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latin grammar

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latin grammar
gregory klwe

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01 alphabet and pronunciation 4
02 verbs: essential terminology 6

03 present tense 1 8

04 presenttense 2 10

05 future tense 1 12

06 future tense 2
07 imperfect tense 16

08 perfect tense 1 18

09 perfect tense 2 20

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lmpresslon number r0987654 45 present, tuture and imperfect passive 92

Year 2010 2009 2008
f0 perfsct, future perfect and pluperfect passlve
47 infinitives: formation
48 inlinitives: usage
49 imperatives and direct commands 100 II
50 gerunds and supines
51 gerundives
52 subjunctive: present and imperfect
53 subjunctive: perfect and pluperfect
108 How to use this book
54 subjunctive: uses 110
55 deponent and semi-deponent verbs
56 impersonal verbs
57 defective verbs
Teach Yourself Latin Grammar takes you through the
principal elements of Latin grammar in a graded series of
units, starting with explanations and details of how Latin o

58 irregularverbs: samand possun 118

words are formed (known technically as accidence), from
59 irregular verbs.. volo and nolo
60 irregular verbs: malo, fio and edo
simple forms of verbs, through nouns, prepositions,
adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions and pronouns to more
complex forms of verbs, ending with an examination of the s
61 inegular verbs: eo and fero 124
62 direct questions 126
normal constructions found in Latin sentence structure
63 subordinate clauses (known technically as syntax). After the units on grammar
64 relative clauses
65 concessive and causal clauses
there are some sections on Roman dates, moneS weights and
measures, names, history and the use of Latin today. It has
60 final clauses 134
been designed so that you can dip into the book at any point
67 consecutive clauses 136
to study a particular piece of grammar, or progress through
68 temporal clauses
69 temporal cumclauses
70 ablative absolute
71 clauses of proviso, comparison and fear
the book unit by unit from the beginning. It is assumed that
you have access to a dictionary and that /ou will accumulate
your own bank of Latin vocabulary as you work. Almost all
the Latin words are translated for you. Remember that a
72 clauses of doubting and preventing 146
dictionary will give all the various meanings of a word and
73 quin 148
you will need to pick the right one for the context.
74 conditionals 1 150 You can consolidate your knowledge by attempting the
75 conditionals 2 152 exercises which accompany each unit. These exercises are
76 indirect statements 1 154 geared to that particular unit and contain tests on the
77 indirect statements 2 156 grammar point which is being examined. Exercises may also
78 indirect questions 158 contain simple grammatical elements met in previous units as
79 indirect commands and wishes 160 the book progresses. A key with all the provided
80 dates 162 at the bac"k of the book.
81 money and measures 164
82 names and places 166
The contents of each unit will v^ry a little in size and
83 inscriptions 168
difficulty and some important items require more than one
84 timeline 170
unit. However, since each unit is only two pages long you will
85 Latin today 172 be able to find everything you need to understand the
koy to lhe erercises 174
grammar point in a compact area. Clear cross-references are
made to other units which further explain any important item
which is mentioned but not under direct scrutiny.
It is assumed that the reader does not have a knowledge of the
technical terms used in grammar and so explanations for all
of these are provided at appropriate points.
If just starting Latin, then try to become familiar
.you are only but it is really a bit like a jigsaw puzzle.
you translate you
with grammatical terms as you meet them in the course of the must take care not to be too influenced by the word order. You
units. Most importantl5 do not worry if the terms seem lone
will need to look up the meanings of the words and then check
winded. You will be able to cope with simpre sentences fairli
their endings to find out how each one is $eing used, iust like
quickly. The wonderfulthing abbut the Latin language is that it
finding the corners, edges and middle of a jigsaw.
-limply follodthJ.""-pi",
has a completely logical.structure-.
and consolidation exercises catefully ind remember that you One very important thing to remember throughout is that there
are.doing it at yourown speed so there is no pressure of time is no word for'a' or 'the' in Latin.
and that you can always return to any unit io ,efresh y-ui Latin sentences usuallv have a number of clauses. A clause is a
group of words which form a sense unit and have a verb. One
If you,already have some knowledge of Latin and are using this clause is always more important than the others and is called
book for revrsion purposes or because you need to read Latin the main clause. The others are called subordinate clauses (see
documents for work or pleasure, or jusi to brush up what you Unit 53 for a detailed account). The main clause is the one
\now, then you will find the layout straightforwara.'e*nausiive which will stand on its own and still make sense. Subordinate
detail has been deliberately'avoided"as this can b; u;rt clauses do not make complete sense on their own. The verb of
confusing-.If you are reading a work of Latin literature, their the main clause is called the main verb of a sentence.
you.should al.way.s use a good published commentary on the
The remains of ancient Latin literature which have survived are
work. This book does hot examine things like'literaiy as old as the third century BcE. Much of the best Latin owes an
techniques or the metres of Latin verse.
enormous amount to the literary influences of the Greeks. The
An inflected language surviving literature can be (roughly) divided into earlS which
includes the comedies of Plautus and Terence (220-160 ycnl;
Latin is an inflected language (sometimes also called a radical the Ciceronian (or early golden) age 80-43 nce, including
language) whic_h meanJ th-dt the endings of words .h;";;
Cicero, Caesar, Sallust, Lucretius and Catullus; the Augustan
according _to their usage. 'We have soirething like this In (or late golden) age 43 BcE-14 ce, including Virgil, Horace,
En-glish. We usually change the end of a noun if"we want it to
Ovid and Livy and the silver age 14-120 cr including Seneca,
refer to more than one thing; e.g. one cat: several cats. We
Pliny, Tacitus, Juvenal, Lucan, Martial and Statius.
cha-nge some nouns depending oriwhether they are
or feminine; e.g. emperor andlmpress. We sometimes-"r.rrlirr"
alter the One of the legacies of the Roman Empire in Europe was that
endings of our verbs depending on who is performing the Latin was used for centuries after L20 cE as the language of
action; e.g. I run, he runs. We also change o.r, European scholarship and literature, for ecclesiastical,'scientific,
irorrorrrrs 1i, he,
she,. it, we, they and who) depending dn how thev are tline medical, documentary and philosophical purposes. It remains in
used in a sentence; e.g. I chase him t[en he chases'me. In thi! use today for some scientific terms (particularly in botany) but
sentence both I and me refer to the same person (myself) but the there has also been a widespread revival of Latin for its
words are different because they are used- differentiy. In'I chase usefulness as a universal language. People ficim countries the
him'I am performing the action but in .then he chases me'I a- world ofer read the weekly Latin news bulletin produced by
having the action pe-rformed upon me. Normallg however, we the Finnish Broadcasting Corporation on the Internet
do not change the forms of words in English'6ut rely upon (http://www.yle.f{fbcllatini), which I strongly recommend.
word order to make our meaning clear.
In Latin things are different. It is a language in which the start Abbreviations:
of a word, usually called the stem lsomet'imes also called the abl. ablative nom. nominative
acc. accusative n neuter
root), does not usually change but the endings of almost all dat. dative pl. plural
words (sometimes also called inflections) do cf,ange accordinj f. feminine s. singular
to how those words are being used. Word order Is, therefore] gen genidve voc. vocative
not as important in Latin as it is in m. masculine
!,nglish and the verb usually
comes at the end of a sentence. At firsi this can seem confusing
Therc are 24 letters in the Latin alphabet. The Romans had no
or w. In writing, capitals are used for proper nouns, adjectives
j EGonsonantal i and u
r In
some Latin words the letter i is pronounced as the
and numsrals; not to start sentences-
There are no silent letters in Latin and long vowels take about
consonant y at the beginning or even in the middle of words,
e.g. coniungo (I ioin togetherz pronounced conyungo) and
ian (already: pronounced yam). In the English derivatives of
twice as long to say as short ones. many of these words the consonantal i becomes the letter j,
e.g. juvenile comes from iuvenis (young man), judicial comes
gL A a as in f4ther when long, O o as in tqne (although the from iudicium (iudgementl, joke comes from iocus (loAe:
I'5 but as in 4ct when short
B b as in but
C c as in gut, not as in chwch.
French o in chqse is closer)
when long, as in hqt when
pronounced yocus) and the name Julius from Iulius.
o The Romans made no distinction befween v and u when
writing so, for example, in an inscription you might find
ot cider or loch P p as in pat EQWS for equus + horse. Some published texts still make
ct D
d as in dog
e as in prey when long, but
a g as in queen and always no distinction so you may find uinum for vinum ) wine.
1+ F
as in jet when short.
f as in {ather
followed by u, as in English
R g is always rolled, as in Etwhen t, c or p are followed by an h, they are called aspirated
consonants th, ch and ph. They come from the Greek letters
qt G g as in goat, not as in S s as in gun, not as in was, theta, chi and phi and exist in Latin words which come from

5 geruus
H h as in have
treasure or sugar
T I as in top, not as in motion
Greek. They should be pronounced as an emphasised version of
the letters without the h but in practice th and ph are normally
CL I i as in machine when long, U u as in fosd when long but pronounced as in the English thin and photo and ch as in the
as in pit when short and as as in pqt when short Scottish losh.
E y in yet when used as a
V w as in wine, although the Ellength of vowels and syllables
Hindi pronunciation of v is .
d K k as in king (a rare letter in closer
In English the stressed vowel of a word is uiually lengthened while
unsffessed ones are not, e.g. cida, boredom. In a latin word,
5 Latin, occurring only in X x as in axe, not as in exact howweq any of the vowels may be either long or short. In
c kalendae: first dav of a
Y y as in the French ru (this
Greek letter [upsilon] was
dictionaries and textbooksthe longvowels are usually marked out
by a line over the top of the vowel called a macron (-). In some
L Ias in long used only in words of cases, it is important to know whether a vowel is long or short,
Q. M m as in ggother Greek origin)
especially in verse, but when you come to read Latin documents
N n as in newt, but, before c, Z z as in 2oo (this Greek letter
sl g and qu it is pronounced [zeta] was used only in
you will not find any distinguishing marks over long vowels. In
d. 4g words of Greek origin)
this book there are no marks used over vowels for the exercises
and readers do not need to include them. In the explanatory
o matteg long syllables are marked when they are of importance.
5 ElOiphthongs are combinations of vowels making one sound.
In Latin they are all long:
. The length of a syllable, as opposed to a voltiel; is important
to knord for verse. A syllable is long if it has a long vowel or
ae pronounced ai as in aisle, e.g. pr4gda + boot!
a diphthong or ends in two consonants, the letter x or a single
au pronounced ou as in hqgse, e.E. aur,t-
oe pronounced oi as in beil, e.g. pqgna
- goid consonant if the next word begins with a consonant. All other
- penalty
ei pronounced ei as in rglgn. Only found in the exclamations
syllables are short.
cr! eia! hcrat - oh! aha! Estress accent
eu pronounced ew as in pg^', e.g. sgu + whether r In Latin the stress accent falls on the first syllable of two
ui pronounced wea as in weak, e.g. hurc + to this syllabled words, e.g. Mter -+ father.It falls only rarely on the
The diphthongs ei, eu and ui are rare. Mostly when these vowel last syllable, e.S.lUic + to there (for ilkee).
o In words of more than two svllables the accent is on the last
combinations are found they are pronounced separately, as in tui
),yours (pronounced twoee), fluit + it flowi (flewit), mei + but one (penultimate) syllabie if that syllable is long, e.g.
mine (meyee) and deus + god (deyus). When the u foliows the cor ltturm + corrupted, but on the one before that
letter q it is pronounced w,is in English. (antepenultimate) if not, e.g. mr/itibus + for the soldiers.
Verbs refer to actions (e.g.l carryl and are divided into four lst person singular: I
l-.1 categories, depending on their usage: moods, voices, tenses 2nd person singular: you (when one person performs the action)
L_J and persons.

Brief explanations follow of the terms which you will meer most
often when studying verbs. It is important to be familiar with
3rd person singular: he, she, it (depending on the context)
1st person
2nd person
you (when two or more people perform the
them but do not expect to understand them all straight away. action)
The principal p-arts of aLatin verb enable us to recognize the 3rd person plural: they

o various parts of that verb when we meet it in our realing and

tell us what coniugation a verb belongs to.
In English we sometimes use a pronoun before the verb (we walk,
she sits etc.). In Latin this is not needed because the ending of the
ct El Mood
There are four moods. The first three are called finite moods
verb changes to let us know who is doing it. These endings are
called personal endings (see under the units on separate tenses).
?. because each part of the verb in these moods is limited to a El Principal parts
you look for a verb in your Latin dictionary you will find
o particular person (see El).
. The indicative mood is generally used for making sratemenrs four Latin words in the entrg followed by the meaning.
o Sometimes they are written out in full (e.g. pofto, portare,
o and asking qu_estions (e.g. Grass grows. Where is-he going?).
The main verb (see Introduction) of a Latin senteic. i,iit portavi, portatun: I car$ or they can be abbreviated (e.g. porto
o usually be in the indicative mood. -are -avi -atum: I carry). These are called the principd parts
5 . The imperative mood is used to give commands (Unit 49). because their stems (see Introduction) are the bases for every form
of that verb. Learn every principal part when you meet a verb.
+, 9 The subiunctive mood is used mainly as a verb in subordinate
clauses (Unit 63), often to express anticipated or conditional o The lst person singular of the present (indicative aaive) (Unit
P. actions. On the less common occasions when it is a main verb. it
usually_expresses a_wish and is often found in motos (Unit 54).
3), e.g. porto: I carry.
r The present (active) infinitive (Unit 47" El), e.g. portare: to
r+ o The infinite mood is so called because no parr of tLe carry.
o verb'is
limited to a parricular person (see El). This mood includes the . The lst person singular of the perfect (indicative active) (Unit
8), e.g. portavi: I carried.
- infinitive (Units 4748), participle (Unit 44), gerundive (Unit
51), gerund and supine (Unit 50). See undeithe individual The supine (e.g. portatum) which ends in -um and has no
headings for details of usage. equivalent in English (Unit 50 9), og occasionally, the perfect
5 El There are two voices: passive participle (Unit 44 E|), e.g.portatus: carried.

o The active voice is used when the subjea (Unit 23)
of the
sentence or clause is performing the action of the verb, e.g.
E Gonjugation
A coniugation is a group of verbs which share similarities in
o The elephant chases the mouse.-
o The passive voice (Units 4546) is used when the
appearance (not in meaning or usage). There are four in Latin
and you can identify which conjugation a ver,b belongs to by
GI subject is
gxperiencing the action of the verb, e.g. The elephant is ihased examining the endings of its first two principal pirts:
by the mouse. . The first coniugation verbs end in -6 -ire, like portQ portf,re
E There are six tenses: (carry) (Unit 3).
A tense refers to the time when the action of a verb takes place.
o The second coniugation verbs end in -ed -Ere, like habe,0
habEre (haue) (Unit 4 El).
. Present (Units 3-4) o Perfect (Units 8-9) o The third coniugation verbs end in -d -ere, like regfl regpre
o Imperfect (Unit 7) . Future perfect (Unit 11) (rulel (Unit 4 El).
r Future (Units 5-5) . Pluperfect (Unit 10) N.B. Some verbs of the third conjugation end -i6 -ere, like
A tense can be either active or passive as well as being either capiO capcre (take) (Unit 4 91.
indicative or subjunctive. By convention, if mood and v6ice are . The fourth coniugation verbs end in -i6 -ire, like audi6 aud-lre
not stated then the tense is indicative and active. (hear) (Unit 4 Ell.
E Person I Verbs taking a direct obiect in the accusative are called
In each tense six pefsons can perform the action: transitive; others are called intransitive. (See Units 24 U 27.1
Endings and the first conjugation.
F-t Il Wno is performing the action of these verbs?
tl El The present tense refers to actions which occur in the ffi hbot"-os (taork) + tae uork
present. We can express this in different ways in English, e.g. I
aT goqg to school, I go to school, or even, I do go to school.
orunt (begl
^ dat (giuel
f paratis (preparel
g das (giuel
.English expressions have slightly different meanings. c curas (care) h stamus (standl
Latin, however, only uses one word for all three versions andio i laborat (utork\
I' the particular meaning must be worked out from the context.
d poto (drinkl
e probamus (approuel i potant (drink)
d In English-we sometimes use a pronoun, e.g. we, you, or they,
to explain who is performing an action before ,rcittg the .rrerb E Write out the present tense of these verbs.
o itself (e.g. we uaitl.In Latin this is not always done bicause the ambulo (I walk|,ambulo, ambulas, ambulat, ambulamus,
o endings of the verb change to let us know who is performing the ambulatis, ambulant

action. These endings are called personal endings. These arI the a servo (I saue\ f computo (I reckon up)
personal endings for the present tenses of all the conjugations: b comparo (l procure) g muto (I change)
+ 1st person singular -d I c loco (l placel h pugno (I fisht)
o -s
2nd person singular
3rd person singular
you (singular)
d concito (I hurl\
e voco (I calll
i adflo (l breathe upon)
i amo (I loue)
Lst person plural
= -mus
2nd person plural -tis
we E Translate these verbs into Latin.
o 3rd person plural -nt
you (plural)
w lrc cares) satat
J a we call f you (pl.) care
$ fne firsl .confugation verbs can be recognized by the
characteristic letter a which b you (s.) are working g she is calling
occurs in the preseni infinitive -Ere
(the second,principal parr), e.g. labotqre (to work), am-ane (to c I approve h it walks!
louel, arrbrul4re (to ualkl and portare (to carry). d he approves i I stand
e they are drinking j they care
The present stem (for stem see Introduction) of these verbs also
ends in -aand this can be seen in all the persons except the 1st E Write the present infinitive (second principal part) of these
person singular. verbs and say what it means.
EI This is the presenr tense of the first coniugation. Notice the ffiffiffi ao I giuel + dare to giue
characteristic letter a at the end of the stem 6efore all personal a puto (I thinkl f claro (I explain)
endings except the first. Remember also that in English ih.te ar. b cogito (I ponder) g demonstro (I shout)
different ways of expressing the present tense. ThJ verb used in c lanio (I mangle) h fatigo (I exhaust)
fhe example is porto -are -avi -afiim carryt d mando (I commandl i coacto (I forYel
e praetervblo (I fly pastl i appello (l pronouncel
lstperson singular I potto I t carry / am carrying
2nd person singularl portas you (s.) carry / are carrying
Jrd person srngular
3rd nortat
singular I portat
I I helshe/it canies / is carrying
lst.person plural I Fortamus I we carry / arc carrying
2nd person plural I portatis you (pl.l carry / are carrying
3rd person plural I portant they carry / are carrying
Second, third and fourth conjugations.
mt E the second coniugation can be recognized by the
E Wtrat conjugation do these verbs belong to?
L-J 'ffi cogo cogere (to compell -r third
characteristic long letter e in the present infinitive -gre (second
principal part). Notice also that there is an e in the stem before
all of the personal endings in the present tense, e.g. habeo
a emunio emunire (to strengthen)
b mordeo mordere (to bite)
c perfrico perfricare (to scratch)
habgre (haue) and teneo tengre (hold).
tt habeo have
II habemus I we have
d sternuo sternuere (to sneeze)
e revincio revincere (to tie up at the back)
f perficio perficere (to finish)
d habes (s.\ have
I fou
habet I helshelit has
habetis I
you (pl.) have
g adsentio adsentire (to agreel
o habent lthey have h converto convertere (to turn aroundl
o i debeo debere (to oue)
El the third coniugation is recognizable by the short letter e in
the present infinitive -gre (second principal paft), e.g. ago agglrc
i invigilo invigilare (to be awakel

(do), tego reggre (rule) and dico dicere (say). In rhe present rense El Translate the following verbs.
1+ + I ualk
o these verbs have a letteri before the personal endings, except the
Lst person singular (I) and the 3rd person plural (they).
ambulo et (andl specto
a currlmus et superamus f
and utatch
inspicio et probo

= ago II do agimus I we do
b dormitis et stertitis
c quaerit et servat
g fugiunt et lacrimant
h doceo et discitis
o agis
I you (s.)do
I he/shelit does
lyou (pl.) do
tney do
d vides et credis i
ridetis et luditis

N I e sciunt et tacent salimus et canimus

E Write out the present tenses of the following verbs. You will
I There are some verbs which are technicallv in the third
need to check the infinitive to find out what coniugation the
conjugation but which have an i before all the pirsonal endings
in the present tense and so resemble the fourth conjugation (see verb belongs to.
EI ), e.t. capio capere (take), facio facEre (make) and {afo iacere ffiffi servio servire (l seruel, servio, , servis, servit, servimus,
(throu). servitis, serviunt
capio I I take capimus I we take a aperio aperire (I openl f teneo tenere (I holdl
capis b peto petere (l seek) g facio facere (I make)
I you (s.l take capitis I you (pl.) take
(l destroy)
capit c advenio advenire (I arriuel h vasto vastare
I helshe/it takes capiunt I they take
i libro librare (I balance)
d video videre (I see\
e discedo discedere (I departl i fugio fugere (l fleel
El the fourth coniugation is distinguished by the letter i in the
present infinitive -fre (second principal part) and before all of E Write {own the present infinitive (seeond priniipal part} of
the personal endings, e.g. audjo aadite (hear), custodro these verbs and say what it means.
custodire (guard). i#ffi anticrpo (I anticipate) + anticipare to anticipate
a nubo (l marry) f implico (l enntine)
audio I hear audimus lwe hear b mereo (l deserue) g paco (I Paciful
audis you (s.l hear auditis lyou (pl.) hhear c arcesso summon)
(l h sero (I seul
audit helshe/it hears audiunt lthey hear d claudico (l limpl i statuo (I set upl
e gero (I carry) i voveo (I uowl
First and second conjugations.

El the future tense refers to actions that will happen in the

E Write out the firture tenses of the following verbs. Remember
to look up their inftnitives to check which coniugation they

future. In English we usually use the words will or shall before
the verb, e.g.I shall go. Normally, the word shall is used before
the 1st person (singular and plural) and the word will is used
belong to.

ffi -on"o (I aduisel,monebo, monebis, monebit, monebimus,

monebitis, monebunt
before the 2nd and 3rd persons (singular and plural). However,
ct{r when special emphasis is intended, the words are used the other a aedifico (l buildl crepo (I creakl
way round, e.g. Yow shall go to the ball, Cinderella. 'We also use b misceo (I mixl g sto (1 standl
c ardeo (I burnl h fundo (I securel
the present tense of the verb fo go plus an infinitive to indicate
C future plans (e.g. I am going to buy a computer). In Latin the d mulceo (l soothel i narro (I relatel
ending of the verb changes. e sono (I sound) j horreo (I shudderl
d El In the first and second coniugations the future endings El Translate these future tenses into Latin. Remember to look
t (placed on the present stem) are: up words you do not know yet.
o The word sed "+ but is included in this exercise.
5 lst person singular I -bo
ffiffi equitabimus sed ambulabitis + ute shall ride but you will
o 2nd person singular
3rd person singular
o plural
Lst person
2nd person plural
-bimus a monebunt et suadebunt. f flebit et lugebit
J | -bitis b portabitis sed ambulabimus g ardebo sed mulcebis
3rd person plural [ -bunt c vocabunt et servabunt h horrebunt et terrebimus
d manebimus et spectabimus i narrabo et spectabitis
El the future tense of the first coniugation is as follows. Notice e nuntiabunt sed tacebimus i aedificabit sed delebunt
that the stem contains the characteristic letter a which
distinguishes this conjugation. E Translate the following into Latin. The verb you should use
is given in brackets.
portabo I I shallcarry W utill uork (laboro) + laborabit
portabis I you (s.) willcarry a I shall ponder (cogito) f it will please (placeo)
portabit I helshelit will carry b we shall fly (volo) g you (s.)will owe (debeo)
portabimus I we shall carry h I shall announce (nuntio)
c they will alter (muto)
portabitis I you (pl.) will carry
d you (pl.) will mourn (lugeo) i they will call (voco)
portabunt I they will carry
e she will warn (moneo) i you (pl.) will have (habeo)
El the future tense of the second conjugation is as follows.
!l Translate the following into English. There isi'a mixture of
present (Units 3 and 4) and future tenses in this exercise.
Notice that the stem contains the characteristic letter e which
distinguishes this conjugation. ffi rtop.t et ridebunt + be is amazed and they will laugh
a dant sed debebitis f aedificant sed delebimus
habebo I lshallhave b pulsabunt et vocabo g cogito sed pugnabunt
habebis I you (s.) will have c pacas et tacebunt h stat et manebit
habebit I helshe/it will have d poftamus sed aedificabitis i paro et probabitis
habebimus I we shall have e ambulas sed festinabimus i comparabimus et computabitis
habebitis I you (pl.) willhave
habebunt I they will have
Third and fourth conjugations. llWrite out the luture tenses of the following verbs.
Remember to look up their infinitives to check which
L-J El In the third and fourth coniugations the endings of the future
tense (placed on the present stem) are:

plural |
conjugation they belong to.
iffi salio (I leapl,saliam, salies, saliet, saliemus, salietis, salient
f facio (I makel
lst person singular -am 1st person -6mus a cingo (I surround)
2nd person singular -Es plural | b scribo (I u.,ritel g iacio (l hurl)
g 3rd person singular -et
2nd person
3rd person plural |
-Cnt c claudo (I shut) h rapio (I seizel
d colo (l cuhiuatel i dico (l sayl
c El the future rense of the third coniugation is as follows. Be
careful not to confuse the future tense of the third conjugation
e peto (I seekl i aperio (I openl
E Translate these future tenses into English. Remember to
d with the present tense of the second conjugation (Unit 4 El). look up wolds you do not know.
F+ agam I lshalldo The words sed + but, et + and and non )
not are included.
o ages I you (s.) willdo
ffi curretis et ludemus ) uill run and ute shall play
:t aget I helshe/it will do
f fugient sed resistemus
o agemus I
agetis I
we shall do a
dicam et credetis
arcessemus sed non audient g aperiam sed claudet
o agent I
you (pl.) will do
they will do c fodietis et traham
non dormiet
h quaerent sed non invenient
i discedes et adveniam
N El the future tense of verbs in the third coniugation which
e incipietis sed non perficietis i adsentiemus sed dissentietis

resernble those in the fourth conjugation, like capio (see Unit 4 E Translate the following into Latin. The verb you should use
9), keeps the letter i before the endings. For example: is given in brackets.

