Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

Hi s t o r y

Rosalin Franklin: Female scientist (x-ray crystallographer) who took the picture of DNA
James Watson and Francis Crick: Solved the structure of DNA from information obtained by other
scientist. The obtained the Nobel prize for their work.
Maurice Wilkins: X-ray crystallographer friend of Watson and Crick help them solved the structure of
DNA.
Erin Chargaff: He found that the amount of Thymine equals the amount of Adenine and the amount of
Guanine equals the amount of Cytosine

NUCL EIC A CIDS (DNA an d RNA )


Nucleic acids are involved in the storage and transfer of genetic information in all living organisms. There
are 2 types of nucleic acid in cells, Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic acid (RNA). Nucleic
acids are so named because DNA was 1st isolated from nuclei, but both DNA and RNA also occur in other
parts of the cell, e.g. DNA is also found in mitochondria and chloroplasts, RNA is also found in the
cytoplasm, particularly at the ribosomes.
Both DNA and RNA are polymers, the monomeric units being called nucleotides. DNA and RNA are
therefore polynucleotides.
THERE ARE 5 DIFFERENT NITROGENOUS BASES:

adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T) and uracil (U).
A, T, C and G are found in DNA.
A, U, C and G are found in RNA (uracil replaces thymine here).

The combination of a phosphate, sugar and a base forms a compound called a nucleotide.

Structure of DNA
1 DNA is a double stranded molecule, which has a structure of a twisted ladder (double helix).
2. The two polynucleotide chains in a molecule of DNA are not identical but are complementary. The
bases always pair up in a specific fashion; adenine always pairs with thymine, cytosine always pairs with
guanine.

Structure of RNA
RNA is a single-stranded polynucleotide. There are three different types of RNA in the cells, each with a
particular structure and function.

1.Messenger RNA (mRNA)


They are single-stranded and are made up of hundreds to several thousand nucleotides. mRNA is made
in the nucleus from coded instructions in the DNA and then passes into the cytoplasm where it is involved
in the process of protein synthesis on the ribosomes.

2.Transfer RNA (tRNA)


They are single strands of 75-90 nucleotides wound up to form an overall "clover-leaf" shape. They
interact with mRNA during protein synthesis on the ribosomes. Two important features of the tRNA
molecules are:
a) they possess an `anticodon' loop through which they can interact with molecules of mRNA.
b) at the opposite end of the molecule they possess an amino acid binding site. The amino acids carried
by tRNA molecules eventually form the “protein” during protein synthesis.

3.Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)


This is made inside the nucleus within the nucleolus and is a major component of ribosomes.

DNA REPLICATION
A major requirement of genetic material is that it should be able to replicate so that its messages can be
passed on from cell to cell as an organism develops and also from one generation to the next. It is also
vital that during replication, identical copies of DNA are made so that the correct genetic messages are
passed on.
DNA replication takes place during interphase of the cell cycle, so that by the time nuclear division starts,
two identical copies of each DNA molecule are already present for distribution into daughter cells.

DNA Replication

1 3
2

1. The protein (enzyme) Helicase unwinds (opens up) the double stranded DNA molecule.

2. The protein (enzyme) DNA Polymerase makes copies of the DNA strands

3. DNA a is replicated

THE GENETIC CODE


DNA is the hereditary material responsible for all the characteristics of an organism and it controls all the
activities of a cell. It is able to do this as it carries messages which control the synthesis of proteins. An
important class of proteins is the enzymes which control chemical reactions within the cell, including the
synthesis and breakdown of other classes of molecule. Therefore, by controlling which proteins are
made at a particular time in a particular type of cell, DNA is able to control all the characteristics of a
cell.

Proteins are made up of amino acids. There are about 20 different types of amino acids commonly found
in proteins. .

DNA must therefore carry a coded message that determines not only the number and types of amino acids
that appear in a polypeptide, but also their precise sequence in the chain.

Each amino acid is in fact coded for by a sequence of 3 consecutive nucleotide bases in the DNA chain.
Each triplet of bases is called a codon.

