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1. Yuan always waits at his neighbor Gerald every morning. He enjoys seeing him while
biking and imitates the actions of Gerald while he rides his own bike. Who is the
proponent of Social Learning Theory which applies in the situation?
A. Bandura C. Bruner
B. Kohlberg D. Skinner
RATIONALIZATION: A- Albert Bandura developed the Social Learning Theory and advocated that “children learn
from what they see in the environment.”
2. A child submitted a poor written report but packaged with brightly colored paper. This
A. Art over academics C. art over science
B. Substance over “porma” D. “porma” over substance
RATIONALIZATION: D- When a student focuses more on designs and embellishments rather than of content of a
report, then it shows “porma” over substance.
3. With the use of mnemonics, the students are able to _____information.
A. Analyze C. understand
B. Apply D. remember
RATIONALIZATION: D-mnemonics like “My Dear Aunt Sally” to mean multiplication, division, addition and
subtraction help students remember information easily
4. According to Krathwohls’ affective domain of objectives,________ is the lowest level
of affective behavior.
A. Valuing C. responding
B. Organization D. characterization
RATIONALIZATION: C-the arrangement of Krathwohls’ affective domain is responding, valuing, organization and
5. A boy is closer to his mother and a girl is close to her father. These instances are
A. Oedipal complex C. phallic stage
B. Latent stage D. Pre-genital stage
RATIONALIZATION: C-when a boy is closer to the mother (Oedipus complex) and a girl is closer to her father
(Electra complex), these instances are under Freud’s phallic stage in the Psychosexual Development Theory.


1. Teacher Abi asks one of her students, “What do you want to become when you grow
up?” This question is an indication of what kind of philosophy?
A. Progressivism C. Existentialism
B. Naturalism D. Idealism
RATIONALIZATION: D-idealism because it stresses the existence of ideas independent from the material world.
Ideas that which exist in the mind are the only reality.
2. Teacher Jessy has not only explained the concept of Philosophy of Education but also
imparted this to her students. This demonstrates what kind of philosophy?
A. Naturalism C. Realism
B. Idealism D. Perennialism
RATIONALIZATION: C-realism concerns with what is real, actual. For ideas to be realized, they must be transferred
or demonstrated.
3. Which pillar of learning aimed in the acquisition of the instrument of understanding in
order to develop the students’ learn-to-learn skills?
A. Learning to do C. learning to live together
B. Learning to know D. learning to be
RATIONALIZATION: B- learning to know implies learning how to earn by developing one’s concentration, memory
skills and ability to think, acquiring the instrument of understanding.
4. In his class, Teacher Jakob always presents principles and values so as to encourage his
students to examine them and decide for themselves whether to accept them or not.
What kind of philosophy does he practice?
A. Idealism C. Humanism
B. Essentialism D. Existentialism
RATIONALIZATION: D-Existentialism is a philosophy that emphasizes subjectivity, freedom and responsibility.
5. When a teacher emphasizes that man’s sense should be trusted because they are the
only way to acquire knowledge, the teacher can be regarded as____.
A. Naturalist C. Empiricist
B. Realist D. Pragmatist
RATIONALIZATION: C-empiricism upholds that the only source of knowledge is the senses and sense-based


1. The school conducted a general student election for the Supreme Student Council. The
election is patterned after the COMELEC system. The school is using what kind of
A. Symposium C. Panel discussion
B. Simulation D. Dramatization
RATIONALIZATION: B-simulation is an activity that simulates “almost real-life situation”. Other applications of
simulation are the following: simulated flight for aviation students, assigning student to be the mayor of the day.
2. During problem solving method, the teacher’s primary role is:
A. Director C. lecturer
B. Clarifier D. judge
RATIONALIZATION: B-during problem solving activities, the teacher acts as a clarifier especially when students are
in doubt how to go about the problem.
3. Which among the following devices can be a scaled replica of a certain object?
A. Mock ups C. globes
B. Models D. maps
RATIONALIZATION: B- models like Heart Models are scaled replicas.
4. Which of the following would be the best choice if a teacher would like to focus on
attitudinal change?
A. Dramatization C. role play
B. Field study D. simulation
RATIONALIZATION: C-role playing allows the child to shows his own personal emotions and therefore is a good
option when focusing on attitudinal change.
5. This method relies heavily upon showing the learners a model performance.
A. Activity C. reporting
B. Demonstration D. field study
RATIONALIZATION: B- demonstration includes Teacher-Directed Demo, Student-Directed Demo, Teacher-Student
Directed Demo and Resource Person-Directed Demo.

