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ENERGO-PRO a.s.

Zoti Hydropower Project, Georgia

Basic design

Report No. 1646-03


FINAL VERSION

August 2009

AF-Colenco Ltd
Hydropower Department
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 2/65

Table of Contents
Page

1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................8

2 Location and General Layout of the Project .....................................................................8

3 Geology and Seismic Activity...........................................................................................9

4 Topography .....................................................................................................................11

5 Hydrology Data ...............................................................................................................11


5.1 Inflow ..............................................................................................................................14
5.2 Ecological water release ..................................................................................................15
5.3 Design floods...................................................................................................................15
5.4 Sediment yield and sediment transport ...........................................................................16

6 Design Parameters ...........................................................................................................16


6.1 General considerations ....................................................................................................16
6.1.1 Selling prices for energy in Georgia................................................................................16
6.1.2 Water Usage Permission .................................................................................................17
6.1.3 Land Acquisition .............................................................................................................17
6.2 Economical Parameters ...................................................................................................17
6.2.1 Unit Prices and Currency ................................................................................................17
6.2.2 Site Installation................................................................................................................17
6.2.3 Contingencies, Environmental & Social Costs ...............................................................18
6.2.4 Construction Period.........................................................................................................18
6.2.5 Maintenance & Operation Cost.......................................................................................18
6.2.6 Concession Duration and Discount Rates .......................................................................18

7 Power potential study ......................................................................................................18

8 Project Layout .................................................................................................................22


8.1 Salient Features ...............................................................................................................22
8.1.1 Schematic Longitudinal Profile.......................................................................................26
8.1.2 Reservoir Management....................................................................................................26
8.1.3 Installed Capacity and Energy Production ......................................................................28
8.2 Civil Engineering Structures ...........................................................................................28
8.2.1 Diversion Khinistskali.....................................................................................................28
8.2.1.1 Intake and Desilting Facilities.........................................................................................28
8.2.1.2 Diversion Tunnel Khinistskali.........................................................................................29
8.2.2 Gubazeuli Dam and Intake ..............................................................................................29
8.2.2.1 Dam Type ........................................................................................................................29
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8.2.2.2 Intake structure ................................................................................................................31


8.2.3 Diversion Gubazeuli Creek .............................................................................................32
8.2.3.1 Intake and Desilting Facilities.........................................................................................32
8.2.3.2 Diversion Tunnel GubazeuliCreek ..................................................................................33
8.2.4 Diversion Kvirilas ...........................................................................................................33
8.2.4.1 Intake and Desilting Facilities.........................................................................................33
8.2.4.2 Diversion Tunnel Kvirilas ...............................................................................................34
8.2.5 Headrace tunnel ...............................................................................................................34
8.2.6 Upstream Surge Shaft......................................................................................................35
8.2.6.1 Transient Analysis ...........................................................................................................35
8.2.7 Pressure Shaft and Valve Chamber .................................................................................38
8.2.8 Underground Powerhouse and Transformer cavern........................................................39
8.2.8.1 Multipurpose access tunnel .............................................................................................39
8.2.8.2 Tailrace tunnel .................................................................................................................40
8.2.9 Mechanical Equipment....................................................................................................40
8.2.9.1 Number of units and units arrangement ..........................................................................40
8.2.9.2 Rotating speed .................................................................................................................41
8.2.9.3 Modes of operation..........................................................................................................41
8.2.9.4 Turbine and governor ......................................................................................................41
8.2.9.5 Main Inlet Valve..............................................................................................................42
8.2.9.6 Cooling Water System.....................................................................................................42
8.2.9.7 Drainage and Dewatering System ...................................................................................43
8.2.9.8 Powerhouse crane............................................................................................................43
8.2.10 Electrical Equipment - Generators, Transformers, and Switchgear ................................44
8.2.10.1 Generators .......................................................................................................................44
8.2.10.2 Excitation System............................................................................................................44
8.2.10.3 Generator Step-Up Transformer......................................................................................45
8.2.10.4 Electrical Protections.......................................................................................................45
8.2.10.5 Medium Voltage Switchgear...........................................................................................46
8.2.10.6 High Voltage Switchyard (110kV)..................................................................................46
8.2.10.7 Low Voltage AC Supplier...............................................................................................47
8.2.10.8 Low Voltage DC Supplier System ..................................................................................47
8.2.10.9 Control System ................................................................................................................47
8.2.10.10 Instrumentation and metering..........................................................................................48
8.2.10.11 Fire Fighting System .......................................................................................................48
8.2.10.12 Communication System ..................................................................................................48
8.2.11 Power Evacuation – Connection to Electrical Grid.........................................................48

9 Implementation Schedule ................................................................................................48


9.1 Working capacities ..........................................................................................................48
9.2 Construction Program......................................................................................................49
9.3 Construction Material Management ................................................................................52
9.3.1 Construction materials for concrete aggregates ..............................................................52
9.3.2 Cement and auxiliary materials .......................................................................................52

10 Cost Estimate...................................................................................................................53
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10.1 Unit Prices .......................................................................................................................53


10.2 Expected Investment Costs .............................................................................................54
10.3 Annual Costs and Prime Rate Cost of Energy ................................................................55

11 Environmental aspects.....................................................................................................56

12 Conclusions and recommendations .................................................................................56

13 Kvirila HPP – Quick assessment of economical feasibility ............................................57


13.1 General layout .................................................................................................................57
13.2 Salient features ................................................................................................................59
13.3 Expected Investment Costs .............................................................................................63
13.4 Annual Costs and Prime Rate Cost of Energy ................................................................64
13.5 Conclusions .....................................................................................................................65

Index of Figures

Page

Figure 1. Southeastern Georgia with the area of Zoti HPP highlighted...............................................9


Figure 2. Monthly average discharge for Khidistavi station..............................................................12
Figure 3. Flow duration curve for Khidistavi station .........................................................................12
Figure 4. Annual average rainfall in Georgia (source: http://geb.uni-
giessen.de/geb/volltexte/2005/2541/).................................................................................................13
Figure 5. Catchment areas for Zoti HPP ............................................................................................14
Figure 6. Average duration curves for all catchments .......................................................................15
Figure 7. Assumed peak values for Zoti HPP ....................................................................................16
Figure 8. Zoti HPP- Flow duration curve with the exceedance – discharge values for the power
potential study ....................................................................................................................................19
Figure 9. Optimum installed capacity based on a unique tariff .........................................................22
Figure 10. Zoti HPP- Schematic longitunal profile............................................................................26
Figure 11. Gubazeuli reservoir – volume curve.................................................................................27
Figure 12. Tyrolean intake .................................................................................................................28
Figure 13. Capacity curve of bottom outlet........................................................................................31
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Basic Design Report 5/65

Figure 14. Schema of the numerical model for transient analysis of Zoti HPP.................................36
Figure 15. Max upsurge (red line) for case-2 and max downsurge (blue line) for case-4 ................37
Figure 16. Max pressure in the steel lining (at bifurcation level) for case-2 .....................................38
Figure 17. Plan view of Kvirila HPP..................................................................................................58
Figure 18. Duration curve for Kvirila HPP ........................................................................................59
Figure 19. Longitudinal profile Kvirila HPP .....................................................................................59

Index of Tables

Page

Table 1: Summary of flow data recorded on the rivers Gubazeuli at Khidistavi station ...................12
Table 2: Precipitation data from Zoti meteorological station at Gubazeuli River .............................13
Table 3: Summary of the main parameters for all catchments...........................................................14
Table 4: Power potential study results ...............................................................................................21
Table 5: Main features of the reservoir Gubazeuli.............................................................................27
Table 6: Main features of the diversion Khinistskali .........................................................................29
Table 7: Main features of the Dam Zoti .............................................................................................30
Table 8: Estimated main volumes for Gubazeuli dam .......................................................................30
Table 9: Main features of the diversion Gubazeuli Creek .................................................................32
Table 10: Main features of the diversion Kvirila ...............................................................................33
Table 11: Headrace tunnel profile types ............................................................................................34
Table 12: Main features of the upstream surge shaft .........................................................................35
Table 13: Studied operating conditions..............................................................................................36
Table 14: Results of transient calculations for the studied cases .......................................................37
Table 15: Main features of the pressure shaft ....................................................................................38
Table 16: Main features of the Underground Powerhouse and transformer cavern ..........................39
Table 17: Work capacities for the main construction items...............................................................49
Table 18: Construction schedule ........................................................................................................50
Table 19. Assumed unitary rates ........................................................................................................53
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Basic Design Report 6/65

Table 20. Summary of the expected costs for Zoti HPP ....................................................................54
Table 21. Main hydrological information for Kvirilas River.............................................................58
Table 22. Salient features of Kvirila HPP ..........................................................................................60
Table 23. Summary of the expected costs for Kvrila HPP.................................................................63

ANNEXES

Drawing List Basic Design

01 General Layout
Plan View

02 General Layout
Schematic longitudinal Profile

03 Derivation “Khinistskali”
Intake, Desander Facility and Transition Tunnel to the Gubazeuli Reservoir
Plan View and Sections

04 “Gubazeuli” Reservoir
Dam and Intake Structure
Plan View and Sections

05 Derivation “Gubazeuli Creek”


Intake, Desander Facility and Derivation Tunnel to the headrace tunnel
Plan View and Sections

06 Derivation “Kvirila” – Sheet 1


Intake, desander facility and Derivation tunnel to the headrace tunnel
Plan View and Sections

07 Derivation “Kvirila” – Sheet 2


Intake, desander facility and Derivation tunnel to the headrace tunnel
Sections

08 Derivation and Access Tunnel Khinistskali


Longitudinal sections and typical cross sections

09 Headrace Tunnel
Longitudinal sections and typical cross sections

10 Upstream Surge Shaft and Pressure Shaft


Plan View and Sections

11 Powerhouse and Transformer Cavern s


Cross Section
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 7/65

12 Powerhouse and Transformer Caverns


Longitudinal Section

13 Powerhouse and Transformer Caverns


Horizontal Section at Machine Hall Floor

14 Tailrace Tunnel
Longitudinal Sections and typical cross Sections

15 Single Line Diagram

© The Copyright remains with AF-Colenco Ltd


ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 8/65

1 Introduction
With the aim to secure energy and to diversify sources of power supply in the country, the
Energy Ministry of Georgia announced privatization of a number of electricity distribution
companies and hydropower plants in 2006. Following this step, several foreign companies,
including the Czech energy-generation and -trading company Energo-Pro, became active in the
Georgian energy market. Besides being involved in the power distribution market, Energo-Pro
has been expanding its activities to the power generation sector and, in this context, has
approached Colenco to assess the hydropower potential in the area near the locality of Zoti.

In December 2008, AF-Colenco has prepared a due diligence study for the said project,
proposing an alternative project arrangement harnessing the hydro potential of several
catchment areas: Khinistskali River, Gubazeuli River and Kvirila River. The actual Basic
Design, presented herein, considers one additional smaller catchment area from the Gubazeuli
Creek.

The present report summarizes the findings of the Basic Design Study. All pertinent elements
and parameters that play an important role in the development of hydropower projects have
been evaluated, leading to the formulation of the basic design of the project. Principal design
drawings of the most significant structures have been also prepared.

2 Location and General Layout of the Project


The hydropower project is located on the Gubazeuli River and its tributary rivers near the
locality of Zoti in the Western Caucasus Mountains (see Figure 1). The total project catchment
area is 122.50 km2.