capiam I I shalltake ffiffi rb"y will not leap (salio) l non salient
capies I you (s.) willtake a t shall dig (fodio) f they will arive (advenio)
capiet I helshe/it will take b they will not begin (incipio) g she will capture (capto)
capiemus I we shall take c you (s.) will not play (ludo) h you (pl.)will not believe (aedo)
capietis I you (pl.) willtake d he will agree (adsentio) i we shall not yield (cedo)
capient I they will take e I shall run (curro) but you (s.) i they will sleep (dormio) but we
will resist (resisto) shall drag (traho)
El the futuretense of the fourth conjugation is as follows.
E Translate the following into English. There is a mixture of
Notice the characteristic letter i before the endings.
present (Units 3 and 4) and future tenses in this oxercise.
audiam I I shallhear .ffi aot-it et custodient + he is sleeping and they uill gaard
audies I you (s.) will hear
a resistetis et non cedetis f scribunt et non ludent
audiet I helshe/it will hear
b claudo sed aperient g non dicent
audiemus I we shall hear c non adveniemus h peto et inveniam
audietis I you (pl.) willhear d currit sed non fugiet i dicit sed non credetis
audient I they will hear
e ludis sed fodiam i scribis et non audies
E Imperfect means incomplete and the imperfect tense is used E Write out the imperfect tenses of the following verbs.
tl for actions in the past which did not gei finished, went on Remember to check the infinitives to see which coniugation

regularly, lasted for some time before they ended or only just got
started; as opposed to single actions which were completed in
one 99 (see Unit 8). There are a number of ways of using an
they belong to.
ffi stibo (f urite), scribebam, scribebas, scribebat,
scribebamus, scribebatis, scribebant
imperfect tense in English: f venio (I come\
a maneo (l remainl
II o 'I was locking the stable door when the horse bolted.' I did not b munio (I fortifyl g lenio (I softenl
- finish locking the door so the action is imperfect. c ceno (I dinel h ambulo (l walk)
. 'I used to lock the stable door when the horse bolted.' I i pono (I putl
habitually locked the door so the acion is imperfect.
We can use the straightforward past tense if it is clear that the
d coquo (I cook)
e regb (l rule) i sedeo (I slr)
El Translate these imperfect tenses into English. Remember to
action took place over a period of time, e.g. 'I wrote in my diary
every d,ay.'
look up words which you do not know.
The words sed "+ but, non 4 not and et + and are included.
El the personal endings of the imperfect for all .ffi laborabamus et fodiebamus 1 we were working and
+ conjugations are:
rense the
+ Lst person singular -bam Lst person plural -b6mus a sedebamus sed non f tenebant et vocabant
o 2nd person singular -bis 2nd person plural -bdtis dormiebamus
b pugnabatis et resistebatis
g dicebas et non tacebant
h trahebam et gemebam
5 3rd person singular -bat 3rd person plural -bant c iuiliebas et spectabas i ludebamus sed non
o d coquebam se-d cenabant ridebamus
o El the imperfect tenses are as follows: e ambulabat et canebar i aedificabam et portabatis
E Translate the fotlowing into imperfect tehses in Latin. The
First conjugation Second conjugation verb you should use is in brackets.
portabam lwas carrying habebam I was having (ffi *t uere uriting and they were playing'+ scribebamus et
portabas you (s.) were carrying habebas you (s.) were having ludebant
portabat helshe/it was carrying habebat helshe/it was having
portabamus we were carrying a I slept (dormio) but they were not quiet (taceo)
habebamus we were having b we spoke (dico) and they listened (dudio)
portabatis you (pl.l were carrying habebatis you (pl.\ were having c you {s.) did not watch (specto)
portabant they werc canytng habebant theywerehaving d i arrived (advenio) but you (pl.) departed (discedo)
Third conjugation e he used to agree (assentio)
Fourth conjugation
f we were dragging (traho) and they were digging (fodio)
agebam lwas doing audiebam I was hearing g she stood (sto) but we sat (sedeo)
agebas you (s.) were doing audiebas you (s.) were hearing h he summoned (arcesso) and you (s.) came (veirio)
agebat he/shelit was doing audiebat helshe/it was heaing i we used,to lauih (ride6) and they used to cry (fleo)
agebamus we were doing audiebamus we were hearing i I did not see (video)
agebatis you (pl.) were doing audiebatis you (pl.) were hearing El Translate the following into English. There is a mixture of
agebant they were doing audiebant they were hearing present (Units 3 and 4), future (Units 5 and 6) and imperfect
ffi pulsabat et aperient + he uas knocking and they utill open
a imoerabat et parebatis
f portabamus, fodimus et
b noir mutabit iedificabimus
c oarabam. coquis et cenabunt g currebam sed ambulas
d iesistebamus ied fugitis h horrebant et timebamus
e non scribebat i sedebant et dormient
i dabatis et accipiebam
Formation and firct conjugation. Il Wtrat is the third principal part of the following verbs? Write
El the perfect tense refers mostly to single, completed actions in out the word in full. The verbs are fiom differcnt coniugations.

the past. In English we use either the past tense on its own or
together with the verbs haue or did, e.g. I carried, I haue carried
or I did carry. There is an important difference between saying
terreo (I frightenl
timeo (l fear)
+ temri
f traho Q dragl
b paro (I preparel g tango (I touch)
I carried and I have carried. 'I have carried' suggests that the
tto action took place in the past (often the recent past) and that its
consequences are still important in the present, e.g. I
rego (I rulel
cubo (l lie doutnl
facio (l makel
h sparlo (l scatterl
i frango (I breakl
i sentio (l feel)
opened the box suggests that the contents of the box are now of
immediate interest in the present. I opened the box could refer E Write out the perfect tenses of the following first
t9 any time in the past and does not have the same suggestion
that the contents of the box are of immediate relevancb to the
conjugation verbs. Remember that you will need to look up the
verb to find the third principal part.
+ present.
ffi rto (I standl, steti, stetisti, stetit, stetimus, stetistis,
t+ E fhe perfect tense is formed from the third principal part (see stetenrnt
o Unit 2) which is the 1st person singular of the perfect indicative
active. The perfect stem is rhat parr of the word before the
a demonstro (I shoutl
b seco (l cutl
f iuvo (l helpl
g ambulo (l walk)
o ending -i. c do (I giuel h mico (I glinerl
i amo (l louel
o E the personal endings
for the perfect tense of all conjugations d curo (I care forl
e veto (l forbidl i neco (I slayl
rrl 1st person singular E Translate the following perfect tense finst coniugation verbs
| -T
2nd person singular | -isn into English.
3rd person singular | -it ffiffi stetimus + ue stood
l"st person | -imus a aedificavistis f comparaverunt
2nd person plural | -istis b dederunt g paravit
3rd person plural -6runt c appellavi h oravi
d servavisti i secuisti
El Pirst coniugation e locavimus i vetuimus
As a general rule the perfect stem of the first coniugation ends
in -iv-: E Translate the following into the perfect tense of the first
conjugation in Latin. The verb you should use is in brackets.
portavi I lcaniedlhavecanied +
portavisti I you (s.) caniedlhave canied
ffi they haue ualked (ambulo) ambulaverunt
portavit I helshe/it caniedlhas carrted a they hoped (spero) f it has stood (sto)
b we have loved (amo) g she has related (narro)
portavimus I we carriedlhave canied
c I gave (do) h I have built (aedifico)
portavistis I you (pl.) caniedlhave canied d they have shown (demonstro) i you (s.) have swum (no)
portaverunt I they caniedlhave canied e you (pl.) have forbidden (veto) i he has called (voco)
El Some common verbs of the first coniugation have different
perfect,st€ms, but their endings are always the same, e.g. do,
darc, dzdi, datum (giue), sto, stare, steti, statfirm (stand) and
seco, secare, seai, se6vm (cutl.
Secondn third and fourth conjugations. Il n is important to be able to find out which verb a particutar
tl E Second conjugation perfect stem belongs to. Use your dictionary to find out which

o As a general rule the perfect stem
ends in -u-:
of the second coniugation
verb the following perfect tenses come from and translate the
verb. You should look for a verb which starts with the same few
letters and check the third principal part. This will take some
habui I hadlhave had habuimus we hadlhave had patience but do not give up because you will be practising a very

tto habuisti you (s.) hadlhave had

habuit helshe/it hadlhas had
habuistis you (pl.) hadlhave had
habuerunt they had/have had
important skill. There is a mixture of conjugations in this exercise.
.$ffi*\ movi -) moveo (I moue)

o Some common verbs of the second coniugation have different a credidi f vinxi
g sedi
perfect stems, but their endings are always the same, e.g. fleo,
flerc, fled, fletum {weep), rideo, ridere, nsi, risum (laughl and
b vetui
c veni
d vidi
h custodivi
i tenui
+ mordeo, mordere, tnomord,i, morcum (bite).
e potavi i fugi
1+ E fnirO coniugation E Write out the perfect tenses of the following verbs. There is a
o . The perfect stem of the third coniugation has a variety of mixture of conjugations.
5 endings, mostly consonants (often -s- or -x- but sometimes -u-). jffiffi scribo (I write), scripsi, scripsisti, scripsit, scripsimus,
o In some verbs the vowel of the stem also changes, as in our scripsistis, scripserunt
o model verb ago, agere, egi, actum (do):
a quaero (l seek)
b cedo (l yield)
f ludo (I play)
g vinco (I conquer)
N egl
I didlhave done
you (s.) did/have done
we didlhave dane
you (pl.) didlhave done c pono (I put)
d effluo (I rush out\
h curro (I run)
i rideo (I smile)
egit helshe/it didlhas done egerunt they didlhave done
e rumpo (l bwrstl
. The variety of stems can be seen from this selection: premo,
premere, pressi, pressum (press); rego, regere, rexi, rectum
E Tfanslate the following into the perfect tense in Latin. The
(rule); colo, colere, colui, anltltrm Quorsbip); cresco, crescere,
verb you should use is in brackets. :

creui, cretum (grow); peto, petere, petiui, petitum (seek); ',ffi *, haue heard + audivimus
cado, cadere, ceci.di, casum (fall); acao, acuere, acui, acatvm a he has found (invenio) f you (s.) have said (dico)
(sharpen) and capio, capere, cepi, cagtum (takel. b they have seen (video) g they led (duco)
c you (pl.) have waited (maneo) h she has captured (capio)
E Fourth conjugation d I dragged (traho) i it has thundered (tono)
. The perfect stem of the fourth coniugation is usually -iv- or -i-: e we have worshipped (colo) i they have psndered (cogito)

audivi or audii I I heardlhave heard

!l Translete the following perfect tenses into English.
audiisti Remember to look up the verb carefullyn as in Exercise 1.
audivisti or I you (s.) heardlhave heard
audivit or audiit I he/she/it heardlhas heard iffi trmaerunt - th ey feared
audivimus or audiimus I we heardlhave heard a effluxit f duxit
' audivistis or audiistis I you (pl.) heardlhave heard b pressistis g collocavimus
audiverunt or audierunt I they heardlhave heard c lusi h posuimus
d quaesiverunt i ceperunt
o Some of these verbs have different perfect stems, e.g. aperio, e risisti i posuisti
aperire, apetui, apertum (openl; haurio, haurire, hausi,
haustum (drain) and venio, venire, ueni, ventum (comel.
E the pluperfect tense is expressed in English by asing had E Write out tfie pluperfect tenses of the following verbs.
tl before the past participle of the verb to indicate an action which
W sentio (l feell, senseram, senseras, senserat, senseramus,
occurred at two stages back in the past, e.g. When the horse had
J I senseratis, senserant

o bolted, shut the stable door. The shutting of the door took
place in the past and the horse bolting took place at a stage even
further back in the past, so the pluperfect is used.
a mordeo (I bitel
b titillo (l ticklel
c solvo (l undo)
f capto (l try to capture)
g mitto (I send)
h reduco (I lead back)
p. El the pluperfect tense is formed by adding the following d postulo (I demand) i statuo (I establish)
g persooai-etr-dings onto a verb's perfect item (Unit 8 E): e emano (I leak out) i verbero (I beat)
tto person singular
2nd person singular
| -eram
| -erds
E Translate the following pluperfec'ts into English. Remember
to check which verb they come from.
| -erat
3rd person singular
1st person plural
2nd person plural
| -er-mus
| -etEtis
ffiposueram +lhadplaced
a monueratis
b comparaverant
f luserat
g inspexeratis
3rd person plural | -erant c ceperam
d amaveramus
h concesserant
i foderas
t+ I The following are examples of the pluperfect tense from each e cucurreras i vetueram
o conjugation:
El Translate the following into Latin. The verb you should use is

First conjugation
portaveram ll hadcaffied
Second conjugation
ln brackets.
yo, (pl.l had slept + dormiveratis
o portaveras lyou (s.) had canied
portaverat I helshelit had canied
habueram had had
habueras lyou (s.) had had
habuerat lhelshe/ithad had
a we had stood (sto) f it had slept (dormio)
b you (s.) had waited (maneo) g you (pl.) had thrown (iacio)
portaveramus I we had canied
c I had thought (puto)
we had had
h I had sat (sedeo)
portaveratis lyou (pl.) had canied habueratis lyou (pl.) had had
portaverant lthey had canied habuerant lthey had had
d they had caught (capio) i he had guarded (custodio)
e she had escaped (effuSio) i we had placed (pono)

Third conjugation
E Translate the following into English. This exercise contains a
Fourth conjugation
mixture of perfect (Units 8 and 9) and pluperfect tenses.
egeram llhaddone audi(v)eram I lhad heard Remember to check the verbs in your dictionary.
egeras I you (s) had done audi(v)eras I you (s) had heard r
egerat I helshe/it had done audi(v)erat I helshe/it had ffi mansi sed discesseras I remained but you (s.l had Ieft
egeramus I we had done audi(v)eramus I we had heard a non celaveram sed f ambulaverunt bed
egeratis I you (pl) had done audi(v)eratis I you (pl.) had heard fleverunt cucurreramus
egerant I they had done audi(v)erant I they had heard b dormivit et laboraveratis g docuerat et audiverant
c aedificaveramus sed h spectaveras sed non vidisti
deleverunt i non mutaveratis
d portaverant et foderamus i coxeram et cenaverunt
e clauserat sed aperui
E the future perfect tense refers to an acion which will have lI Write out the future perfect tenses of these verbs.
tl taken place by a certain time in the future. In English, as the
ffi mitto (I send), misero, miseris, miserit, miserimus,
name of the tense suggests, we use the auxiliary verbs wiII (the
I future element) and haue (the perfect element), e.g. they uill miseritis, miserint
J haue decided. by the end of the day. a cano ll singl f praebeo (l offer)
b accipio (I receiue) g compleo (I fill)
El The future perfect tense is formed by adding the following c verto (l turn) h veho (l conueyl
c+ personal endings onto a verb's perfect stem (see Unit 8 E): d tendo
e trado
(l stretchl
(l betrayl
i surgo (I rise)
i discedo (I departl
c lst person singular | -er6
2nd person singular | -eris
3rd person singular | -erit
El Translate the following future perfect tenses into English.
Remember to check which verb they come from.
o= 1st person plural | -erimus +
d.[$t traxerint they utill haue dragged
tto 2nd person plural | -eritis
3rd person plural | -erint a duxeris
b manseritis
f ambulaverimus
g cepero

El the following are examples of the future perfect tense from
each conjugation:
c vocavero
d monuerint
e feceritis
h venerint
.+ First conjugation Second conjugation E Tlanslate the following into Latin. The verbs you should use
are in brackets.
t+ portavero I I shall havecanied habuero ll shall have had
o portaveris I you (s.) will have habueris lyou (s.) will have *ffi *, shall haue seen viderimus
5 canied
portaverit I helshe/itwill have habuerit
had a she will have felt (sentio) g we shalihave lived (vivo)
o canied
lhelshelit will have
b it will have changed (muto) h you (s.) will have sought

o portaverimusl we shall have caried

portaveritis I you (plJ will have
habuerimus I we shall have had
habueritis lyou (pl.) will have
c they will have watched
i they"will have assembled
d I shall have owed (debeo)
portaverint I they will have canid
habuerint lthey will have had
c he will have wept (fleo) I I shall have turned (verto)
f you (pl.)will have made
Third conjugation Fourth conjugation
E Translate the following into English. This exercise contains a
egero I I shall have done audi(v)ero | | shall have heard mlxture of perfect {Units 8 and 9) and future,perfect tenses.
egeris lyou (s.) will have audi(v)eris I you (s.) will have Remember to check the verbs in your dictionartf.
done heard
egerit helshelit will have audi(v)erit I helshe/it will have
fffi sed discessit+ I shall haue arriued bwt be has left
I "do"rr"ro
done heard a tlmul et trmuens f cucurreris sed ambulavero
egerimus I we shall have done audi(v)erimus I we shall have b mansitis sed effugerint g narravit et audiverint
egeritis lyou (pl.) willhave audi(v)eritis I you (pl.l will have c laboraverimus et dormiveritis h imperavit et paruerint
done heard d dedero et acceperit i rogavisti et responderit
egerint I they will have done audi(v)erint I they will have c discesserint sed non advenistis I coxit et cenavero
E the verb sum, esse, fui (there is no supine [see Unit 50 q]) ll Translate the following into Latin. Notice that non 1 not
l26 l
(to bel is irregular in formation. The inilicative tenses follow.
L_J comes before the ve6.
For the subiunctive tenses and other moods, see Unit 53 tr.
..1 ffi ." haue not been + non fuimus
o .
N Present tense
sum I lam
Future tense
ero I lshall be
a I shall be
b it is not
c we used to be
fi es I you (s.l are eris I you (s.l will be
o est I
sumus I
helshe/it is
we arc
helshe/it will be
we shall be
d they were being
e you (pl.)will be
f you (s.) had been
cr estis I you (pl.\ are eritis I you (pl.l will be
o sunt I they are erunt I they will be
g she will have been
i I have been
o Imperfect tense r
5 eram | | was
Perfect tense

fui I lhavebeen
i we have been

CL El Translate the following into English.

eras I you (s.l were fuisti I you (s.) have been
ffi fuirtir ) you (pl.) haue been
helshe/it was
we werc
fuit I
fuimus I
helshe/it has b€r,n
we have been a erant
eratis I you (pl.l were fuistis I you (pl.) have ber;n b fuerint
+, erant I they were fuerunt I they have ben c fuerunt
d erit
o Pluperfect tense o Future perfect tense e sunt
f sumus
fueram ll had been fuero I I shall have been I eramus
fueras lyou (s.) had been fueris f you (s.) witl have been h fueram
fuerat I helshe/it had been fuerit I helshe/it will have bepgn i estis
fueramus I we had been fuerimus I we shall have bep'n i erunt
fueratis lyou (pl.l had been fueristis lyou (pl.) will have been
fuerant lthey had been fuerint lthey will have been El Wnat tense do these parts of the verb come from?
ffi fuerat + pluperfect :

E Word order a eratis

b est
. At the beginning of a sentence without a specific subiect (see c fuerunt
Unit 23 E), e.g. est canis in horto: there is a dog in the garden. n'
r d erunt l
After a subject; immediately after or at the end of a clause (see c sumus '
Introduction), e.g. canis est in via, or canis in via est: a dog is in f fuisti
the street. g fuerant
Notice the difference in meaning when the verb comes at the h fueris
beginning. i erit
o Between a noun and its complement (see Unit 23 g)re.g. Caesar i eramus
imperator etat -
Caesar was a general.
Brief explanations follow of the terms which you will meet most stallion, mare and so on. Sometimes we also apply gender to
often when studying nouns. lt is important to be familiar with
them but do not expect to understand them alt straight away. .
inanimate objects like calling a ship, a country or even a car'she'.
In Latin all nouns have a gender. There are three: masculine,
feminine and neuter. Names of men and men's occupations are
q) EIA noun is the name-of a person, place, thing or qualiry masculine, as the names of women and women's occupations
$oper nouns are used for the names of particulir people or are feminine, but otherwise, there is no general rule which can
places, e.g. Caesar or Rome. Concrete nouns name tliings (e.g.
be given as to why a noun has one gender or another. Some
5 table or elephant), while abstract nouns name qualities thit nouns which include both male and female are said to be of
o exist only as a mental concept (e.g. wisdom or mercy).
El Number
cornmon gender. The gender of a noun will always be given in
a dictionary and should be learned along with the meaning.
C If a noun is referring to one thing, it is singular. If it E Dictionary entries
refers to
more than one thing it is plural. Some nouns only have a plural, When you look a Latin noun up in a dictionary you will find the
= e.g. arma (arms), nuptiae (marriagel and moenia (city iaalls).
Some have only a singular, e.g. aurirm (Sold).
nominative case first, followed by the genitive case (or its
cnding), the gender (usually_3bbreviated) and finally the
o I case meaning, e.g. ira, rrae f. rage. The genitive is a very important
o Latin nouns have six cases, in the singular and plural, which are case because the stem of a noun is that part of the noun which
o different forms of the noun used in different contefti. They are: comes before the genitive ending. You can also tell what
o o Nominative
This case is used for the subiect of sentences and for the
declension a noun belongs to from the genitive ending (see E).
E Declensions
complement (see Unit 23).It is the 'name' of the noun and is A is a group of nouns which share similarity in
=, the case you will find first in a dictionary entry.
appearance but not necessarily in meaning (like conjugations,
g. o Vocative
The vocative is the case used when someone is addressing
see Unit 2 E). There are five declensions in Latin and we can
identify them from the genitive ending which is the same for all
|.t someone else directly. It is almost always the same ar thE members of that declension.
o r
nominative (see Unit 23 E l.
These are the endings for the nominative and genitive singular
- The accusative is used for the direct obiect of sentences, after
of the five declensions:
r First declension nouns: mostly feminine (see Unit 14).
3. certain prepositions, for expressing duration of time or
motion towards somerhing and adverbially (see Unit 24). .
nominative ending -a genitive ending -ae
Second declension nouns: mostly masculine and neuter (see
. Genitive
= The genitive case is used to denore possession (of) but it has a
very wide range of meanings beyond this and it contains the
Units 15 and 15).
nominative ending usually -us, -ius,
genitive ending -i
- stem of the noun (see Units 25 and 26 and E in this unit).
o Dative
or -er for masculine and -um
for neuter
. Third dec-lension:

GT all genders are found in this deblension (see

The dative case is used for the indirect obiea (to or for), but it has Units 17 hnd 18).
a very-wide range of meanings beyond this (see llruts27 and 28).
nominative ending: there is a great genitive ending -is
. Ablative variety of endings for this case
The ablative expresses means, association or separation (by, . Fourth declension nouns: mostlv masculine with some
with o.r from), but it has a ve,ry wide range bf meaningi feminines and neuters (see Unit 19).
_b,eyond these. It is also used after certain piepositions (s6e nominative ending -us for masculine genitive ending -fis
Units 29 and 30). and feminine and -u for neuter
There is also a specialized case called the locative which is used . Fifth declension nouns: all feminine except for one masculine
to denote 'at', 'towards'or'from' a particular place (see Unit 31). (dies: dayl (see Unit 20).
El Gender nominative ending -6s genitive ending -ei
. In English, nouns which have genders are those which are
NB Do not confuse this genitive ending with that of the second
obviously either male or female, like man, woman, bog girl, declension whose nominative never ends in -es.
E the first declension has mostly feminine nouns but the E Write out the genitive singulari gender and meaning of the
tl names of some male roles are masc,uline, e.g. agricola agricolae following first declension nouns.
+ farmerrpoeta, poetae .,.+ poet and scriba scribae + scribe. iW"'+ ianuae, feminine, door
5 El the case endings for the first declension which are added to
the present stem are as follows. Notice the ending -ae in the
a charta
b insula
f area
g incola
genitive singular which characterizes this declension. c nauta h via
d agricola i nebula
Singular Plural e ancilla i mensa
-ae El Write out the full declensions, singular and plural, of the
accusative -am accusative -ds following nouns.
CL -ae -irum
o genitive
dative -ae
dative -is

ablative -a ablative -Ts nom. -) ara
atae a ripa (riuer bank) f porta (gate)
o voc. + ara arae b regina (queen) g clementia (mercy)
acc. d aram aras c carina lkeel) h dea (goddessl
5 Notice that some cases end in the same way so we need to know
the context in which a word is used to know which case is gen. -+ arae ararum d matrona (lady\ i cauda (tail)
2. which. Notice also that the ablative singular ends in a long a. dat. - at^e aris e taberna (shop) i femina (utomanl
abl. d ara aris
o E The model for a regular first declension noun is puella -ae f.
+ girl.
El Write out the following cases of these nouns.
= ffiffi the genitive plural of ora (shore) + orarum
nom. puella gid (subject)
a the accusative plural of sagitta (arrowl
voc. puella o grl (when addressing her) b the genitive plural of rosa (rose)
acc. puellam girl (object) c the accusative singular of vacca (cou),
gen. puellae of a girl d the dative singular of sapientia (wisd6m)
dat. puellae to or for a girl e the ablative plural of hasta (spearl
abl. ouella bu with or from a qirl f the dative plural of sella (seat)
Plural g the genitive singular of bdlista (war cdtapult)
h the ablative plural of ala (wing)
nom. puellae g#s (subject)
i the ablative singular of iustitia (iustice)
acc. puellas
o girls (when addressing them)
gr7s (object)
i the vocative plural of fera kaild beast) ,r ;
gen. puellarum of girls E Wtrat cdse and number arc these first declension nouns? lf
dat. puellis to or for girls there is morc than one possible answer give them all. Get used
abl. puellis by, with or from girls to using the abbreviations for case and number.
W t*"" (frog) + 1. gen. sing.2. dat. sing.3. nom. pI.4. voc. pl.
E the nouns filia (daughterl and dea (goddes.s) have as rheir a pennam (feather) e capellis (nanny i forttnarum (luck,
dative and ablative plural endings filidbus anddedbus, to avoid goatl fortune)
confusion with filils and de19, the dative and ablative plurals of b casis (cotage) f linguas (tongwe) i curae (concern)
the nouns filius (soz) and deus (god) from thi second c formicas (antl g arca (box)
declension. dtogae (toga) h Italiam (Italyl
Baslc forms.
lI Write out the genitive singular, gender and medning of the
tl E Most nouns of the second declension are either masculine. following second declension nouns. They all decline like taurus
rrl like taurus - buU, filius + son,pruet + bo! and ager + field oi or templum.
neuter, like templum + temple. The very few feminine words in ffi dominus "+ domini, masculine, master
Ctl it.decline like taurus, e.g. humus + ground or pinus + pine tree. a discipulus e colus i bellum
There are three unusual neuter nouns which dicline like taurus: f i
o pelagus ) sea, yirus + uenom and vulgus + crowd (sometimes
b frumentum
c ventus
g somnus

o masculine). d maritus h eventum

o E the standard case endings for the second declension are as E Write out the full declensions, singutar and plural, of the
o f.Jl:yr.,Note the long of the genitive singular following nouns.
5 which characterizes this declension.
ffi equus (horse)
CL Singular Plural Singular
nonunatrve -us, -ius or -er (m.) -um (n.) -I (m.) -a (n.) nom. r equus equr a oculus f ludus
CL vocative -e, -i or -er (m.) -um (n.) voc. + eque equi (eye) (play, school)
o accusative
-I (m.) -a (n.)
-6s (m.) -a (n.) acc. + equum
gen. 4 equi
b legatus
g stilus
a. dative -6
_Is dat. + equo equis c lapillus h pullus
o ablative -6 -is abl. + equo equis (pebble) (chickenl
T E Most masculine nouns of this declension decline like taurus -i
d rostrum (beak,
i animus
2. (bulll. e praefectus " i iocus (loAe)
o (prefectl
5 nom.
Notice that the vocative
singular is different
from the nominative in
E Write out the following cases of these nouns.
trl voc. taurc tauri
nouns like this (see Unit ffithe accusative plural of cuniculus {rabbit) + cuniculos
acc. taurum tauros
23t. a the genitive singular of digitus (finger, toel
gen' tauri taurorum
b the dative plural of. offrchtm (dutyl
dat. tauro tauris
c the vocative singular of camelus (camell
abl. tauro tauris
d the ablative singular of somnium (dreaml
El All
neuter nouns in the second declension decline like e the accusative singular of campus (plain)
templum -i Qernple). f the nominative plural of odium (hatredl
g the genitive pluial of initium (beginning)
Singular Notice that, as with all h the ablative plural of medicus (doctorl
neuter nouns, the i the accusative plural of funambulus (tightrope ualkerl
nom. and voc. templum templa
nominative, vocative j the dative singular of fermm (iron, swordl
acc. templum templa
templi templorum
and accusative cases 4 Wnat case and number are these second declension nouns?
have the same endings
dat. templo templis lf there is morc than one possible answer give them all.
in the singular and the
abl. templo templis
same endings in the W dott" kiftl - 1.. nom. pl. 2. voc. pl. 3. acc. pl.
plural. a tribuni (tribunel e unguento (ointment, h psittaco
b rivulis (brookl perfumel (pamotl
c gladiurn (swordl f vinum (wine) i ovi (egg)
d tela (weaponl g cumulorum (heapl i servi (slauel
Forms in -er and -ius.
|a't E Write out the genitive singutar, gender and meaning of the
in this declension which go like puer pueri m. + boy and
s .'+ field end in -er in the nominative and vocative
following second declension nouns.
ffi "l"b"rt". + alabastri, masculine, perfume box
J ager agri

singular but otherwise the endings are the same as those for taurus a Auster e administer i furcifer
(see Unit 15 E). Notice that the Jtem (see Unit 13 E) of ager (agr) b Hister f aquilifer i laniger
does not contain the letter e which was in the nominative and c caper g culter
o vocative. Words like ager (e.g. magister magistim. + teacher) do not d cancer h aper
o have the letter e in their stem but words like puer puei ah.uays do.
E Write out the tull declensions, singular and plural where
o Singular Plural Singular Plural
appopriate, of the following nouns. Remember to check the
o nom. and voc.
gen. agri agrorum ffi geoer (son-in-lautl
C Singular Plural Singular Plural
El the declension of filius -ii m. -+ soz is slightly different from nom. + gener generi gen. + generi generorum
CL that of taurus (see Unit 15 g). voc. + genef' generi dat. + genero generis
o Singular Plural Singular Plura
acc. + generum generos abl. .+ genero

9. nom. filius fitii gen. filii (or fili) filiorum a arbiter (umpirel socer (father-in-law)
g liber (bookl
o voc.
b Lucifer (the morning star, the
planet Verwsl (singular only) h socius (a//y)
:' c ingenium (nature, dispositionl armiger (armowr bearerl
e2. Notice that the vocative singular ends in -i and that the genitive d Cornelius (Corneliws\ istudium (zeal, study)
singular can end in -i or -ii. The word genius + spirit and proper e Alexander (Alexanderl (singular only)
o names ending in -ius, like Valerius, decline like filius. Neuter
5 nouns ending in -ium have a genitive singular ending -i or -ii.
E the declension of vir viri m. + ,nun or hero, is slightly
Wrte out the following cases of these nouns.
the dative plural of aper (boar) + sprit
N different from puer. a the genitive plural of liberi (children)

b the dative singular of trifurcifer (hardened criminal)

Singular Plural Singular Plura
c the accusative singular of minister (attendant)
nom. and voc vtr viri dat. vtro viris d the ablative plural of puer (boy)
acc. virum viros abl. uro viris e the dative plural of oleaster (wild oliuel
gen. viri virorum (or virum)
f the nominative plural of fiber (beauerl
g the vocative singular of Tiberius (Tiberius)
E the declension of deus dei m. + god is different from taurus h the genitive singular of faber (craftsmanl ' ;
(nominative and vocative are the same).
i the accusative plural of magister (teacherl
Singulal Plural Singular Plural i the ablative singular of semivir (half-man)
nom. and voc deus dei or di dat. deo deis or dis
acc. deum deos abl. deo deis or dir
E Wtrat case and number are these second declension nouns?
gen. dei deorum or deum lf there is more than one possible answer give them all.

