% Pvt Employee
Businessman
Student
8% Other Specify
22%

Interpretation
The above table reveals that 36% of the sample respondents are from
other specify, 26% of the sample respondents are private employees, 22% of the
sample respondents are students and 8% of the sample respondents are govt
employees and businessman’s.

It can be concluded that maximum of the sample respondents are other


specify.
40
4.5 Income Distribution
Table no 4.5
Income Distribution
Options No. of respondents Percentage
Less than Rs.20,000 18 36
Rs.20,000-Rs.40,000 15 30
Above Rs.40,000 4 8
Others 13 26
Total 50 100
Source: survey
Figure no 4.5
Income Distribution

0%

26%
36%
Less than Rs.20,000
Rs.20,000-Rs.40,000
8% Above Rs.40,000
Others

30%

Interpretation
The above table shows that 36% of the sample respondents are having
income of rupees less than 20,000, 30% of the sample respondents are having income
of rupees 20,000 to 40,000, 26% of the sample respondents are not having any income
and 8% of the sample respondents are having income rupees above 40,000.

It can be concluded that maximum of the sample respondents are having of


less than rupees 20,000.

41
4.6 Did you ever have COCA COLA ltd soft drink
Table no 4.6
Did you ever have COCA COLA ltd soft drink

Options No. of respondents Percentage


Yes 50 100
No 0 0
Total 50 100
Source: survey

Figure no 4.6
Did you ever have COCA COLA ltdsoft drink

Yes

No

Interpretation

The above table reveals that 100% of the sample respondents are said that
they have COCA COLA ltdsoft drink .

It can be concluded that all the sample respondents are have COCA COLA
ltdsoft drink.

42
4.7 Awareness of Brand
Table no 4.7
Awareness of Brand
Options No. of respondents Percentage
Exhibition Stalls 7 14
Friends& Relatives 35 70
News Papers 4 8
Other Specify 4 8
Total 50 100
Source: survey
Figure no 4.7
Awareness of Brand

0%

8%
14%
8%

Exhibition Stalls
Friends& Relatives
News Papers
Other Specify

70%

Interpretation
The above table shows that 70% of the sample respondents are came to
know about the COCA COLA ltdsoft drink through friends & relatives, 14% of the
sample respondents are came to know about the COCA COLA ltd soft drink through
exhibition stalls, 8% of the sample respondents are came to know about the COCA
COLA ltdsoft drink through news papers and 8% of the sample respondents are got
the information about the COCA COLA ltd soft drink through others.

It can be concluded that maximum of the sample respondents came to


know about the COCA COLA ltd soft drink through friends & relatives.

43
4.8 Preference of Flavour
Table no 4.8
Preference of Flavour
Options No. of respondents Percentage
COCA COLA 12 24
ltdorange
COCA COLA 22 44
ltdleman
COCA COLA ltd100 6 12
COCA COLA 10 20
ltdleman ride
Total 50 100
Source: survey
Figure no 4.8
Preference of Flavour

0%

20%
24%

12%

44%

Interpretation
The above table it observed that 44% of the sample respondents preferred
COCA COLA ltdleman, 24% of the sample respondents preferred COCA COLA
ltdorange, 20% of the sample respondents preferred COCA COLA ltdleman ride and
12% of the sample respondents preferred COCA COLA ltd100.
It can be concluded that maximum of the sample respondents preferred to
COCA COLA ltdleman soft drink.

44
4.9 Satisfaction regarding the flavours
Table no 4.9
Satisfaction regarding the flavours
Options No. of respondents Percentage
Satisfied 33 66
Neither satisfied nor 17 34
dissatisfied
Dissatisfied 0 0
Total 50 100
Source: survey
Figure no 4.9
Satisfaction regarding the flavours

0%
0% 0%

34%
Satisfied

66% Neither satisfied nor


dissatisfied
Dissatisfied

Interpretation

The above table shows that 44% of the sample respondents are satisfied
with the flavour of COCA COLA ltdsoft drink, 34% of the sample respondents are
neither satisfied nor dissatisfied and may none of the sample respondents are
dissatisfied with the flavours of COCA COLA ltdsoft drink.

It can be concluded that most of the respondents are satisfied with the
flavour of COCA COLA ltdsoft drink.