Zoti HPP has the following elements:

- a first tyrolean intake at the Khinistskali river, with a free flow diversion tunnel until de
reservoir Zoti (direct catchment area: 39.5 km2)

- A 45 m high gravity dam (Zoti) in the upstream reach of the Gubazeuli river (direct
catchment area: 30.3 km2)

- A 8,650 m length headrace tunnel

- A second tyrolean intake at the Gubazeuli Creek with a diversion tunnel connected to the
headrace tunnel (direct catchment area: 6.7 km2)

- A third tyrolean intake at the Kvirilas river with a diversion tunnel connected to the
headrace tunnel (direct area catchment: 46 km2)

- A surge shaft

- A pressure shaft
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Basic Design Report 9/65

- An underground powerhouse, a transformer and a high voltage switchgear (cavern)

- A tailrace channel that reaches Gubazeuli river downstream Kvabga town

Figure 1. Southeastern Georgia with the area of Zoti HPP highlighted

3 Geology and Seismic Activity


The geological and seismological settings of the project area have been described in Colenco’s
earlier Feasibility Study Assessment Report (Colenco Dec. 2008). No additional geological data
specific to the project area have been acquired since. Therefore, the previous assessment is still
valid.

The only new source of information is a Sowjet Geological Map 1:200,000 of the region, dated
from 1957 (sheet K-38-XIX). This map, however, is very general and does not provide any new
information so far. According to this map, the entire area is uniformly covered by middle
Eozene ( = tertiary, age approx 50 ma) volcano-sedimentary rocks, consisting of tuffaceous
sandstones and breccias (hard rocks) as well as marls, shales, siltstones and some limestone. In
the Gubazeuli River valley, andesitic lava flows were also observed during the site visit.
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Basic Design Report 10/65

Exodynamic geological processes (erosion and mass movements) were identified during the
Feasibility Study as major geological risk for the project. To evade these risks, a large portion of
the present project arrangement has been placed underground.

The characterization of rock conditions along the proposed project alignment can only be done
after field studies and investigation works in the next project stage. Such investigations will
allow for further optimization of the project locations, in particular of the surge and pressure
shaft and of the powerhouse cavern location.

The weir foundations will be located in outcrops of competent bedrock, the only matter of
concern being the permeability of tuffaceous rocks (to be checked by investigations). A
prediction of the geotechnical tunneling conditions can be made after basic field and laboratory
investigations (mapping along alignment, eventually core drillings in portal area when access
available).

No particular problems are anticipated for tunneling at this stage. However, due to the
stratigraphic heterogeneity to be expected (see above), the local tunneling conditions will
strongly depend on the relative orientation of strata (bedding) and the lithostratigraphic unit
encountered. Tuffaceous sandstones and breccias are considered as hard fractured rocks, marls
and argillitic siltstone-sandstones as rather weak rocks.

Particular attention shall be given to selecting the exact powerhouse cavern location, this being
the most sensitive structure to geological conditions. Core drillings reaching the PH level are
indispensable. The required investment of funds in proper investigation must be seen in the
perspective of reducing the geological risks to an acceptable minimum and avoiding later claims
and delays during construction.

Seismicity

Georgia is characterized by an active seismo-tectonic regime, governed by the convergence of


the Arabian and Eurasian plates. The earthquake epicenters are mainly connected with fault
system of Greater Caucasus and Javakheti Plateau. Nevertheless, seismicity is not of concern for
the project. The project area is located in a region of lowest seismicity in Georgia. The
anticipated peak ground acceleration (PGA) is less than 0.1g (see Fig. 2)
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Basic Design Report 11/65

Figure 2: Map of Seismic Hazard of Georgia (Georgian Geophysical Society): peak ground
acceleration PGA

4 Topography
Zoti HPP has been designed based on scanned topographical maps 1:25’000 and contour lines
every 5 m. The scale of these maps allows carrying out a basic design without precise details,
however in a next design phase, more detailed topographical maps will be mandatory, e.g.
contour lines every 1 m, at least for all surface structures.

The maps are not referenced to any specific system (no coordinate grid indicated). Therefore,
there are no coordinates assigned to any of the project elements.

5 Hydrology Data
For the hydrological study, information from two gauging stations has been obtained: Bakhmaro
(1926 m.a.s.l.) and Khidistavi (150 m.a.s.l). Data seems to be reliable compared to the general
precipitation information in the project area. In view that the elevation of the Bakhmaro station
is 1926 m.a.s.l. and the project intakes are located at around 1140 m.a.s.l., the data provided at
the station Khidistavi (in the same Gubazeuli river) has been used to determine the water
availability for the basic design. Discharge data at the Khidistavi gauging station is available
from 1929-1991.

A summary of the available observed flow data is given in Table 1


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Basic Design Report 12/65

Table 1: Summary of flow data recorded on the rivers Gubazeuli at Khidistavi station
Catchment Area [km2] 337

Average [m3/s] 15.7

Specific discharge [l/s/km2] 46.6

Average runoff water height [mm/year] 1468

The above presented average runoff water height and assuming a runoff coefficient of 0.65, the
corresponding annual average precipitation is 2259 mm/year.

Figure 2 shows the monthly average discharge extracted from the available data and Figure 3
depicts the flow duration curve for Khidistavi station.

30
Khidistavi station
25
Discharge [m /s]
3

20

15

10

0
I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII

Figure 2. Monthly average discharge for Khidistavi station

60
Khidistavi station
50
Discharge [m /s]

40
3

30

20
Qave = 15.70 m3/s
10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Exceedence probability [%]

Figure 3. Flow duration curve for Khidistavi station


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Basic Design Report 13/65

A precipitation distribution map of Georgia is shown in Figure 4. The map has been produced in
2003 from data of the Hydrometeorological Institute of Georgia. As can be seen, the project
area is located in the range of 1200 to 1600 mm which is consistent with the data recorded at
Khidistavi station. Additionally, Table 2 shows that the yearly value (1754 mm) measured in the
meteorological station located at Zoti is in agreement with the hydraulic data presented for this
study, confirming the reliability of these data.

Figure 4. Annual average rainfall in Georgia (source: http://geb.uni-


giessen.de/geb/volltexte/2005/2541/)

Table 2: Precipitation data from Zoti meteorological station at Gubazeuli River


I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII Year
Sum of the atmospheric subsidence, mm
196 190 164 81 91 118 101 108 144 199 188 174 1754
Sum of the subsidence with 2% provision, mm
513 505 422 205 218 276 282 317 353 537 587 494 2710
Sum of the subsidence with 5% provision, mm
401 393 319 158 171 213 225 248 266 419 452 393 2330
Sum of the subsidence with 10% provision, mm
333 301 276 129 140 183 171 195 227 335 345 300 2170
Sum of the subsidence with 90% provision, mm
87 69 66 32 42 59 39 40 56 78 50 63 1400
Sum of the subsidence with 95% provision, mm
55 42 47 16 25 34 21 18 31 48 22 39 1280
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Basic Design Report 14/65

5.1 Inflow

As mentioned before, the station Khidistavi (150 m.a.s.l) on the Gubazeuli River has been used
to estimate proportionally the water availability for the different catchments.

Zoti HPP takes the water from 4 different catchments as shown in Figure 5.

Catchment 3: Diversion
Gubazeuli Creek
6.7 km2

Catchment 4:
Diversion Kvirilas
46.0 km2
Catchment 2:
Gubazeuli reservoir Catchment 1: Diversion
30.3 km2 Khinistskali
39.5 km2

Figure 5. Catchment areas for Zoti HPP

A scale factor according to each catchment area was calculated in order to determine the
different average duration curves. The main parameters of these catchments can be found in
Table 3.

Table 3: Summary of the main parameters for all catchments


Catchment 1 Catchment 2 Catchment 3 Catchment 4

Tyrolean intake Gubazeuli dam Tyrolean intake Tyrolean intake


Khinistskali river Gubazeuli river Gubazeuli Creek Kvirilas river

Talweg
level 1152.5 1100.0 1144.0 1144.0
[m.a.s.l.]

Catchment
39.5 30.3 6.7 46
Area [km2]
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Basic Design Report 15/65

Factor 0.12 0.09 0.02 0.14

Qaverage
1.84 1.41 0.31 2.14
[m3/s]

The resulting duration curves for each catchment area and the Zoti HPP are showed in Figure 6.

21
Zoti HPP
20
Kvirilas River (third tyrolean intake)
19
Gubazeuli Creek (second tyrolean intake)
18
17 Gubazeuli River (Zoti Dam)

16 Khinistskali (first tyrolean intake)


15
14
13
Discharge [m3/s]

12
11
10
9
8
7
6
Qaverage = 5.70 m3/s
5
4
3
2
1
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Exceedence probability [%]

Figure 6. Average duration curves for all catchments

5.2 Ecological water release

Ecological release has been taken into account for all diversions. The corresponding discharge
is determined according to Swiss regulations, where the water inflow that reaches at least during
347 days a year (95% of dependability) is the input parameter. For Zoti HPP the total ecological
release is for all catchment areas 0.64 m3/s.

5.3 Design floods

Design floods were estimated for floods up to the 1000-year event. In the project area there is
no recorded data about flood events, therefore no peak values are available. Due to this lack of
information, a standard determination of maximal flows is not possible. Considering that the
project catchment areas are small, it has been decided to correlate values from Colenco data
base from other projects in the region. The design peak values are given in Figure 7.
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 16/65

SPECIFIC DESIGN FLOOD VS CATCHMENT AREA


8.00
Q10

Q100

Q1000
6.00
Specific Design flood in m3/s/km2

4.00

2.00

0.00
10 100 1,000
Catchment area in km2

Figure 7. Assumed peak values for Zoti HPP

5.4 Sediment yield and sediment transport

Sediment yield refers to the amount of sediment exported by a basin over a period of time,
which is also the amount which will enter a reservoir located at the downstream limit of the
basin. Sediment estimations have been made at Khidistavi Village on Gubazeuli River where
the suspended load is estimated to 138.5 t/year and the bed load to 20% of that amount.
Consequently, the sediment yield at this station is 373 m3/km2/yr. It is possible to induce that
sediments are not a big issue for the project. However, it is suggested to carry out watershed
investigations and by mean of empirical methods the sediment yield can be calculated and
compared and then should be used to plan flushing operations at the reservoir.

Sediment samples in the upstream part of the reservoir should be taken in order to elaborate a
sediment transport capacity study and verify that there are not negative effects in the reservoir
storage volume.

6 Design Parameters

6.1 General considerations

6.1.1 Selling prices for energy in Georgia

There are two options for selling the electricity in Georgia, through direct contracts with the
qualified companies (distribution Licensees or large companies consuming more than 30 GWh
per year) or sale of electricity to the Electricity System Commercial Operator (ESCO) through
the balancing market. There is no difference between the peak and base energy prices.
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Basic Design Report 17/65

Normally, the selling price of electricity is established by the Georgian National Energy
Regulatory Commission (GNERC) on the basis of the relevant tariff submission made by the
company in accordance with the established tariff methodology. However, for new Hydro
Power Plants the energy legislation envisages the possibility of concluding the long term PPA
with ESCO on guaranteed purchase of the electricity. The terms of such PPA should be
negotiated at the initial stage of the project approval in the relevant Memorandum of
Understanding with the Government of Georgia. (Later GNERC shall approve such negotiated
tariff). In case if the power plant will be constructed by JSC Energo-Pro Georgia, most likely
we shall not require a compulsory purchase of electricity by ESCO but rather more sell
electricity in accordance with the needs of our distribution business - use such electricity for
distribution purposes, sell electricity to domestic large customers or export to the neighboring
markets (pending the seasons of the year).

As the initial guidance for tariff, it might be useful to note that currently HPP Paravani, that is
to be built in Georgia, has negotiated the selling price of electricity with the Government
(through the Memorandum) at 4.7 US Cents per KWh of power.

The legislation does envisage selling of capacity (MW) by newly built power plants, however
this part of regulations is constantly changing and therefore it is advisable that the calculations
are made without envisaging the possibility of selling the capacity separately.

6.1.2 Water Usage Permission

According to information of the legal department of ENERGO-PRO, the current Law of


Georgia on Licensing and Permissions does not require obtaining any license or permission for
the water usage. In case the river or channel water is used for irrigation purposes, the fee for
using such water is to be agreed with the owner of the channel or the water reservoir.