Romans usually called on deities by name, like Mars or Venus.

ffi d"om (godl + l. acc. sing. 2. alternative gen. pl.
a libros (book\ f fabrum (craftsmanl
El A genitive plural in -um rather than -orum is sometimes b socer (father-inJau) g ministri (attendantl
found, especially in words for coins, sums, weights and c magistro (teacher) h socii (ally)
measures like talentum + talent and nummus ) coin. This can d pueri (boy) i liberis (children)
also happen with socius + albt faber + craftsman,liberi + e luli (luliusl i ingenia (nature, disposition)
children and superi + the gods.
Increasing nouns.
E Write out the genitive singular, gender and meaning of the
tl l
El Knowing the stem (Unit 13 E) a noun is important -for
"f the nominatives often
understanding the third declension because
following third declension nouns.
ffi imperator + imperatoris, masculine, general
r4 look quite different from the genitives. Take care to check the genitive
when you look words up in a dictionary. There are two categories: a tempus e conrunx l opus
{ b consul f iudex i dolor
r Nouns with more syllables in the genitive singular than in the
c caput g tempestas
tIr nominative are called increasing nouns. These have a genitive
plural ending in -um and are sometimes called nouns with d miles h clamor
J consonant stems. E When you meet third declension increasing nouns in your
d o Nouns with the same number of syllables in the genitive
singular as in the nominative are sometimes called non-
increasing nouns. These have a genitive plural ending in -ium
reading they will often not be in the nominative case and you
will need to be able to look the noun up in a dictionary from
knowing only the word you have in front of you. You should
CL and are also called nouns with vowel stems.
o E the structure and case endings of increasing nouns follow.
Notice the ending -is in the genitive singular which characterizes
look for a noun which starts with the same few letters and check
the genitive singular. If the stem of the genitive is the same as the
a. this declension. The nominatives have various endings.
stem of the word you are checking then that is your noun.

o Uae your dictionary to find out which nouns the following cases

5 nom.
-6s (m. and t.) -a (n.)
-Es (m. and f.) -a (n,)
come from and write down the nominative singular and meaning.
Thls will take some patience but do not give up because you will be
c2. acc. stem + -em (m. and f.) various (n.) stem + -€s (m. and f.) -a (n.) practising a very important skill.

o gen.
stem + -is
stem + -T
stem + -e
* lapidibus + lapis (stonel
a amonrm e nomina i aequoribus
f "'
= E
b pariete salem i homines
J A good example of the masculine and feminine nouns of this
q lion: c aetates g virtutum
rype is leo leonis (m.l d custodis h pecudi
Singular Plural Singular Plural
E Write out the full declensions, singular and plural, of these
nom. and voc. leo leones dat. leoni leonibus nouns.
acc. leonem leones abl. leone leonibus
gen. leonis leonum I r"x 1rcrrg1
Singular Plural
El A good model for the neuter nouns is corpus corporis q body: !t()m.r rex reges a flos (flouterl f anser (goosel
Singular Plural Singular Plural voc. +rex reges b digrritas (uorthinessl g laus (praisel
nom. and voc. corpus corpora dat. corpori corpoilbus ilcc. -+ fegem reges c pes (footl h yirgo (maiden)
acc. corpus corpora abl. corporc corporibus gcn. -+ regis regum d aestas (summerl i sol+(sun)
gen' comoris corDorum dat. "+rd' regibus e pinceps (chiefl i carmen (song)
,rbl. -r rege regibus
E Exceptions
. There are some nouns which increase the number of syllables E Wnat case and number are these third declension nouns? lf
in the genitive singular but are technically non-increasing there is more than one possible answer give them all.
nouns with vowel stems. These decline like urbs urbis f. -a ciU
with a genitive plural ending in -ium (see Unit 18 E). tl# legionibas (Iegion) + 1. dat. pl. 2. abl. pl.
. There are also some nouns with consonant stems which are l segetem (crop) f corda (heartl \
non-increasing and have a genitive plural ending in -um. Most b libertate (freedoml g quietis (resf)
of these are the 'family' words: pater patris m. + father, mater c cineri (cinder) h obsides (hostagel
matris f. + mother, frater fratris m. + brother, iuvenis iuvenis d honorum (honour) i nepotibus (grandsonl
m. 1 young man and canis canis m. or f. q dog. These decline c ebur (iuoryl i litora (shore)
like senex (see Unit 22 E l.
Non-increasing nouns. E Write out the genitive singutar, gender and meaning of the
t18l following thild declension nouns.
L_J El the structure and
standard case endings of non-increasing
rJ Unit 17 El) nouns are as follows. Nore the genitive singulai
(see .ffi nubes + nubis, feminine, cloud
ending -is which characterizes the declension. a clades e vectigal i clavis
@ [iingular Plural
b ignis f sedile i iubar
c imber g avis
t-lr nom.
stem + -is or -€s (m. and f) -e, -l or -r (n.) stem + -Es (m. and f.) -ia (n)
stem + -is or -5s (m. and f.) -e, -l or -r (n.) stem + -€s (m. and f.) -ia (n) d amnis h valles
J acc. atem + -em or -im (m. and f.) -e, -l or -r (n.) stem + -6s or -Is (m. and f)
When you meet third declension non-increasing nouns in your
-h (n.)

d gen.
stem + -is
stem + -I
stem + -f or -e
Stern + {um
stem + -ibus
stem + -ibus
reading they will not often be in the nominative case. As with
increasing nouns, it is important to be able to find the nominative
singular of the noun you are looking at. This is generally easier to
CL do with non-increasing nouns because their nominative endings
o There are some nouns of this type with nominatives in -er, e.g.
venter ventris m. ) stolnach.
are more predictable (see Unit 17, Exercise 2).

9. E An example of the masculine and feminine nouns of this type E Use your dictionary to find which nouns the following cases
o is civis, civis m. + citizen. belong to, then write down the nominative singular and meaning.

(2. nom, and voc.
cives dat,
ffi cubilia..+ cubile (couch)
a arietibus e oves i orbi
acc. civem cives or cavis abl. civi or civibus b ense f crinis i conclavia
o gen. civis civium cive c cutem g axium
5 Nouns which have the accusative ending -im are not common.
Examples are sitis !. - thirst, turris f. ) totaer, puppis f. -r
d securibus h fronde

N stetn deck, securis f. + axe and Tiberis m. + the riuer Tiber.

I In the neuter nominative singulars the last vowel of the stem
Write out the full declensions, singular and plurat, of these

(-i) is dropped (animal animalis + animal) or an -e ffi sword.l

rudit (practice .
(cubile cubilis + couchl. Singular Plural i

nom. + rudis rudes

Singulat Plural Singular Plural voc. + rudis rudes
nom. and voc. cubile cuoilta gen' cubilis cubilaum acc. + rudem rudes or rudis
acc. cubile cubilia dat. and abl. cubili cubilibus gen. + rudis rudium
In the ablative singular rete + net ends in -e, while mare 1 sea dat. + rudi rudibus
ends in either -i or -e. abl. + rudi or rude rudibus il
a puppis (stern deck)
El Some nouns which have more syllables in the genitive than in
b moles (mass, bulkl
the nominative still decline like non-increasing nouns with a
gelitive plural ending in -ium. They are mostly nouns of one E Wtrat case and number are these third declension nouns? lf
syllable ending in a double consonant like urbs urbis f. 4 cit! there is more than one possible answer give them all.
(see Unit 17 E \.
W calcar (spur1 + 1. nom. sing. 2. voc. sing. 3. acc. sing.
Singular Plural Singular Plural a fami (hungerl d bellis (daisy) h stirpe (stem)
nom. and voc. urbs urbes dat. urDl urbibus b nectaris (nectarl e lintrem (boatl i ancilia (shield\
acc. uttem urbes abl. urbe urbibus c tribunal (platform, f vermis (uorm) i vulpibus (/or)
gen' urbis urbium
iudgement seatl g artiltm (art)
Other examples: mons montis m. + mountain, arx arcis f. + citadel,
ars artis f. q art, nox noctis f. + night, dens dentis m. + tootlt.
El the nouns of the fourth declension are mostly masculine, E Write out the full declensions, singular and plural, of these
tl like gradus + steP. Common feminine nouns are manus -) fourth declension nouns.
hand,porticus + colonnade,tibus + tribe and Idus + ldes (see ,ffi o"* (a spit)
J Unit 80). Common neuter nouns are genu q knee, cornu -) Singular
(o horn and, veru + d spit.
nom. + veru
El the following are the case endings for fourth declension voc. + veru verua
{r nouns. Notice the genitive ending -us (with a long u) which is acc. + veru verua
o characteristic of this declension. gen. i verus veruum
c Singular Plural
dat. r veru
abl. r veru

-us (m. and f.) -u (n.)
-us (m. and f.) -u (n.)
-um (m. and f.) -u (n.)
-iis (m. and f.) -ua (n.)
-iis (m. and f.) -ua (n.)
-iis (m. and f.) -ua (n.)
a saltus (leap,
mountain passl
d trrbus (tribe) h exitus (exit)
e porticus (colonnade) I impetus (attack)
b portus (harbour) f ictus (stroke, bloul i manus (hand\
gen. -iis -uum
CL -uT (m. and f.) -ii -ibus
c cornu (horn) g gemitus (groanl
o dat.
abl. -u
-ibus E Wnat case and number are these fourth declension nouns? lf
9. El the masculine and feminine nouns of this declension decline
there is more than one possible answer give them all.

o like gradus + step.

ffi genibus (kneel '+ L. dat. pI.2. abl. pl.
a artuum (limbl
(2. Singular Plural
d tonitru (thunder) h luctu (lamentation)
b abitum (departurel e versus (uersel i monitus (uarningl
c magistratibus f arcui (booul i orsuum (beginning)
gradus gradus
nom, and voc.
(magistrate) g partubus (offspring)
o acc.
graduum E You will need to avoid confusion between the fourth and
dat. gradui gradibus
= abl. gradu gradibus
second declensions. Look up these nouns, check their genitives
and say what declension they belong to.
{ffi sonitus (sound) + fourth declensibn
El the very few neuter nouns in the fourth declension decline a coniectus (heap, mass) e mercatus (tradel i
reditus (reuml
like genu + knee. f
b mundus (woild, uniuerse) questus (complaintl i morsus (blre)
Singular Plural c quercus (oaA) g modulus (measurel
d nodus (Azor) h ramus (branchl
nom. and voc. genu genua
acc. genu genua E Write out the following cases of these nouns.
gen. genUs genuum
#ffi the ablative singular of gradus (step) + gfa&t
dat. and abl. genu genibus
a the genitive singular of census (census)
b the dative plural of circumiectus (enclosure)
E In some words the dative and ablative plural ends in the c the accusative plural of cumrs (chariotl
more ancient form -ubus. rather than -ibus. This is always found d the nominative plural of electus (choice)
in arcus m. + bora (tcubus), tribus f. + tribe (tibubu4 and e the genitive plural of anus (old utoman)
occasionally in parnrs m. + offspring (patubus,), artus m. + f the dative singular of usus (zse)
limb, ioint (Nafuus) and some other words. g the ablative plural of fructus (fruit, income)
h the accusative singular of cursus (passage, coursel
i the ablative singular of domitus (tamingl
i the vocative plural of rictus (gaping iaws)
tr All fifth declension nouns are feminine except for dies m. + Il Write out the genitive singular and meaning of the following
l42l day and. its compound meridies m. + midday. However, even fifth declension nouns.
L--J dies can be feminine if the day referred to is an appointed day.
facies +faciei,face
N There are no neuters. Some nouns in this declension do not have ffi
o plural forms.
E fhe case endings for the fifth declension are as follows.
a progenies
b pauperies
c caesafles
f congeries
g temperies
h materies
Notice the genitive singular ending in -ei which is characteristic
of this declension. d tristities i macies
*Ir Singular Plural
e permities I planities

) nom. -Gs -6s

E Write out the full declensions, singular and plural, of the
voc. -€s -e3 following fifth declension nouns.
CL -em -€s ffi
o acc.
gen. -ef
facies (face, appearance)
Singular Plural
9. dat.
abl. -6 -€bus nom. + facies facies
o voc. + facies facies
q acc. +
El the declension of dies m. dav looks like this.
gen. +
Singular Plural dat. + faciei faciebus
abl. +
o nom. dies dies facie
a glacies (ice) (sing.)
fides (pledge, trustl
5 voc.
b canities (grq hair, old agel (sing.) g meridies (noonl
c acies (glance, banle linel h spes (bopel
dat. diei diebus d effigies (likeness, statuel i
species (form, appearancel
abl. die e superficies (surfacel i
diluvies (flood)
El .Ihe word res rei f. + thinghas a huge number of meanings. I Wtrictr case and number are these fifth declension nouns? lf
It basically means thing but it can also mean issue, matter, story, there is more than one possible answer give them all.
object, affair, business, fact, the universe and so on.
ffi rei (thing) '+ 1. gen. sing.2. dat. sing.
IThen it combines with the feminine adjective publica a public a seriem (rou, seriesl
it means state or republic and both parts of the word decline. b dieram (dayl
c faciebus (face, appearancel
Singular Plural d meridiei (midday) {t
respublica respublicae f
nom. e sanie (uenom)
voc. respublica respublicae f vastities (ruinl
acc. rempublicam respublicas g scabiem (roughness, itchl
gen. reipublicae rerumpublicarum h eluvie (ouerflow, discharge)
dat. reipublicae rebuspublicis
republica rebuspublicis
i rabiem (madness)
j carie (dry rotl
As Greek literature had a great influence on the Roman world ll Write out the full declensions of the following first dectension
t-r.l we find many Greek nouns used in Latin, mostly proper names. Greek nouns, in the singular only for proper names.
ll These took on Latin forms and, often, Latin endings. However,
ffi ca-pe (euasion)
you will meet some which retain their Greek endings. Some
nouns are found with both Latin and Greek forms in their
nom. + campe
Singular Plural
gen. -)
Singular Plural
camPes camParum
endings. They may appear confusing at first because of the large camPae
variety of forms but the general pattern is easy to get used to. voc. "+ campe campae dat, d campae campis

o E First declension Greek nouns are of three types and most are
proper names. The plurals are the same as the normal first
acc. + camPen campas
a Hylas (a friend of Hercules)
b Daphne (a nymph loved by Apollo)
abl. + campe campis
f Boreas (the North Ifind)
g crambe (cabbagel
d declension nouns (see Unit 14 tr).
r Examples are Aeneas m. (a Trojan hero) Anchises m. (Aeneas' c Atrides (son of Atreus) h Cybele (an oriental goddess)

o father) and Circe f. (a goddess).

(include the plural)
d Hecate (goddess of
witchcraft) i
Cyrene (a crty in North A{rica)
Hebe (a nymph)
e harpe (scimitar)
- nom,
Anchis6 (or -d)
CircE (or -a)
Girc6 (or -a)
:' acc. Aenean AnchisGn (or -an) Girc€n (or -am) El Write out the full declensions of the following second and
o gen.
CircEs (or -ae)
third declension Greek nouns, in the singular only for proper
names. Remember to check the genitive to see which
C abl. Aen66 AnchisE (or -d) Circ6 (or -d) declension they come from and to find their stems.
o o Patronvmics are names which mean 'son
like AtllSb -
of'and end in -ides.
son of Atreus (Agamemnon) or Pelides - soi
Socrates (socrates)

nom. a Socrates gen. + Socratis

of Peleus (Achilles). These are declined like Anchises and their
genitive plural ends in -um. voc. + Socrates or Socirate dat, -r Socrati
El Second declension Greek nouns are mostly proper names of acc. + Socraten or Socratem abl. d Socrate
two fypes. Examples are Delos f. (the Aegean island where Apollo
a lampas (torch) f Rhodos (Rhoda, an Aqean island)
b Lynx (lynxl g Paris (a Trojan prince)
and Artemis were born) and Pelion n. (a Greek mountain). c Babylon (a city) h Orpheus (a poet)
nom. Delos Pelion gen. Deli Pelil d Agamemnon (hiCh king of Greece) i Chios (an Aegean island)
voc. Delos Pelion dat. Del6 Peli6 e Pericles (an Athenian statesman) i heros (hero)
acc. Delon (or -um) Pelion abl. Del6 Peli6
El Wtrat case and number ane the following Greek nouns? lf
El Third declension Greek nouns there is more than one possible answer give them all.
r The declension of crater crateris (m.) mixing boul gives the basic WPanos (the god Pan) + gen. sing.
structufe. a chryso (gold) f dorcadas (gazelle)
Singular Plural Singular Plural
b Xerxen (Xerxes, king of Persia) g Tydeu (a hero, father of Diomede)
c Platonis (Plato, a philosopher) h xiphiae (swordfiqh)
nom crater cratCres gen crat€ros (or -is) cratarum d Naxi (Naxos, an Aegean island) i Typhoea (Typhobus, a monster
voc. crat6r crateres dat. crat€rl crat6rabut e Didonem (Dido, queen under Mt Etna)
gen. cratera (or -em) crat€ras (or -es) abl. crat€re orateribur of Carthage) i Zancles (Messana, a town)
o There is a great variety of endings in the nominative of third
declension Greek nouns, e.g. heros herois m. .+ hero, Socrates
E Write out the genitive singutar, gender and meaning of the
Socratis m. a Socrates (a philosopher), Orpheus Orphei m. -+ following Greek nouns. lf you can, try to identify the proper
Orpheus (a poet), Dido Didonis f. + Dido (queen ofCarthage) names as well.
and Paris Paridis m. + Paris (a Trojan prince). lndividual entries wtithtadates -r Mithradatis,masculine, Mithradates (a king
in a good dictionary will give you any unusual case endings. of Pontus)
. The third declension names in -eus. -es or -is can also form a poema e Sophocles i Theseus
their vocative by dropping the -s, e.g. Pari (as well as Paris). b Euripides f Eurydice j Lemnos
They can also end their accusatives with -n or -m, e.g. Socraten c Phlegethon g psephisma
or Soctatem; Parin or Parim (as well as Parida or Paridem). d Tros h Dione
El domus domus f. + house has endines from the second and E Say what case .and number the foltowing nouns are and
l46 fourth declensions. The locative cases (sie Unit 31 E) of domus whether they come from vis + strength or vir + man. lf therc is
tl l

are domum + bomeuard, domi + at home and domo + from more than one possible answer give them all.
N home.
ffiffi viro'+ vir
N Singular Plural a vim
1. dat. sing. 2. abl. sing. from

nom. domus domirs b viris

voc. domus dom0s c viros
acc. domum dom0s or dom6s d virum
=' 8en.
domiis domuum or dom6rum
domulor dom6 domibus
e viribus
f virorum
GI abl. dom6 domibus
tr El Important third declension irregular nouns are: h viri
- . vis f. + uiolence, force.This noun is defective. In other words i virium
- it does not have all its cases. In the plural it means strength. i vires
Be careful not to confuse it with vh + man (see Unit 16 E).
E Write out the declensions of the following words which
= Slngular Plural Singular Plural decline like senex. Remember to check the genitive.

c nom. vis
gen. vlm
W* apis (beel
Singular Plural
abl. vt rapis
= . senex senis m. + old man is a non-increasing noun but has a
voc. +apis
genitive ending in -um. acc. + apem apes
gen. + apis apum
Singular Plural Singular Plural
d,at. + api apibus
nom. senex
voc. senex
abl. + ape apibus i
gen. senem senEs abl. sene senibus a frater (brother)
b iuvenis (young man)
. bos bovis m. + or. c mater (tnotberl
Singular Plural Singular Plural
d canis (dog)
e pater (father)
nom. b6s bov6s gen. DOVIS boum
voc. b6s bov6s dat. bovl b6bus or b0bus f sedes (seat)
g accipiter (hautk)
gen. bovem bovEs abl. bove b6bus or b0bus
h mensis (month) ' :r
o Jupiter, king of the gods. i volucris (bird)
nom. I luppiter
i vates (prophetl
voc. I luppiter
acc. I lovem
gen. I lovis
dat. I lovi
abl. I love
El Nominatives and vocatives are alike except in the singular of E tdentify only the subjects in the following English sentences.
l48 the second declension (see Units 15 and 16). Fire red foxes ran through the farmyard + foxes
tl l

El ttre subject
f Marius was a great general.
.The nominative case is the name of a noun and is used when
a This box is not to be
opened. g Diamonds are a girl's best
that noun is the subiea of a sentence. If the verb of a sentence b Do the pirates have a flag? friend.
is active (see Unit 2 E ), the subiect is the person or thing c We have been released. h How heavy are those
5 performing the action of the verb.
gtlN -^ elephantum terret + the tnouse frightens the
d It is finished.
'!7here i

o - " elephanr. The mouse is doing the frightening so it is the e are the onions and
cabbages? i
Are you going out?
The dish ranaw^y withthe
. If the verb of the sentence is passive (see Units 2 El, 45 and.

461, the subiect is the person or thing experiencing the action
of the verb.
A Translate the following sentences into English. The
nominatives are used for the subjects. Remember that therc is
mus ab elephanto terretur + tbe ttoase is frightened by no word for'the' in Latin so you will have to supply it if it helps
+, the elepbant The mouse is now experiencing the fright the sense.
so it is the subiect. ffi "att"r saliebant + the dogs were leaping
o . In English we usually start our sentences with the subject but
in Latin the subject can come anyn'here in a sentence or clause
a pedites ambulaverunt sed legatus equitavit.
gt (seeIntroduction).
b grues avolaverant.
k&ffi legiones Gallos supervaerunt
q the legions haue
c non ridet imperator.
d lepus non vicit.
ouercome the Gauls
C Caesaerem Btutus necavit + Btafiis killed Caesar
e gladiatores sumus.
plaustrum trahunt boues q tlte oxen drag the plough
f Cassius dormit.
g miles et nauta bibebant.
o El tne complement h pontifex dixit et plebs parebit.
The nominative is also used when one noun is the complement
of another. In other words, the subject of the sentence is referred
i magister docebat sed discipuli non audiebant.
j Hercules diu laborabat :

to by another noun.
+. 'ffi Caesat electus est imperator I Caesar has been chosen as
"' * gmeral. The noun imperator (generall refers to the subject
El Translate the following sentences in which the nominative is
used both for the subject and the complement
o (Caesar) and so is the complement and is in the
senatores erant proditores + the senators were traitors
f raptores captivi sunt.
qt E ttre vocative case
a Merlinus erat magus.
b pauper erit princeps.
c canis est pestis.
g oratores sunt mendaces.
h Romani erandvictores.
The vocative case is used when addressing someone or something.
o W Caesar! + hail Caesar! d Pheidias erat artifex. i praetoriani erunt percussores.
o ^n"
salvete filii'+ hello sons e templa sunt aedificia. i Brutus fuerat consul.
o salve sol a hello sun
Examples of second declension vocatives are:
g Transtate these sentences which have a mixture of
. et tu Brute? + you too Brutus? (Julius Caesar's dying words nominatives and vocatives.
in Latin) ffi non manebimus, pueri -r rae shall not utait, boys
. salve Valeri '-r hello Valerius a domine, hospites discedunt. f Valeri, Iulius et Tiberius currunt.
. o fili 1o son b salvete agricolae! g ave fili.
E Technically, the nominative case is known as the cases rectus c Valeria, Tite, iuvenis cadit. h pater, ver appropinquat.
but you will probably never meet this term. However, you will d centurio, captivi effugerunt. i ubi es, Marce?
proliably meeit the teim oblique cases which is anothei way of e hostes adveniunt o milites! i Fortuna, dea es.
referring to all cases apart from the nominative.
r;-l Nouns in the accusative belong to one of the following
Il Hentify the objects in the following sentences.
tl El tne direct object
ffi *t all like figs + figs
N f IThy do flies eat dung?
a Asterix is chasing his dog.
. The direct object, usually just called the obiect, is the noun b How many boxes have you g 'When
will Hadrian visit the
which experiences or suffers the action of the verb when the filled? wall?
verb is active (see Unit 2 E) and transitive (see Unit 2 El). c !7ars cause misery. h I cannot see the signal.
q) When the verb is passive there is no object. The object is- d The wind helps boats. i 'We
are awaiting our prders.
o ln the accusatrve case.
ffiffi mus elephantum terret + the mouse frightens the
e The otters are watching their i The doctor has cured the
o elephant. The elephant suffers the frighi so it is the
mother. disease.

tr object. El Transtate the following sentences into English.

o In English we usually put the object aher the verb but in Latin
the object can come anywhere in a sentence or clause (see 'ffi nnae muscas capiebant + the frogs were catching flies
Introduction). a venatores clamores audiverunt. g milites Claudium
+. W anserem vulpes spectat +
-the fox is watching the goose
coryus c*sean, gustat + tbe crou is tasting the chbese
b magistri pueros docebant.
imperatorem fecerunt.
c druides taurum sacrificaverunt. actorem puellae
o senator sallutayit amicum + the senator grebted his fnend
o Some verbs, usually of making, calling and teiching, rake rwo
d domine, servi panem portant.
e nuces sciuri celabant.
i avarus nummos amat.
accusatives, one of the person and another of the-thine. e.e.
Puentm Latinam doceo + I am teaching the boy Latiil.
f fabri murum aedificant. i navis scopulum percussit.