45
4.10 Taste of COCA COLA ltd
Table no 4.10
Taste ofCOCA COLA ltd
Options No. of respondents Percentage
Delicious 9 18
Good 26 52
Satisfied 13 26
Neither satisfied nor 2 4
dissatisfied
Total 50 100
Source: survey
Figure no 4.10
Taste ofCOCA COLA ltd

Delicious
4% 0%

18% Good

26%
Satisfied

Neither satisfied nor


52% dissatisfied

Interpretation
The above table reveals that 52% of the sample respondents are said the
taste of COCA COLA ltdis good, 26% of the sample respondents are satisfied with
the taste, 18% of the sample respondents are said that the taste of COCA COLA
ltddelicious, 4% of the sample respondent are neither satisfied nor dissatisfied with
the taste of COCA COLA ltdsoft drink.
It can be concluded that maximum of the sample respondents are said the
taste of COCA COLA ltdis good.

46
4. 11 Satisfaction with the quality
Table no 4.11
Satisfaction with the quality
Options No. of respondents Percentage
Satisfied 34 68
Neither satisfied nor 16 32
dissatisfied
Dissatisfied 0 0
Total 50 100
Source: survey
Figure no 4.11
Satisfaction regarding the flavours

0%
0% 0%

32%
Satisfied

Neither satisfied nor


68%
dissatisfied

Dissatisfied

Interpretation

The above table depicts that 68% of the sample respondents are satisfied
with the quality of COCA COLA ltdsoft drink, 32% of the sample respondents are
neither satisfied nor dissatisfied and may none of the sample respondents are
dissatisfied with the quality of COCA COLA ltdsoft drink.

It can be concluded that most of the respondents are satisfied with the
quality of COCA COLA ltdsoft drink.

47
4.12 Available COCA COLA ltdsoft drink in the market
Table no 4.12
Available COCA COLA ltdsoft drink in the market
Option No. of respondents Percentage
Yes 50 100
No 0 0
Total 4 100
Source: survey

Figure no 4.12
Available COCA COLA ltdsoft drink in the market

00

Yes

No

50

Interpretation

The above table shows that 100% of the sample respondents are said that
COCA COLA ltdsoft drink is easily available in the market.

It can be concluded that majority of the sample respondents are said that
COCA COLA ltdsoft drink is easily available in the market.

48
4.13 Brand selection
Table no 4.13
Brand selection
Options No. of respondents Percentage
Brand name 11 22
Availability 13 26
Taste 18 36
Advertisement 8 16
Other specify 0
Total 50 100
Source: survey
Figure no 4.13
Brand selection

0%

16%
22% Brand name
Availability
Taste
36% 26% Advertisement
Other specify

Interpretation
The above table shows that 36% of the sample respondents give
importance to taste, 26% of the sample respondents gives to importance to
availability, 22% of the sample respondents gives importance to brand name, 16% of
the sample respondents gives to importance advertisement.

It can be concluded that most of the sample respondents gives importance


taste of COCA COLA ltdsoft drink.

49
4.14 Compared to other brandedCOCA COLA ltd
Table no 4.14
Compared to other branded COCA COLA ltd
Options No. of respondents Percentage
Excellent 8 16
Good 29 58
Average 11 22
Poor 2 4
Total 50 100
Source: survey
Figure no 4.13
Compared to other branded COCA COLA ltd

4% 0%

16%
Excellent
22%
Good

Average

Poor
58%

Interpretation
The above table depicts that 58% of the sample respondents said that
COCA COLA ltdbrand is good compare to other brand, 22% of the sample
respondents said that as average, 16% of the respondents said that as excellent and 4%
of the respondents says that it is poor.

It can be concluded that most of the sample respondents says that it is good.

50
4.15 Frequency of purchasing the COCA COLA ltd
Table no 4.15
Frequency of purchasing the COCA COLA ltd

Options No. of respondents Percentage


Daily 3 6
Weekly 26 52
Monthly 21 42
Total 50 100
Source: survey
Figure no 4.15
Frequency of purchasing theCOCA COLA ltd

0% 0%

6%
Daily
42%
Weekly

52%
Monthly

Interpretation

The above table reveals that 52% of the sample respondents are
purchases COCA COLA ltdsoft drink on weekly, 42% of the sample respondents are
purchases COCA COLA ltdsoft drink on monthly and 6% of the sample respondents
are purchases COCA COLA ltdsoft drink daily.

It can be concluded that most of the sample respondents are purchases


COCA COLA ltdsoft drink on weekly basis.