6.1.3 Land Acquisition

Local Municipalities are entitled to determine the normative selling price of the land and
currently, according to the information from the legal department, such price for Chokhatauri
Region, comprises 2.16 Gel per m2 (~0.98 Eur/m2)

6.2 Economical Parameters

6.2.1 Unit Prices and Currency


The adopted unit prices for the cost estimate for civil works and hydraulic steel structures are
based on recent studies and projects situated in Albania and Georgia, with price basis 2008.
All unit prices, as well as all amounts of the cost estimate are given in Euro.

6.2.2 Site Installation


For site installation and camp construction, 15% of the civil costs are adopted.
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Basic Design Report 18/65

6.2.3 Contingencies, Environmental & Social Costs


Overall technical contingencies of 15% for civil and hydro mechanical parts and 10% for
electromechanical parts are assumed.

6.2.4 Construction Period


The construction period, defined as the time span between the start of mobilization and the
commissioning date of the plant, is estimated to last 3.5 years.

6.2.5 Maintenance & Operation Cost


- Maintenance costs are adopted as follows:
o Civil: 0.3%
o HSS: 0.8%
o Electrical: 0.5%
o Mechanical: 0.5%
- Operation costs are calculated assuming the following salaries:
o Management: 15’000 EUR/year
o Engineer: 12’000 EUR/year
o Technician: 700 EUR/year
o Manual: 500 EUR/year
- Insurance costs: 0.25%
- No concession fee, royalties or similar charges are assumed.

6.2.6 Concession Duration and Discount Rates


Concession duration of 50 years is adopted for the calculations of the prime costs of energy. The
adopted interest rate (assumed to be the Weighted Average Cost of Capital) is 9.5% for both,
construction phase and amortisation phase. The values are taken from a financial and
economical study which Colenco has carried out for the Khudoni Hydropower Project on the
Enguri River.

7 Power potential study


In order to evaluate the optimum installed capacity, e.g. the optimum nominal discharge, a
power potential study has been carried out. The studied scenarios correspond to exceedance
values of 9%, 13%, 17%, 25% and 33% from the average flow duration curve (See Figure 8).
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Basic Design Report 19/65

20

18

16
Discharge [m /s]

14
3

12 9, 10.7
13, 9.8
10 17, 8.9

8 25, 7.5
33, 6.5

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Exceedence probability [%]

Figure 8. Zoti HPP- Flow duration curve with the exceedance – discharge values for the power
potential study

The elements and parameters that have been included in the power potential study are as
follows:

Scheme elements:
• Catchment 1: Diversion Khinistskali + diversion tunnel + channel
• Catchment 2: Dam "Gubazeuli"
• Intake structure
• Catchment 3: Diversion Gubazeuli Greek + Diversion tunnel
• Catchment 4: Diversion Kvirila + Diversion tunnel
• Headrace tunnel
• Upstream surge shaft
• Pressure shaft
• Underground powerhouse, switch gear and transformer cavern
• Tailrace channel

Economical parameters:

a) Site Installation and Camp (only on civil costs) 15.0%

b) Contingencies for C&H parts 15.0%

c) Contingencies for E&M parts 10.0%


ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 20/65

Others:
• Accesses (roads, bridges, tunnels)
• Various Expenses (0.8% of the total construction and equipment costs)
• Investigations (1.0 % of the total construction and equipment costs)
• Feasibility Study, Final Design and Tendering (2.0 % of the total construction and
equipment costs)
• Design, Supervision and Administration (7.0 % of the total construction and equipment
costs)
• Connection to the Electrical National Grid (10 km)

All elements have been evaluated technical and economically with the same detail level. The
results of the power potential study are showed in the Table 4.
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 21/65

Table 4: Power potential study results

HPP "Zoti"
9% 13% 17% 25% 33%
Installed capacity: 59.0 54.2 49.4 41.8 36.3

Total Construction and Equipment Cost 103 € 71,670.47 69,471.97 67,152.83 63,721.65 61,063.76
Civil 103 € 45,804.03 44,887.88 43,928.95 42,617.06 41,743.32
Hydraulic Steel Structures 103 € 3,786.07 3,633.65 3,403.35 3,026.02 2,607.26
Mechanical 103 € 8,294.11 7,837.39 7,380.67 6,676.56 6,125.13
Electrical 103 € 13,786.25 13,113.05 12,439.85 11,402.00 10,588.05
Total Cost various 103 € 20,640.41 20,402.97 20,152.51 19,781.94 19,494.89
Total Investment Cost 103 € 92,310.88 89,874.94 87,305.33 83,503.58 80,558.64

Construction Time years 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0


Interest rate during Construction (DSI) 9.5%
Interest Cost 17,539.07 17,076.24 16,588.01 15,865.68 15,306.14

Total Investment 103 € 109,849.94 106,951.18 103,893.35 99,369.26 95,864.79

Interest rate (DSI) 9.5%


q 1.095
Financial Evaluation Period [years]
Civil 50 49.6% 49.9% 50.3% 51.0% 51.8%
Hydraulic Steel Structures 50 4.1% 4.0% 3.9% 3.6% 3.2%
Mechanical 50 9.0% 8.7% 8.5% 8.0% 7.6%
Electrical 50 14.9% 14.6% 14.2% 13.7% 13.1%
Various and Interest during Construction 50 22.4% 22.7% 23.1% 23.7% 24.2%
Weighted Average 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0
Annual Depreciatoin and Interest Cost 10,548.57 10,270.21 9,976.58 9,542.14 9,205.62

Maintenance cost 278.10 268.49 258.12 242.45 229.65


Civil 103 € 0.3% 137.41 134.66 131.79 127.85 125.23
Hydraulic Steel Structures 103 € 0.8% 30.29 29.07 27.23 24.21 20.86
Mechanical 103 € 0.5% 41.47 39.19 36.90 33.38 30.63
Electrical 103 € 0.5% 68.93 65.57 62.20 57.01 52.94

Operation Cost 731.92 724.67 717.03 705.72 696.96


Personnel Cost 103 € 457.29 457.29 457.29 457.29 457.29
Management 1500 1 37.69 37.69 37.69 37.69 37.69
Engineers 1200 3 90.45 90.45 90.45 90.45 90.45
Professional 700 8 140.71 140.71 140.71 140.71 140.71
Manual 500 15 188.44 188.44 188.44 188.45 188.45
3
Charges 10 € 0.0%
Administration and Insurance 103 € 0.25% 274.62 267.38 259.73 248.42 239.66

TOTAL ANNUAL COST 103 € 11,558.59 11,263.37 10,951.72 10,490.31 10,132.23

Energy Production
Peak Energy GWh 234.4 231.7 227.1 216.2 205.1
Off-peak Energy GWh
Total Energy Production GWh 234.4 231.7 227.1 216.2 205.1
Energy Price Peak Energy (DSI) €/MWh 34.0
Energy Price Off-peak Energy (DSI) €/MWh
Total Equi. Peak Energy Production GWh 234.4 231.7 227.1 216.2 205.1

PRIME COST OF ENERGY €/MWh 49.3 48.6 48.2 48.5 49.4

A tendency curve has been derived from the prime cost of energy versus installed capacity for
each scenario; consequently the calculated optimum installed capacity corresponds to a value of
48 MW. (See Figure 9)
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 22/65

49.5
49.4
Prime Rate [EUR / MWh]
49.3

49.0

48.6
48.5 48.5

Optimum installed capacity = 48 MW 48.2


48.0
34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
Installed capacity [MW]

Figure 9. Optimum installed capacity based on a unique tariff

8 Project Layout

8.1 Salient Features

Catchment 1
Catchment area 39.5 km2
Talweg elevation 1152.5 m.a.s.l.
Intake type Tyrolean weir
Design discharge 2.80 m3/s
L= 60 m; Aefective= 10.15 m2;
Outdoor desilting basin
Diversion Khinistskali Dgrain= 0.25 mm
Qecological 0.21 m3/s
Diversion tunnel L= 2.7 km; free flow
Flood design 270 m3/s
Tunnel type Concrete lined; D-shape
Tunnel section excavation 21.0 m2 (including access)

Catchment 2
Dam Gubazeuli Catchment area 30.3 km2
Talweg elevation 1100 m.a.s.l.
Dam type Concrete gravity
Crest elevation 1145 m.a.s.l.
Deepest foundation elevation 1103 m.a.s.l.
Maximum height 42 m
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 23/65

Talweg elevation 1100 m.a.s.l.


Crest elevation 1145 m.a.s.l.
Qecological 0.16 m3/s
Type Ungated-incorporated in dam
Elevation of ogee crest 1155.6 m.a.s.l.
Number of openings 2
Spillway Width of openings 14 m
Design discharge (Q1000) 250 m3/s
Max. reservoir level 1142.8 m.a.s.l.
PMF (375 m3/s) level 1143.6 m.a.s.l.
Dimensions (w x h) 3.5 x 4.0 m
Bottom outlet Number of openings 1
Max. capacity (full reservoir) 205 m3/s
Invert elevation 1128.8 m.a.s.l
Type Bell-mouth inlet
Intake Design discharge 4.90 m3/s
Sliding gate (w x h) 2.3 x 1.8 m
Trash rack (w x h) 3.4 x 2.3 m
Max. reservoir level 1140 m.a.s.l.
Min. reservoir level 1131.8 m.a.s.l.
Average reservoir level 1136.5 m.a.s.l.
Reservoir Gubazeuli
Total storage volume 3.415 x105 m3
Live storage volume 1.858 x105 m3
Dead storage volume 1.557 x105 m3

Catchment 3
Diversion Gubazeuli Catchment area 6.7 km2
Greek
Talweg elevation 1144.0 m.a.s.l.
Intake type Tyrolean weir
Design discharge 0.50 m3/s
Flood design 75 m3/s
L= 25 m; Aefective= 2.1 m2;
Outdoor desilting basin
Dgrain= 0.25 mm
Qecological 0.04 m3/s
Diversion tunnel L= 230 m; pressure flow
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 24/65

Tunnel type Concrete lined; D-shape


Tunnel section excavation 6.8 m2

Catchment 4
Catchment area 46.0 km2
Talweg elevation 1144.0 m.a.s.l.
Intake type Tyrolean weir
Design discharge 3.2 m3/s
Flood design 275 m3/s
L= 60 m; Aefective= 12.24 m2;
Diversion Kvirila Underground desilting basin
Dgrain= 0.25 mm
Qecological 0.24 m3/s
Diversion tunnel L= 420 m; pressure flow
Tunnel type Concrete lined; D-shape
Tunnel section excavation 6.8 m2

Type/section Concrete lined/D-shape


Length 8560 m
Design discharge 8.6 m3/s
Headrace tunnel Tunnel section excavation 9.23 m2
Internal tunnel section 6.10 m2
Concrete lining thickness 30 cm
Flow velocity 1.40 m/s

Type Underground shaft


Height 45 m
Internal diameter 8.5 m
Concrete lining thickness 40 cm
Upstream surge shaft Section excavation 67.90 m2
Max. surge level 1154.2 m.a.s.l.
Min. surge level 1116.7 m.a.s.l.
Top elevation 1159.2 m.a.s.l.
Bottom elevation 1111.2 m.a.s.l.
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 25/65

Height vertical part 612 m


Length of lower horizontal
100 m
part
Excavation diameter 2.8 m
Height vertical part 612 m
Pressure shaft Internal Diameter concrete
2.2 m / 408 m
lined stretch/Length
Internal Diameter steel lined
2.2 m / 304 m
stretch/Length
Design discharge 8.6 m3/s

Housing Underground cavern


Turbines 2 x vertical Pelton
Turbine axes elevation 500 m.a.s.l
Nominal head 628.6 m
Average gross head 636.50
Powerhouse
Total average head losses 7.90 m
Design discharge 8.6 m3/s
Installed capacity 2 x 24 MW
Machine efficiency 0.90

Housing Underground cavern


Three phases, Two Windings,
Transformer type
oil filled
Transformer Capacity 30 MVA
Voltage ratio 110/10 kV
Total numbers provided 2

Type Outdoor Open Air


Rated Voltage 110kV
Switchyard
Total bays provided 3 + 1 spare place

Rectangular channel housed in


Tailrace tunnel Type/section
a D-shape section
Length 2190 m
Design discharge 8.6 m3/s
Tunnel section excavation 7.30 m2
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 26/65

Channel internal dimensions 2.20 x 1.80 m (w x h)


Concrete lining thickness 20 cm
Flow velocity 2.80 m/s

8.1.1 Schematic Longitudinal Profile

Figure 10. Zoti HPP- Schematic longitunal profile

8.1.2 Reservoir Management

The project has a reservoir named Gubazeuli, located on the river with the same name at an
elevation of 1110.0 m.a.s.l. The water from the Khinistskali intake is diverted through the
diversion tunnel and enters directly in the reservoir. Additionally, the water from the other two
intakes enters directly in the headrace tunnel as long as the water reservoir is at level of
1140 m.a.s.l. (max. operation level). Otherwise, when the turbines are in off mode, and the
water reservoir level is lower than the maximum operation level, the water from Gubazeuli
Creek and Kvirilas intake will feed the reservoir, which maximum level is always controlled by
means of the ungated spillways. The volume curve of the reservoir is depicted in Figure 10
below. The main features of the reservoir are given in Table 5.
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 27/65

1150

1145
Max. operation level = 1140 m.a.s.l.

1140

1135
Elevation [m a.s.l.]

Min. operation level = 1131.8 m.a.s.l.