The genetic code is usually represented in the form of RNA that would be complementary to the DNA in
the gene. This is because it is messenger RNA that is directly involved in protein synthesis and not the
genes (DNA) themselves.
The Genetic Code
Each triplet of bases represents a sequence in mRNA. Each sequence codes for the amino acid shown.

2nd base of codon

U C A G

UUU Phe UCU Ser UAU Tyr UGU Cys U


UUC Phe UCC Ser UAC Tyr UGC Cys C
U UUA Leu UCA Ser UAA Stop UGA Stop A
UUG Leu UCG Ser UAG Stop UGG Try G

CUU Leu CCU Pro CAU His CGU Arg U


C CUC Leu CCC Pro CAC His CGC Arg C
CUA Leu CCA Pro CAA Gln CGA Arg A
CUG Leu CCG Pro CAG Gln CGG Arg G

AUU Ile ACU Thr AAU Asn AGU Ser U


A AUC Ile ACC Thr AAC Asn AGC Ser C
AUA Ile ACA Thr AAA Lys AGA Arg A
AUG Met ACG Thr AAG Lys AGG Arg G

GUU Val GCU Ala GAU Asp GGU Gly U


GUC Val GCC Ala GAC Asp GGC Gly C
G GUA Val GCA Ala GAA Glu GGA Gly A
GUG Val GCG Ala GAG Glu GGG Gly G

AMINO ACIDS
Phe = phenylalanine Leu = leucine
Ile = isoleucine Met = methionine (is also start sequence)
Ser = serine Pro = proline
Thr = threonine Ala = alanine
His = histidine Tyr = tyrosine
Cys = cysteine Gln = glutamine
Try = tryptophan Asn = asparagine
Arg = arginine Lys = lysine
Gly = glycine Asp = aspartic acid
Val = valine Glu = glutamic acid

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
Transcription
This is the first stage in protein synthesis. The genetic information required for protein synthesis is
contained in DNA which remains in the nucleus. Protein synthesis however, occurs at the ribosomes in
the cytoplasm (rough endoplasmic reticulum). Therefore, a messenger molecule (mRNA) is made, which
carries the required genetic information from the nucleus to the ribosomes. The process by which mRNA
is made is called transcription.
Translation
This is the process by which the genetic information in mRNA directs the protein synthesis.
This involves a species of RNA called transfer (t) RNA. Its function is to decode the message carried by
mRNA by correctly positioning amino acids into the growing polypeptide chain according to the sequence
of nucleotides in mRNA.

Each tRNA molecule possesses two important features:


1 An anticodon site, which consists of a triplet of unpaired bases that is complementary to each
codon sequence found on mRNA.
3 A recognition site that enables the correct amino acid to bind to each tRNA molecule.
E.g.. the codon UCU specifies the amino acid serine.
Consider a sequence of mRNA to be translated:
AUGAAACGGUUA mRNA
codons met lys arg leu amino acids
for: *met = methionine (initiation) lys = lysine
arg = arginine leu = leucine
The role of nucleic acids in the storage and transfer of genetic information can be summarised as follows:
transcription translation
DNA RNA  Proteins

Protein Synthesis
What is a mutation?

A mutation is any change in a cell’s DNA

What causes mutations?

Mutations can be caused by mutagens- a physical or chemical cause of mutation. Examples: UV light,
radiation, drugs.
Mutages can also be carcinogens – anything that causes cancer.

Mutations can be natural: mutations occus in 1/100,00 DNA replications.

Mutations do not have to be bad (evolution/adaptation)

Types of mutations: Substitution, Insertion and Deletion

Substitution
A single nucleotide is altered. Can change one amino acid in a protein
Milk – Mile

GGACAATCA GGACCATCA
proline -valine-serine proline-glycine-serine

Insertion

An insertion occurs when a nucleotide is added to a gene


Example: A nucleotide is inserted
The fat cat ate the rat
The faa tca tat eth era t

GGACAATCA GCGACAATCA
proline -valine-serine arginine-cysteine-stop

-the extra nucleotide shifts all of the triplets that follow

Deletion

A deletion occurs when a nucleotide is removed from a gene.


Example: A nucleotide is removed
The fat cat ate the rat
Thf atc ata tet her at

GGACAATCA GGAAATCA
proline -valine-serine proline-leucine