o Naturalism stands for a democratic and universal way-everyone must be educated in the
same manner
o Education is in accordance to human development and growth
o Emphasis is given more on the physical development-informal exercise-and hygiene of
the person rather of the 3 R’s
o Aims to unfold the child’s potential not to prepare him for a definite vocation or social
position-but to prepare him to adapt to the changing times and needs
o Consequently, one’s conduct is governed by impulse, instincts and experience.
o It puts the child at the center of educational process and prepares him to experience life
as it is.
o Ideas are the only true reality, the ultimate truths for matter is nothing but just a mere
representation of ideas.
o Emphasis is given on knowledge obtained by speculation and reasoning for its central
tenet is that ideas are the only things worth knowing for
o Focus is on conscious reasoning of the mind in order to attain truth. This includes the
activities pertinent to the human mind such as introspection and intuition and the use
of logic
o Its aim is to discover the full potentials in child and cultivates it in order to prepare him
for a better position in the society and for him to serve the society better
o Emphasis is given on subjects—philosophy, literature, religion and history—that will
develop and enhance the mind of the child
o Methods used in teaching include lecture, discussion and Socratic dialogue
o Character development is through emulation of examples and heroes
o The most effective way to find about reality is to study it through organized, separate and
systematically arranged matter—emphasis is on subject matter concerning Science and
o Methods used in teaching include recitation, experimentation and demonstration
o Character development is through training in the rules of conduct
o Subject matter is personal choice
o Learning is based on the willingness of the student to choose and give meaning to the
o Emphasis is given on the students rather than on the curriculum content
o Students should not be treated as objects to be measured and standardized
o Methods are geared on giving opportunities for the students for self-actualization and
o Character development is through the responsibility of every individual in making a
o Schooling is practical for this will prepare students to become competent and valuable
members of the society
o Focuses on the basics-reading, writing, speaking and the ability to compute (arithmetic)
o Subjects that are given emphasis include geography, grammar, reading, history,
mathematics, art and hygiene
o Stresses the values of hard work, perseverance, discipline and respect to authorities
o Students should be taught to think logically and systematically-grasping not just the parts
but the whole
o Methods of teaching center on giving regular assignments, drills, recitation, frequent
testing and evaluation
o Involves students to work in groups
o Methods of teaching include experimentation, project making and problem solving.
o Stresses on the application of what have learned rather that the transfer of the organized
body of knowledge
o Some of the ideas in the past are still being taught because they are significant
o Curriculum should contain cognitive subjects that cultivate rationality, morality,
aesthetics and religious principles. This includes history, language, mathematics, logic,
literature, humanities and science.
o Curriculum must be based on recurrent themes of human life for it views education as a
recurring process based on eternal truths
o The teacher must have the mastery of the subject matter and authority in exercising it.
o Aims for the education of the rational person—to develop man’s power of thought—the
central aim of this philosophy
o Focuses on the child as a whole rather than of the content or the teacher
o Curriculum content comes from the questions and interests of the students
o Emphasis is given on the validation of ideas by the students through active
o Methods of teaching include discussions, interaction (teacher with students) and group
o Opposes the extreme reliance on bookish method of instruction, learning through
memorization, the use of fear and punishment and the four walled philosophy of
o A philosophy of learning which asserts that reality does not exist outside of human
conceptions. It is the individual who constructs reality by reflecting on his own
experience and gives meaning to it.
o Learning is the process of adjusting one’s mental modes to accommodate new
o Schools should originate policies and progress that will bring social reforms and orders
o Teachers should be an instrument to encourage and lead students in the program or
social reforms
o Curriculum emphasizes on social reforms as the aim of education. It focuses on student
experience and taking social actions on real problems
o Method of teaching include the problem-oriented type (students are encouraged to
critically examine cultural heritage), group discussions, inquiry, dialogues, interactions
and community-based learning
o The classroom will serve as a laboratory in experimenting school practices “bringing the
world into the classroom”
o Asserts that human beings are shaped entirely by their external environment
o The only reality is the physical world
o The most important development was the creation of common language
o Stresses on the teaching of the principles of democracy, and duties of citizenship
o Stimulates the development of the state which includes the control and support of public
school system
o Curriculum includes the teaching of grammar, geography and history
o Method of teaching gives emphasis on the content regarding on nature studies, physical
exercises and play activities
o Education is a process and should not be taken abruptly. The unfolding of human
character proceeds with unfolding of nature
o The learner should be in control of his destiny
o Concern is more on methods which include theme writing rather than oral discussions,
drills and exercises, playing
o Asserts the importance of playing in the curriculum
o Emphasizes motivations and the use of praise and rewards
o Curriculum includes subjects concerning literary appreciation, physical education, social
training in manners and development

CURRICULUM APPROACHES (Curriculum Development)

The curriculum approaches reflect the developer’s philosophy, view of reality,

history, psychology, social issues and the domains of knowledge. Analysis of an
approach provides information about personal and collective commitments to a
particular viewpoint and the values deemed important by individuals, school and
The curriculum developers which may include specialists, superintendents, principals
and coordinators are likened to engineers and architects who use instruments and
empirical methods in preparing a blueprint with well defined elements orderly-
sequenced procedures and quality control measures to increase the probability of
success in its implementation
It is a means-end approach. Curricula developed through this approach become the
actual blueprints which prescribe the roles of key figures in the educative process.
Viewing the curricula as the means and instruction as the end is a behavioral orientation
Motivate interest of all stakeholders. Encourage participation and involvement of all
stakeholders. Synthesize divergent viewpoints. Monitor curriculum implementation.
Create a climate of innovation and change.
It emphasizes the importance of theories and principles in curriculum planning. This
model is influenced by the philosophy of John Dewey.
Flexible and less structured without pre-determined objectives to guide the learning-
teaching process. Contends that not all ends of education can be known nor indeed to be
known in all cases.
It argues that those who favor the rational approach miss the artistic and personal
aspects of curriculum and instruction. It is rooted in progressive philosophy which
promotes the liberation of learners from authoritarian teachers.
It criticizes the technocratic-scientific models as not sensitive to the inner feelings and
experience of individuals. It reflects on existentialist orientation. The aim of education is
not to control instruction in order to preserve existing order.
The school is an institution of social reform. It criticizes the progressivists for putting
too much emphasis on the individual learner to the neglect of the needs of society.
Oftentimes, Filipino educators, in particular, prefer eclectic models (halo-halo) which
are a combination of several approaches, rather than commit themselves to one
particular approach only. Eclectic models are not mere patchwork (pagtagpi-tagpi) but a
synthesis (pagbuo o paghahabi) where desired features from several models are selected
and integrated into a new whole.