1130

1125

1120

1115

1110 Zoti HPP - Reservoir Gubazeuli


RESERVOIR VOLUME CURVE
1105
-100,000 -0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000
3
Volume [m ]

Figure 11. Gubazeuli reservoir – volume curve

The reservoir has a daily storage capacity and allows producing 5 hours of peak energy during
214 day in a hydrological average year with full capacity. Therefore, the annual energy
production of 255 MW can be divided in 82.7 MW (peak energy) and 142.4 MW (base energy).
At the moment there is no a tariff difference between peak and off peak energy, however having
a reservoir in the scheme allows to generate peak energy which will be economically
advantageous.

Table 5: Main features of the reservoir Gubazeuli


Maximum reservoir level 1140.0 m.a.s.l.
Average reservoir level 1136.5 m.a.s.l.
Minimum reservoir level 1131.8 m.a.s.l.
Maximum water level for the design flood 1143.6 m.a.s.l.
Total storage volume 3.415x105 m3
Live storage volume 1.858x105 m3
Dead storage volume 1.557x105 m3

There is no information about sediment transport at the Gubazeuli River; therefore an estimate
of sediments entering in the reservoir has not been possible. However, in order to keep the life
initial life storage, we strongly recommend to envisage periodical flushing operations, e.g. once
or twice a year after heavy rain storms.
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 28/65

8.1.3 Installed Capacity and Energy Production

The design discharge of 8.60 m3/s of the Zoti HPP has been determined according to the power
potential study. The total inflow volume (diverted from the four catchments) is 179.8 x106 m3
and the harnessed volume is 146.0 x106 m3.

With the chosen design discharge and the maximum net head of 640 m, an installed capacity of
48 MW results. The foreseen underground powerhouse will be equipped with two groups
(Pelton turbines), 24 MW each.

In an average hydrological year, the average annual energy production would be 225.1 GWh.

8.2 Civil Engineering Structures

8.2.1 Diversion Khinistskali

8.2.1.1 Intake and Desilting Facilities

Khinistskali tyrolean intake is the most upstream intake structure of the project and it is
designed to divert 2.8 m3/s of the Khinistskali River.

The Tyrolean or drop intakes are commonly used for small and steeply sloped mountain rivers
with competent rock foundation. This type of intake, used in the absence of a reservoir, consists
essentially of a channel built in the river bed, stretching across it and protected by a trashrack
with a sloping face oriented in the direction of the river flow (Figure 12). Particles which are
smaller than the inside width between the trashrack bars are introduced into the collection canal
together with the water and these will be later on be separated from the water by a first sediment
trap for coarse material and afterwards by a desilting basins for fine material.

Figure 12. Tyrolean intake

The structure is also composed of an ungated spillway next to the tyrolean intake to pass by the
floods up to a return period of 1000 years.

The main features of this diversion are described in Table 6.


ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 29/65

Table 6: Main features of the diversion Khinistskali


Talweg elevation 1152.5 m.a.s.l.

Top elevation of trash rack 1153.9 m.a.s.l.

Intake width grid 2m

Design discharge 2.8 m3/s

Flood Capacity 275 m3/s

Elevation of ogee crest (spillway) 1155.6 m.a.s.l.

Effective spillway length 4 x 9.00 m

Minimum diameter to be settled out in the desander


0.25 mm
facility

Length of desander chamber (including transition zone and


60 m
valve chamber)

Dimensions of effective desander space (width x height) 2.90 x 3.50

8.2.1.2 Diversion Tunnel Khinistskali

The diversion tunnel connects the Khinistskali intake structure to the reservoir Gubazeuli,
located on the Gubazeuli River. The tunnel is located on the left side bank of the intake structure
and has a length of 2700 m. This tunnel during construction serves as a main adit for the
construction of the Khinistskali intake, later on it will become a water way and a permanent
maintenance access. The section is a D-shape type. The excavated width at the invert is 3.4 m,
the vertical banks are 1.85 m high and the top arch has a radius of 1.7 m. A concrete lined
channel will be placed on the left side of the tunnel, leaving 2.3 m on the other side as
permanent maintenance access way after construction. The invert will be lined with a 30 cm
thick concrete, while the arch and one vertical sidewall will be protected with shotcrete and wire
mesh where required by geological conditions. The tunnel invert is at an elevation of 1148.80 m
a.s.l at the inlet and 1140 m a.s.l at the outlet, resulting in a constant slope of 0.3 % until
reaching the reservoir. The construction method, whether conventional or with a tunnel boring
machine (TBM) will be decided at a later design stage. Drawings annexed to this report shall be
consulted for additional geometry details.

8.2.2 Gubazeuli Dam and Intake

8.2.2.1 Dam Type

The Gubazeuli Dam is a concrete gravity dam type of 42 m height. The main parameters are
described in Table 6:
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 30/65

Table 7: Main features of the Dam Zoti


Talweg elevation 1110 m.a.s.l.

Crest elevation 1145 m.a.s.l.

Deepest foundation elevation 1103 m.a.s.l.

Maximum height 42 m

The form of the valley at the dam axis is favourable for a simple gravity dam. Due to the
factthat the flood design discharge is not very high (250 m3/s) and that the dam crest is long
enough, two ungated spillway structures can be easily integrated within the dam body. In
addition, the incorporation of the bottom outlet or sluice way (3.50 x 4.00 m) in the dam body
represents no major challenge.

The estimated volumes for the gravity dam are:

Table 8: Estimated main volumes for Gubazeuli dam


Concrete volume 45'214 m3

Excavation volume 21'295 m3

Foundation surface 2'770 m3

Clearing surface 5'435 m3

The foundation treatment will consist of contact and consolidating grouting over the whole
foundation surface (both abutments and the central part below the river) and of a grout curtain
with a depth in the central part of ~25 m. Downstream of the grout curtain drainage holes will
be provided.

Spillway

The spillway consists of an ungated overflow spillway with a total crest length of 28.0 m. A
bridge over the spillway will be provided by dividing the overfall section into 2 openings of
14 m each, separated by a pier of 2.0 m. The pier also contributes to aeration of the flow. Sill
elevation is 10 cm above the maximum operation level at 1140 m.a.s.l.

With the peak design discharge of 250 m3/s (Q1000) the maximum reservoir level will rise up to
an elevation of 1142.8 m.a.s.l. and during probable maximum flood conditions (PMF =
375 m3/s) to 1143.6 m.a.s.l. with a free board of 1.4 m.

Bottom Outlet

One bottom outlet is integrated into the right part of the dam body. This bottom outlet has not
flood purposes but rather sediment flushing operations. The frequency of the reservoir flushing
should be determined during the operation according to the sediment inflows. At this stage we
do not have any sediment information at the dam location. The invert elevation of the bottom
outlets is at a level of 1118 m.a.s.l., i.e. ~1 m above the original ground level (talweg). It serves
also to empty the reservoir in an emergency case.
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 31/65

The bottom outlet consists of: a bell-mouth inlet, a pressured conduit, a sliding gate 3.5 x 4.0 m
(w x h), a set of stoplogs and a flip bucket.

The bell-mouth inlet and pressurized conduit will be fully steel-lined. Downstream of the gates,
the invert and side walls of the free flow channel up to 1 m from the invert, will be also steel-
lined. This is to prevent damage to the concrete during emptying of the reservoir. The thickness
of the steel lining should not be less than 20 mm.

Figure 13 shows the capacity curve of the bottom outlet at different opening percentages. The
dimensions of the bottom outlet will permit to empty the reservoir with the minimum operation
level in 12 hours with a maximum discharge of 35 m3/s which represents a 5 years return period
flood. It has to be noted that the discharge release should be controlled according to flood risk
assessment downstream of the reservoir and the bottom outlet width cannot be reduced because
it is adequate for sediment flushing operations.

Sluice Gate: Heigth a [m] = 4.00

Width b [m] = 3.50

1140.0

1135.0
Storage level [ m a.s.l. ]

1130.0

1125.0

1120.0 a' = 20 % Transition a' = 20 %


a' = 40 % Transition a' = 40 %
a' = 60 % Transition a' = 60 %
a' = 80 % Transition a' = 80 %
a' = 100 % transition a' = 100 %
max. free flow
1115.0
0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 140.0 160.0 180.0 200.0 220.0
3
Discharge [ m /s ]

Figure 13. Capacity curve of bottom outlet

8.2.2.2 Intake structure

The power intake structure is located on the left bank of the Gubazeuli reservoir. To guarantee
the submerging criteria, the invert level is fixed at an elevation of 1128.8 m.a.s.l. The whole
structure is designed to divert a discharge of 4.9 m3/s.

The main components include:

• Bell-mouth inlet with trash rack 3.4 x 2.3 m (width x height)

• Sliding gate 2.3 x 1.8 m (width x height)

• Transition from rectangular to D-shape section of Headrace Tunnel


ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 32/65

The size of the trash rack opening results in an intake net velocity of about 1.0 m/s. The
minimum operation water level at an elevation of 1131.8 m.a.s.l. ensures that the water inflow
in the bell-mouth inlet is free from vortices and air entrainment.

The top level of the intake structure has an elevation of 1145 m.a.s.l., equivalent to that of the
dam crest. This also allows access during floods. Access to the top platform of the structure is
by a road coming from the dam crest.

At elevation 1143.2 m.a.s.l. the gate shaft is enlarged to a chamber for maintenance works of the
sliding gate.

In the very low probability case that the Gubazeuli Creek and Kvirilas intakes are diverting only
16% of their corresponding design discharge into the system, the intake structure will
experiment higher velocities compared to the design ones. For example, assuming than
Gubazeuli Creek and Kvirilas intake divert together only 0.6 m3/s (instead of 3.70 m3/s) the
velocity through the intake tunnel entrance will rise to ~4.6 m/s (~64 % more) and the gross
velocity through the trash rack will increase to ~1.10 m/s (~70% more) for a discharge of
8.0 m3/s. Even these values are in the upper limit, they are still acceptable for non-frequent
cases.

8.2.3 Diversion Gubazeuli Creek

8.2.3.1 Intake and Desilting Facilities

Gubazeuli Creek includes a tyrolean type intake and it is designed to divert 0.5 m3/s. The
description of this intake structure and of the desilting facilities corresponds to that one given in
chapter 8.2.1.1.

The structure is also composed of an ungated spillway next to the tyrolean intake to pass the
floods up to a return period of 1000 years.

The main features of this diversion are described in Table 9.

Table 9: Main features of the diversion Gubazeuli Creek


Talweg elevation 1144.0 m.a.s.l.

Top elevation of trash rack 1144.5 m.a.s.l.

Design discharge 0.5 m3/s

Flood Capacity 75 m3/s

Elevation of ogee crest (spillway) 1146.25 m.a.s.l.