51
4.16 Where do you get COCA COLA ltd
Table no 4.16
Where do you get COCA COLA ltd
Options No. of respondents Percentage
Retail shop 4 8
Kirana stores 16 32
Super market 25 50
Others specify 5 10
Total 50 100
Source: survey
Figure no 4.16
Where do you get COCA COLA ltd

0%

10% 8%
Retail shop

Kirana stores
32%
Super market
50%
Others specify

Interpretation
The above table reveals that 50% of the sample respondents are said that
COCA COLA ltdis get in super markets, 32% of the sample respondents are to get in
kirana stores, 10% of the respondents are get in other specify and 8% of the
respondents are get in retail shops.

It can be concluded that most of the sample respondents are said that COCA
COLA ltdis get in super markets.

52
4.17 Buying COCA COLA ltd what comes in your mind
Table no 4.17
Buying COCA COLA ltd what comes in your mind
Options No. of respondents Percentage
Price 4 8
Health & safety 24 48
Taste 19 38
Other specify 3 6
Total 50 100
Source: survey
Figure no 4.17
Buying COCA COLA ltd what comes in your mind

0%

6% 8%
Price

Health & safety


38%
Taste
48%
Other specify

Interpretation

The above table reveals that 48% of the sample respondents preferred to
health & safety while buying COCA COLA ltdsoft drink, 38% of the sample
respondents preferred to taste while buying COCA COLA ltdsoft drink, 8% of the
sample respondents preferred to price while buying COCA COLA ltdsoft drink and
6% of the sample respondents preferred to other factors.

It can be concluded that most of the sample respondents preferred to health &
safety while buying COCA COLA ltdsoft drink.

53
4.18 Size preference
Table no 4.18
Size preference

Options No. of respondents Percentage


200ml 16 32
250ml 23 46
300ml 11 22
Total 50 100
Source: survey
Figure no 4.18
Size preference

0%

22%
32%
200ml
250ml
300ml

46%

Interpretation

The above table reveals that 46% of the respondents expressed that 250ml
is the ideal size, 32% of the respondents viewed 300ml, 32% of the respondents
opined that 200ml pack.
It can be concluded that maximum of the respondents expressed that
250ml.

54
4.19 Opinion about reasonable price
Table no 4.19
Opinion about reasonable price
Options No. Of respondents Percentage
Rs.10 13 26
Rs.50 10 20
Less 4 8
Same 23 46
Total 50 100
Source: survey
Figure no 4.19
Opinion about reasonable price

26%
Rs.10
46% Rs. 15
Less
same
20%

8%

Interpretation
The above table shows that the 46% of the respondents expressed that the
reasonable price for soft drinks is same, 26% of the respondents opined that the price
should be Rs. 10, 20% of the respondents opined that the price should be Rs. 15 and
8% of the respondents opined that the price should be less.

It can be concluded that most of the sample respondents expressed same


price.

55
4.20 Satisfaction regarding price
Table no 4.120
Satisfaction regarding price
Options No. of respondents Percentage
Satisfied 33 66
Neither satisfied nor 15 30
dissatisfied
Dissatisfied 2 4
Total 50 100
Source: survey
Figure no 4.20
Satisfaction regarding price

0%
4%
Satisfied

30%
Neither satisfied nor
dissatisfied
Dissatisfied
66%

Interpretation
The above table shows that 66% of the respondents are satisfied with the
price of COCA COLA ltdsoft drink, 30% of the respondents are neither satisfied nor
dissatisfied with the price of COCA COLA ltdsoft drink and 4% of the respondents
are dissatisfied with the price of COCA COLA ltdsoft drink.

It can be concluded that maximum of the respondents are satisfied with the
price of COCA COLA ltdsoft drinks.

56
4.21 Comparison of price
Table no 4.21
Comparison of price
Options No. of respondents Percentage
More 2 4
Reasonable 25 50
Less 1 2
Same 22 44
Total 50 100
Source: survey
Figure no 4.21
Comparison of price

4%

More
44% Reasonable
Less
50%
Same

2%

Interpretation
The above table depicts that 50% of the respondents are said that price of
the COCA COLA ltdsoft drink is reasonable, 44% of the respondents are said that
price is same compare to other brands, 4% of the respondents are said that price is
more compared to other brands and 2% of the respondents are said that price is very
less compare to other brands.

It can be concluded that maximum of the respondents are said that price of
the COCA COLA ltdsoft drink is reasonable.

57
4.22 Shifting to some other brands
Table no 4.22
Shifting to some other brands

Options No. of respondents Percentage


Yes 10 20
No 40 80
Total 50 100

Source: survey
Figure no 4.22
Shifting to some other brands

0% 0%

20%

Yes
No

80%

Interpretation
The above table shows that 80% of the sample respondents are don’t want
to shift from other brand of COCA COLA ltdsoft drink and 20% of the sample
respondents are want to shift from other brand of COCA COLA ltdsoft drink.