Tarquiniun regent fecerunt + the! made Tirquin king.

o El Tfanslate the following simple sentences into Latin.
W the priests were leading the procession + sacerdotes
o El Extent of time or space
. For the accusative expressing duration of time see Unit 31 EI.
o To express age,-e.g. paet decem an tos natus
pompam ducebant
-) a ten-year-old a The senator is calling the allies.
boy g.e. born lor ten years). b The river has flooded the fields.
o To express extent of space, e.g. tria mila 1 rae
walked for three m{les, dtico nruIta milia aberut + the
c Hercules attacked the hydra. ,
d The boys love Amelia
dragon was ttany,milcs away, rupes est cenhrm pedes alta:
the crag is a hundred feet high. e The Gauls fear the Romans.
f The guards have closed the gates.
I Direction towards g The dogs are watching the shepherd.
The accusative can mean motion towards, e.g. Romam + /o h The farmer has freed the birds.
Rome. (For more details and the locative case,lee Unit 31 El). i They are hiding the gold.
El the accusative is used after certain prepositions. e.e. ad i Cats do not like water.
curiam + to the senate house. (See Un^it 32 for a-deiailed ,r +

account of prepositions). E Translate these sentences which contain accusatives of

E Internalaccusative respect, accusatives of extent and accusatives of exclamation.
This is also called the accusative of respect and the adverbial The adjectives are easy to find in a dictionary.
accusative. It is not used as the object of a verb, often refers to ffi d"ot oculos nitidus estq the god is shining in his eyes (i.e.
part of. the body and is usually poetic, e.g. saucius artus ) his eyes are shining)
tuounded in (respect ofl his limbs. a o incredibilem foeditatem. f saucius eram manus.
E Accusative of exclamation b corpus valeo. g lacus erat centum pedes altus.
This expresses amazement, disbelief, outrage or distress, often c viginti gradus ambulavit. h equus crurem claudicat.
with an qNiective (see -Units 33 and 3q, e.g. o fortunatatn d o mirabilem fortitudinem. i o gloriam inconstantem.
Romam (Cicero) + o forhtnate Rome and mi mijerum! + o e miles sex pedes altus est. i nudus erat artus.
wretched ne!
A good general rule is that the genitive is used for nouns which ll Tfanslate the following sentences into English. There is a
tltl in English have the word 'of' before them. lt has a wide varietyr mlxture of types of genitive in them.
of uses in Latin. Do not be put off by the official names. All the
ns tecta urbis video + I see the roofs of the city
N uses ane straightforward.
a puer versus Vergilii recitat. I cives virum honestatis
Ctl E Possessive genitive b disco artem equitandi. probant.
. This is used as in English to express possession, e.g. liber c ianuam domus numquam m Hannibal visum oculi
GI puella.e + tbe girl's book (i.e. the book of the girl) or equus amisit.
regis + the kingls horse.
o d pastor filiam regis amat. n aquae fluminis leniter
5 o As in English this can be used to express association as well as
ownership. This is sometimes called the subiective genitive,
c voces liberorum audivistis.

e.g. libri Ouidii + the works of Ouid (i.e. books written by
Ovid), coniuratio Catilinae + the conspiracy of Catiline or
f capillos capitis senis tonsor
numerat. p
corona gemmarum fulsit.
est ducis urbem curare.
I catervam militum timemus. q elephanti massas saxorum
amor matris + the loue of a mother (i.e. the love felt by a
o mother).
h est medici aegrotos sanare.
i minae hostium liberos r
vulnera militum non
E Attributive genitive
This is used as in English to describe rhe content or material of i
acervi stercoris viam s
exploratores culmina
which something consists, e.g. acervus ftatnenti + a pile of am
o or vincula fed + shackles of iron. k
sonitus tonitrus ancillae t
montium aspectabant.
linguam Romanorum
o E Appositional genitive or genitive of definition audiverunt. discebant.
J This is used with another noun which it defines further, e.g. ars
scribendi + tlte art of uriting (for the verbal noun scribendi see El Translate the following sentences into Latin. Different types
gerund Unit 50 E), hoc nomen regis + this title (of) king or of genitive are included among fiem.
ipsum verbum ueneni + the uery tuord (of) poison.
E Genitive of characteristic ffi rre birds' uoices delighted the listeners'+ voces avium
auditores delectaverunt
This is used where in English the characteristic, nature or duty
a The burdens press the donkeys' backi.
of something is expressed, e.g. est custodis curare portas I it is
b Cassius is a man capable of cruelty.
(the duty) of a guard to look after the gatesi est uirt pii deos
c The men of the town will not fight.
colere -+ it is (the nature) of a pious ttan to worship the gods.
d The slaves are washing the master's togas.
E Genitive of quality, description e We love the waves of the sea.
This is used as in English with an adjective or number to express f The love of war destroys humanity.
a quality of person or thing, as well as size, number and age, e.g. g They did not see the light of the fire.
vr egregiae uirtutis - a ruan of outstanding ualou; fossa h I do not like the dog's breath. or
uiginti pedutn + a ditch of haenty feen, natio quinque tribuum i The wisdom of the queen has saved the ship.
+ a nation of ft* tri.bes; pluer annoran septem + a boy of i I have a weight of silver.
seuen years. k It is a sailor's job to navigate.
E Obiective genitive I The pize of valour is glory.
This is used with nouns and adjectives (especially those ending m You (s.) will like the poet's house.
in -ax) which contain a strong verbal sense, e.g. odium belli + n Love of money is the root of evil.
a hatred of utar and arnor matris + the loue of a mother (i.e. felt o 'We have found the pile of eggs.
for a mother), laudem t:uam nostri amamus ) we like your p The love of a mother sustains children.
praise of us (see also Unit 39 E for the genitive pronoun nostri) q 'We
The Romans did not like the title king.
and mens ingenii capax + a mind capable of r are seeking the wizard's treasure.
s Brutus'mother was sleeping.
t I know a man of a hundred vears.
E Partitive genitive or genitive of the whote quanti, pluris and minoris, e.g. divitias parui aestimat + he
o This is used when a part of a lVrger amount or number is ualues ricbes (of) kttle, canem magni pretii emit + he bought
the dog for a great price (of a great price in Latin), felem
referred to.
N W p^rt uillae + part of the estate minoris emit + he bought the cat for less (of less in Latin).
o) partem thesauri celavit + he hid part ofthe treasure
malti miliam ) many of the soldiers
complures nostntm + seueral of as (see also Unit 39 E on ll Tlanslate the following sentences into English. There is a
GT mixture of types of genitive in them,
o the genitive pronoun nostrum)
r The partitive genitive is often found with the following neuter
pronouns and adjectives of quantity in a way not used in
. tantum felicitatis vidisti .+ you haue seen so much happiness
II a agricola memor belli est. j ascendatores parum funium
= English. We generally leave out the 'of'.
b cives dignitatem magni habuerunt.
ffi plor uini + more (of) utinc (seealso Unit 35 E on plus .+ more) aestimant. k minus proelii imperator vidit.
aliquid noui.+ some (ofl tantum d.olori.s + so rnuch
o news (ofl SrN"f
qnrd noti? + tuhat (ofl neuts? nihrl uirium + no strength
c fossores aliquid auri
d ubi terrarum eramus?
I puellae aliquid panis

qt multum sanguini.s + mucb (nothing of strength)
f pauperes calceorum
mtanftrm casei vulpes cepit.
e quanti pretii domum emisti? n partem muri delevimus.
(of) blood quantum aquaeT + how o quicquam pecuniae habes?
o satis clatnontm + enouglt much (ofl utater? indigebant. p liberi nimis aquae biberunt.
o (ofl sbouting
nimis uiolentiae + too much
minus paryri
+ less (ofl g fur honestatem parvi aestimat. q multi gladiatorum pugnabant.
h multum veneni
r complures captivorum

N (ofl uiolence
parum cibi + not enough
hoc tetnports +
(point inlofl rtme
at this i satis onerum portat.
s Pars pompae constitit.
t naves magni pretii emerunt.
(ofl food quicquam panis + any
(ofl bread
o The partitive genitive gentium (of nations) and terrarum (of
E Translate the following sentences into Latin. There is a
mixture of types of genitive in them.
countries) is used in questions like ubi gentiam sum? + uhere
in the utorld am I? (where of the nations? in Latin). ffi Caesar had too much glory -+ Cae,bar nimis gloriae habebat
lil After verbs and adjectives a 'We
desire enough houses. I He bought the farm for a
Some verbs and adjectives are followed by a genitive, as in b The horses are dragging too small price. I

English. A dictionary entry will tell you whether this happens much wood. m The shepherd is guarding part
for a particular verb or adjective. (For impersonal verbs which c Do you (s.) have any newsl of the flock.
d The lake is full of fish. n Part of the battle line was
take the genitive see Unit 55 El). It generally occurs after: e The crow has taken some approaching..
o Verbs and adjectives of condemning, accusing, acquitting or
grain. o The boy is catrying more fruit.
convicting, e.g. maiestalrs convictus est ) he uas conuicted of f He is mindful of the danger. p We have not enough salt.
trea.son. g Peace makes much wealth. q How much of the story do
o Verbs and adjectives of want or fullness, e.g. plenus aquae 1 h Many of the children were they know?
full of utater and arrnontm indiget q lte is in need of playing. r 'We saved part of the tree.
u)ea.pons. The deponent verb potior + take possession of (see i I have seen too much weeping. s The general values cowards
Unit 55) is of this type. i Ve are in need of water. litde.
o Verbs and adjectives of remembering, forgetting or reminding, k At this point in time the
e.g. pericuk memor + mindful of the danger or aerbotam
guards are sleeping.
oblitus sum ..+ I forgot the uords.
o Verbs of valuing, buying and selling. The genitive is usually an
adjective or pronoun and is called the genitive of value. The
commonest examples are magni, parvi, plurimi, minimi, tanti,
The dative case has a wide variety of uses. lt is generally used For impersonal verbs with the dative, see Unit 56 E.
l56 for nouns which in English have 'to' or'for' before them. o It can be used in the same way with adjectives which express
tl l

likeness, help, proximity, trust etc, e.g. frdelis amico era;t+ he

Et Dative of indirect object
o In Latin (as in English), when transitive verbs of giving, uas faithful to his frt*d; filia simillima matri est + the
daughter is uery like her motheq Marcus par fratri est '+
sending, saying, telling, promising or showing etc. take a
Marcus is like his brother.
direct obiect in the accusative (Unit 24 [), the person (or
CL thing) to whom the object is given, shown or sent etc. is the Some of these adjectives can also take the genitive (see Unit 26 El.
qt indirect obiect. In Latin the indirect obiect is in the dative, e.g.
epistulam inperatori misisti ) you sent a letter to the
+. effiperor. In English we do not always need the 'to', e.g. dic
E Translate the following sentences into English.
mibi caasas + tell me the reasons.
o o Some verbs which are transitive in English are intransitive in
Latin and so, instead of taking a direct object in the
'|ffi agdrcolae plaustrum demonstravimus
the farmer the wagon
+ we haue shown

accusative, they take the dative. The most common are the
verbs below. Most of them contain the idea of being
a liberis fabulam narras.
b auxilium sociis misimus.
k candidato non
praestigiatores hospitibus
o favourable to someone (or the opposite). c divisor suffragatoribus non placuerunt.

o credo -ere credidi creditum + belieue

desum deesse defui + fail in one's duty, be lacking
d dona matronis promisi.
mcives sacerdotibus fidunt.
n Romanis barbari diu
J faveo -ere favi fautum + support e poetae civibus recitabant.
f oratori senatores non
o Vitellia par matri erat.
fido -ere fisus sum (semi-deponent: see Unit 55) + trust (and p custodes captivis deerant.
its compounds like diffido + mistrustl g pauperes divitibus non q servis domini imperaverunt.
ignosco -ere ignovi ignotum
] forgiue invident. r Sulla ini.rnicis nocuit.
impero -are -avi -atuim + order h sorores fratribus subveniebant. s militibus non serviemus.
indulgeo -ere indulsi + indulge i Caesar inimicis pepercit. t magister discipulis libros dedit.
intersum interesse interfui + be among I Arminius Germanis praeerat.
invideo -ere invidi invisum I enuy
irascor irasci iratus sum --+ be ingry with (deponent: see El Translate the following sentences idto Latin.
Unit 55)
minor -ari -atus sum + threaten (deponent: see Unit 55) ffiffi I shall send corn to tlte colonists'+ frumentum colonis
noceo -ere -ui -itum + harm
nubo -ere nupsi nuptum ) marry a man (only with a a You (s.) used to trust the k He"is supporting his mother.
woman as the subject) queen. I The foxes will not harm the
obsum obesse obfui + be a hindrance to ,cf. obviam ire + b The hunters were studying the chickens. 4

dative + meetl stag's footprints. mThe lady sentttlb rings to her

parco -ere peperci parsum ) spare c The runriers mistrust the ice. daughters.
p,reo -ere -ui -itum + obey d The women will be among the n The priests gave sacrifices to
the gods.
placeo -ere -ui -itum + please spectators.
q e You (pl.) have not persuaded o The judge will not forgive the
praesum praeesse praefui be in command of
prosum proesse profui q be of benefit to f
the allies.
I envy the victors.
p Portia has married Brutus.
resisto -ere restiti + resist g The cowards will not come to q The young men believed the
servio -ire -ivi -itum) serue, be a slaue to help the boys. messenger.
studeo -ere -ui + study, be keen on h The master indulges the slaves. r Cats do not trust dogs.
suadeo -ere suasi suasum + aduise (and the compound i The sheep are a hindrance to s The dam will resist the waves.
persuadeo + persuade) the carts. t The witnesses are telling the
subvenio -ire subveni subventum 1 come to help i The orders do not please the judge the truth.
supersum superesse superfui + suruiue soldiers.
E Dative of advantage and disadvantage E Translate the following into English. They contain datives of
tl The person or thing for whose advantage or disadvantage advantage and disadvantage.
something is done is in the dative, e.g. hoc nobis facimtus I Lt)e q
N are doing this for ourcelues (for hoc see Unit 40 E), Brutus
Caesari vitam abstuht + Brutus stole the hf. from Caesar.
ffi servi stolas matronis laverunt
dresses for tbe ladies
tbe slaues washed the

@ a pueri carbonem fabris colligebant. t insidias paravistis hostibus.

El Dative of reference and ethic dative b pacem posteritati faciemus. g panem portat uxori.
. The dative of reference indicates the person who is interested c Romani thermas aedificaverunt h Brutus Caesarem reipublicae
CL or involved in the action. It is often best translated by phrases
q) such as in the eyes of x, in x's judgement or as far as x is
d elephanti stipitestraxenrnt
i hostes agros agricolis
+. concerned etc., e.g. Caesar Cassio regnare cupit.+ in Cassio's silvicolis.
e pater equos filiabus emit.
i puella mala sorori carpsit.
eyes Caesar uants to be a hing.
o . The so-called ethic dative of a personal pronoun (see Unit 39 tr)
is used to mark interest or call attention in familiar conversation.
E Translate the following sentences into English.
e.g. haec uobis mox fecit -r be soon did this, mind you.
E The dative of possession is used with the verb to be to
ffi estmagnus murus Seribus + the Chinese haue a great wall
a nomen peregrino fuit Ulysses. g est nix culminibus montium.
o indicate ownership, e.g. sunt tnihi qainque equi + I haue fiue b sunt elephanti Carthaginiensibus. h exploratores locum castris
c gemmas aviae dono misi.
o horses (literally: tltireire fiue borsei for-me1.
E the dative of agent refers to the person or thing by whose
d civibus erat dux fortis.
sunt Graecis centum naves.

N agency something must be done and is used with the gerundive

(see Unit 51 El), e.g. laborandum esf mihi must utork +I
e pueri locum pugnae delegerunt.
f artifices pulchritudini
aedificium petivit.
operarii stadium certamini

(literally: work must be done mel. b

E the dative of purpose expresses the intended purpose for which E Translate the following sentences into.English.
something is done, e.g. Caesar locum Welio delegit + Caesar ffi H"aot erat decori Thoianis - Hector was d source of
chose a site for the battlc. glory to the Troians
El Predicative dative a naves erant beneficio f maritus erit subsidio uxori.
. The predicative dative is not easily translatable into English. It Carthaginiensibus. c pedicie periculo sunt ursis.
is a specialized use of the dative, always accompanied by a b Brutus honori erat Romanis. h flumen saluti fuit viatoribus.
dative of reference (or dative of advantage or dative of c captivi sunt oneri militibus. i filius curae erat matri.
disadvantage). The verb most usually found in these d Milo erat odio Clodio. i Catilina dedecori erat senatoribus.
expressions is to be, although other verbs do occur. e Cloelia est exemplo puellis.

The best way to translate it is to treat it as 'a source of', e.g. E Translate the following sentences into Latin. Use a mixture of
Britanni auxiko erant Gallis + the Britons uere A source of types ofdative. it ,
help to the Gauls (literally: the Britons were for a help to the 'ffi *" haue been dn example to the childrez +'exemplo liberis
Gauls). The Gauls (Gallis) are in the dative of advantage.
. Other common examples apart from auxilio esse are: fuimus
beneficio esse .+ to be a benefit to a We are carrying the chickens for a foke.
bono esse a to be a source of good to, e.g. qi bono? + for uhom is b The chieftains were a burden to the citizens.
it good? (who benefits?) c As far as the old man is concerned we are sleeping.
curae esse + to be a source of decori esse + to be a source of d The ovens are of use to the bakers.
concetnto gloryto e The Romans built an amphitheatre for spectacles.
dedecori esse r to be a disgrace to exemplo esse --+
to be an example to f The charioteer has twenty horses.
honori esse + to be an bonour to laudi esse + to be a credit to g In the voters' judgement the candidate was not listening.
odio esse + to be a source of oneri esse q to be a burfun to h The thieves took the gold from the miser.
hatred to saluti esse + to be a saluationto i The rioters have clubs.
periculo r
esse to be a danger to usui esse + to be of use to i You (s.) will remove the obstacles for the procession.
subsidio esse { to be a support n
The ablative case is the one with the widest range of meanings E Tfanslate the following sentences into English. They contain
in Latin. Broadly speaking, it corresponds to nouns in English ablatives of separation.
which have'by','with' or'from' before them.
ffi +
(9 El fhe ablative of separation is used with the adverb proanl (far
fositioi procul proelio fugerunt
the banle
the fugitiues fled. far from

aruay) and verbs and adjectives which express the idea of a cives servitudine liberabimus. f milites hostes urbe arcenr.
keeping away from something, lacking something or being free b raptores corporibus arma g philosophus vino semper
qt of something. spoliaverunt. abstinebat.

agricola'leones gregibus abegit
away from his flocks
the farmer d.roue tbe lions

proanl negotio, ad villam ambulat + far from business, he is

c senatores proditore honores
d obsides cibo et aqua carent.
h puellae

vespas crepundiis

reum crimine solvo.

walking to the estate e pugil pugnat nudus vestimentis. i trabibus et clavis egemus.
d, -
ptoanlpa*ia fugrt he fled far from bis fatheiland.
El Translate the following sentences into English. They contain
El The ablative of origin is used to indicate descent or origin, e.g.
o Aeneas d.ea natns est + Aeneas utas born of (from) a goddcss.
E the ablative of comparison is used to show the point of
ablatives of origin and association.
ffi p"t"t filium equo donavit q the father presented his son
comparison after comparative adiectives and adverbs instead of
quam + than + nominative or accusative (see Unit 35), e.g
uitb a horse
a pecunia agricolas mercatores g promus hospites vino implevit.
cameleopardus ebphanto altior est + the Siraffe is taller than the
o locupletaverunt. h olim metallum argento
o ebphant.
E The ablative of association is used with verbs and adiectives
b senatus cives pane praebuit.
c fluvius rivis natus est. i
magus avaritiam regis auro
.I with the sense of plenty etc., e.g. insala materia abundat + the d ancillae urnas aqua implebunt. explevit.
island abounds utith timber. e legati consules corona i Mars geminis feminam
donaverunt. gravidavit.
E The ablative ofrespect is used like the accusative of respect (see f Romulus deo natus est.
-The of'. It is normally a
IJnit 24 E) and mea-ns 'in respect trinslated
with the word 'in' before it. adjective dignus wortlty E Translate the following sentences into English. They contain
regularly takes this kind of ablative. ablatives of respect, qualiff, manner and circumstance.
ffi fh{ocletes pedc vulneratus est + P h iloctetes h as b een wounded
tn the loot ffiffi sonitibus tonitrus dormiebas -i you slept through the
miles nautam uiribus superat + the sold.ier surpasses the sailor in noises of thunder
strength a navem nauta tempestate f latrOnes fraude pecuniam
Augustus cette laude dignus erat + Augustus was certainly gubernat. comparabant.
worthy of praise b Caesar tergo saucius fuit. g canis pede claudicabat.
E the ablative of quality or description is used with an c anseres volant. h avarus avaritia poetam superat.
non silentio
adjective to describe something, e.g. pracstanti fortn femina + d ursi homines celeritate i Cassius est vlsptraestanu
a ouoman of oubtanding beauty. oppugnaverunt. dignitate.
e ignavi genibus tremuerunt. i liberi hilaritate ludebant.
Gl The ablative of manner or of attendant circumstances expresses
the way or the circumstances in which something happens or is done. E Translate the following sentences into Latin. They contain a
W. &aco lento grada appropinquavit + the dragon approached mirture of types of ablative.
'W the scouts were in need of light +
utth slau, step
silcntio ambulabat + he was walking in silence
exploratores luce
per vias clamoibus ambulabat t he was walking through the indigebant
streets amid. the sbouting a We shall not drive the exiles from the land.
b Achilles was born of a goddess. g We cross the river in fear.
l[ For the ablative absolute construction see Unit 70.
c The desert lacks water. h You (pl.) have filled the vat with
E For the ablative after prepositions see Unit 32. d In war fathers bury sons. milk.
U For the ablative of time rryhen and time within which see Unit e The farm abounds in cattle. i The victors will refrain from
31 El. f Horatius is worthy of honour. violence.
I! For the ablative with impersonal verbs see Unit 56.
j Marcus has hit Titus in the head.
ll agent is used after passive verbs with the Il Translate the following sentences into English. They contain
Gil the ablative of the
oreposition ab/a to in?icate the person (agent) by whom the ablative of means.
L-J iomethins is done (see Units 45 anii 461, e.g. Caesar a Btuto ffi pistores panem farina faciebant r
the bakers were making
necatus ist + Caesar was slain by &rutus.
CD bread with flour
c) M the ablative of instrument or means
. This is used after verbs without a preposition and indicates the
a piscatores pisces retibus
f hortum rosis topiarii
g, thing (instrument) by or with which something.ig.dgng' e.g. b discipuli stilis scribebant. g orator cives verbis agitabat.
Bruiui Caesarem pugione necavit q Brutus killed Caesar c senatores Catilinam contumeliis h securibus libertatem
uith a dagg"r.
. It is also uied after certain verbs (mostly deponent: see Unit
d pueri aleis ludebant. i
casas facibus incenderunt.
q) 55) which are transitive in English but intransitive in Latin' e boves virgis bubulci impellunt. i victimam sacerdos cultro
trl The most common are:
abutor abuti abusus sum + use up, exhaust El Translate the following sentences into English. They contain
o fruor frui frucnrs suim''+. enioy
fungor fungi functus sum -) Perform
ablatives of cause and measure of difference.

o utor uti usus sum 4

vescor vesci -+ feed on
use ffiffi servitudinis
their slauery
causa gemebant + they groaned. by reason of
o N the ablative of cause is used with adjectives and verbs a portam terrore tenebrarum
non f serpens longior quam vermis
o (esoeciallv when describing a mental state) to express the rea,son
iot'ot cause of somethinf, e'g. servi domino parent formidine. b celeritate venti lente
viginti pedibus est.
g pacis amore arma deposuerunt.
N poenae
the slaues obey their master through lear ol
c Cassius nihilo melior quam
Brutus est.
h canes herbam amant multo
minus quam asini.
i quanto niaior est bufo quam
0 the ablative of measure of difference is- used to express. a d exspectatione latronum aurum rana?
degree of difference with comparatives and superlatrves' lhe celavi. j odio regum Romani
most common are: e liberi gaudio saliunt. Tarquinium expulerunt.
hoc -r by this much eo + bY that much
quo + by which ryhilg,- +bY.nolhirys E Translate the following sentences into English. They contain
nimio --by much
too dimidio by half - ablatives of place and price.
quanto +bv hou mwch tanto + by so much + he fourtd the ram in the thorn
pa.rlo - by'a little multo ) bY mucb
ffi arietem dumis invenit
'"liqo*to+byalittle busbes
q the elephant is a villam emi centum talentis. g vaccam quinque fabis vendidit.
ffi elephantus multo maior quam mus est b navis aequore navigat. h legiones urbibus hibernabunt.
(by) much bigger than the tnouse. c sicarius horto corpus celavit. i luscinia cacumihelarboris
d libros Tarquinius auro emit.
Il the ablative of price is used with verbs and adjectives of amici thermis conveniunt. j
buying and selling, e-.g. equum ttibus talentis emit + he bought
e victoriam sanguine et ferro
the horse for three talenB.
f equi viginti talentis constant. confecit.
NB magno I at a great price, parvo ? at a small price, vrli +
at a cbeap price and minimo + uer! cheaply.
Gt The ablative of place (see also the- locative case,in U,nit 31. El)
is more common iri verse and is used to indicate the place where
something happens, e,8. strrflrno flonte castra. posuerunt + thet
Ditched camp on the top ol the rnountilt ti teffa 'nalTqae.
monstnr- p6tivit + he searcbed for the monster on land and
sea. (For thi ending -que .+ and, see Unit 37)'
El Locative
lI Translate the following sentences into English.
tl ft. l.""ti* is the remnant of a case which once existed Wt"ncenabam domi Caesaris 1yesterday I was dining at
ind.perrderrtly in Latin. It is used to express location and is neuer Cdesar's house
q) accompanied by a preposition. a aula episcopi Antiochiae erat. f senex humi dormiebat.
J .-th.ii"-., of .iii.r. towns and small islands have a locative b domi Bruti coniurati g vulpes et lepores ruri ludunt.
form. The locative endings for the different declensions convenerunt. h classem exspectamus Brundisii.
follow. You will see that they look like the genitives or c Londinii manebo tres dies. i finis terrae Gadibus est.
d Claudius Romae habitabat. j Plato et fuistoteles Athenis
o ablatives of the same noun. Remember that in Latin some
p1".. ,r"-.t exist in the plural.'We do not find place names in
e Romani Veiis castra posuenrnt. docebant.
g, ihe fourth and fifth declensions.
E Translate the following sentences into English.
lst declension singular Roma a Rome Romae 4 fi Rome
+. 1st declension pluial Athenae a Athens Athenis + at Athens
.+ corinth cormrtia at corinth
ffinhodon peregrinatores iter facient + the pilgrims uill
journey to Rhodes
2nd declension singular corinthus
o 2nd declension plural Philippi
3rd declension singular Carthago
Carthagini + ar
a cras {us ambulabimus.
b domum pueri terrore festinabant.
g aestate liberos Massiliam
semper mittimus.
g) Carthage c Sicila mox discedemus. h domo nuntius cucurrit.
5 3rd declension plural Gades + Cadiz Gadibus a at Cadiz
o Direction towards a place is expressed in the accusative, e.g.
d Athenis legati Spartam
i Romani non semper belli
CL e Alexandria medicus effugit. j Tyrum et Sidonem naves rex
Ronam iter facimus t we are making a journey to Rome' f Carthaginem mercatores misit.
o o Direction away from a place is expressed by the ablative, e'g' navigaverunt.
x Roma discessit q he departed from Rome.
. ih. ,roons domus -us f. - house, rus ruris n, 1 countryside,
+ E
€ bellum -i n. + utar,humus -i f. + ground and militia -ae f .
Translate the following sentences into English.
ffi d"""- annos captivus erat + he taas a prisoner for ten
a military seruice also have special locative,forms:
e;;'- at home + to the countryside years
(2. ao-"- + homewards ruri
+ in tbe countryside
humi + on the ground
a quattuor diebus
cameli e septdm dies iuvenes pontem
do-o - from home b quinque annos fundum
f mane agricola agrum arat.
belli -r oi *o, militiae + on military seruice
o E Expressions of time
c tertio anno patrimonium
g novem mensibus parentes
. The accusative is used to express how long something.takes to excepisti.
= happen, e.g. multos annos terram errabat
Uii for iaot, ,,,"nn
he utandered the
' terram is the
d hieme arbores frondes non
h centum annis phoenix surget.
i vesperi caelum rubescit.
j anseres sex n:#ct:s clamabant.
{r Jir..i obi..t ofih.
Notice that
vetb, e.g.
noctem vigilabant + the!
E Translate the following sentences into Latin.
stayed autake for the utholc night-
+. . The ablative is used to express the time when something
haopens. e.s,.
turtio itie a[ oppidum pervenemnt tbe! ffi h the morning you (s.) tr.,ill milk the cous + mane vaccas
3 iiiliraat tie
dormiunt +
totan on the thinl-day; hieme ursi in speluncis
in uinter the bears sleep in caues; uesperi a I have left the gift at home.
o cantamus + in tbe euening we sing.
b The fishermen drifted for eight days.
c lTithin five days the pilgrims came to Delphi.
. The ablative is also .rt.? to eiptess time within which d You (pl.) will wait for father in Paris.
so*.thi"g happens, e.8. paucis diibus pueri advenient + the e In winter the philosopher lives at Athens.
boys will arriue in (uithin) a feut days. f Tomorrow the singer will come from Corinth.
g We shall not depart from London in the evening.
h lfithin six months the craftsmen will have finished the house.
i The tortoise lived for a hundred years.
i The ships carried the grain to Ostia.
A preposition is a wotd which denotes the relationship (usually E Translate the following sentences into English.
t66 ThE
spatiaD between one noun and another. In Latin most prepositions take the accusative.
tl prcpositions are followed by (govem) either the accusatrve case
or the ablative case, except in, ilb, super and subter which can ffi Hannibal ad portas est 1 Hannibal is at the gates
G) take eithe4 depending on whether there is movement involved pueri ob ca.pros sedent. f equi uans flumen natabanf.
N (accusative) or not (ablative). ID Cervae ad srlvas cucurrerunt. g servus poculum
c apud Marcum praestigiatores - celavit.
pone sedem

tt El Prepositions governing (followed by) the accusative case are:

ad + to, at
adversus / adversum 1 oPposite, tf
ob -+ in the way of, on account
, hospitibusplacent.
o murum crrcum hortum
Cicero orationes in Marcum
Antonium scripsit.

d towards, against penes + in the power of e corvi super cacumina arborum i

valles inter montes iacebat.