Effective spillway length 2 x 9.00 m

Minimum diameter to be settled out in the desander


0.25 mm
facility

Length of desander chamber (including transition zone and 25 m


ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 33/65

valve chamber)

Dimensions of effective desander space (width x height) 1.40 x 1.50

8.2.3.2 Diversion Tunnel GubazeuliCreek

The diversion tunnel connects the Gubazeuli Creek intake structure to the main headrace tunnel
at 7.65 km from the surge shaft. The tunnel is located on the right side bank of the intake
structure and has a length of 230 m. The section is a D-shape type. The excavated width at the
invert is 2.6 m, the vertical walls are 1.60 m high and the top arch has a radius of 1.3 m. A
30 cm thick concrete lining will be placed in the entire perimeter. The diversion tunnel invert
has an elevation of 1140.6 m a.s.l at the inlet and 1127 m a.s.l at the downstream connection to
the main tunnel, having a slope of 5 %. The construction method, whether conventional or with
a raise drill machine will be decided in a later design stage. Drawings annexed to this report
shall be consulted for additional geometry details.

8.2.4 Diversion Kvirilas

8.2.4.1 Intake and Desilting Facilities

Kvirilas tyrolean intake is the last water intake of the scheme. It is designed to divert 3.20 m3/s.
The description of this intake structure corresponds to that one given in chapter 8.2.1.1. The
desilting facility has the same concept as the previous intakes but because of the narrow river
bed and steep banks, it will be built underground.

The desilting basin tunnel is 85 m long and the flushing tunnel is 30 m long. From the end of the
flushing tunnel a concrete lined channel brings the mixture water-sediment back to the river. For
more details please refer to the drawings annexed to this report.

The structure is also composed of an ungated spillway next to the tyrolean intake to pass by the
floods up to a return period of 1000 years.

The main features of this diversion are described in Table 10.

Table 10: Main features of the diversion Kvirila


Talweg elevation 1144.0 m.a.s.l.

Top elevation of trash rack 1145.0 m.a.s.l.

Design discharge 3.2 m3/s

Flood Capacity 270 m3/s

Elevation of ogee crest (spillway) 1146.1 m.a.s.l.

Effective spillway length 3 x 7.00 m

Minimum diameter to be settled out in the desander 0.25 mm


ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 34/65

facility

Length of desander chamber (including transition zone and


60 m
valve chamber)

Dimensions of effective desander space (width x height) 3.40 x 3.60

8.2.4.2 Diversion Tunnel Kvirilas

The diversion tunnel connects the Kvirila intake structure to the main headrace tunnel at 4 km
from the surge shaft. The tunnel is located on the right side bank of the intake structure and has
a length of 420 m. The section is a D-shape type. The excavated width at the invert is 2.6 m, the
vertical walls are 1.60 m high and the top arch has a radius of 1.3 m. A 30 cm thick concrete
lining will be provided at the entire perimeter. The diversion tunnel invert has an elevation of
1135.45 m a.s.l at the inlet and 1116.6 m a.s.l at the connection to the main tunnel, having a
slope of 8 %. The construction method, whether conventional or with a raise drill machine will
be decided in a later design stage. For more details please refer to the drawings annexed to this
report.

8.2.5 Headrace tunnel

The headrace tunnel connects the intake structure, situated at Gubazeuli reservoir, to the
pressure shaft at its lower end. It is designed to conduct a total discharge of 8.6 m3/s with a
velocity of 1.6 m/s and the head loss due to friction is 6 m, adopting a roughness of 0.0035 m. It
is located on the left side of the Gubazeuli River and has a length of 8,560 m.

The excavation is a D-shape type for all profile types (See Table 11). The excavated width at the
invert is 3.0 m, the vertical walls are 1.90 m high and the top arch has a radius of 1.50 m. A
30 cm thick concrete lining will be provided at the entire perimeter. The internal area of the
headrace tunnel has been defined according to construction criteria and not according to an
optimization of its hydraulic parameters.

From the intake, the tunnel is aligned in northwest direction until the top of the pressure shaft.
The invert is situated at an elevation of 1128.8 m.a.s.l. at the intake structure and continues with
a slope of 0.18 % downwards to the top of pressure shaft which is situated at an elevation of
111.2 m.a.s.l.

Table 11: Headrace tunnel profile types


Profile Type Rock quality Distribution [%]

1 Very good / good rock 30

2 Fair rock 30

3 Poor rock 35

4 Very poor rock 5


ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 35/65

For constructive purposes, the construction of an intermediate 850 m long adit is foreseen. This
adit entrance will be situated in the access road between Zoti and Kivirila intake at an elevation
of 1150 m.a.s.l. The dimensions are the same as for the headrace tunnel and the support works
should be decided based on geological conditions.

8.2.6 Upstream Surge Shaft

The upstream surge shaft is located at the end of the Headrace Tunnel on the top of the vertical
pressure shaft. Table 12 shows the main parameters. Whether a sealing with a grouted
membrane system is required due to geo-mechanical properties and groundwater conditions, can
not yet be determined.

Table 12: Main features of the upstream surge shaft


Top elevation 1159.2 m.a.s.l.

Bottom elevation 1111.2 m.a.s.l.

Height 48.0 m

Maximum water level in surge shaft 1154.2 m.a.s.l.

Minimum water level in surge shaft 1116.7 m.a.s.l.

Excavation diameter 9.30 m

Internal diameter 8.50 m

Lining 100 % concrete

A road of 5.4 km is foreseen to access to the top of the surge shaft. From the same road a short
tunnel of 160 m length will serve as adit for the bottom of the surge shaft and for the headrace
tunnel construction.

8.2.6.1 Transient Analysis

For verification of pressure conditions along the power waterways, a transient analysis was
carried out applying the SIMSEN HYDRO software.1

Figure 14 shows the model applied for the water-hammer calculations.

1
SIMSEN V2.3 Simulation software for Power Networks, Electrical drives and Hydraulic Systems. Swiss Federal Institute of
Technology of Lausanne (Switzerland)
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 36/65

Figure 14. Schema of the numerical model for transient analysis of Zoti HPP

The most hazardous cases of transient operations of the power-plant have been studied as
follows:

For maximum upsurge level in the surge tank:

• Case-1: Emergency stop of both units simultaneously, at maximum reservoir level

• Case-2: Start up of both units followed by emergency stop of both units at the worst
instant, maximum reservoir level

For maximum downsurge level in the surge tank:

• Case-3: Emergency stop of both units followed by start up of the units at the worst
instant (one by one), minimum reservoir level

• Case-4: Start up of both turbines at minimum reservoir level

Table 13: Studied operating conditions

Operating Conditions U/s Reservoir Level (m.a.s.l.)

Case-1: Emergency stop (15 sec) 1140.0

Case-2: Start up followed by emergency stop 1140.0

Case-3: Emergency stop followed by start up 1131.8

Case-4: Start up (30 sec) 1131.8

Based on the results of transient analysis, maximum upsurge level in surge shaft is 1154.2
m.a.s.l. and max downsurge is 1116.7 m.a.s.l. Pressure in penstock at bifurcation level reaches
67 bar. Results of the analysis of all four cases are presented in Table 13.
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 37/65

Table 14: Results of transient calculations for the studied cases


Pressure shaft Pressure in
Upsurge Downsurge
Operating (min) penstock (max)
conditions
[m.a.s.l.] [m.a.s.l] [m] [m]

Case-1 1151.3 1131.8 20.76 661.84

Case-2 1154.2 1124.9 13.57 665

Case-3 1137.5 1117.8 6.5 644

Case-4 1131.8 1116.7 5.37 638.6

Figures 4 to 5 show the variation of water level in the surge shaft as well as the maximum pressure
which can be reached in the penstock for the most hazardous cases.

Figure 15. Max upsurge (red line) for case-2 and max downsurge (blue line) for case-4
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 38/65

Figure 16. Max pressure in the steel lining (at bifurcation level) for case-2

8.2.7 Pressure Shaft and Valve Chamber

A pressure shaft connects the downstream end of the headrace tunnel to the powerhouse. Its
main features are presented in Table 15.

Table 15: Main features of the pressure shaft


Height vertical part 612 m

Length of lower horizontal part 100 m

Excavation diameter 2.8 m

Internal Diameter concrete lined stretch/Length 2.2 m / 408 m

Internal Diameter steel lined stretch/Length 2.2 m / 304 m

Nominal discharge 8.60 m3/s

Thickness concrete lining upper part 30 cm

Thickness concrete lining lower part 26 cm

Thickness steel lining lower part 40 mm

The vertical shaft with a total height of 612 m (408 m concrete lining and 204 m steel lining)
will be followed by a 90° bend at the bottom of the shaft where a 100 m horizontal steel lining
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 39/65

stretch (including the bifurcation) will feed the two turbines in the underground powerhouse.
The resulting head losses in the pressure shaft are 1.20 m. The lengths for the different pressure
shaft stretches have to be verified in a next phase when geological information is available,
including ground water table conditions.

The present basic design does not foreseen a valve chamber before the pressure shaft, given that
the following pressure structure is developed fully underground and therefore, the risk to human
life and goods is negligible. Whether a valve chamber will be convenient for operational and
maintenance purposes should be evaluated in the next design phase according to the power plant
operator. In this case, it should be located before the pressure shaft starts and the foreseen adit
for construction purposes, as nominated in chapter 8.2.6 becomes a permanent access for
maintenance purposes.Power Plant Equipment

8.2.8 Underground Powerhouse and Transformer cavern

The powerhouse is located in an underground cavern on the left bank of the Gubazeuli River
between the villages Kvabga and Zoti. It houses two vertical Pelton turbines of 24 MW each.

The transformer is located parallel to the powerhouse in a separate cavern for security reasons.
The distance between the caverns is 50 m. The access tunnel arrives first to the transformer
cavern and later on to the powerhouse cavern. Additionally, a second tunnel is foreseen to
interconnect both caverns and it could also serve as an emergency exit.

Table 16: Main features of the Underground Powerhouse and transformer cavern
Dimensions of the main cavern (L x W x H) 44 x 20 x 24 m

Foundation elevation 490.30 m.a.s.l.

Machine hall floor elevation 506.00 m.a.s.l.

Turbine setting level 500.00 m.a.s.l.

Top elevation of the calotte 521.30 m.a.s.l.

Dimensions of the transformer cavern (L x W x H) 38 x 11 x 12 m

8.2.8.1 Multipurpose access tunnel

The access to the powerhouse complex is through a 1 km long multipurpose access tunnel. Its
portal has an elevation of 540.0 m.a.s.l. after crossing the first bridge over the existing road
between Kvabga and Zoti. This is an existing bridge with 55 m length but a refurbishing is
foreseen in order to support the loads of the equipments and powerhouse elements. The length
of this access tunnel is 1.3 km with a slope of 4.5 %. The section is a D-shape with an
excavated width at the invert of 3.0 m, the vertical walls are 1.90 m high and the top arch has a
radius of 1.50 m. A 10 cm shotcrete lining is foreseen for the vertical walls and the top arc, and
a 15 cm asphaltic cement layer will be placed on the invert together with a drainage system to
guarantee the traffic circulation.
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 40/65

Additionally, this access tunnel will port the outgoing high voltage cables placed on cable-trays
at one of the banks. Cable-trays need a sectional area of 1.2 m height x 0.4 m width inside the
tunnel. Closed ducts for fresh and waste air from the ventilation system have to be considered.

8.2.8.2 Tailrace tunnel

The tailrace tunnel discharges the water from the Pelton turbines and brings them back to the
Gubazeuli River. The outlet portal is located at 490 m.a.s.l., near the village of Kvabga. It has a
D-shape profile with a length of 2.19 km and a slope of 0.25 %. The excavated width at the
invert is 2.6 m, the vertical walls are 1.80 m high and the top arch has a radius of 1.3 m. The
vertical walls and the invert will form a channel with a 20 cm thick concrete. The top arc will be
supported according to the profile type. This channel is designed for a discharge of 8.6 m3/s
with a velocity of 2.8 m/s and a water depth of 1.40 m.