It can be concluded that maximum of the sample respondents are don’t


want to shift from other brand of COCA COLA ltdsoft drink.

58
4.23 Recommendation to others
Table no 4.23
Recommendation to others
Options No. of respondents Percentage
Yes 43 86
No 7 14
Total 50 100

Source: survey
Figure no 4.23
Recommendation to others

0% 0%

14%

Yes
No

86%

Interpretation
The above table reveals that 86% of the sample respondents would like to
recommend their brand of COCA COLA ltdsoft drink to others and 14% of the
sample respondents opinion that they are not willing to recommend their brand of
COCA COLA ltdsoft drink.

It can be concluded that maximum of the sample respondents would like to


recommend their brand of COCA COLA ltdsoft drink to others.

59
CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, FINDINGS,
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGETIONS

60
5.2 Findings
The following are the findings of the study.

As per my analysis 42% of the respondents are in the age group between 25-
35 years.
The study shows that 36% of the respondents are other specify.
The study finds that 60% of respondents are female.
The study shows that 36% of the respondents are the post graduates.
The study shows that 36% of the respondents are having income Rs. Less than
20000.
The finding of the study depicts that 100% of the respondents are have COCA
COLA ltdsoft drink.
The study finds that 70% of the respondents are came to known about the
COCA COLA ltdsoft drink through their friends and relatives.
From the study it is found that 44% of the respondents preferred COCA
COLA ltdlemon.
The finding of the study depicts that 66% of the respondents are satisfied with
the flavors.
The finding of the study depicts that 52% of the respondents are said that the
taste of COCA COLA ltdis good.
The study shows that 68% of the respondents are satisfied with the quality of
COCA COLA ltdsoft drink.
The study shows that all the sample respondents are opined that COCA COLA
ltdsoft drink is easily available in the market.
From the study it is found that 36% of the respondents are gives the
importance to taste.
The study finds that58% of the respondents opined that COCA COLA
ltdbrand is good compare to other brand.
The study shows that 52% of the sample respondents are purchased COCA
COLA ltdsoft drink on weekly basis.
The study finds that 50% of the sample respondents opined the COCA COLA
ltdis easily to get in super market.

61
From the study it is found that 48% of the respondents preferred COCA
COLA ltdsoft drink to health and safety.
The study shows that 46% of the respondents expressed that 250ml is the ideal
size.
The study finds that 46% of the respondents opined that the price of COCA
COLA ltdsoft drink is reasonable.
The study shows that 66% of the respondents are satisfied with the price of
COCA COLA ltdsoft drink.
From the study it is found that 50% of the respondents expressed that the
comparison of price is reasonable.
The study shows that 80% of the respondents are don’t want to shift from
other brands.
The finding of the study depicts that 86% of the respondents would like to
recommend their brand of COCA COLA ltdsoft drink to others.

62
CONCLUSIONS
The following are the conclusions of the study.
 It can be concluded that majority of sample respondents are female.
 The study concluded that most of the respondents are having less than
Rs.20, 000 incomes.
 It can be concluded that most of the respondents are post graduates.
 The study concluded that all the respondents are have COCA COLA
ltdand they are came to known about the COCA COLA ltdthrough friends
and relatives.
 The study concluded that most of the respondents preferred to COCA
COLA ltdlemon and they are satisfied with the flavors and prices.
 The study shows that most of the respondents said that taste of COCA
COLA ltdsoft drink id good.
 The study concluded that most of the respondents are satisfied with the
quality.
 The study shows that the most of the respondents are agree the COCA
COLA ltdsoft drink easily available in the market.
 It can be concluded that most of the respondents gives the importance to
the taste.
 It can be concluded that most of the respondents says that compare to
other brand COCA COLA ltdis good, and they are purchased weekly.
 The study concluded that most of the respondents are said that it is get in
super market.
 The study concluded that most of the respondents preferred to health and
safety.
 It can be concluded that most of the respondents bought 250ml bottle, and
they are expressed same price.
 It can be concluded that most of the respondents said price of COCA
COLA ltdis reasonable.
 The study concluded that most of the respondents are don’t want to shift
from other brands and they are recommended this brand to others.

63
SUGGESTIONS

Based on the finding the study purposes. The following suggestions.


 Improved different flavours.
 Improved more quality.
 Make sure that the availability is more in all areas.
 Reduce the price.

64