I'o ante + before per + through

apud a otnong, near, at the house pone i behind

El Translate
duces citra urbem convenerunt.

the following sentences into English.

of post -+ after, behind
circum q around pfaeter + beside, except, past
prope ) neilr
prepositions take the ablative.

t circalcirciteraabout
cis / citra + on this side of proptef ) on Account of, near ffi monstrum sub ponte latebat
the bridge
+ the ogre uas hiding under

6' clam+ unhnounto

contra + against
secundum t according to, netct
a palam civibus Horatius Etruscis f
5 erga + towards
to, along
srub+ up to resistebat.
avarus.aurum sub pavimento
a extra -) outside
in + into, onto, against
subter -r close up to
supet - ouet
b orator prae multitudine stetit.
c iudex pro reo dixit.
g de fundo controversiam
infra+ below sapta t aboue d sine comitibus ambulo- h aqua e fonte fluebat.
inter + antongst, betueen ttans - ocfoss e Catilinam Cicero coram i pueri cum puellis in area
intra + within ultra -r beyond senatoribus incusavit. ludebant.
iuxta '+ nerct to versus / vefsum - touards
El Translate the foilowing sentences into Engrish. They contain
a mixturc of prepositions.
El Prepositions governing (followed by) the ablative case are:
a (ab before a vowel or bl + $y, in +
in or on ffi 9t""r mare amoris causa natavit-r- he swam across the sea
palam "r in the sight of because of loue
absque + without prae + before, in front of super mensapistor e gerrmas iuxta coronam ponunt.
coram + in the presence of + before, on behalf of, for
" posurt. f ad,tabernam propter pluviam
cum { with, in the company of sine + without b Galli fenus urbe agros currimus.
fl,s ) from, doutn frorn, yub + under vastaverunt. g crcicodilus subter ripa latet.
concerning subter -r
underneath c cameli anre meridiem non I potestam gr"ti" p.;;i;i"-
e (ex before a vowel or h) + 67a1 sloPer 4upon bibunt.
of, from tenus '+ as far as, reaching a p".--or..rlum dedit palam i l::;;. fiberi lxtra cubicula
parentrbus. dormient.
9 In the case ofgratia + sake and causa + reason, the ablative
E Translate the following into Latin.
of the noun has almost come to be used as a preposition which
takes the genitive. ffi I watcl,ted the man through tbe d.oor..+ virum per ianuam
Wffi gratia artis + art for the sake of art spectabam
exempli gratia + for the sake of exmnple (abbreviated to e.g.) for e The animals were asleep except
a You (s.) will write the poem
foi reason of honour
honoris causA honour's sake. for the geese.
b She rode between the coffages. f Ve are i""tt i"g close up to the
El Many Latin words have prepositions as prefixes, i.e. the c Unknown to the guards, they
preposition is added to the stirt of the word.-These are called river bank.
iorioound words. The meanins of the preposition alters the . opened the gates. g The statues are standing
* -' in
d Tomorrow we shall depart from front of the temple. --o ---
sensi of the word accordingly, {.g. pracsideo r I sir in front of the woods.
(hence president).
An adjective describes a noun. Adiectives in Latin are used as Il Wtrat number, gender and case are the following phrases? lf
l68 in English except that they need not be written before the noun, there is more than one possible ansurer give them all.

e.g. mr7es gloriosus + lhe boasttul soldier. An adiective can

also stand in for a noun, e.g. boni + good (men). , $ffi puellis pulchris -+ 1. dat. f. pl. 2. abl. f. pl.
(.) a manum teneram f diei festi
C^) El When you look up a first and second declension adjective in b tempestates magnae g leonibus magnis
the dictionary you win fina the nominative singular- of its c virginum pulchrarum h hominem scelestum
q) masculine, feririnine and neuter forms, e.g. bonus bona bonum d deabus benignis i maria alta
+ good. This is often abbreviated, e.g. bonus -a -um. e agricolas bonos i clamore claro
hr E An adiective agrees with the noun it is describing, i.e. it is in El Translate the following into Engtish.
o the same'number, gender and case as that noun so that we can
ffi ad summum montem ascendemus + we shall climb to the
tell exactly which ioun it is describing. It-is important to know
this becarise in Latin adjectives are not always written next to top of the mountain
nouns. a pulchras gemmas in arca lignea g profugi miseri per terras
E In first and second declension adiectives the masculine and
inveni. errabant.
=' neuter forms are second declension while the feminine forms are
b scelera scelesta boni non probant. h dextras manus Gallorum
c heri quinque equos albos emi. Caesar abscidit.
first declension.
9. . The maiority decline like bonus -a -um + good. d noctem atram liberi timent. i ad saxa rubra iuvenes
e ursi villosi in densis silvis hibernant. pugnabunt.
Sincular Plural f nu_bes opacas supra mare nautae i navis parva in imo mari
o nom.
Masculine Feminine
bonug bona
Masculin6 Feminine
boni bonae
viderunt. iacet.

t voc.
El Ttanslate the fotlowing into Latin using first and second
declension adjectives.
0t gen.
bonis #ffi #e little ship sails on the blue sea - navis parva in mari
abl. bono bona bono bonis bonis bonis caeruleo navigat
CL a The mischievous ghost lived in the bottom of the well.
. Some adiectives in these declensions go like the nouns puer,4nd
o ager in tfie masculine (see Unit 16 EI). Their declension differs
b The great and the good are sometimes cdwardly.

o fr"om bonus onlv in the nominative and vocative masculine

c_The angry voters do not like the candidate's dirry roga.
d The brown bears are walking next to a beautifui rivir.
o sinsular. Thev dicline like tener '+ tender'which keeps an e' or
puicher + beiutifulwhich loses an e. The adjective dextet 1 on
e The wily magician wrote in a secret book.
o the right can decline either like tener or p-ulcler, with either
f The haughty king neglected the wretched -peasants.
5 dexteii or dextri as its genitive masculine singular.
g Dread goddesses will punish the wicked.
h The ancient tree stood on the top of the hill.
i The tender chicks are sleeping in the high nest.
CL Masculin6 Feminine Neuter
j Tomorrow the tired women will arrive at the firstifuate.
nom. tener tenera tenerum
CL tener Ienera tenerum
o voc.
acc. tenerum teneram tenerum etc. like bonus E Write the word for good which agrees in number, gender and
nom. pulcher
voc. pulcher
acc. pulchrum
pulchrum etc. like bonus
case with the following nouns. lf there is more than one possible
answer give them all.
agicolae + boni or bono
o The adiectives medius + middb, imus + bottom or lowest, a rebus f urbi
2. som-os 4 top or highest,primus + first and ultimus -> furthest b regis
c capitum
g imperatore
h manuum
o are used in nvo ways. first, they follow a noun to express order
in both time and spacer e.g. mons summus + the highest d cives i
mowntain,hora medii ) the lniddle ltour. Second, qhey precede
e domine legionem
= a noun to refer to a part of it, e.g. summus mons l the-top lpaft)
of tbe mounain,iedrahora i the middle (patt) of the hour-
E Adiectives in the third declension decline like nouns of the E Translate the following sentences into English. The
f';1 ,-hireft;ffii"" tU"iti ij""a te). Notice particularly that third adjectives decline like rngens,
L__J declension adiectives end in -i in the ablative singular, unless the/ ffi canem ingentem habeo q I ltaue a huge dog
(r) are standing in for a nounr e.g. compare-puer servatus est aD
a hryge sailor with puet a iuvenes audaces trans flumen f senex cum adulescente per vias
5 ;;;;;;';;;r;---ii"-b"y+ ias iaued bvsaued
s.ivatus est ab ingmte the boy utas by 4 l'uge (fficm)'
for all
nataverunt. ambulabat.
b togam viri felicis pueri tangebant. g prudentem maritum feminae
E third declension adiectives which have- one ending c pugiles viribus paribus probant.
q, eenders +
in the nominative singular decline like ingens rngentrs - pu€naverunt. h magistratus impotentes erant.
flii. i" a" present participl*es (see Unit 44 E l' Note. that in d moenia ingentia circum urbem i cives regi atroci resistebant.
hr dic"tionarv dntries these adjectives are grven wrth tnerr aedificaverunt. I mentem ingenii capacem
o nominative and genitive singular. e speluncae ferarum ferocium in
montibus sunt.
philosophus habet.

g. Singular
Masc, & Fem. Neutsl
E Transtate the following sentences into English. The
nom. and voc. ingens adjectives go like fortis,
acc. ingentem ingens ingentes or -as ingentia

o qen.
dat. and abl.
indentibus ffi p"t ianuam humilem insignis venit -+ tbe famous man
came through the louly door
?. I ttrird declension adjectives which have two .e44cq in the a clamores fortium audio. g Athenienses communem
and temlnlne anc b fabulas tristes fidicen cantabat. thesaurum habebant.
t nominative singular, one for both masculine
;ilil;;i;; iii.""t"i"t, decline like fortis -is -e + braue, sfiong' c oratori insigni cives parent. h pompae grandes per vias
d iter facile fortibus est. procedebant.
Singulal Plural
e saporem mellis dulcis amo. i onera gravia trans pontem aselli
=a nom. and voc.
Masc. & Fem. N6l49r
fortes or fortis
f liberis omnibus pater
in loco incolumi gemmas celavi.

CL dat. and abl. forti forti fortibus fortibus El Translate the following sentences into English. The
o with three.. endings in the adjectives go like acer or vetus.

E third declension adjectives
nominative singular, one for each gender' declrne llke acer acns
a$e 4 keen.
ffi f"bol", veteres liberi amant + the Lhltdrrn loue old stories
a sonitum equonrm acrium audio. f actorem celebrem in theatro
b vetera templa Augustus
nom. and voc.
c cum monstris volucribus Iason
g pauper ad portas divitis sedebat.
h peregrinatores ad delubrum
acc. acrem
acris acris acris etc. like fortis pugnavit. sospites advenerunt.
o gen.
d aquas salubres ad fontem i alacribus gradibus nuntii

5 El Some third declension.adjectives resemble nouns

declension, e.g. vetus veterrs olcl'.
in their bibimus.
e cursus non semper celeribus est. i
festinaverunt. ,'f *
elephanti omniummemores sunt.
' E Translate the following sentences into Latin using third
Singular Plural
Masc, & F€m. Neuter Masc. &Fem, Neut€r declension adjectives.
nom. and voc.
vetera ffi rz, were sitting in a packed inn + in taberna frequenti
gen. veteris veteris veterum veterum sedebamus
veteri veteribus veteribus
vetere vetere veteribus veteribus a The swift runner greeted the f Young men respect the old.
sad citizens. g Lions like the taste of bold
Like vetus, and also often used as nouns' are pauper -:tit.1
b I shall send a letter to the cruel children.
tyrant. h The Gauls closed the road with
ioi, dives -itis -t rich, although diles has the contracted c Marcus is the son of a poor huge rocks.
^nd, dit, iit"-, g-en' ditis, dat' and abl' diti' man. i You (pl.) will not overcome the
;i;;;l "...
dit"t (m. andfl), ditia (n.), gen' ditium, dat' d The house is on a green hill. brave.
lnd abl. "J ".i.
ditibus. c Pericles persuaded everyone. i I(e seek a swift horse.
El There are three degrees of comparison: Plas (morel is used in the singular only as a neuter noun. In the
FA o oositive e.e. fortis -is -e + braue plural it is an adjective.
ll . tomparatii" ..g. fortior fortior fortius + brduer, rather braue, Sinoular Neuter Plural Masc. & Fem, Neutel
too braue plus plures
CO q nom., voc. and acc. plura
(Jr . superlative
e.g. fortissimus -a -um brauest, uery braue, m'ost qen-
pluris plurium
abl. plure pluribus pluribus
E the comparative adiective is formed by adding -ior -ior -ius
o to the oosifive stem, e.g. durus + harsltz durior a harsher'
o +
These a?e third declensio.-n and decline like fortior brauer' El In Latin comparisons are expressed in one of two ways.
o lTith quam '-f than, using the same case after quam as before
3 Singular
Masc- & Fem. Neutet Masc. & Fem.
it. This is how we express comparison in English, e.g. Brutus
altior quam Cassius est + Bruius is taller than Cassius.
nom. and voc.
fortiora r 'With the ablative of comparison (see Unit 29 E). This is only
used. if .the thing or. person !9gS---comnared
-is in the
nominative or accusativ€, €.g. nnhil libertafe melius est -)
abl. fortiore fortiore fortioribus fortioribus
nothing is better than

o Et Superlative adiectives are first and second declension and

decline like bonui -a -um (see Unit 33 E).
El Comparatives are also used with the ablative of measure of
difference (see Unit 30 EI), e.g. formica nihilo maior musca est
5 . These are formed mostly by adding -issimus -issima -issimum
to the stem of the positive foim, e.g. durus + harshz
+ the ant is no bigger than tile fly.
{r durissimus + uer! harsh.
o The superlatives of adiectives which end in -er, like tener '+
Gl For comparatives in a purpose clause, see Unit 66 E.
lil the word quam is used with the superlative to mean as ... as
possible, e.g. quarn pluimas urbes Romani ceperunt + the
g) tender. acer a keen etc. end in -errimus -errima -errimum, e.g. Romans took as many cities as possible.
acer ..+ keen; acetimas uerY keen.
CL o The superlatives of six adjectives which .qd F -$s (faci$,+
hr ;;t;Fif fi .ttt'ia;f f i*tt,":iryq',ll,,f*dit^y$:ll,::t jki: ll Translate the following sentences into English.
o *""ilir + slender,'kraceiul and humilis -+ lowly) all +end in
-illirr"'" -illima -illimum,
e.s. facilis - easyi
-illimum- e.g. ' els"vi facillimus uery
uery ffi mare altius quam lacus est + the sia is deeper than the lake
a est ovum avis maioris. g Romani hostibus fortioribus
. -
?' Adiectives ending in -eus, -ius or -uus use the adverbs 1nagrs
more and maxiire + mosL e.g. dubius a doubtful, na&s
b fabulam peiorem numquam quam Graecis resistebant.

o dubius 4 more doubtful and maxime dubius 4 most
doubtfut. However, adjectives ending in -uus can be regular,
c puella filium divitioris amat.
d nihil durius quam adamas est.
h clamores equitum plurium
aedificia meliora Romani
e.g. aritiquior + older, antiquissimus: oldest. e iter longius via quam mari est. habent quam Galli.
f Alpes multo altiores quam i ovis paulo min$rguam caper
El lrregular forms of comparison colles Romani sunt. est.
$6nns+good melior q better optimus + best,uery-good'
inferas ilower inferior q lowet infimus (or imus) a lowest El Translate the following sentences into English.
magrus + big maior + bigger maximus t biggest, uery.bip
ffiffi glacies gelidior aqua est q ice is colder than utater
peior + worse pessimus 4 worst, uery bad
- boi plurimi + rnost, uery nwny
a Socrates sapientissimus f stilus gladio fortior est.
mtulaa many pltges 1 more
-plu hominum erat. g horti magis idonei agris sunt.
multus + mich - *ore plurimus 1most, uery mach
b verba proditoris maxime dubia h puella quam plurimas rosas
nequ,un + 4 lnole
wicked nequior nequissimus q uer! uicked erant. matri colligebat.
uicked c monstrum dentes acutissimos i plurimi civium aurum
parvus + smnll minor I less, smaller minimus a least, uery small habet. quaesiverunt.
superus ) upper superior + hiSher supremus (or summus)
r d sanguis densior aqua est. j elephanti multo gravidiores
bighest e grues gracillimi super tecta tauris sunt.
Adverbs describe the action of a verb as well as adiectives' nuper + recently (no comparative) nuperrime a most recently
phrases or even other adverbs. paulum + liule minus -r /ess rfuiime+ least
pst+ after posterius a later on postremo - filalb
(prae + beforel pnus + eailier primum, primo --+ earliest
q) El Formation
A-d;";L; J;;; decline. Most are formed from the stems of the
prope,- ncar
saepius + more
l nearer
proxime + uery rEAr
o) positive forms of adiectives.
: ii;;;-;hi.h .o-. fto* first and second declelsion adjectives
(no positive) potias a rather
-+uery often

;;l; -"-i"i t"-aimes -o), e.g. durs t har:llvz from durus'

g, diwi- iorthily, from dignus Jnd tuto, from.tutus',
CL . T[ose which come from third declension ad,ectlves usually eno m
Il Translate the following sentences into English,
-i;;;; -t"t' ,-g t"r@ + brauely, from fortis' prudenter + ffi boves lente in agro ambulant -+ tbe oxen are tualking
o orudentlv. from Prudens.
. E;;|;d;r;l;-J; f";-ed from the accusatives oraablatives of
.I. pri-um+"r primo a firstly, multum much and
slowly in the field
a puellae in lacum ultro f Marcus facile altissimus erat.
- desiluerunt.
ct . oaulum +
"ai"oi".t, little, fac;tre easilY-
at once' from sto + r
g Ciceronem
b avarus liberos parum alebat. laudavisti.

o 5;;;;;. f*;A from verbs, e.g. statfu'

stand'. cursim + quickly, from curro a I run' c machinam fabri male refecerunt. h fere mille naves Graeci
d senex iuvenes sapienter habebant.
. Some words used- as adverbs are also used as Preposltlons' e'g' erudiebat. i haud bene negotium agebant.
ante + before,post+ after.
e crimen vehementer reus i Iuliettam Romeo valde amabat.
El NeEatives abiuravit.
.-rrt"-i"*"iit. adverbs are non + not; haud + not,which is used
*iitt .ittit adverbs, adjectives -and some. verbs of knowing or E Translate the followang sentences into English.
til"il;-;"a-"" t do not I let not, which to make
is used
to make subjunctives in #ffi statim ad patrem cucurrit + he ran to his father
.r**"iat "egative (see Unit 49 E) "ld phrase is ne "' immediately
;-;;i;;6"teiegative (see Unit 54)' A- common
quidem - not eu1n, e.g. ne Brutus quidem 1 not euen Brutus' a civibus semper fideles erimus. f haud diu in cubiculo mansi.
. ii"i. i["i ""t" or"o"o are used- for et ne and the neither
following b domine, hospites mox g Cicero Catilinam iterum
"iro oft"tt used: nec "+ nor' nec "' nec '
"t"... neque r neither nor'
"' advenient. vituperavit.
c nusquam feminam pulchriorem h cras Chesarem
nor', andneque "' fortasse videbis.
vidi. i identidem filiurn advocavit.
El Comparison d alibi hostes oppugnabimus. i pacem legati profecto perenr.
. t.iol"r comparative adverb is the neuter accusative _singular c cenam non multo ante
comparative adiective (see Unit- 35 )', e'g' paraverat.
fortius - tnoTe braiely, from fortis; tutius ' n'ore silfely, ttom
tuflrs. E Tlanslate the following sentences into English.
. ittJ*g"lrr superlative adverb ends in -issime, -errime 9t,;11iry-l
e.g. firtissirn; - ue? brauely, celerrime -t
uer! qutckly and L$11 responsgm regr minime placuit + the reply plegsed the king
tacilline.+ uery easilY. uery little
. Wh* it follows quam' the superlative adverb means as as "' l f
possible. e.g. quam celerime I
as quichly as possible, quam
sicarii senatorem nequissime
Varus bellum peius quam
Caesar gessit.
iacillime --as Zasily as possible. h poeta versus postremo g nuntium diutius exspectavimus.
E lrregular and other forms pertecerat. h Cyclops minus callidus erat
bqr"-irril mdiusl- better opime.+ best
c sacerdotes e templo rutissime quam Ulysses.
- for a long
41rt '
draatrs,for a longer diutissime tor 4 uery tugerunt. i equites ad urbem pervenerunt
time time lgngtbry d tluam celerrime ad custodes celerius quam pedites.
mis+ within interius + furthet within mumel lurthest uthtn fcstinavi. i ancilla multo melius saltat
4 greatly
- magis a tnore greatly miuune + uery gleauy r frrcilius ambulo quam curro. quam cantat.
;i:; badty" peius 4 uorse pessime l worst
;t/tfr;rrr_; ,;uch - more (tn quantity) plurimum
n.qffi-t wiekedly iw,irtstoton n4tisslme-+most
l-ol Conjunctions lcriniungol at€ used to ioin linguistic units E the following pairings of conjunctions are commonly found:
together. They may ioin wolds, phrases' clauses or entirc adeo ... ut j so far ... tbat
sentences. Notice that some are used in a number of different aut .., aut and vel ... vel + either ... or
ways. et ... et, -que ... -que and -que ... et + both ... and
Cr) ita ... ut q so ... tbat
{ E Coordinative coniunctions connect either two or more nouns neque... neque, nec... nec, and neve... neve + neither ... nor
in the same case or two or more simple sentences. sic ... ut I so .., as
o Connective: et, -que (ending), atque' ac+ andt neilue, nec +
o nor; et, etiam, quoque, item+ also.
sive ... sive and seu ... seu -) whether ... or
tam... quam + so (as) ... as
o . Separative: aut, vel, -ve (ending) + either, o/; sive' seu "r ut ... ita 4 as ... so
whether, or.
o Adversative: sed, ast, at + buti autem -s but, howeuer; atqui
E Position
Some conjunctions never appear as the first word in their
tr < but yeti ceterlrtm, verum, vero + moreor)er, but; at enim + phrase, clause or sentence, notably enim -+ for, autem +
but it'witi be said;'tamen'+ houteuer, neuerthelessl atlamen, hou.teuer, igitur + therefore and vero + but,'!7hen translating
verumtamen + but neuertbeless.
= . Causah nam, namque, enim, etenim a for and tos 4 for
you should usually put them first in the clause or phrase in
English, unless sense dictates otherwise, e.g. pater autem
+. indeed. "'n.i'nr
ianuam clausit. + Houeuer, father closed the dooi.
o e Conclusive: ergo, itaque, igitur 1 therefore; (luare,
quamobrem, quipropter, quocirca + uherefore.
5 . Interrogative (iee also lJnit 62): num { surely not?; nonne +
o surely?- -ne (an ending which turns a statement into a
quesiion); utrum ... an 1 whether ... ori annoq necne { o/
Translate the following sentences into English.
aot Caesar aut nullus ero -+ I shall either be a Caesar or a
not! nobodl
E Subordinative coniunctions are used to introduce a clause a panem circensesque civibus f neque aurum neque argentum
which is grammaticaliy subordinate to another (see Unit 53). imperator praebuit. lnvenl.
. Consecirtive: ut - io that, with the result that; ut non + so b cogito ergo sum. g omnes tacebant nam dominus
that not: quin -r but that. c non modo pontes sed etiam aegrotabat.
. Finaft ui i so that, in order that; ne' ut ne -+ Iest; neve, neu aquaeductus aedificabant. h et Brutqs et Cassius Caesarem
q and lest; qao + whereby, in order that; quominus { d Milo extra portas stat nam oppugnaverunt,
uhereby not, in order that not. custos est. i nonne templum visitabis?
. Causal: quod, quia +
becauseicum, quoniam, quand-oguidem e actores male recitaverant; i laborem perfecimus itaque
seeing that; siquidem + inasmuch as.
spectatores tamen plauserunt.
since;-quippi +
+ domuni ambulamus.
. Temporah cum, ut + when, siice; quando, ubi + uthent E Translate the following sentences into English.
duml donec, quoad + uthile, as long,as, until; Etatenas-o
how long; antequam, priusquam + before;postquam + afteri ffiffi non edebam quod ova non amo + *! did not eat
simul ac 1 as soon as; quotiens ) 4s often ds.
"ro"* because I do not like eggs
dinner r
. Conditionah si + if; sirc'. but if; sive, sel + wbether, or,if; a quotiens canes latrant, corvi f quoniam ludos edidit Caesarem
nisi, ni + unlessi si non : if not; si modo,-r- if- only; modo, avolant. laudamus.
tanium + onlyi modo, dummodo + prouided that. b simul ac ftba sonuit, hostes g etiamsi mons altus est,
o Concessive: etsi, etiamsi 4 euen if, although; tametsi + impetum fecerunt. ascendemus.
abhough; quamquam, utut d howeuer, although; quamvis'+ c ut caelum tepescet, ita maria h quia hostes ubique sunt idcirco
abhoigb, houteubr much; cum r wltereas; ut, licet a granting dilatabunt. Romani semper pugnant.
that. d liberi dum ludunt discunt. i sive manebis sive discedes,
o Comparative: ut, uti, velut, veluti, sicut, sicuti cerr ) asi e postquam mater discessit pueri civibus semper fidelis ero.
quomodo, quemadmodum+ as' hout; quam + 4s; utpote + clamabant. I Titus decidit quod celerius
is being; qulsi, ut si '+ as if; cett, tamquam + as thowgh. currebat.
its plural milia is a noun which goes like cubilia (see Unit 18 !|)
El There are four types of nu-merals, each answering a guestion:
cardinal (how many), ordinal (in what ordeJ), distributive (how
many each or at a iirire) and numeral adverbs (how often).
and is followed by a.genitive, e.g..multa milia passuum + man!
thousands ol pdces (1.e. many miles).
(.) E Selected numbers from 1 to 2000. Note that there is no zero El In compound numbers between 20 and 99 either the smaller
o in Latin.
NumeEl Cardinal Ordinal Numeral Cardinal Ordinal
number w-ith et comes first or the larger number without et.
Usually unus comes first but in numbeis above 100 the lareer
comes first. whether with et or without it. Thousands ire
5 1rl unus -a um primus -a -um 29 nX undetriginta undetricensimus
expressed either by putting cardinal numbers before milia (as in
30 }XX triginta

c 0u0 -ae -0 secundus tricensimus
the preceding list) or by putting numeral adverbs like bis before
3 ilr tres tria tertius 40 XL quadraginta quadragensimus
4 rvl l
quattuor quartus 50 1 quinquaginta

3 5vl 60 LX sexagrma E Ordinal and distributive numbers decline like bonus (see

quinque quintus sexagensrmus

6 vt 70 LX|( septuaginta

sex sextus Unit 33 E).
80 Lno( octoginta o Distributive numbers are singuli ) one each, one at a time,

7 Vtl I

septem septimus octogensimus

I Vlll 0fi0 0cnvus 90 xc n0nagrna nonagensimus
bini -t two each. two at a time. terni ..+ three each. tltree at
g) 9lx n0vem n0nus 99 XCIX undecentum undecentensimus
a time, quaterni + four each, four at a time,quini ..+ fiue each,
10x decem decimus 100 c cenlum crntensimus

- 11 Xl
12 Xll
13 Xill
tertius decimus
101 Cl
200 cc
300 ccc
centum et unus centensimus primut
ducenti -ae -a ducentensimus
trecenti trecentensimus
. fiue
at a time, seni'-r six each, six at a time etc.
Distributive numbers are used instead of cardinals with nouns
which are plural in form but singular in meaning (e.g. terna
14 XIV quartus decimus 400 cccc quadringenti castra + three cambs\. except that the plural of unus is used
15 XV quindecim quintus decimus 500 D I
ouin0enri quingentensimus
with such words iirst6ad of singuli, e.g. una castra ) one
16 XVI sedecim sextus decimus 600 Dc I
sescentl sescentensimus
't7 xv[ septendecim septimus decimus 700 Dcc I
septingenti seplingentensimus . Distributive numerals are also used in the multiplication of
800 Dccc numbers, e.g. bis terna sunt sex + twice three are stx.
18 )(Vil| duodeviginti- duodevicensimus octingenti octingentensimus
'19 xtx undeviginti. undevicensimus 900 cM nongeNl nongentensimus
Gl Numerd adverbs are semel + once. bis + twice. ter t
20 xx viginti vicensimus 1000 M lmille
21 )0( unus et vicensimus 2000 MM
unus et viginti lduo milia bismillensimus thrice,quater "+ four times, quinqaiens (or -es) + fiue tirnes, etc.
" or octodecim + eighteen and notendecim + nireteen lI \fhen answering the question 'times how much?'. the
'multiplicative' adiectives are used, e.g. simplex -icis -r single.
El the cardinal numbers one, two and three decline. Note the timesbne, duplex -icis - double. tiaofolil. tfrplex -icts + trible'.
endines -ius in the senitive singular and -i in the dative singular. + times f6ur:,'fourfold, decemplix -
These" endings arJ also foun-d in some pronouns (see Units thJeefold, qaidruplex;i.cis
rcrs ..+ trmes ten, tenlold etc.
o One I Titles like triumvir + member of a board of tbree, duumvir
Masc. Fem,
+ member of a board of two and decemvtr q mernber of a
Sinqular Masc. Fem' Neuter Plural Neut€r
board of ten. refer to positions of authority in Rome and the
nom. and voc. unus una unum uni unae una empire.'They are usually not translated bui left in their Latin
acc. unum unam unum unos unas una nominative form. They are declined like vir (see Elrut 15 E). In
gen. unius unius unius unorum unarum unorum
dat. uni uni uni unis unis unis the plurals duoviri and tresviri, both parts of the #ord decline,
abl. uno una uno unis unis unis e.g. duorumvirorum r of the duouiri.