If the tunnel driving will be conventional or with a tunnel boring machine will be fixed in a later
design stage.

8.2.9 Mechanical Equipment

Zoti HPP is a high head scheme with storage capacity aimed to operate mainly for peak energy
production. The plant discharge is 8.6 m3/s and the maximum net head 628.6 m. Pelton turbines
have been considered for operation in this range of head. Head and discharge lead to a rated
turbine power of 48 MW.

8.2.9.1 Number of units and units arrangement

The installation of two units is recommended for Zoti HPP in order to achieve good availability
of turbines during maintenance/repair works and in case of one turbine is out of order. Therefore
turbine rated power is proposed with 2 x 24 MW.

The arrangement of the turbines is mainly determined by the costs of the cavern works. Vertical
Pelton units with several injectors (more than 2 injectors) allow a more compact design than
horizontal units (maximum 2 injectors).

Other advantages of vertical units by regards of horizontal units are:

• Vertical units with higher number of jets can provide better efficiencies at minimum
plant discharge.

• Periodic inspection of the runner, nozzles and deflectors can be achieved at a glance, as
no elements hide another (visit from below).

• Stress on Pelton runners with en even number of nozzles is cancelled as nozzles are
symmetrically distributed.

A disadvantage of the vertical arrangement will be the maintenance of generator as more work
is needed than for a horizontal arrangement.

Based on the above explanations, vertical Pelton arrangement is recommended for Zoti HPP.
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 41/65

In order to reach a compact vertical design of each generating unit, only two bearings for the
complete shaft will be installed: one upper combined thrust/guide bearing on top of the
generator and a lower guide bearing on top of turbine housing. The Pelton runner is bolted
directly to the lower generator shaft.

The generator frame will support the upper combined bearing. Below the generator, a large
bracket embedded in the concrete will bear the generator. Axial forces will be transmitted
through stator frame, to the bracket then into the concrete.

8.2.9.2 Rotating speed

For the turbine vertical arrangement two alternatives are possible: units equipped with 4
injectors (n=750 rpm) and units equipped with 6 injectors (1000 rpm).

However, the alternative with a speed rotation of n=750 rpm is recommended to avoid high
runaway speed then limiting the mechanical stresses in the rotating parts.

8.2.9.3 Modes of operation

• Normal operation of the plant for peak energy production.

• Synchronous condenser mode (if foreseen by the Client): This operation is aimed to
regulate the voltage of the grid by producing / absorbing reactive power. This operation
needs the permanent operation of the auxiliaries including cooling water system without
water contribution from the waterway (injectors closed). The cooling water concept
shall take this into account if this mode of operation is foreseen.

• Spinning reserve: Pelton units are favourable for this operation mode due to capability
of fast power regulation according to the grid demand. This operation is normally
foreseen for powerplants equipped with Pelton units.

8.2.9.4 Turbine and governor

The main data of the turbines are:

• Type: Vertical Pelton unit

• Number of turbines: 2

• Turbine plant discharge: 8.6 m3/s

• Rated net head: 628.6 m

• Max turbine output: 48 MW

The main scope of the supply for each unit includes:

• 1 Pelton runner

• 1 turbine housing
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 42/65

• 4 jet Pelton distributor

• 4 nozzles with servomotors and deflectors

• 1 turbine governor system with oil pressure unit

• Instrumentation, vibration monitoring and piping

8.2.9.5 Main Inlet Valve

The Main Inlet Valve (MIV) will be installed between the steel lined feeder and the inlet pipe of
the turbine distributor. Due to the high head, the MIV is of the spherical valve type, provided
with a downstream service seal and an upstream maintenance seal. This double seal concept
allows inspection and maintenance works on the turbine, as well as removal of the service seal
of the MIV without emptying the upstream waterway.

On the upstream side, the MIV will be flanged and bolted to a conical connection pipe, which is
welded to the steel lined feeder including a make-up piece.

The opening of the MIV will be operated by means of a servomotor whereas the closing will be
performed by a counterweight. One hydraulic servomotor, supported on the concrete ground
shall be installed for opening the valve rotor. The oil pressure for opening will be supplied by
the oil pressure system of the MIV.

The MIV consists of the following components (for each unit):

• Spherical valve, diameter approx. 700 mm, complete with body, rotor, maintenance and
service seal

• Maintenance free bearings

• Servomotor and oil pressure system

• By-pass system

• Dismantling pipe and upstream connection pipe

• Counterweight with lever

8.2.9.6 Cooling Water System

The cooling water system will provide cold water to the heat exchangers of generators and
transformers as well as cooling water for generator combined thrust/guide bearings and for the
lower guide bearings.

The system consists of:

• Three pumps (one for each unit and one as stand-by pump) pumping water from a
common sump built at the discharge pit level.
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 43/65

• Two automatic backwash strainers (one as stand-by), provide continuous cleaning of


water prior to entering the heat exchangers.

• Header pipes.

• Check valves installed after pump exit prevent flow back to the pumps.

• Gate valves, ball valves.

• Set of controls and instruments.

Other alternatives for cooling water system can be studied in the next stage.

8.2.9.7 Drainage and Dewatering System

The system will allow the collecting of seepage, leakage, drainage and oil contaminated water
from the powerhouse cavern. The system will also allow dewatering of the turbine distributor
and waterways to perform repair works of water wet parts.

Leakage, seepage, drainage and oil contaminated water of powerhouse cavern will be collected
into an oil/water separator tank before directing the water by gravity to the tailrace channel. The
oil/water separator tank will be installed below the MIV floor level.

Dewatering of the upstream waterway and turbine distributor will be performed directly by
gravity into the tailrace channel by means of isolating valves or through injectors-deflectors at
small discharge.

The system will consist of:

• One oil / water separator tank

• Dewatering header pipes

• Isolating valves

8.2.9.8 Powerhouse Crane

The powerhouse crane will provide the facility of unloading, shifting and loading of equipments
in powerhouse during erection period. It will also provide the same facility during operation and
maintenance periods.

The heaviest component to be lifted is the generator rotor of approx. 60 tons. Therefore the
capacity of the main hook will be 70 ton whereas the capacity of the auxiliary hook will be 10
ton.
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 44/65

8.2.10 Electrical Equipment - Generators, Transformers, and Switchgear

8.2.10.1 Generators

Two vertically arranged generators directly coupled with turbines shall be provided with the
main features as follows:

- Number of Phases 3 Phase

- Frequency 50 Hz ± 5%

- Rated voltage 10 kV ± 10%

- Power factor 0.8

- Rated continuous capacity 30 MVA

- Speed 750 rpm

- Inertia constant approx 22’000 kg m2

The generator will consist of the following main components

- Rotor consisting of 10 laminated poles fitted in rotor rim.

- Stator with a core made of high quality lamination and a class F insulated winding

- Brake ring fixed on the rotor rim.

- Upper combined thrust and guide bearing.

- Lower guide bearing.

- Brakes / jacks with oil hydraulic and air pressure equipment.

- Slip ring assembly.

- Water cooled heat exchangers.

- Piping and supports for inlet and outlet cooling water.

- RTD’s in winding, metal and oil bearing with cable terminated in junction boxes.

- Vibration monitoring.

8.2.10.2 Excitation System

The excitation system shall provide field current to the rotor poles for producing magnetic flux.
Simultaneously, a built-in Automatic Voltage Regulator shall control the field current to induce
voltage at the stator terminals in accordance with the reference voltage.
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 45/65

A static excitation system with thyristor rectifier shall be used in order to achieve a system with
a very high response to grid fluctuation and low maintenance. Each unit should have its own
static excitation equipment.

Static excitation equipment for one unit shall consist of following components:

- Regulation Cubicle consisting of one microprocessor based hardware, interface power


supply and associated software. Automatic voltage regulator equipped with reference value
setting, V / F limiter and reactive current compensator. Rotor current limiter, under current
excitation limiter and field breaker.

- Excitation Transformer

- Slip ring with carbon brushes with associated cable to interconnect the static exciter with
rotor

8.2.10.3 Generator Step-Up Transformer

The generator transformer shall step up the generator voltage to the level of transmission line,
110kV depending on the load supply configuration. Each generator will have an independent
three phase 2 windings transformer.

The step-up transformer equipment consists of the following supply components:

- Type Three phases, Three Windings, oil filled

- Capacity 30 MVA

- Voltage Ratio 110/10 kV

- Type of cooling Oil Forced Water Forced (OFWF)

- Total numbers provided 2

- Terminal 110kV Connected to the 110kV switchyard with XLPE Cables

- Terminal 10kV Connected to the generator with 10 kV XLPE Cables

In order to provide a high level of reliability, we recommend separating each generator and the
network by means of the step-up transformer.

A direct connection as shown in the previous feasibility study shall be avoided as it could result
in major damages on the stator winding in case of earth fault.

A step-up transformer spare part has not been included in the price estimation. This can be
evaluated in the next stage.

8.2.10.4 Electrical Protections

The electrical protection will be assumed by redundant multifunction digital relays. The
electrical protection will be separate in the following area:
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 46/65

- Unit (Generator, and Main Transformer)

- 110kV Cables

- 110kV Switchyard

- Transmission Line

Definition of protective functions will be made at tender design phase according to the current
practice and the recommendation of standardization institute.

8.2.10.5 Medium Voltage Switchgear

One metal-clad switchgear per unit shall be installed in the powerhouse cavern for
interconnecting the generator, the excitation transformer, the auxiliary transformer and the main
transformer. Off-load, de-energized type switch will be used for separate the generator in order
to be able to supply the auxiliary transformer through the main transformer when the unit is not
running. SF6 circuit breaker will provide fast isolating of the auxiliary transformer in case of
electrical fault. Manually operated disconnecting and earthing switch shall be installed for
commissioning and maintenance purpose. Each of them will be equipped with:

- 1 bay for connection to the step-up transformers

- 1 bay for connection to the auxiliary transformers (with circuit breaker)

- 1 busbar off-load switch

- 1 bay for connection to the generator

- 1 bay for connection to the excitation transformer

8.2.10.6 High Voltage Switchyard (110kV)

One outdoor switchyard shall be installed near the entrance of access gallery for interconnecting
the main transformers with the transmission lines. SF6 circuit breaker will be used for
synchronization process and protection of the units and transmission lines and also for switching
operation.

The 110kV switchyard will be equipped with:

- 2 bays for connection to the step-up transformers

- 1 bay for connection to the transmission line

The switchyard will be designed to allow easy future extension of at least one bay for
connection to the future Hydro Power Plant Kvirila

Connection between the main transformers and the switchyard will be provided by one
kilometer length 110kV XLPE insulated cables and located in the access gallery.
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 47/65

8.2.10.7 Low Voltage AC Supplier

One auxiliary transformer 10/0.4kV per unit shall be used to supply the plant auxiliary power.
Each transformer shall be dimensioned to provide the complete auxiliary load of the plant.

The LV power distribution shall be constituted of one main distribution board and four sub
distribution boards. The main distribution board shall collect the power from the auxiliary
transformers or the diesel generator and shall supply the sub distribution boards. The feeders
will be equipped with withdrawable circuit breaker with over current relay. The busbar shall be
equipped with over/under frequency relays and over/under voltage relays as protection purpose.

One sub distribution board shall be installed for each unit, one for the general consumers in
main cavern and one for the consumers in transformer cavern. The feeders shall be equipped
with Circuit Breaker and over current relay, Moulded-Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB), or
Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB) depending of their nominal power. Some feeders will be
equipped with additional relays for command.

Each of these five boards shall have two sections, one supplying the normal load which will be
not supply by the EDG and the second the essential load which required supply by the EDG.

To supply power to the essential auxiliaries and to enable black start condition, a 200 KVA,
415V Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) shall be provided. An Automatic Transfer Switch
(ATS) shall also be provided to automatically start the EDG and switch over the source of
supply to the essential loads.

