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# Republic of the Philippines

## CEBU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

Daanbatayan Campus
Agujo, Daanbantayan, Cebu
(SUC Level IV, AACUP Accredited and ISO 9001 Certified)

http:/www.daanbantayan.edu.ph Email:ctudaanbantayan@yahoo.com
Tel.No. (032)437-8520 Fax No. (032)437-8520

## Name: EN Marie P. Caraquel Date: January 28, 2019

Course: DPE Term: 2nd Semester 2018 -2019
Subject: DPE 104 - Measurement and Evaluation Professor: Dr. Iris L. Gulbe

LEARNING ELEMENT

I.OBJECTIVE
1.1 Know the methods of computing Standard Deviation
1.2 Identify the properties of Normal Distribution
1.3 Difference between z-scores and T- scores

II.DOCUMENTATION
https://www.slideshare.net/NemaGraceMedillo/variability-the-normal-distribution-and-converted-scores-75297214
http://statisticsbyjim.com/basics/variability-range-interquartile-variance-standard-deviation/
https://www.statisticshowto.datasciencecentral.com/probability-and-statistics/hypothesis-testing/t-score-vs-z-score/
https://www.mathsisfun.com/data/standard-normal-distribution.html

III.CONTENT OUTLINE
Computing the Standard Deviation of scores, conversion of scores to z-scores and T-scores, and
how scores are represented using a normal curve.

IV.REPORT PROPER

 STANDARD DEVIATION
- Indicates the “average deviation” from the mean, the consistency in the
scores, and how far scores are spread out around the mean.

x− x́ ¿2
¿
¿
∑¿
¿
SD=√ ¿

## The Raw Score Method for Computing the SD

2

∑ x − ∑n
( x) 2

SD=
n

Where,
x – raw score
�̅ - mean score
n – the number of scores in the distribution

## - The Distribution with small standard deviation have compressed appearance

and are called homogeneous distribution.
- The Distribution with large deviations have more expanded appearance and
are called heterogeneous distribution.

 VARIANCE
- The average of the sum of squared deviation scores or the squared of the
standard deviation.
- These estimates are not very useful because they represent squared units, not
the units started with.

 NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
- It is a specific type of symmetrical distribution that is mathematically
determined and has fixed properties.

## Properties of the Normal Distribution

o The mean, median, and mode all
coincide.
o The percentages show how many
cases fall under a portion of the
curve.

## Using the normal curve as a model for a distribution

o mean = 61
o standard deviation = 7
o 7 points are added above the mean
o 7 points are subtracted below the
mean

Difference of 7

## 68% of the scores in the distribution fall

between 54 and 68.

## 48% of the scores in the distribution fall

between 61 and 75.

 CONVERTED SCORES

- z – Scores
o Converting raw score from any distribution to a common scale, regardless of its mean or
standard deviation, so that we can easily compare such scores.

x−x́
z=
sd

## x – the raw score

�̅ - mean
sd – standard deviation

- T – Scores
o Identical with z – scores, however it does not deal with negative numbers.
o Converting scores from z scores.
o Has a mean of 50 and standard deviation of 10.
T =10 z+50

- Sample
John obtained a score of 85 on his psychology midterm and 90 on his history midterm.
On which test did he do better compared to the rest of the class, if the class:

Psychology History
mean = 75 mean = 140
sd = 10 sd = 25

## o Curves to represent the data

John performance in psychology was far better than his performance in history. His
psychology score is one standard deviation above the meanwhile his history score is two
standard deviation below the mean. 84 % of the class scored lower than John in
psychology while only about 2 % scored lower in history.

## o Converting John’s Raw Score Through z – Scores

Psychology History
x = 85 x = 90
�̅ = 75 �̅ = 140
sd = 10 sd = 25
85−75 90−140
z= z=
10 25
= +1.0 = - 2.0

## o John’s z – score to T – score

Psychology History
z – score = + 1.0 z – score = - 2.0
T = 10z + 50 T = 10z + 50
= 10 (1.0) + 50 = 10 (-2.0) + 50
= 10 + 50 = (- 20) + 50
= 60 = 30

## - The relationship between z scores and T – scores

VARIABILITY NORMAL DISTRIBUTION CONVERTED SCORES

## QUARTILE DEVIATION T-SCORES

STANDARD DEVIATION
DEVIATION SCORE METHOD
RAW SCORE METHOD
VARIANCE

V.SCHEMATIC
VI.THOUGHT PROVOKING QUESTIONS

##  Why Standard Deviation is preferred to measure variation?

 How important is Standard Deviation?
 Can we use Normal Distribution in real life? How?
 How can we use z-score and t-score?
 How does these elements work together?