Two Neut. .Tlrree Masc. and Fem Nout

nom. and voc. duo
Masc. Fem.
ouae tres tria
ll Translate the following into English. Put the Roman numerals
ouos duas duo into Arabic numerals.
acc. tres tria
a{r rnfl r{l rart duorum
duobus duabus duobus
ffi occcr>o<xvm -+ 888
abl. duobus duabus duobus tribus tribus a duobus diebus aedificium e animalia bina in navem
perfecerimus. inuabant.
b MCMLXVI f nonagensimo anno Graeci
El Cardind numbers from 4 to 100 do not decline. Hundreds from c rex septem et triginta annos foedus renovaverunt.
2OO to 900 decline like the plural of bonus (see Unit 33 E). The regnabat, g viginti milia militum
singular mille + 7000 is an adjective which does not decline but d princeps ternos equos fratribus exploratores viderunt,
dedit. h cives decemviros valde timebant.
E Personal pronouns (I, you, etc.) are used only in place of NB Of these only meus and noster have vocatives and the
l80 nouns. Thev decline in Latin. masculine vocadvd singular of meus is irregular: mi, e.g. o ,ni frh
4 o rny son.
'lst person singular 2nd psEon aingular
(.) I tu you
(o nom. and voc. ego
me me
my mine, of me tui
of you, your, yours
If Translate the following sentences into English.
ffi .go puerum laudo sed tu castigas ) I praise the boy but
gen. mei
dat. mihi or mi to, for me tibi to, for you

tto abl.

nom. anc voc.

by, with, from me

by, with, from you

you criticize him
a heri me Salvius visitavit. f tibi aurum dabo.
nos vos you b vobiscum ad fundum g iudices vobis ignoscent.
gen. nostri
of us, our, ours vestri of you, your, Yours ambulabimus. h equites nobis lente
o dat.
nostrum of us
to, for us
by, with, from us
vestrum of you
to, for you
by, with, from you
c te amo.
d mihi pater fabulam narravit. i
complures yestrum adsunt.
e nostri odium Romanum i nos manebimus sed vos
P . The genitives nostri and vestri are obiective genitives (see Unit 25
E), e.g. nostri memor + mindful of us, whie tlle genitives
notissimum est. discedetis.

noitrdr and vestrum are paf,titive genitives (see Unit 25 Gl), e.g. E Translate the following sentences into English.
{r r
multi uestntm many of you.
- Spni"* se humum coniecit + the Sphinx hurled herself to
For the Dersonal prohoirn of the 3rd person (he, she, it and
they) Laiin makeiuse of the pronouns is, ea, id "+ he, she, it the ground
6- or that (see
Unit 40). a nos vertimus ad septentriones. f donum mihi tenebo.
x. o The nominatives of personal pronouns are usually used only b latrones se in speluncis celaverunt. g nos numquam culpabimus.
c pecuniae $atia vobis favetis, h mane semper me rado.
for emphasis in Latiri because ihe endings of verbs already tell
o performing the action.
us who is -with
o If cum ) is uset with the ablative of personal pronouns
d cur tibi non ignosces?
e prae civibus te dedecoravisti.
sibi domum aedificaverunt.
Titus cultro se laesit.
gt it is always written after the word: mecum+ with ?ne)tecrom
) with ybz, nobiscum + with us andvobiscum + uith you. E Translate the following sentences into English.
CL E Reflexive Dronouns (myself, yourself, himself etc.) are used ffi C""r"t suos trans Rubiconem du:ft + Caesar led his men

Ito only in place bf nouns. NB'Thesr! must not be confused with the
em6hatic Dronoun ipse. ipsa, ipsum (see Unit 41 El).
. Tlre redexive proirouni of ihe 1st and 2nd person (myself,
across the Rubicon
a vestimenta nova liberis vestris e cum suis fratribus pontem
o vourself. ourselves. vourselves) are the same as the personal
bronootrr but withriut the nominative, e.g. me lavii a I
b fundum nostrum Romani
o mi fili, tandem te inveni.
o -washed
rwself. uos fraudavistis ) you haue iheated yourselues.
vastaverunt. g tua culpa fur domum intravit.
o . The refle:iive'pronoun of the 3rd person is the same in the c equus tuus maior quam meus est. h consilia vestra non probo.
o d anseres mei per noctem i sonitum vocis amat.
singular and the plural:
acc. se or sese himself, herself, itself or themselves
clamabant. i nostri contra Galfos pugnabunt.
-d^t. sui
gen. of himself, herself, itself or themselves E Translate the following sentences into Latin.
o sibi to or for himself, herself, itself or themselves
abl. se bn with or from himself, herself, itself or WTo*orrou) tae sball see your (pl.l island t cras insulam
It themselves
example: Brutus se necavit a Brutus killed himself.
vestram videbimus
a I have shown you (s.) my f
a For
E the possessive jum pronouns are used as adjectives and decline beautiful villa.
The gladiators have overcome
our men.
5 either lilie bonus -a or pulc.her -c.hra -chrum (see Unit 33 g). b !7e shall ride but you (pl.) will g The prisoners will save
o meus mea meum + my, mine
tUUS tua tUUm + your, yOArS
nostef nostra nosttum 4 0u/, ours
vester vestna vestrum ) your c
walk. themselves.
h The traitor will not
C (singular)
Narcissus loved himself too much.
save me.

5 yours (Plwal)
suus sua suurn d his, hers, ix ot their own (contrast eius and eorum: see
d The women came to the forum
with i
Father has made a raft for us.

o Unit40 E).
e Hercules, your glory is eternal.
The sailors collected food for
E the demonstrative pronoun is ea id has trryo meanings' E Translate the following into English.
FA E,ittt* itlt t*a at tn. 3^rd personal pronoun (he, she and it) or ffi ia consilium optimum +
that plan is the best
L-J it means'that' (compare illE illa illud in [|). f heri idem monstrum vidi.
o Singular Masc' Fem. Neuter
nom. is ea id
Plural Masc, Fem.
el eae
a Portia eum valde amat.
b eae puellae in horto ludunt. g vestimenta eorum peto.
c eo tempore domi eramus. h ea pictura eorundem puerorum est.
acc. eum eam id eos eas ea d eandem feminam amamus, i eos numquam vidi.
gen. eius eius eius eorum earum eorum e ei candidato non faveo. j eam servavi sed eum deserui.
ei ei eis, iis eis, iis eis, iis
CL dat. ei

o abl. eo ea eo eis, iis eis, iis eis, iis El Translate the following into English.
ffi ni" puer fortior quam Marcus est + this boy is stronger
The genitives eius and eorum are used to mean his, hers, its or
3 tGti *h." referring to+ someone other- than the subject,, e'g' tban Marcus
o fr"tt.- eias agnovit he recggnized his (so.tneone eke's) a haec verba incredibilia sunt. f leones inhac spelunca habitant.

5 brother. but fratrem suam

brother'bee Unit 39 9).
agnoit ' be recogntzed t'Ns ((ru'n) b vestigia huius ferae maxima sunt. g procul ab hoc loco curremus.
c pro libertate hoc die pugnabimus. h huic Cassius invidet.

E the definitive pronoun idem eadcm idem + tbe same,islike
is ea id. with -dem added.
d hanc fabulam
e hos diu
saepe audivi.
sculptor effigies horum civium
hunc fundum non ememus.
qt Singular Masc. Fem. Neuter Plural Masc, Fem' Neutsr
eidem eaedem El Translate the following into English.
trfi nom. idem eadem idem
eosdem easdem
) I recogltize that man's face
acc. eundem eandem idem eadem
eorundem earundem eorundem
ffi f""i.- illius agnosco
o gen.
eiusdem eiusdem eiusderr
eidem eidem eidem eisdem or eisdem or
iisdem iisdem
eisdem or
a istud non probamus.
b illi senatores Caesarem
e filium istius latronis non
qt abl. eodem eadem eodem eisdem or eisdem or eisdem or
necaverunt. f pictores illas domus ornabant.
iisdem iisdem iisdem
c per illam portam urbem g duces gentium illarum Romanis
pronoun hic haec hoc q this intrabimus. favent.
CL E The
= d pro illo reo orator eloquenter iuvenis illam intente spectat.
Sinqular Masc' Fem. Neutel Plural Masc. Fem. N€uter causam oravit. illurnjheri in foro vidimus.
CL nom. hic haec hoc hi hae haec iste canis me momordit.
horum harum
his E Translate the following into Latin.
hac hoc his his his
abl. hoc
W rDese seats are too high + hae sellae altiores sunt
* E the demonstrative pronoun ille iII"a illud + that (ouer there,) a We shall see her soon. f This meal is excellent.
can also be used to mtan he, she or it. It is where the French b These are the same trees. g I have washe$ this man's toga.
articles le and la come from. c That plough is heavier than h I7e arrived at tl€ temple on the
o Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. Neut€r
fhis one.
same day.

tt Singular Neuter Plu|al d Nobody likes those clothes I like the sound of those bells.
nom. ille illa illud illi illae illa of yours. j They have given him that letter.
illum illam illud illos illas illa e I have not heard it.
illius illius illorum illarum illorum
6 gen.
illi illi
illa illo
illis illis
illis illis

g El the demonstrative pronoun iste ista istud -+ that,.declines
like ille and means 'tliat near you' as opposed to 'that over
5 iir*J-ti it often disparaging'in tone, e.g'. isle amicus me
o vituperavit that friend of yours bas insulted me'
o In Latin, the antecedent can sometimes be omitted in the main
E "fhe emphatic pronoun: tpse ipsa ips-un
Td;;phiic (oi intensivei pronoun ipse ipsa.ipsa'n 4 self,
draws attention to something and is used as an adlecilve' lt^m5l
clause if the sense is clear, e.g. virum quem tu vidisti ego
quoque vidi .+ I too haue seen tlte man uthom you sau, cin

not be confused with the reflexive pronoun (see- Untt 3y ,lt)
*lri.t is used as a noun and is an essential part of the sentenceof
also be written quem tu vidisti ego quoque vidi. Furthermore,
the antecedent can even be repeated in the relative clause, e.g
virum quem tu vidisiti ego virum quoque vidi.
,ii".i*. *6"reas ipse is not. It can be trans-lated in a.varietye'g' o The relative pronoun is far more common in Latin than in
ways into English lrovided that there is some emphasis'
o M#*r
Marcus "qto
ti ipti* delegit
chose the horse itself.
+ Marcus chose the uery horse, at English. In addition to situations where we would use 'who' or
'w_hich' in English, the Romans frequently used qui quae quod
3 Masc. Fem.
where we would use a demonstrative pronoun like 'this' or

Sinqular Masc' Fem. Neutel
rpse lpsa
ipsum ipsam
apsl lpsae
ipsos ipsas
'that', or even a persolal pronoun, e.g. quod consilium probo
+ I approue of that plan (literally: which plan I approve.)
For the use of qui in final (purpose) claus-s, see Onit 66 E.
gen. ipsius ipsius ipsius ipsarum ipsorum
qt dat. ipsi ipsi ipsi ipsis ipsis ipsis

tri abl. ipso ipsa iPso ipsis rpsrs ipsis

Il Translate the following sentences into English.
o E ifhe relative pronoun: qui quae quod
Masc. Fem. Masc,
(see also Unit 64)'
ffi nrurus ipse epistolam legit + Brutus read the letter himself
a quis custodiet ipsos custodes? g cenam ipse coxi.
qt SinEutar
nom. qui quae
quae quae b ea ipsa stolam elegit. h milites praetoriani ipsi
acc. quem quam quod quos quas quae c hoc ferro ipso Dido se necavit. imperatorem necaverunf .
cuius cuius cuius quorum quarum quorum d hi captivi sunt liberi regis ipsius. i scelus ipsum auctorem
dat. cui cui cui quibus quibus quibus e eandem umbram ipsam heri patefecit.
abl. quo qua quo quibus quibus quibus iterum vidi. i deam ipsam in templo vidi.
f meo avunculo ipso pecuniam
NB The dative and ablative plurals of-this word can also be quis'
.'fft. t.t"tit" pronoun qui jua.e quo4 who, u''hich, is used to
- E Translate the following sentences into English.
introduce relative clauses. These clauses give us some moJe
+. information about a word in the main clause,-e'g' in the ffi l
ro-os quae edimus rae Are what ug eat
sentence canem quen (wia. nihi dedit 4mo + I like-the dog
a quos tu amas ego quoque amo. g ille est dux cui semper
o iii"t ny ga.ndmother gaue t9 me,.the relativethe
6"iJ it"iii.itells us somet"hittg about the dog and
clause (in
b illi sunt quibus numquam favebo.
c cenam quam Paraveras efat
h hic est senator cuius filium
pronoun quem r uthich, introduces the clause and relates to
pessrma. Vitellia ainat.
€ d is qui audet vincet. i aurum quod inveni gravissmum
ihe word dog in the main clause'
d . ftr. *"ia t5 which a relative pronoun relates is called the
antecedent (canem a dog in the preceding example)' In Latin,
c sunt optiones duae quarum
neutra bona est. i
qui glaudium e saxo extraxerit
5 the relative pronoun always 4grees in number and ggnder wtth
f Titus est iudex prae quo ille regnabit. $
o *
ih. but its case alivays depends on its function in
C .l".rt., e.g. in the previoqs-example.thg w"I4 que9 ]
ih. "rrt.."dint El Translate the following sentences into Latin.
which is accusative in Latin because it ls the oblect ot the ffi. the king proutned the queen himself { rex ipse reginam
clause 'which my grandmother gave to-me'.
= . ln English, when the relative pronoun reters to a person rt ls one
rr I have found the very gold f She herselfhas avoided the
of the-few words which decline (compare the personal p-ronouns which the miser himself hid. dangers thar we feared.
in Unit E9 El): nom. who' acc. whom and gen' whose'.ln h We shall catch the thieves who g We do not trust a man whose
Enelish. however, we sometimes use the word that or what robbed you (s.). father was a traitor.
insiead'of who or which, or even omit the relative pronoun c 'fhey will build the house you h The women will save the city
altogether where the sense is obvious. (s.) desire. itself.
ktto* the man ubomyoa I know the man you rl I do not like what I have seen. i You (pl.) will catch those very
ffiI c 'l'he monster itself is not
mean. mean'
I know the man tbat Yotu mean. I Not everything that glistens is
qulsque quaeque quidque (or quodque)
El the indefinitepronoun quidam quaedan. quod'dam (or quNquam qursquam quidquam.(or quicquam)
l86 q a certain person' someone, is quite close to the
anyone at all
tr l auiddam\
Enelish indefinite articl-e 'a'. It looks similar to the relative
qulPPram (or quodplam)
qulovrs (or quodvlsl
anyone you like
otJnoott (see Unit 41 El) with the ending -dam' Other
io-pounds of qui or quis (see [l) decline in a similar way'
<iuilibet ciuaelibet
unusquisque unaquaeque
<iuidlibet (or quodlibet)
(or unumquodque)
an4vone you like
eu6ry siitgle one
changing the -m-of the icc.si11g. and gen. pl. to -n, as in idem ecquis? ecqua? equid (or eqirod)i is there anyone
II eadem idem (see Unit 40 El). uho?
5 Sino. Masc. Fem'
quaedam quoddam
Plural Masc. Fcm'
quidam quaedam quaedam
quisnam? quaenam? quidnam (or quodnam)? who, then?

CL nom.

quendam quandam quoddam
cuiusdam cuiusdam cuiusdam
cuidam cuidam cuidam
quosdam quasdam quaedam
quorundam quarundam quorundam
quibusdam quibusdam quibusdam
Translate the following sentences into English.
quendam in horto heri vidi + I saw so?neone in the garden
abt. quodam quadam quodam quibusdam quibusdam quibusdam
t+ The dative and ablative plurals of this word can also be qurtdam'
a equus cuiusdam super saepem f venenis quibusdam senatorem
=' saluit.
o Et Another indefinite pronoun is quis qua quid-(or qui quae
ouod) + dnvone. anvthing. This declines in a similar way t-o the
b viator quidam quendam in via g
sicarius interfecit.
cervos quosdam venatores
qT i'elatii'e prorioun iseeUnitZl p) apart from the alternative forms c candidato cuidam quem non h qubddam consilium
of the n6minative'and accusative singulars; one used as a pronoun' favi.
nominabo periculosum cepimus.
the other as an adjective: quadam
d subter arbore i profugi quodam die ab urbe
C Masc. Fem.
thesaurum celaverunt. clam discedent.
Sing. Masc. Fem. Nel|t' Plural Neut. e quaedam verba infausta i nomina quorundam
quis qua quid (pronoun) qui quae quae (or qua) haruspex susurravit.
or qui quae quod (adlectivel !"orlirT"t
9t"- numquam
= acr. quem quam quid (or quod) quos quas quae (or qua

o gen.
cuius cuius
cui cui
quorum quarum quonrm
quibus quibus
quibus quibus
El Translate the following sentences into English.
$ffi quis nobis semitam monstrabit? + who will shout us the
- abl. quo qua quo quibus
o E The interrogative pronoun quys? quq? q@l. (g: $.u? guaef a quid novi audivisti? f quidquid pecuniae comparavi,
GI quod?) a
wbo? what? is used to ask questrons. lt declnes rn almost
b quemque virum de auro rogavi.
c quisnam illud monstrum
tibi dabo.
g num,avarus quidquam filio suo
g) J""litv th. sat". way as the relat-rvg pionoun (see Unit 41 E) apart liberavit? legavit?
4. il; th. alternative forms of thi: nominative and accusative d Romani unumquemque h ecqua Antonium amabit?
ri"sul"tt; one used as a pronoun, the other as an adjective: vtcanomm i quos testes ad basilicam cirabis?
Et ln these compounds of quis and qui the forms in brackets are j
o used only as adjectives. c
quae signa arcana habent magi?
cuius est hic fundus?

tt Masc. Fem.
nornfquis? quis?
quid? (Pronoun)
E ftanslate the following into Latin.
6 I or qui? quae? quod? (adiective)
quam? quid? (or quod) etc. as the relative pronoun
W, each mAnwas carrying an atce securim quisque portabat

5 "... lqu.*? rlWho is that woman?

h 'litus will come to Rome with
g Vhom (pl.) will the ambassador

g Masculin€
quaecumque quodcumque
whosoeue6 r
some friends.
I have heard a certain todavi
h Have you (s.) seen anvone at all
whatsoeuer frrrm the old man. i l7ith whom (pl.) was the queen
5 quisquis quisquis quidquid (or quicquid) whosoeuer, rl Mclissa told me something walking?
o aliquis aliqua aliquid
,rlxrut the master. j Some women will not support
c li.rch man has seen the temple. you (s.).
aliqua aliquod sollreone,
I Whose (s.) grft have you (s.)
aliqui t,r kcn ?
El the following pronouns (also
called 'pronominal adjectives') E
Translate the following sentences into English.
t-*-l decline like unus'dna unum + one (see Unit 38 9): ullus -a -um W solipro portis stabamus I we taere standing alone before
L_J - An!. nullus -a -um 1 none. totus -a -um 4 whole and solus
-a -u;i+ sole.lone.
Singulff Masc, Fem. Neuter Plural Masc. Fem. Neuter
the gates
a utrum consulem Carthaginienses interfecerunt?
b ullis modis montes ascendemus.
nom. solus sola solum soli solae sola c Cloelia sola hostibus resistebat.

tt acc.
solos solas
solorum solarum
solis solis
solis f
d fratrem alterum alteri antepono.
e aliud consilium capiemus.
nullas naves in portu vidimus.
6 abl. solo sola solo solis solis solis g Cicero laudem totius senatus accepit.
5 El the declension of the pronoun alius alia aliud other,
h neutra puella actorem agnovit.
i neminem Hercules timebat.
o another is:. i Clodia maritum alius feminae amat.
tr singular Masc, Fem. Neuter Plural Masc. Fem. Neuter
5 nom. alius alia aliud alii aliae alia
El Translate the following sentences into English.
tempestatem tantam numquam vidimus + ue haue neuer
o gen.
alias alia
aliarum aliorum
aliis aliis
seen such a great storm

C abl. alio alia alio aliis aliis aliis a custodes alterutrum captivorum necaverunt.
o b talibus verbis orator civibus
c qualia sunt haec

o E the declension of alter altera dteruml

tuo is:
one (or the otberl of dona?
d quantus est elephantus?
e utrocumque consuli qui mercedes dabit favebo.
CL f aliquantam pecuniam a patre comparavi.
Sinqular Masc, Fem. Neuter Plul?l Masc. F€m, Neuter
qt nom. alter altera alterum alteri alterae altera g talis iuvenis numquam miles erit.
o acc.
alterum alteram alterum
alterius alterius alterius
alteri alteri
alteros alteras altera
alterorum alterarum alterorum
alteris alteris alteris
h cum qualibus comitibus iter facies?
i tantas fabulas Petronius semper dat.
qt dat. alteri i aliquanto condimento coquus cenam condivit.
abl. altero altera altero alteris alteris alteris
CL E Translate the following sentences into Latin.
br E uter utra ufium + uhich (of n,o\? or whicheuer (of tuol and +
o neuter neutra neuttrum + neiiher, decline like alter except that
ffi la" haue seen the peoples of the tuhole ouorld
totius mundi vidimus

they keep the letter e only in the nominative masculine singular
uter and neutef. a What kind of husband will Cloelia mariv?
b How great is the power of the gods?
El nemo + nobody declines: nom. nemo' acc. neminem' gen. c Nobody believed Cassandra.
nullius, dat. nemini" abl. nullo.
=' E Of the other adjectival pronouns which decline, the
d The one consul has seriously offended the other.
e I alone shall support Lepidus.
o following decline:
. like bonus -a -um (see Unit g3 9): tantus -a -um - so great'
f Tomorrow we shall see the temples of another city.
g Vhich of the (two) sisters do you (s.) love?
quantus -a -um - hot4 gredt, hou big, ,qu'anntscumque h Desperate men will adopt any plans.
-acumque -umcumque + howeuer greaf and aliquantus -a -um i We have not often seen such treasures.
some (quantity), considerable- i They have seen neither brother today.
. -like fortii'-is -e (iee Unit 34 E): talis -is -e + of such a kind,
qualis -is -e? + of what kind?, qualiscumque -iscumque
-icumque a of whatsoeuer kind.
. like uter utra utrum (see El): dteruter alterutra alterutrum +
one or other (of two), utercumque utracumque utrrumcumque
+ wbicbeuer of huo.
El participles are the parts of a verb which are used like adiectives
. The future participle is used as an adjective to describe someone
l-*l or nouns io denote a state or condition' or to denote a person or about to, on the point of doing or intending to do something.

ll thine in that state or condition. They have three tenses: Because the future participle is an active form of the verb, it can
r Tf,e present and the future, which are a&ive, i'e. the person or take an object, e.g. puer patrem salutahnus e horreo cucurrit +
thinj referred to by the paniciple is-performing-the action (see the boy ran out of the bam (intmding) to greet his father.
Unit"2 E), e.g. walking (present); about to go (future).. It is also used as a noun to refer to people who are about to do
. The perfect. which is passive, i.e. the person or thrng referred to something, e.g. ave Caesar! morifuri te salutant + Hail Caesar!
by the participle is exleriencing the iction (see Unit 2 El), e.g. Tltose about to die salute you (see Unit 55).
qt loosened, bauing been loosened.
E Translate the following sentences into English.
E the present participle is formed by addi-ng -ns-onto the present
lL -of
stem first and second coniugation verbs and -ens to the final
consonant of the present stem of third conjugation verbs and to
ffiffi dormientem hospitem
the guest as he slept
caupo necavit + the innkeeper slew

9. the characteristit long i of the present stem of tourth agris f trans flumen fremens caute
tt coniueation verbs. ThJresulting word declines like the third
dec[en"sion adjective ingens (see Unit 3.4 El)' e.g. portazs
oortantis q cirnting, hdbeas habentis'+ bauing, ry. agentis
a agricolae frumentum in
demetentes vadebamus.
b animalia per flumen salientia g civibus dubitantibus orator
- \ doing, capieis cipientis + aking and audierrs audientis -+ crocodili oppugnabant. persuasit.