Consumers located at the Zôti dam and the various tyrolean intakes will be supply by a cable
located in the penstock pit and in the headrace tunnel or by local autonomous systems.

8.2.10.8 Low Voltage DC Supplier System

Two sets of battery 600Ah, 220 Volt DC along with respective battery chargers shall be
provided in the power house to supply DC power to the control, instrumentation,
communication, protection, static excitation and other essential equipment as required. The
recommended batteries shall be of Nickel-Cadmium type. If equipment required a different
voltage, DC/DC converter shall propose.

8.2.10.9 Control System

A Distributed Control System (DCS) shall be proposed for the complete control command and
acquisition of the unit, switchyard and auxiliaries. The DCS system in cavern will include at
least one operator station, the plant and backup stations, a double star or ring optical network,
and four programmable logic controllers as local control unit. Additionally, two operator
stations, the engineering station, and the communication equipment will be installed in the
administrative building situated outside close to the entrance of the multipurpose tunnel access.
Communication for DCS purpose between powerhouse cavern network, switchyard and
administration building shall be made by two independent optical network cables.
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 48/65

8.2.10.10 Instrumentation and metering

Complete electrical metering shall be provided on the MV and HV plant. Each generator,
transformer, and line feeder shall be equipped with current, voltage and power measuring
equipment. In addition each unit and line feeder shall be equipped with energy meter.
Measuring will use separate current and voltage transformer.

8.2.10.11 Fire Fighting System

Fire protection of generator in underground power house will be provided by an inert gas
mixture consisting on Argon and Nitrogen. Each oil transformer shall be equipped with it own
deluge system. For other equipment and general fire hoses and hydrants will be provided at
strategic points. A water storage tank shall provide fire fighting water through pipes and valve.
It should be erected in high elevation in order to avoid any need of power during fire event. It
will be filled by means of pumps during the normal operation of the plant.

8.2.10.12 Communication System

The project area shall be equipped with telecommunication system to allow internal
communication within the vicinity as well as interface with the public exchange system. A VHF
radio system can be proposed for voice communication between maintenance and operating
teams as well as for telecommunication with the instrumentation located at Gubazeuli dam and
the various tyrolean intakes.

8.2.11 Power Evacuation – Connection to Electrical Grid

According to the information received during the meeting stayed the 13 August 2009 in AF-
Colenco office in Baden, the plant will be connected to the nearest 110kV Georgian Substation
located at around 16km from the plant. Single circuit transmission line will be enough to
provide complete power evacuation.

9 Implementation Schedule

9.1 Working capacities

The following values have been adopted in order to elaborate the construction schedule.
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 49/65

Table 17: Work capacities for the main construction items


Work
Item Unit Remarks
capacity

Excavation m3/day 500 For structures

Concreting m3/day 450 Including formworks (50 m3/h x 9h)

Rockfill / earthfill
m3/day 1500
volume

Tunnel excavation m/year 1350 Traditional excavation

Concrete lining for


m/year 2700 Average
tunnels

Refurbishing of roads m/year 30000 Average

Construction of access
m/year 16000 Average
roads

The costs for roads have been assumed with the condition that the contractor has experience on
this field; otherwise the construction times might be very extensive.

9.2 Construction Program

The project area of Zoti HPP does not have many transport options. Therefore, 21 km of access
roads are necessary to reach the different scheme elements. Accordingly, it is needed to start the
construction of roads at least 6 months before the start of the Adit 1.

Table 18 shows the construction program where preparation works and Zoti HPP are the main
divisions. The critical path is the construction of the headrace tunnel between Adit 1 and
Gubazeuli Dam, due to the 6.1 km of road improvement and 15.2 km of new roads construction.
It is suggested to carry out a roads optimization study, taking into account more detailed
topographical and geological conditions.
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 50/65

Table 18: Construction schedule


ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 51/65
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 52/65

9.3 Construction Material Management

9.3.1 Construction materials for concrete aggregates

Most of the construction materials can be found close to the project area. The excavated
material is approximately 170.000 m³, it has been estimated that only 97.000 m3 can be prepared
in crushing plants for concrete. A greater portion of excavated material cannot be used for
construction purposes. The rest has to be deposited in well defined areas, which are not affected
by flood-waves so that no erosion of the material will occur.

9.3.2 Cement and auxiliary materials

In case of a concrete dam and tunnels, it will be economical to install a batching plant close to
each site and adits. Whereas aggregates can be quarried close by the site, cement and all
auxiliary materials for the construction of the dam, appurtenant structures, tunnels and intakes
are bought from producers in Georgia, if prices according to local custom and usage can be
negotiated. Otherwise, for best overall cost effectiveness, imports may be necessary.
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 53/65

10 Cost Estimate

10.1 Unit Prices

Table 19. Assumed unitary rates

Adopted Unit Rates


DESCRIPTION UNIT €
Excavation works (mucking up to a distance of 500 m)
2
Clearing, Grubbing and stripping (deep up to 25 cm) m 1.75
2
Preparation of foundation m 2.00
3
Common open excavation in loose material m 5.00
3
Common open excavation on weathered rock m 4.50
3
Open excavation in rock m 9.50
3
Cavern excavation m 52.00
3
Trench Excavation m 1.20
3
Removal of bolders m 10.00
Filling works (transport up to a distance of 4 km)
3
Earth fill (Cofferdam) m 0.70
3
Rock fill (weir) m 6.80
3
Compacted Backfill (random material) m 5.50
3
Rip-rap m 6.60
Support measurements for tunnels and shafts
3
Tunnel excavation m 85.00
2
Ordinary wire mesh m 11.50
Rock bolts L = 2.0 m u 32.50
Rock bolts L = 2.5 to 3.5 m u 42.50
2
Shotcrete in tunnel, 8 to 10 cm thick m 25.50
2
Shotcrete in tunnel, 10 to 15 cm thick m 42.30
2
Shotcrete in tunnel, 15 to 20 cm thick m 56.70
2
Shotcrete in tunnel, 20 to 30 cm thick m 72.20
Shotcrete for support works kg 48.20
Wire mesh fabric (welded steel fabric) kg 1.20
Steel ribs or arches (including supply, transortation to the site and erection) kg 3.90
Various (Grouting, Drainage holes, grout mixt) m 21.40
Concrete works
3
Mass concrete gravity dams (including formwork) m 82.00
3
Structural concrete (including formwork) m 92.00
Reinforcement bars kg 0.86
Steel works
Steel for penstock and tunnel lining kg 2.85
Steel for trash rack kg 4.00
Steel for hydraulic steel structures (gates) kg 10.00
Steel for hydraulic steel structures (stop logs) kg 4.30
HM/EM Equipment
Trashrack Cleaning Machine (small) L.S. 120000
Trashrack Cleaning Machine (big) L.S. 210000
Gantry Crane (30 tons capacity) L.S. 255000
Power transmission lines
110 kV, double circuit km 250000
10.2

Basic Design Report


ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Table 20. Summary of the expected costs for Zoti HPP

Expected Investment Costs


Expected Project Costs

103 €
Civil Hydromechanical Mechanical Eletrical Total
Works Works Equipment Equipment
Part C Part H Part M Part E

1 CATCH. 1: DIVERSION KHINISTSKALI + DIVERSION TUNNEL + CHANNEL 5,944.5 12.0 10.0 5,966.5
2 CATCH. 2: DAM "ZOTI" H= 45m 6,945.0 103.1 50.0 7,098.1
3 INTAKE STRUCTURE 64.4 37.4 50.0 151.8
4 CATCH. 3: DIVERSION GUBAZEULI CREEK + DIVERSION TUNNEL 368.1 19.9 10.0 398.0
5 CATCH. 4: DIVERSION KVIRILA 1,041.2 32.2 10.0 1,083.3
6 HEADRACE TUNNEL 11,141.1 11,141.1
7 UPSTREAM SURGE SHAFT 578.9 578.9
8 PRESSURE SHAFT 1,019.1 1,914.5 2,933.6
9 UNDERGROUND POWERHOUSE AND OUTDOOR SWITCHYARD 3,694.2 27.9 6,069.6 11,818.6 21,610.4
10 TAILRACE CHANNEL 939.1 939.1

Intermediate Total: 31,735.7 2,146.9 6,069.6 11,948.6 51,900.8


a Site Installation and Camp (only on civil costs) 15.0% 4,760.4 4,760.4
b Contingencies for C&H parts 15.0% 4,760.4 322.0 5,082.4
c Contingencies for E&M parts 10.0% 607.0 1,194.9 1,801.8

A Total Construction and Equipment Costs 41,256.4 2,469.0 6,676.6 13,143.5 63,545.4
Rate with respect to total cost A 64.9% 3.9% 10.5% 20.7% 100.0%
B Reimbursement for Land Acquisition --- 980.0
C Reimbursement for Resettlement --- -
D Accesses (roads, bridges, tunnels) --- 10,400.0
E Various Expenses 0.8% 508.4
F Investigations 1.0% 635.5
G Feasibility Study, Final Design and Tendering 2.0% 1,270.9
H Design, Supervision and Administration 7.0% 4,448.2
I Connection to the Electrical National Grid (16 km) --- 4,000.0

TOTAL INVESTMENT COSTS: 85,788

54/65
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 55/65

10.3 Annual Costs and Prime Rate Cost of Energy


Prime cost of Energy

HPP "Zoti"

Total Construction and Equipment Cost 103 € 63,545.40


Civil 103 € 41,256.40
Hydraulic Steel Structures 103 € 2,468.98
Mechanical 103 € 6,676.56
Electrical 103 € 13,143.46
Total Cost various 103 € 22,242.90
Total Investment Cost 103 € 85,788.30

Construction Time years 3.5


Interest rate during Construction (DSI) 9.5%
Interest Cost 18,337.25
3
Total Investment 10 € 104,125.55

Interest rate (DSI) 9.5%


q 1.095
Financial Evaluation Period [years]
Civil 50 48.1%
Hydraulic Steel Structures 50 2.9%
Mechanical 50 7.8%
Electrical 50 15.3%
Various and Interest during Construction 50 25.9%
Weighted Average 50.0
Annual Depreciatoin and Interest Cost 9,998.87

Maintenance cost 242.62


Civil 103 € 0.3% 123.77
Hydraulic Steel Structures 103 € 0.8% 19.75
3
Mechanical 10 € 0.5% 33.38
Electrical 103 € 0.5% 65.72

Operation Cost 717.61


Personnel Cost 103 € 457.29
Management 1500 1 37.69
Engineers 1200 3 90.45
Professional 700 8 140.71
Manual 500 15 188.45
3
Charges 10 € 0.0% -
Administration and Insurance 103 € 0.25% 260.31

3
TOTAL ANNUAL COST 10 € 10,959.10

Energy Production 225.1

PRIME COST OF ENERGY €/MWh 48.7

In the above table it is considered that there is no tariff difference between Peak and Base Load
energy. However, with the proposed Gubazeuli reservoir it is possible to generate peak energy
considering 5 hours per day. Therefore the total Energy Production can be divided in peak
energy (82.7 GWh) and base energy (142.4 GWh).
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 56/65

11 Environmental aspects
The basic design of Zoti HPP was developed in respect of the ecological situation. In the study
it was very important to have as less influence on the environment as possible. Therefore it has
been possible to use the river Gubazeuli and its effluents for renewable energy without a major
negative effect on the ecological system of the river.

The long tunnels of the hydro power plants do not interfere to the normal development of the
area or with the landscape; contrarily it brings new access roads and a new economical activity.

Due to the relatively sparse population characteristic at the project area, matters like land
acquisition and resettlement that normally represent an important topic in hydroelectric projects,
are not a main issue.

12 Conclusions and recommendations


The total investment cost, including interest costs during construction, amounts to
101.1 millions of Euros for the proposed scheme. The annual costs are calculated to reach
10.7 millions of Euros.

The two vertical Pelton turbines have an installed capacity of 24 MW each. The average annual
energy production of Zoti HPP is estimated to be 225.1 GWh and the energy rate results 47.3
Euros/MWh (uniform selling rate)

With the foreseen daily storage capacity at Gubazeuli reservoir, it is possible to divide the total
energy production into peak and base energy. For example, when assuming that 5 hours peak
energy are generated, the peak energy will correspond to 40% of the total produced energy.
Likewise if 8 peak hours are considered, the peak energy will correspond to 55% of the total
produced energy. However, such benefit can be only evaluated when a peak and a base selling
tariff have been established in the country and if it is so, the project becomes economically more
attractive.

Environmental effects do not represent a critical issue for Zoti HPP. Nonetheless, a project of
this dimension causes changes within the affected area. Therefore, of primary concern should be
the minimization of the negative impacts of the project to the local population, or further, even
to ameliorate the current living conditions. It is a fact that the project will cause indirect benefits
to the region, i.e. social and economical development.

The scheme has only one operation organ (spherical valve) which allows a simple plant
operation and consequently a friendly maintenance.

For the next design steps the following tasks are recommended to carry out in order to elaborate
the Detail design (concession design):

• Electrical market study

• More information about legal aspects

• Comprehensive hydrological study


ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 57/65

• Geological Study

• Survey (Topography)

13 Kvirila HPP – Quick assessment of economical feasibility

13.1 General layout

To evaluate the economical attractiveness of an additional hydro power plant, situated upstream
of the derivation structure of the Kvirila catchment area at elevation 1144.0 m a.s.l. (element of
the presented Zoti HPP scheme – Chapters 1 to 12 of the present report) a rough assessment of
its economical feasibility has been carried out. The possible scheme of such a plant with daily
storage capacity is illustrated in (Figure 17) and consists of a reservoir, a headrace channel
combined with the access road to the dam, a head pond, a penstock, an outdoor powerhouse, a
switchyard and a short tailrace duct. Also a new transmission line with a length of 6 km to
connect the plant to the electrical national grid has been taken into account. For the installed
capacity the same parameters, as adopted for the Zoti HPP have been considered, i.e. the design
discharge is that one which corresponds to an exceedence value of 18.1% on the duration curve
and the required storage capacity is determined to produce peak energy at least during 5 hours a
day over the whole year. Considering a hydraulic head of around 280 m and a design discharge
of 3.15 m3/s the resulting installed capacity is around 8 MW and the average annual energy
production amounts to 34.7 GWh.

The Kvirila HPP, as presented in this chapter, is connected to the main access road system of
the Zoti HPP. In the case this project would be realized as stand alone; i.e. independently of the
Zoti HPP, additional cost for accesses and grid connection would arise. In the case the Zoti HPP
would be realized, the final connection of the water conveyance system of the Kvirila HPP with
the Zoti one should be studied more in detail. Maybe a solution can be found to connect the two
plants without losing any head, because in the presented assessment some 20 m of head are not
harnessed.

In this chapter the principal findings of the quick assessment of the Kvirila HPP are presented.
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 58/65

Powerhouse

Penstock

Head pond

Kvirila River
Pressurized headrace
channel

Kvirila Dam

Kvirila Reservoir

Figure 17. Plan view of Kvirila HPP

The hydrology data was deducted proportionally to the watershed as explained in chapter 5.1.
The main hydrological information is summarized in Table 21 and the duration curve is
depicted in Figure 18.

Table 21. Main hydrological information for Kvirilas River

Kvirilas River

Talweg level [m.a.s.l.] 1430

Catchment Area [km2] 44.6

Factor 0.14

Qaverage [m3/s] 0.13

Qeco [m3/s] 0.30


ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 59/65

8
Kvirila HPP
7

6
Discharge [m /s]

3
5
3

Design discharge = 3.15 m /s


Exceedence probability = 18.1
4
3

2
1
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100

Exceedence probability [%]

Figure 18. Duration curve for Kvirila HPP

13.2 Salient features

A longitudinal profile indicationg the main elements of the scheme is shown in Figure 19 and
Table 22 presents the main features for each of the Kvirila HPP’s components.

1470
Max. op. Level = 1440 m.a.s.l. Head pond
1450
1430 Tailrace channel
1410
1390
Elevation [m.a.s.l.]

1370
1350
1330 Penstock
L= 407 m
1310
1290
1270
1250
1230
1210
1190 Outdoor
1170 Powerhouse
1150
-100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600

Distance to Kvirila Dam [m]

Figure 19. Longitudinal profile Kvirila HPP


ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 60/65

Table 22. Salient features of Kvirila HPP

Talweg elevation 1430 m.a.s.l.


Dam type Concrete gravity
Kvirila Dam Crest elevation 1445 m.a.s.l.
Deepest foundation elevation 1425 m.a.s.l.
Maximum height 20 m
Type Ungated-incorporated in dam
Elevation of ogee crest 1440.1 m.a.s.l.
Number of openings 2
Spillway Width of openings 14 m
Design discharge (Q1000) 270 m3/s
Max. reservoir level 1442.9 m.a.s.l.
3
PMF (390 m /s) level 1443.7 m.a.s.l.
Dimensions (w x h) 3.5 x 4.0 m
Bottom outlet Number of openings 1
Max. capacity (full reservoir) 162 m3/s
Invert elevation 1436.9 m.a.s.l
Type Bell-mouth inlet
Intake Design discharge 3.15 m3/s
Sliding gate (w x h) 1.3 x 1.1 m
Trash rack (w x h) 1.10 x 1.4 m
Max. reservoir level 1440 m.a.s.l.
Min. reservoir level 1438.7 m.a.s.l.
Average reservoir level 1439.4 m.a.s.l.
Reservoir Kvirila
Total storage volume 3.05 x105 m3
Live storage volume 0.68 x105 m3
Dead storage volume 2.37 x105 m3

Headrace channel Concrete lined/rectangular +


Type/section
(pressurized) road
Length 1167 m
Design discharge 3.15 m3/s
Slope 0.17 %
Channel section (w x h) 1.6 x 1.2 m
Concrete lining thickness 30 cm
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 61/65

Flow velocity 1.64 m/s


Head losses 3.3 m
Road width 4.5
Start/end elevation 1436.9 m.a.s.l./1434.9 m.a.s.l.

Max. Operation level 1436.7 m.a.s.l.


Min. Operation level 1435.4 m.a.s.l.
Head Pond Volume 2240 m3
Sliding gate 1.8 x 1.4 m3/s

Length 407 m
Internal diameter 1.60 m
Average thickness 0.80 cm
Penstock
Flow velocity 1.60 m/s
Head losses 0.7

Type Outdoor powerhouse


Turbines 1 x horizontal Francis
Turbine axes elevation 1162 m.a.s.l
Downstream water level 1160 m.a.s.l
Draft tube min. elevation 1158.4 m.a.s.l
Powerhouse
Net head 1436 – 1160 = 276 m
Design discharge 3.15 m3/s
Installed capacity 8 MW
Machine efficiency 0.90

Type Outdoor
Three phases, Two Windings,
Transformer type
oil filled
Transformer Capacity 9.5 MVA
Voltage ratio 110/8 kV
Total transformers provided 1

Switchyard Type Outdoor Open Air


Rated Voltage 110kV
ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 62/65

Total number of bays


1 + 1 in Zoti switchyard
provided

Section Circular/ concrete lined


Length 30 m
Design discharge 3.15 m3/s
Tailrace tunnel Internal diameter 1.60 m
Concrete lining thickness 25 cm
Flow velocity 1.60 m/s
13.3

Basic Design Report


ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Table 23. Summary of the expected costs for Kvrila HPP

will use the same line as used per Zoti HPP for power evacuation.
grid considers a 6 km length 110kV transmission line until Zoti switchyard and afterwards it
will rise up to ~3,4 millions of Euros. Similarly, the connection of Kvirila HPP to the National
Kvrila Dam. Contrarily, assuming that any roads are built in the area the amount of the item D
access roads until Kvirila intake. From Kvrila intake only 1.43 km of road are needed until
The expected investment costs presented in Table 23 consider that Zoti HPP will provide the

Expected Investment Costs


HPP "Kvirila"

Expected Project Costs

103 €
Civil Hydromechanical Mechanical Eletrical Total
Works Works Equipment Equipment
Part C Part H Part M Part E

1 DAM "KVIRILA" H= 20 m 1,378.4 103.1 50.0 1,531.5


2 INTAKE STRUCTURE 21.0 19.5 50.0 90.5
3 HEADRACE CHANNEL + ACCESS ROAD 800.5 800.5
4 HEAD POND (vol= 2240 m3) 103.0 7.1 110.1
5 PENSTOCK 20.2 386.4 406.6
6 OUTDOOR POWERHOUSE 385.9 7.5 1,441.0 1,774.4 3,608.8
7 OUTDOOR SWITCHYARD 702.0 702.0
8 HEADRACE TUNNEL 25.6 25.6

Intermediate Total: 2,734.6 523.6 1,441.0 2,576.4 7,275.6


a Site Installation and Camp (only on civil costs) 15.0% 410.2 410.2
b Contingencies for C&H parts 15.0% 410.2 78.5 488.7
c Contingencies for E&M parts 10.0% 144.1 257.6 401.7

A Total Construction and Equipment Costs 3,555.0 602.1 1,585.1 2,834.0 8,576.3
Rate with respect to total cost A 41.5% 7.0% 18.5% 33.0% 100.0%
B Reimbursement for Land Acquisition --- 1.3
C Reimbursement for Resettlement --- -
D Accesses (roads, bridges, tunnels) --- 400.0
E Various Expenses 0.8% 68.6
F Investigations 1.0% 85.8
G Feasibility Study, Final Design and Tendering 2.0% 171.5
H Design, Supervision and Administration 7.0% 600.3
I Connection to the Electrical National Grid (6 km) --- 1,500.0

TOTAL INVESTMENT COSTS: 11,404

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Basic Design Report 64/65

13.4 Annual Costs and Prime Rate Cost of Energy

Prime cost of Energy

HPP "Kvirila"

3
Total Construction and Equipment Cost 10 € 8,576.30
Civil 103 € 3,555.03
Hydraulic Steel Structures 103 € 602.13
3
Mechanical 10 € 1,585.10
3
Electrical 10 € 2,834.04
3
Total Cost various 10 € 2,827.51
3
Total Investment Cost 10 € 11,403.81

Construction Time years 2.0


Interest rate during Construction (DSI) 9.5%
Interest Cost 1,625.04
3
Total Investment 10 € 13,028.85

Interest rate (DSI) 9.5%


q 1.095
Financial Evaluation Period [years]
Civil 50 31.2%
Hydraulic Steel Structures 50 5.3%
Mechanical 50 13.9%
Electrical 50 24.9%
Various and Interest during Construction 50 24.8%
Weighted Average 50.0
Annual Depreciatoin and Interest Cost 1,251.11

Maintenance cost 37.58


Civil 103 € 0.3% 10.67
Hydraulic Steel Structures 103 € 0.8% 4.82
3
Mechanical 10 € 0.5% 7.93
3
Electrical 10 € 0.5% 14.17

Operation Cost 489.91


Personnel Cost 103 € 457.34
Management 1500 1 37.69
Engineers 1200 3 90.46
Professional 700 8 140.72
Manual 500 15 188.46
Charges 103 € 0.0% -
3
Administration and Insurance 10 € 0.25% 32.57

3
TOTAL ANNUAL COST 10 € 1,778.60

Energy Production 34.7

PRIME COST OF ENERGY €/MWh 51.3


ENERGO-PRO, Zoti HPP Georgia
Basic Design Report 65/65

13.5 Conclusions

Kvirila HPP, combined with Zoti HPP presents a prime cost of energy of 51.3 Eur/MWh.
Considering the whole cascade the weighted average results in 49.0 Eur/MWh, which means
0.62 % more of the Zoti HPP alone, but with an increased average annual energy production of
15% (225.1 + 34.7 = 259.8 GWh).

Baden, July 2009 – Anr, Arj, Drs, Smr, Vob

AF-Colenco Ltd
Hydropower Department

Markus Schmidmeister Carina Andrade


Technical responsible Project engineer

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