o .
The prisent particrple is used as in English as an adjective to
c puerum ad portas currentem h matri convalescenti dona misi.
video. i feles murem in herba latentem
d alas pueri volantis sol liquefecit. spectabat.
describe to-'.ot. 6r something performing an-action at th3t e clamores diem festum
moment. Because the present pafticiple is an active torm ot the
i peregrinatores urbi
celebrantium audivimus. appropinquantes salutavimus.
verb, it can take an ob-ject, e.g. puerioneraportantes ad urbem
curtuot q the boys run to the city carrying loads. Ef Translate the following sentences into English.
It is also used as a noun to refer to a person or thing doing ffi placentas incensas coquus celavit + the cook hid the burnt
something, e.g. voces clamantium audivi + I heard the uoices cakes
of the people shouting. a rotam fractam fabri reficiebant. g puellam amatam saepe
El the perfect participle is formed from the fourth principal part b milites victi ad castra cucurrerunt. vlslto. i
of a verb. Either th6 fourth principal part will be the supine (see c nuntium exspectatum tandem h effigiem deae ornatam
Units 2 E and 50) or it will be the p-erfect participle. itself. If it audivimus. sacerdotes portabant.
is the supine then replace the final -um with -us and you have d ossa in ruinis templi deleti inveni. i nitorem lapidum expolitorum
the oerfect participle. It declines like the first and second c orator pro civibus fraudatis puer amat.
decl&rsion adjective bonuq -a -um (see Unit- 33. g), e.g. eloquenter dixit. i libro scripta
portat@-a -um + carried, hauing been canigd; halitaE -a-um f exploratores, a custodibus visi, pulcherrima erant.
bad. hauinp been had: ac/rils -^ -um 'd done, hauing been
-done; statim diffugerunt.
iaditwila -um + heard, hauing been beard' tu
. The perfect participle is used as in English adjective to E Translate the following sentences into English. '
descr-ibe somleone or something who or which has experienced * t i" iacet Arturus; rex quondam rexque futurus + bere lies
the action of the verb and miy still be doing so, e.g. fl-umen Arthur; once and future king
inundau'tmaspectabamus) u)e u)ere gazing at the flaodcd.rruer.
It is also used as a noun to refer to something which has ir puerum in lutum salturum e pontem transituri, ex equis
experienced the action of a verb, e.g. captos per loca deserta castigavi. descenderunt.
ducebat + he led the captuted tnen across the desert-
h filius militi patrem necaturo f gladiatores pugnaruros acriter
obstitit. plauserunt.
E the future participle is formed by adding -urus to the stem of e vas casurum cepi. g matronae ad forum
the perfect iarticiile (see g). The word declines like the first (l tcmpestatem venturam ambulabant, stolas empturae.
and^ second- decl6nsion adjective bonus -a -um (see Unit timemus. h haec est lyra poetae canturi.
33 E), e.g. port^tre-a -um q about to-carry,habitwas -a -
w+ aboui to haue, i6was -a -um + about to do, aaditutus
-a -um + about to hear.
. I! _Latin the agent is expressed uqrng a I ab + by, plus the
E The two voices of a verb reflect whether the subject is
ablative of agent (see tJnit 30 tr[ e.g. canis a'inatrona
*J"t-i"s the action (active voice) or experiencing the action
See also Unit 2 E.
portatur + the dog is being carried by the lady.
ipassive v6ice). r In Latin the instrument is expressed using the plain ablative of
ffi*$dffi the dog has
*' The do[ has been stolen the biscuit (active)'
stolen by the pirate (passive)'
instrument (see Unit 30 E), e.g. agri flumine inundanrur -r
the fields are being flooded by the riueir.
E In Enelish we form the passive voice by using the appropriate
tt tense of ihe verb fo be wiih the past participle' In the example
has been is the appropriate tense of'to be' (perfect) and stolen
is the past participle.
E Write out the following passive tenses of the verbs below.
lF.jS th. present passive of amo + amor, amaris, amatur,

d El the form of the passive voice for present' future and

amamur, amamini, amantur

o imoerfect tenses of all t-he four conjugations is straightforward.

a the future passive of duco
b the present passive of facio
f the imperfect passive of doceo
g the present passive of custodio
o The following table compares the endings: c the imperfect passive of rego h the future passive of iubeo
5 Active endinq Passive endlnq d the present passive of servo i the imperfect passive of dico

F 1st person singular (I)

2nd person singular (you)
-o/ -m
-or I -r
-ris / -eris (or -rc)
e the future passive of capio
i the present passive of moneo

{r 3rd person singular (he/she/it)

1st person plural (we) -mus -mur
Translate the following verbs into English"

2nd person plural (you)
3rd person plural (they)
ffi,G. liberabimur -+ we shall be freed
a persuaderis f
g Et Examples of the passive form of each of the three tenses from
b trahar
c secabimur
g dantur
h arcessimur
6 the four conjugations are:
o present. first conj.: portor portans portatur portamur
Dortamrnr portantur
d amaberis
e sentiebatur j
qt . iot.rr. first conj.: portabor portaberis portabitur portabimur El Translate the following sentences into English.
5 oortabimini poft abuntur
. imperfect first conj.: portabar portabaris portabatur
r.g,1 precibus non movebimur -r we shall not be moued by
CL noltabamur portabamini portabantur

rl . 'present second conj.: liabeor haberis habetur habemur a dumis aries tenebatur, f
montibus impedimur.
I b ab Artemidoro Caesar monebitur. g agmen a Tiberio ducetur.
habemini habentur c dona tibi dabuntur. h Aeneas sagitta vulneratur.
a nepotibus
f . i"i"t" second conj.: habebor habeberis habebitur habebimur coquebatur. i a consulibus laudabamur.
fto habebimini habebuntur
. imperfect second conj.: habebar habebaris habebatur
habebamur habebamini habebantur
d cena a coquo
c imperatur ab hostibus capietur. j grana ab agricolis sparguntur.
o present third conj.: agor ageris agitur agimur agimini aguntur
. iuture third conj.: agir ageris agetur agemuragemini agentur
. imperfect third conj.: agebar agebaris agebatur agebamur
Translate the following sentences into Latin.
e.$i.',you (s.) are loued by a worthy man -
.r I shall be heard by all. "
nird digrro amaris

+ aeebamini aqebantur
. piesent fourih conj.: audior audiris auditur audimur audimini
b You (pl.) will be taught by the best teachers.
c 'fhe orator is believed by many.

d The story was being narrated by the old man.
audiuntur c 'fhey are being watched by the dogs.
. future fourth conj.: audiar audieris audietur audiemur f 'l'he doors were being closed by the slaves.
audiemini audientur g 'l'he girl will be bitten by a snake.
. imoerfect fourth coni.: audiebar audiebaris audiebatur
o h 'l'he ship was being broken by the waves and rocks.
El Agent and
audiebamini audiebantur
r lt will be announced tomorrow.
I 'l'he book was being written by a very clever scribe.
. Vti." a passive verb is used we need to knorv the agent

o (person) ot
ii performed.
iottt tttt"ttt (thing) by whom or by which the action
In the example in E the pirate is the agent
beiause it was he who did the stealing.
These tenses are formed in the same way for verbs of all four ll
Write out the passive tenses of the following verbs.
le4 l
conjugations. "ffi,
thr- perfect passive of amo --+ amatus sum, amarus es,
L__J amatus est, arnati sumus, amati estis, amati sunt
E Perfect passive
. The perfeit passive tense is formed by using the perfect,passive
participle (sie Unit 44 9) and the present tense of to be (sam
a the perfect passive of habeo f the perfect passive of moneo
b the future perfect passive of ago g the perfect passive of custodio
c the pluperfect passive of audio h the pluperfect passive offacio
es est etc.).
d the future perfect passive of capio i
Ito ffi portatus sum + I have been carried
portatus es '+ you (s.) have been carried
e the pluperfect passive of duco j
the perfect passive of laudo
the perfect passive of exspecto

pott"tot est + he has been carried

o portati
-portati sumus
estis +
-+ we have been carried
you (pl.) have been carried
E Translate the following verbs into English.
ffi visa est 1 she has been seen
+ .
sunt + they have been carried
The participle declines and so changes number and gender
a factum erat
b laudata est
f ignota erit
g servata erat
c perfectum erit h notatum
depending 6n the number and gender of the subject. So, if the
; r.tbi..t is"feminine we find e.f. portatq est 1 she has been
d prodita est i punita est
ct+ if the subiect
' is neuter we find e.g. poftatilrn est
e scriptum erat j aedificatum erit

C + it his been carried.

E Translate the following sentences into English.

6 E Future perfect Passive

. The futuie perfect passive is formed with the perfect passive ffi o"v.r a nautis omatae erant + the ships had been
decorated by the sailors
tto participle (see Unit-44 E|) and the future tense of to be (eto
eris erit etc,).
a dona a rege data erant.
b asini oneribus oppressi sunt.
:t ffi-* portatus ero -)+ Iyou
shall have been carried
(s.) will have been carried
c epistulae a legatis missae erunt.
bottatot eris d seges tempestatibus corrupta erat.
(D iortatus erit
+ he will have been carried e cras urbs capta erit.
+ -r we shall have been carried
-r you (pl.) will have been carried
portati eritis
f reges a civibus expulsi sunt.
g gemmae a furibus surreptae erant.
erunt i ttrev witt have been carried h nodus notissimus ab Alexandro intercistis est.
0t . The participle declines, iust as for the perfect passive, e'g' i
5 poft;te erit - she will h'aue been carried, poftatum erit + it i
agna aquila erepta est.
consilia a proditoribus patefacta erunt..
CL utill haue been carried-
!l Translate the following sentences into Latin.
g, E Pluperfect passive
. The'pluperfett passive is formed with the perfect passive ffi rfre prisoners had been bownd by the guards -r captivi a
tr particbla (see U-nit 44 l?l) and the imperfect tense of to be custodibus vincti erant
Ito ffi
(eram eras erat etc.).
portatus eram + I had been carried
a The lamps will have been lit by the servant.
b The farms had been sold by the bailiff.

portatus eras + you (s.) had been carried
portatus erat 4 he had been carried
c Mother has been eaten by crocodiles.
d The beautiful roses hadbeen plucked by the girl.
portati eramus + we had been carried e The hare will have been beaten by the tortoise.
F+ portati
-oortati eratis
+ you (pl') had been ca-rried f I[e have been cheated by the merchants.
erant i ihev liad been carried
g The ghost had never been seen by the boys.
ttqt . The participle declinei, iust as for the perfect passive, e.g.
poft;tqerai - she had been carried, portatw erat + it had
h The fields had been laid waste by the soldiers.
i This land was ruled by a wizard,.
j The citizens will have been provoked by the barbarians.
o been carried.
El For the agent and instrument after these verbs, see Unit 45 E.

E the infinitives are those parts of the verb which in English El |Ihe future passive infinitives are formed from the fourth
le6 l have the word to in front of ihem. They have active and passive principal part (the supine:,see Units 2 E and 50 q) and the
L--J voices and present, future and perfect tenses. They express a present passlve lnflnrttve ol to go (rn).

verbal idea-generally without being limited to a person or
number (i.e. not finite).
#ffi firrt conjugation portatum fui+ to be aboutto be carried,
to be on the point of being carried
El In Latin the second principal part of a verb is its present second conjugation habitum iri -r lo be about to be had etc.
II active infinitive which you met in Units 2 El and 3 E. The third conjugation actum tri + to be about to be done etc.
5 present active infinitives end in -re.
6- -"-- first conjugation -are, e.g. portw.+ to carU; to be carrying
fourth conjugation auditum to be abowtto be heard etc.

second conjugation -6re, e.g. habdre 1 to haue etc. E Wrile down the active infinitives of the following verbs.
= third conjugation -ere, e.g. agge 1 to do etc-
fourth conjugation -ire, e.g. aadire 1 to hear etc.
."#}Kft the perfect active infinitive of rego -r rexisse

E the present passive infinitives are similar to the present a the present active infinitive of f the perfect active infinitive of
veruo caplo
active brlt all end in -i / -ri. b the perfect active infinitive of g the future active infinitive of
=' #$
"'-""- first conjugation-ari, e.g. poftqL+ to be carried
second conjugation -eri,e.g. hab@+ -to be had
c the future active infinitive of
h the future active infinitive of
?. third conjugation -i, e.g.ag1+. to be done ambulo aperio
d the present active infinitive of i the present active infinitive of
{r fourth conjugation -iri, e.g. audiri + to be heard t€neo
o E the perfect active infinitives are formed by adding -isse to
the perfect stem (found in the third principal part (see Units 2
e the perfect active infinitive of
i the perfect active infinitive of
- tr and S tr1.
qt $ffi first conjugation portavrsse + to haue carried (a E Wrlte down the passive infinitives of the following verbs.
syncopated form portasse is sometimes f"-""d) .affil th. present passive infinitive of do -r dari
+. second ionjugation-habuisse + to haue had a the future passive infinitive of trado
third conjugation egisse + to haue done
o fourth conjugation audivisse -+ to haue heard (a
b the perfect passive infinitive of sperno

5 syncopated fbrm audisse is sometimes found)

c the perfect passive infinitive of iacio
d the present passive infinitive of moveo
c the future passive infinitive of rogo
E The perfect passive infinitives are formed using the perfect f the present passive infinitive of scribo
passive.'participle (see Unit 44 9l) and the present infinitive of
g the perfect passive infinitive of video
the verb to be (essel. h the future passive infinitive of vinco
"" '" ""
first conjugation portatus esse -) to haue been carried
i to baue been had
i the perfect passive infinitive of vincio
second conjugation habitus esse i the present passive infinitive of cresco
third conjugalion actus esse -) to haue been done El Translate the foltowing infinitives into English.
fourth conjugation auditus esse'+ to haue been heard
+ u

NB The particible must always agree in number, gender and e#l redditurus esse + to be about to giue back
case with the noun it describes. a cecidisse f dictum iri
b sepultum iri g respondere
E the future active infinitives are formed from the future c puniturus esse h laboraturus esse
participle (see Unit 44 El) and the present infinitive of the verb d lavari i aedificatus esse
to be (esse). c iussisse imitti
portaturs esse 4 to be about to carry, to
^ff fitrtbe conjugation
on tbe point of carrying
E Translate the following infinitives into Latin.
ei'b,!i to haue broken + fregisse
second conjugation habituruJesse+ to be aboutto haue etc.
third conjugition acturus esse + to be abowt to do etc. :t to remaln f to be about to fly
-) to be about to hear etc-
fourth conjugation auditurus esse b to be recognized g to be found
NB The participli must always agree in number, gender and c to have been chosen h to have laughed
case with the noun it describes.
d to be about to be closed i to have been stretched
c to have dragged j to run
E the prolative infinitive is used as in Englisft to carry on the E Translate the following sentences into English.
lesl constructlon: #ffi nequivimus portam claudere 1 we taere unable to shwt the
L--J . After verbs of possibility habit or duty such as: possum -r f gate
am able (irreguiar: see Linit 58), queo + I arn able, nequeo
i oi a
+ I ought and soleo I am accustorned
a Latinam linguam intellegere
f caudices omina praetermittere
isemi-deponent: see Unit 55), e.g. non possum intellegere + I b Caesar inimicis ignoscere g iuvenis Metellam in
arn not able to und.erstand. solebat. matrimonium ducere cupivit.
. After verbs of wishing, intending or daring such as: volo + I
5 do ,lot *art, malo + I prefer (irregular: see
c aviam tuam visitavisse debes. h imperator amphitheatrum

iant,nolo + I
Units Sq and 60), cupio '+ I desire, opto - I cboose, statuo
+ I determine, conitituo + f decidi and audeo + I dare
d malo in Gallia habitare.
e volo prae hospitibus canere. i
aedificare consriruit.
non audeo leonem provocare.
nolo in agris dormire.
+ I prefer to
1se-i-deponent: see Unit 55), e.g. malo equitare
El Translate the following sentences into English.
t$s dubitamor sapienti contradicere
. After verbs of beginning, ceasing, trying, continuing, h-urrying -r we hesitate to
=' anJ hesit"ting srich asi incipio-- I begin, coepi + I begin,
I ciase from, desi{to I cease from, conor + I tr!
contradict a wise man
a perseverabimus teffam idoneam g liberi timent domo discedere.
n desino -
(deponent verb: see Unit 55), pergo + I continue, pgrsevero
quaerere. h legati properabunt bello finem
b subito canes latrare inceperunt. facere.
I pLrsist, festino + I hurry, propero I hasten, dubito -r
tr hisitate and timeo + I fear, e.g. desino pugnare a
I cease to c festinamus matrem salutare. i Cicero pergebat Catilinam
qt fight.
. h?.t verbs of knowing how to, learning and teaching such as:
d dubitavisti aquam
e pueri timebant lupis
quando desistes servos
scio + I know how to, disco -+ I learn and doceo
+ I teach, f
GT q spem habere numquam desinam.

o e.s. disco equitare I am learning to ri'd'e.

. Afte, passive verbs of saying and thinking,-e.g. Caesar dicitur E Translate the following sentences into English.
adueiisse a
Caesar is said to haae aniued' 4$ hostes per portas irruere + the enemy forced tbeir uay in
El the historic infinitive is the present infinitive when it is used to through the gates ,
;6;;;thi"g *hi.h happenid in the past seem more vivid, e'9' :l nemo sciebat illud nodum exoedire.
paeri clamare,Zuttere, cafere + the boys shouted', ran and leu' b centurio iuvenes docebit milires esse.
E The infinitive is also used after verbs of commanding: c numquam discam tibiis canere.
. ert., iubeo + I order and veto I forbidinindirect commands
- d Brutus se necavisse traditur.
(see Unit 791, e.g. veto te culYere + I forbid.yotl to yn', , .
c coniuratores Caesarem corripere, ferire, occidere.
. Aft.t the irregular negative imperative noli (s.), nolite-(pl') -t f senatores Romulum dilaniavisse narrantur.
g omnes araneae muscas decipere sciunt.
do not, in dilect corimands (iee Units 49 E and 59), e'g'
h pistores vicanos veneno necavisse putabantur. q e
nohte pugnare pteri + do not fight, boys. i magister discipulos pacem amare docebat.
E The infinitive is tantamount to a noun in constructions, after- j Nero matrem necavisse dicitur.
;p;;;;;';;irt t"itt-"i pl"."t - it pleases,licet + it is allowed
(#;i;;U"iiiei witfi impersonal phrases such as 4ifficile est El Translate the following sentences into Latin.
""a est i it is seimlv, iuvat + it helps etc', G,g;i, 1 *orx to play in the mud -r volo in luto ludere
e.e. fors# et haec olim memimsse iuvabit (V.irgil)
+ one .day
ptrhapt it will help to haue remenbered euen these (trowbles)'
;r We ought to support the candidate. f He knows how to fight.
h I prefer to sleep. g I will teach you to write.
E For the infinitive depending upon an accusative in an indirect We are learning to swim. h You (pl.) persist in shouting.
statement, see Unit 76 U 77. rl You (s.) will cease to shout. i I dare to resist the Romans.
e I'hey have decided to depart. i We desire to see the statue of
the god.
Et the imperative mood is used to give- direct commands and Il Write out the imperatives of the following verbs.
;;Hi;; il ;;;'i.*e
il Engtitlt. It iia finite form
1p'e"sent1, in the 2nd and 3rd
of the verb
.$$tfi the passive imperatives of teneo + tenere, tenemini
a the passive imperatives of rego g the active imperatives of
sineula"r and plural and in both
ir"fi.t"tiu.t do ttot always appear
the active
at the
clauses ancl
b the active imperatives of parco respondeo
c the passive imperatives of lenio h the active imperatives of vincio
sentences. d the active imperatives of amo i the passive imperatives of
Et the 2nd person imperative endings are formed as follows: e the passive imperatives of persuadeo
agnosco the active imperatives of rapio
Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural f the passive imperatives of aperio
1st conjugatton pofta portate -+ carfy! portare Portanilu 4 be carrleo!
+ be held!
E 2nd conjugation habe habete + hold (have)! habere habemini
E Translate the following sentences into English.

=' 3rd conjugation agite + do!
4th conjugation audi audite + hear!
agerc agimini be done!
audire audimini + be heard! 'tffi semper bonis fidite liberi
a clves, monemlnl a me.
always trwst goodmen, children
ambulate mecum ad forum senatores.
q) b carpe diem. g da mihi lucernam Aladdin!
r Common irregular ?.s!y, tell! ftomo!lng!'
imperatives are-: dic dico,;

i. duc + lead! from duco; fer (s.)' terte (pI')-

irr"t f"tt it." U*t 61"1; fac t *ak"! from facio;
- cdrry!,
i -r gol {rom
c ferte haec onera ad portum. h aut disce aut discede.
d salvete discipuli. salve magister.
e accipe hoc donum pro
pax esto in mundo.
+ Unit 58)' ave atque vale amice.
o ." ir.. U"it 61) and et, .tte be! from sum (see
in both the
fautoribus tuis.
o I There is another form of the imperat-ive. found
;i;;;i3td-p.rrorrr. ttt ."diogt are'-to{2nd person), -tote (3rd E Translate the following sentences into English.
qt Derson sineular) or -nto (3rd person plural)' Ihese are rarety I rcr ffi noli ab urbe discedere ante noctem + do not leaue the city
irsed outsid'e legal documents and in certain verbs hke esto
5 ii"'ttititit
'iiii"iit be ind sunto -) Iet them be, from sum or memento' before nightfall

CL -'ii*iiutr,from memini'(see Unit 57 El)' a

nolite id facere pueri.

nolite canes dormientes suscitare.
E Direct commands c matronae, nolite alibi vestimenta emere.
. l" iti. plain imperative,_a direct command can also d noli sollicitari; gaude.
be expressed with the imperatives fac, facite or cura.' curate.4 c ne fraudamini a tabernariis iuvenes.
d ;;k;;;;;;;^t I see n it that and a subiunctive verb 4
(see also
f noli tenebras timere mi fili.
Unit 52), e.g. omnes, curqtg pontem defendeatis
t+ take car'e tiat you defend the br|dg.l'
. For oolite commands'the future in*dicative may be used, often
noli ullum maius quam caput tuum coRsumere.
noli calceis meis caeruleis de pelle suilla fabricatis insistere.
nolite lilia inaurare.
followed by a subjunctive verb (see Unit 52), e'g' lactes vt
o a;;; -iti"t tt '+'pilease see to it tbat the gift is sent'
i nolite in pratulum ambulare.

o E Negative direct commands (prohibitions)- .,,.

I Translate the following sentences into Latin.
. th. I-p.ratives of the irregular verb nolo + I am unwilltng, t,g' listen to the speaker's words, eueryone l
3 fri6.;'J bt an infinitivi are used for negative dire.ct
noli \or noltte)
oratoris audite
omnes, verba

commands isee Units
discedere + do not leaue.
48 and 59), e'g' r (.itizens, do not punish the priests.
h t ihildren, be brave.
. ;;;;;; + beware otf, fac ne 4 see that yow do not, or simply
-rJ-'---ao r Away with you, Titus! Nobody believes you.
J iii, tott"ird by the subiunctive is also used to tl I lrrnd me the salt, Sextus.
exDress prohibitions (see Units 52 and 54)' c lhrys, do not mock my little horse.
CL . ne'folfowed by the imperative is used in1>oetr5 e'g' equo ne I )o not ignore the oracles, Caesar.
o credite Teucri'-r d.o not trust the horse, Trojans'
Wclcome the guests, master.
h I'rrsh that rock more quickly, Sisyphus!
E the imperative is used for the greetings.salve,otsalvete r I crrtl the gladiators into the arena, Maximus.
hello; vale, valete 4 goodbye; ave' avete ' helloa gooaoye'
t llrdc your gold in the bedroom,
Compare ipage - aiay wiih'yowt and age, ag;fte come onl Quintus.
E Write out the gerunds or supines of the following verbs.
E the gerund is a verbal noun which exists only in the singular'
It is aciive in meaning and therefore can sometimes take an
oli..iii it it from a traisitive verb' It declines as a neuter second
ffiil$N the gerund of facio + faciendum
a the supine of sedeo f the supine of adduco
gt Jiilettriotr noun in -um (see Unit 15 E) but without a- b the gerund of effugio g the gerund of valeo
o nominative. It is formed by adding -ndu-m to the present stem of
first and second coniugation verbs -and -endum (or somettmes
-undum) to the final consonant of the pr€sent stem ot thlrcl
c the gerund of excuso
d the supine of intexo
e the gerund of spero
h the supine of sopio
the gerund of perdomo
the supine of statuo
conjugaiion verbs and to the characteristic long i of the present
GT stem of fourth conjugation verbs. E
o ffi firrt conjugation portandum + +the,(act of) c-arrying
Translate the following sentences into English.
l#jffi milites ad pugnandum exercent + the soldiers are training
-tr second conjugation habendum tbe (act of) hauing
to fight
third conjugalion: agen(fulq (or aguadull| t the (act of)
5 doing
fourth Ionjugation: audiendum (or audiundum) + the (act
a nautae navem ad navigandum parabant.
b Quintilianus artem dicendi docebat.
CL of) hearing.
c ludos edendo imperator cives delectabat.
@ d Fabius cunctando rem publicam servabat.
El the gerund is used: e fugitivi ob pugnando ad arcem non pervenerunt.
qt . In thJaccusative after ad (to express purpose) and sometimes f Icarus timorem volandi non cepit.

5 after ob or inter, e.g. Titus ad dormiendum domtm venit + g Claudius in triclinium ad cenandum intravit.
h princeps non est aptus regnando.
Titus went home to sleeP.
CL r In the genitive after absiract nouns and adjectives which take E Translate the following sentences into English.
o the geriitive, e.g. amor bibendi + a loue of drinking; cupida te
uidendi est + she is desirous of seeing you (i-e. she wants to f!&z caedes terribilis visu erat + the slaughter was terrible to see
p. .
see you).
In the dative (rarely) after some verbs, adjectives and nouns
implying help, fitness or use' e.g. par est cutrendo a he is
a pueri in flumen
b fabula mirabilis dictu erat.
e milites hibernatum ad oppidum
iter fecerunt.
f res facilis actu erit.
5 eqwal to running. c puellae in agros lusum g solus per silvam tacitum
o . In the ablative, with or without a preposition to indicate cause cucurrerunr. ambulavi.
o or instrument (see Unit 30 El), e.g' clarissime clamand'o eum
servaverunt + they saued him by sbouting uery loudly.
d eques in templum vigilatum h arcanum nefas est patefactu.
venit. i arca difficilis apertu erat.
E the supine is a fourth declension verbal noun and is usually- 4 Translate the following sentences into Latin.
the fourtli principal part (see Unit 2 tr). It means the act of
doine some-thine ind exists in fwo cases: accusative (ending in - affi the tribune huruied to interuene -+ tribunus intercessum
um)ind ablative (ending in -u). festinavit
El the supine is used: rr The slave won his freedom by saving his master. o t
o In the accusative after verbs of motion to express purpose' e.g. b Our love of sailing is very great.
ad fundum frumentum nrcssutn veniunt + thel go to the farm c The bird's song was sweet to hear.
(in order) to hantest the grain. d By hurrying quickly we arrived at the inn.
o In the accusative to form the future passive infinitive (see Unit c It is right to tell.
47 Et).
f The Romans overcame the Gauls by fighting bravely.
g .fulius delights his mother by singing.
o In the ablative after certain adjectives of perception like facilis, h 'Ihe monster's skin was foul to touch.
mirabilis, crudelis, dulcis, miserabilis, turpis' terribilis- and
after + right and nefas -) wrong, where in- English we
would use a gerund or an infinitive, e.g' mirabile uisu +
maruellous in-tlte seeing (or uonderful to seel, nefas dictu +
wrong in the telling (or wrong to mention) and miserabile
aud.itu + wretched in the hearing (or uretched to hear).
. The gerundive of purpose is sometimes found in the genitive
Et the gerundive is a passive verbal. adiective which is formed followed either by gratia or causa -) for the sake of, e.g.
11041 bv addifre -us -a -um t6 the stem of the gerund (see Unit 50-E)' Cicero revenit urbis sentandae caasa + Cicero returned for
tl i'tr. *ri declines in three genders like bonus -a -um (see. Unit
(tl :g qf -or. agree with i'h"t"u.r it refers to. !t is a distinctly
"nd which iihard to parallel in English. It refers to someone
the sake of sauing the city (literally: for the sake of the city
uthich had to be saued).
J Ladn io.m
oi so-ething which ought tb experience ihe action of the verb'
. The gerundive of purpose can also be used in the dative, e.g. diem
constituit ha audiendae + he established a day for the lawsuit
#€;'first conjugation portandus -a -um'-r he/she/that which is to be heard (literally: for the lawsuit tuhich had to be heard).
GT to be carried
+ he/she/that which is
o second conjugation habendus -a-um
to be had or held Il
Translate the following sentences into English.
- third conjugation agendus -a -um -r he/she/that which is to +
tr be done
imperatori timendo miles appropinquat
approacbes the fearsome general
the soldier
5 fourth conjugation audiendus -a -um -r helshe/that which
is to be heard
a Cato candidatus eligendus erat. g ludos spectandos consules
CL b uxor mea vere amanda est. ediderunt.
II (Sometimes the third and fourth conjugation gerundives end in c verba oratoris audienda sunt. h equos quosdam emendos heri
ihe older form -undus -a -um.) The gerundive's basic use is as an d Brutus vir laudandus apud vidi.
o with the sense of what could or should happen, best
"diective as 'capable of being' or 'worthy- of being' etc', ,e;8;
Romanos erat. i nodus ingens non solvendus
o translated
femina Laudanda est ) The wornAn is uortlry tu be prd,sed (ol
e multas gemmas habendas
congerebam. i
coquus optimus cenam
being praised). f musca minima non videnda est. edendam parabat.
E the gerundive of obligation E Translate the following sentences into English. They contain
. This ii used as an adieltive with a forceful sense of necessity, gerundives of obligation.
conveying the idea of-something which ought to be done, must
be done or should be done, rather than simply what effi imperatorvias faciendas curavit + the ernperor cawsedroads
done or is worth being done, e.g' res agendae 4 thtngs u?Nc!1 to be buih
must be done: aerri arandi -+ fields which must be plnughed' il argumentum quoc erat f parentes semper nobis
. The eerundive oloblisation is'used with the dative of agent by demonstrandum praebui. honorandi sunt.
whoilr the thing musi be done (see Unit 28 E), e.g' milites' b nunc vobis tacendum est. g Claudius aquaeductum
oooida ca,ienia sunt vobis + soldiers, you must capture the c Carthago delenda est. faciendum curavit.
tiwns (litirally: the towns are to be captured by y.ou)' . d Tarpeiam puniendam cives de h hostes vobis non timendi sunt.
If there is anoiher dative in the sentence, the ablative of -agent saxo deiecerunt. i nihil dixi de consilio celando.
or instrument may be used, e'g. redemptio -a patre mihi danda c cavendum est tibi. i nunc est bibendum.
erat + tbe ransom had to be gt'ugn to me by.the fathlr',
. If the verb is intransitive or is being used lntransltrvelyJ the E Translate the following sentences into English. They contain
nominative neuter singular of the gerundive is used.wlth the gerundives of purpose.
verb 'to be' in an impersonal passive constructron, e'g' c'g, ad aurum petendum in sepulcrum irrtr"l"furrt +
iiUirnia"- est nobis j *t mutt uork (litenlly:
it is to be entered the tomb to look for gold
utorked bv us\: Romam nobis eundun, est + Nae ?rtust go to .r ,rd magistratus eligendos cives in foro congregebant.
Rome (literally it is to be gone to Rome-by us). h rhetorem Graecum ad filium educandum comparavi.
o After the verbs do -r I giue, curo 1 I arrange' trado + J r l)ueri in tecta ascenderunt pompae videndae causa.
entrust and mitto - I send,the gerundive is used in agreement rl l'linius otium quaerebat librorum scribendorum gratia.
with the object to show that something is caused to be done, c vrnatores in montes ad feras capiendas iter fecerunt.
e.g. theatrum consules faciendum curiverunt + the consuls I .rthleta celerimme cucurrit ad praemium petendum.
ciused a theatre to be built. I \rrlla dictaturam deposuit legum servandarum causa.
h ,lonum misimus matri delectandae.
E the gerundive of purpose r \p:rrtacus rebellavit servorum liberandorum causa.
. fnir is used in the accusative after the preposition ad to
express purposer e.g. ad foedus- reno.uand'um convenerunt -) 1 ,rrtifcx diligenter ad statuam pulchram faciendam laborabat.
tbiy mei ti renbut"the treaty (literally: for the treaty uhich
had to be reneuted\.
Et The subiunctive mood is used to denote an action that is
. The imperfect passive is formed as normal (see Unit 45 E):
tidl a.rit.d. wiiled. anticipated, conditional or prospective'. As a
tl result ii is normally found in subordinate clauses rather than as
First Second Third Fourttr
coniugation coniugation coniugation coniugation
(Jl r*i" u.ib-it..'Unit 53). The meaning and usage of the
"subiunctive are explained in Unit 54 and under the relevant
N .r"'riiriiir"r. 1.n.'mood has no regular future or future perfect
ISt pefson slngular
2nd person singular
3rd person singular
portareris habereris agereris
portaretur haberetur ageretur
tenses. Instead the future participle (see Unit 44 El).is used w-tth 1st person plural portaremur haberemur ageremur audiremur
@ ift" pi"*-t or imperfect s-ublonctive of the verb 'to be' (see Unit 2nd person plural portaremini haberemini ageremini audiremini
tr s8 El). 3rd person plural portarentur haberentur agerentur audirentur

E the present subiunctive is formed from the present stem' The
letter -e- comes before the personal endings -ffi, -s, -t' -mus' -tls, NB There is an alternative ending -re for -ris for the 2nd person
c -unt in the first conjugation while- the letter -a- comes before
them in the second, ihird and fourth conjugations'
singular in the present and imperfect passive subjunctive.

r Present active tense First Second Third Foqrth
coniugation co4iugation conjugation coniugation
E Write out the present subjunctivesn active or passive, of the
following verbs.
Ist pefson slngurar poftem habeam agam
2nd person singular iort.r habeas agas audias ffiffi the present subjunctive passive of sedeo -+ sedear, sedearis,
3rd person singular to.t.t habeat agat audiat sedeatur, sedeamur, sedeamini, sedeantur
=' habeamus agamus
!? 1st person plural
2nd person plural
portetis habeatis agatis
the present subjunctive passive of facio
the present subjunctive active of seco
!t .
3rd person plural portettt habeant agant
The present passive is formed as normal (see Unit 45 E|):
the present subjunctive active of rego
the present subjunctive passive of teneo
d e
the present subjunctive active of moveo

o First Second Third Fourth

coniugation coniugation coniugation conjugation g
the present subjunctive passive of capio
the present subjunctive passive of aperio
o 2nd person singular
porter habear agar habearis agaris
porteris audiaris
the present subjunctive active of cedo
the present subjunctive active of amo
t= 3rd person singular
1st person plural
habeatur agatur
Doftemur habeamur agamur
the present subjunctive passive of venio

qt 2nd person plural port.rnini habeamini agamini

;ortentur habeantur agantur
E Wrte out the imperfect subjunctives, active or passiven of the
5 following verbs.
fne imperfect subjunctive active of moneo -) monerem,
CL E the imperfect subiunctive is formed by taking the present monefes, moneret, moneremus, moneretis, monefent
II infinitive isecond principal part) and adding the personal
a the imperfect subjunctive passive of trado
endings -m, -s, -t, -musr -tis, -unt: video
-l lrthe imperfect subjunctive active of Vr

tto First Second Third Fourth

conjugation coniugation coniugation coniugation
portarem haberem agerem aucllrem
c the
d the
c the
passive of rogo
active of verto
active of iacio
lst person surturar f
4 2nd person singular
3rd person singular
1st person plural
iort"ret haberes ageres
portaret haberet ageret
'oortaretis haberemus
ageremus audiremus
g the
h the
passive of sentio
active of iubeo
passive of duco
2nd person plural
3rd person plural
haberetis ageretis audiretis
port"r.ttt haberent agerent audirent j
passive of sto
active of frango
the perfect subiunctive active is formed by adding -erim, The perfect and pluperfect subjunctives cannot really be
h'a -Eir. -"tit. -erimus,'-eritis, -erint to the perfect stem' Be caretul translated into English in isolation. They are used in various
ll ""i1,
.Gfr*-these with'some of the endings oJ the indicative constructions (see Unit 54).
(rl iurut. perfect active (see Unit 11 El). The for-ms for the difterent
;il;;;;i;;;, i-- p"tto ' carrv,iabeo + haue, aso -+ do and Third Fourth
o) audio - hear are as follows:
portatus essem
conjugation coniugation
habltus essem actus essem audrtus essem
o First Second
coniugation coniugation coniugation conjugation
Fourth 2nd person singular
3rd person singular
portatus esses
portatus esset
habitus esses
habitus esset
auditus esses
auditus esset
C st person srngurar
lst person plural portati essemus habiti essemus acti essemus auditi essemus

2nd person singular
3rd person singular
oortaveris habueris egeris
portaverit habuerit egerit
2nd person plural
3rd person plural
habiti essetis
habiti essent
acti essetis auditi essetis
acti essent auditi essent

tr 1st person plural

2nd person plural
oortaverimus habuerimus egerimus audiverimus
oortaveritis habueritis egeritis audiveritis
5 3rd person plural oortaverint habuerint egerint audiverint E Write out tre perfect subjunctives, active or passive, of the
r+ Et The perfect subjunctive passive is formedty a combination
following verbs.
'#$ffi the perfect subjunctive active of gero 4 gesserim, gesseris,
of the pirfect passive participle (see Unit 44 \t) and. the present gesserit, gesserimus, gesseritis, gesserint
?' subiunctive tense of to be (see Unit 58 A)' Remember that the
;;;il$i; ;s;;;t in number, gender and case with the noun it
the perfect subjunctive passive of rideo
the perfect subjunctive active of ludo
!? describes. c the perfect subjunctive active of parco

!to First Second Third

coniugation coniugation coniugationconiugation
the perfect subjunctive passive of cupio
the perfect subjunctive active of dormio
the perfect subjunctive passive of pugno
sim audrtus srm

+ lst person slngular Dortatlls-sina habitus actus g the perfect subjunctive passive of mitto
2nd person singular iortatus sis habitus sis sis
actus auditus sis
h the perfect subjunctive active of suadeo
sit habitus sit sit
o 3rd person singular
1st person plural
simus habiti simus acti simus
auditus sit
auditi simus i
the perfect subjunctive passive of paro

2nd person plural
3rd person plural
sitis habiti sitis acti sitis
sint habiti sint acti sint
auditi sitis
auditi sint
the perfect subjunctive active of reperio

Write out the pluperfect subjunctives, active or passive, of

qt E| the pluperfect subiunctive active is formed by adding -issem, ihe following verbs.

5 -is.i. -iltt.i, -issemus, -issetis, -issent to the perfect stem'

Second Third
a.i. the pluperfect subjunctive active of ruo
ruisset, ruissemus, ruissetis, ruissent
-t ruissem, ruisses,

CL First
coniugation coniugation coniugation coniugation
.r thc pluperfect subjunctive passive of relinquo

p" 1st person slngular ^po.t"uirta.

egissem audrvtssem
Doftavlssem habulssem egrssem auqrvrsser
the pluperfect subjunctive active of deleo
thc pluperfect subjunctive passive of laboro
q 2nd person singular
3rd person singular
habuisses egisses audivisses
portavisset habuisset .Cit::: i:g11.11:::
thc pluperfect subjunctive active of custodio
rlrc pluperfect subjunctive active of accipio

5 1st person plural egissemus audivissemt


tto 2nd person plural

3rd person plural
oortavissetis habuissetis
portavissent habuissent
rhc pluperfect subjunctive passive of pello
rlrc pluperfect subjunctive active of dico
rlrc pluperfect subjunctive passive of doceo

E the pluperfect subiunctive passive is formed by a combination
of the peifect passive pa{cip{e (see -Unit 44 I9r) ancl the
i^ subiun'ctive tenie of to be (see Unit 58 [)' Remember
rht. pluperfect subjunctive active of claudo
rh,' pluperfect subjunctive passive of sepelio

noun it describes.
agrees in number, gender and case with
The subjunctive mood exprlesses possibility' We do not often . Ifith its meaning so weak that it reports actual facts, e.g. in
11101 use it in English but it exists (e.9. if I werc you). llllhen result clauses (see Unit 67) totiens rogavit at adsentirem + he
LJ translating subiunctives it is almost always necessary to use
accompanying auxiliary verbs such as would, should or might.
asked me so rnany times that I consented.
(rl o In indirect speecti the verbs of subordinate clauses are in the

5 E In main clauses the subiunctive is not common but when it is

found it expresses what ii desired or regarded as possible and
subjunctive even if they were indicative in direct speech, except
that in dum (+ wntill clauses in indirect speech the present
indicative is kept.
o appears as one of the following types.
.'the iussive subiunctive (negaiive: ne) in the 2nd and 3rd
c person is almosi a commanil. Present and perfect tenses. ar€
Lsed, e.g. caueat emptor + lct the buyer beutare; ne transieris
The subjunctives in these exercises are in main clauses. The uses
of the subjunctive in subordinate clauses is tested under each of
II flumen \ do not cr6ss the riuer; ctfia ne me uexes + take care
the subordinate constructions.

c you do not annoy me;petas aurum a (plcase) seekthe gold. II Translate the following into English. The subjunctives are
5 . The hortative subiunCtive (negative: ne) in the 1st person
expresses encouragement. The -present- tense is used, e.g.
jussive or hortative.
lffi n" te mater inveniat + do not let mother find you
o . The
*d[or" sequamurl let us seek 6ener things.
concessive subiunctive (negative: ne) expresses a
a portae aperiantur o custodes. e quam laetissime vivamus!
tr!? b omnia vincit amor et nos f aprum venatores caveant.
concession such as 'gianted that' or 'supposing that'. Present cedamus amori. g ne pugnetis in horto pueri.
or perfect tenses are used, e.g. celet peatniam Titus + c cives, imperatorem victorem h nunc diligenter laboremus.
!? supposing that Titus is biding tbe money. salutemus! i appropinquent legati.
. ffiti aen6erative subiunctivE (negative: non) is used for d ne canes excitaveris. i Ciceronem audiamus.
tr ouestions in which what ought to be done is uncertain' Present
o and impe.fect tenses are used, e.g. quid faciam? + what am
to da?.- sfid aperern? + uhat should I haue done?
I El Translate the following into English. The subjunctives are

o . The optative irbjunctive (negative: ne) expresses wishes.- The

concessive or deliberative.
ffi < I
o oreseni and perfect express a wish for the future, the imperfect a
*ith th"t something oi.t to now and the pluperfect a wish that a
quotiens haec verba dicam?
these words?
quo nunc veniamus?
how often should say
Caesarem timuerit Cassius.
something had been so in the past. They are often introdrlced by b necaverit maritum Clodia. g uli villam aedificem?
utinam J would that I if only, e.g. di te senent nay the gods c habitet monstrum in spelunca. h victa sit Britannia a Romanis.
' quomodo tibi subvenirem? i cur tot annos laborem?
bresen e yozl utinam haec d.iceres + if only you utere saying this
e cur vobis faveamus? j cui libros meos legem?
inow);"ii"ai" id fecissem + would that I had dane it-
. The potential subiunctive (negative: non) expresses something E Translate the following into EngliSh. The subjunctives are
which has the potential to happen and mlY depend upon. a optative or potential.
condition, although that condiii-on is not.always present. The d.i## absit omen + rnay the (badl omen be gone
Dresent and perfeclt tenses are used with reference to the present a vivat rex! g utinam flume4 Caesar ne
and future; ihe imperfect with reference to, the past, e.g. quis b cras velim te visitare, transiisset. ' i
audcat hoi facerei- utho utouM dare to do this? eum fortem c floreat civitas! h quis Catilinam crederet?
esse butares )\totr utould batte thought him to be braue. vehm d heri Brutum ridentem videres. i utinam Cato nunc viveret.
+ I'wowld like.'nolim+ I would notnke and malim a I would e nolim umbram in tenebris videre. j malim equitare potius quam
prefer,are common examples of this subjunctive. f cadent inimici! ambulare.
E In subordinate clauses (see Unit 53) the subjunctive is more E Translate the following sentences into Latin.
common and is found: /er the contest be started. r certamen excitetur
r In expressions of desire or will or condition whiglr depend on ffi
anotfier sentence, e.g. in indirect commands (see Unit 79) togo a ITho would love the miser? e lflould that you (s.) had not
te at uenias + I ask you to come. b Let us not walk to the shore. killed the goose.
-subiunctive c May you (s.) always sing f Why would you (s.) have hidden
. As the prospective to represent something as beautifully. the book?
anticipat;d raiher than as'afact,e.g. manebimus dum periculum d Do not let the old man hurt the g Let the general himself lead us.
augeit? + shall we remain until the danger may inaease? horse. h Let us depart from the forum.
E Deponent verbs are passive in form but active in meaning. E Tlanslate the following sentences into English.
FA There is no equivalent to this Dhenomenon in Enslish. Tust as for ffiffi Romani imperio maximo potiti erant + the Romans had
tl normal active verbs, you can'tell which conjugatlon tliey belong acquired a uery great empire
Ot to by examining their present infinitive ending (the second a philosophi de natura sapientiae f mane domo proficiscemur.
(Jt principal part: see Unit 2 E). In dictionaries only their first rebantur. g fabri pontem experiuntur.
three principd parts are given. b nolite morari liberi. h equi per flumen trepide gressi
. Deponent verbs of the first conjugation are characterizedby a c athletas hortemur cives! sunt.
CL present infinitive ending -ari, e.g. conor anariconatus sum + /r?. d nihil peius quam mortem i puellae laete pompam secutae
. Deponent verbs of the second conjugation are characterized
patiemur. sunt.
by a present infinitive ending -eri, e.g confiteor confrteri e rex anno sexagenslmo suo i Galli per portas Romae ingressi
mortuus est. erant.
confessus sum'+ confess, acknouledge.
. Deponent verbs of the third conjugation are characterized by a
E Translate the following sentences into English.
5 present infinitive ending -i, e.g. loquor loqui locutus $rorr-+ spedk.
ffi t^* de monte paulatim labebantur a rocks were
o o Deponent verbs of the fourth conjugation are characterizedby
a present infinitive ending -id, e.g. mentior mentiri mentitus gradually slipping down the mountain

sum -) tell lies. a hamadryades de arboribus f mercator domum locupletem
E Although the indicative, subjunctive and imperative moods ortae sunt. nancrus est.
q, and perfeci participles of deponent verbs are passive in form and b
cras Romani Graecos aggredientur g servi horto domini benigni
dum fruebantur,
gaudeamus igitur, iuvenes
active in mianingl their piesent and future participles, future
5 infinitives, supines and gerunds are active in form and meaning,
as in normal verbs. The gerundives of deponent verbs are
sumus! h hieme agricola faeno abusus erat.
d puella quattuordecim annos i post cladem imperator valde
CL passive in form and meaning. nata est. irascebatur.

o E Sample forms for the first conjugation verb conor -ari -atus
e ille artifex modo marmore j consules officio optime
o sum -) try arei
optimo utebatur. tun$€Iltuf;
Translate the following sentences into English.
present I conor coner conarc conan co4arx; ffina*qaam mortuorum obliviscemur - we shall neuer be
I future I conabor conatun$esse conaturus forgetful of the dead
lmpenecr conabar co|Her
imperfect I corulDar conarer a sol mox coorietur. f olim puellae ad fontem mane
CL p€rfect I conatussum conatussim conatusesse conatus b vaccae herbis vescuntur. convenire solitae erant.

future oerfect I conatus ero c femina Caesari contradicere g avarus mihi numquam fisus est.
conaflrs eram conamsessern
- ausa est. h omnes pueri taurum verentur.
Gerund: conandum Gerundivq conandus -a -um Supine: conatum d noli umquam mentiri mi fili. i custodes de captivis non
e percussores senem adorti sunt. loquentur.
5 E Some important deponent verbs are followed by the ablative:
ffitrttot uti usus sum r use, employ, enjoy
j cur iuvenes minaris o iudex?
o E Translate the following sentences into Latinl dse deponent
abutor abuti abusus sum -) use up, exhaust
fruor frui fructus sum + enjoy, haue the use of verbs.
fungor fungi functus sum + perform, discharge ffi #e citizens do not seem happy + cives non laeti videntur
vescor vesci (no perfect) + feed on, enioy a \trhy has the magistrate lied g The enemy are advancing
o potior potiri potitus sum '-) take possession of
E Semi-deponent verbs are those which have an active present,
about the
b Have you (s.) obtained the
slowly across the plain.
h You (pl.) are not accustomed to
- books?
ct imperfect a-nd future, but a passive perfect, pluperfect anil future work carefully.
c Do not fear the dark, my son. i The citizens have always
o perfect. There are not many but they are common:
Second conjugation: audeo audere ausus sum '+ darei gaudeo
d I have not forgotten the
trusted the orator.
j The captives will not come out
gaudere gavisus sum -) reioice; soleo solere solitus srum+ be
e Let us hunt the huge stag. from the gaol.
accustomed to. f Tomorrow we shall talk about
Third conjugation: fido fidere fisus sum ) trust (+ dative); the plan.
confido ) trusti diffido + mistrust.
Impersonat verbs do not have a perconal subiect and usually have E the existence of the passive of intransitive verbs seems illoeical
percon singular in each tense, an infinitive and a gerund.
on-ly a 3rd in English as intransitive verbs do not take a direct obJect.
LJ Asin English their subiect is the pronoun 'it', e.g. lt is raining. The
most common impersonal constructions are as follows.
However, in Latin passive intransitive verbs can be used in the 3rd
person singular in an impersonal construction, e.g. Romam a Bruto
(Jl ueflhrnt esf + (literallv\ it uas sone to Rome b,t Brutus. We cannot.
E Some are used alone to express changes of weather or time, e.g'
o) fuleurat + it lis,htens, ningit + it snouti, pluit + it rain9, tonat r
of course, translate tliis literalfy into English aird so we say 'Brutui
went to ilome'. In the Latin the subje"ct of the intransiiive verb
it tltunders,lucescit + it dawns, vesperascit + it Srous late. (Brutus) has become the agent.
E Some are followed bv the accusative of person and the infinitive Compare this with buwatum esf in foro ..+ (literally) it utas fousht
of action, e.g. decet + it is becoming, dedecet ' i! is unbecotning, in thi forum, i.e. thbre-utas a fight in the forim,In this sentence ihe
iuvat + lt dilights, fdlit '-+ it escapes one's notice, fugit + it escapes
tt-o one's notice. praeterit + it passes one by, opoftet 1 tt behoues one
lone oughti.ihould), e.g. &decet vos pirgnare ' it is unbecoming
subject is omitted altogether.
Likewise, aentun esf in forum + (literally) it utas gone into the
forum.must be translated accordinqto the lbntext. eis.. ue br thev
for you to ltght. ient into the forum. We firid this construitiin with verb-s
- E Some take a dative (sometimes with an infinitive), e.g. libet + ir taking the dative (see Unit 27 El), e.g. ab oratore persuadctur
pleases, licet '+ it is alloued, liquet + it is clear, contingit + it omnibus civibus ) the speaker persuades all the citizens (literally:
o befalk.'convenit + it suits, evenit - it turns out' exP,edit - it is
tipedient. placet - it pleases, seems good, videtur + it seems
it is persuadcd to all citizens by'the speaker).
Intransitive verbs which take an ablative are all deponent and their
ko"dl, it'is'decided,-e.g. licet nobis discEdere ' we a're allauted to gerundives are used impersonally. e.e. omnibus voluotatibus
g leaue (it is pemtitted lor us to leauel. fnrendun
'shoald est + u)e should mjoy all'pleisures (literally: eiiayment
El Some take accusative of the person and genitive of cause or be aken of all pleasuiesj.
infinitive of action, e.g. miseret 1 it moues to pity (and miseritum
est), piget + it uexes (ind pigitum est), paenitet ) it,rep.ents, pudet
o + it shdmes (and puditum est)' taedet 4 t-t ueartes (and pert-aesum
: I rePent of my mistake (it makes me
Il Tlanslate the following sentences into English.
ffi oportet vos captivos liberare ) you ought to set the
- est), e.g. paenite.t ine erroris
ct repmt ol my mtstake), prisoners free
o El Some are followed bv ad plus the accusative, for example
pertinet t it concerns, attinet +-it concems, it belongs, e.g. nihil ad a ecce pluit! f non pudet furem impietatis.
me attinet ) it colrcen s me in no respect. b decet Romanos pacem conservare. g pueris non placet in horto
E the verb refert + it concerns, it rwtterc is used with the feminiae c hodie mihi convenit domi ludere.,
tit nul"r ablative of the possessive pronouns mea, tua etc. Unit 39 g)
(see manere. h iam vesperescat.
d iuvabit te cantorem audire. i taedet nos laboris.
wtilch is to be imaeined as agreeing with the ablative singular re +
thins, cnntairrred in"the verb refert.-So mea refert + it bears on tlry- e non licet vobis in triclinium i sapienti convenit tacere.
buslness. Bv some oddiw. the verb interest + it concetns, it is ol intrare.
imoortance. takes the sime construction. These verbs are usually
fofiowed by an accusative and infinitive, although interest dso takes the E Ttanslate the following sentences into English.
senitive of'the person concerned in th6 case of nouns 4rd 3rd person
+ it conrens rne that you escape. ffi dulce et decorum est pro patria mori + ip is sweet and
fronouns, e.g. ma refert vos effugere fitting to die for one's country ' t
E Est - it is can be used in an impersonal sense with adjectives a optimo consilio utendum est. e a nostris processum est ad
and an infinitive. e.e. dimcile esf montem ascendere + it is dfficult b facile est in montibus te celare. hostes.
to climb the mounilin opus est : there is need o/takes the dative c ad Graeciam a Cassio f non potest Germanis resistere.
of person in need and ablative of what is needed, e.* opus est mihi navigatum est. g opus erat nautis rudentibus.
trabe - I need a plank (there is need to me of a pknkl. ferocem
d necesse est canem h nostra refert eum servari.
Iil the verbs potest + it is possible, coepit + it begins, solet + it vincire. i solet mane patronum salutare.
it ought and desinet 4 it stops .^te also used
-debet +
is customary,
with an infinitive, e.g. potist pontem transire ' it is possible to E Translate the following sentences into Latin.
cross the bridge.
eE: we regret our carelessness + paenitet nos neglegentiae
I Some other verbs also have a special impersonal meaning in
their 3rd Derson. e.s. accedit - it ia added, Cccidit ' it happens, r You (pl.) will need a ship. d It concerns me that we learn.
apparet 1 it is. obui6us, constat ) it is agreed, delectat ' it charrns b It snowed yesterday. e It is possible to see the treetops.
and restat 4 ,t rem&tns. c It is unbecoming for us to yield. f The women went to the theatre.
g It will soon grow light.
Defective verbs are those from which some forms are absent' tr Coepi coepi sse + I haue begunhas no present, future or imperfect.
fliel + r Indicative Perfect
tr Odi odisse + I hate and memini meminisse I remember a I have begun
L_J have no present, future or imperfect'
lst person singular coepi coeperam -r I had begun
(tl . Indicaiive perfect (present in meaning)
singiular + I hate
odi memini + I remember
2nd person.singular
3rd person singular
1st person
{ 2nd person singular odisti meministi lst person plural coepimus coeperamus

singular odit meminit 2nd person plural coepistis coeperatis

3rd person
odimus 3rd person plural coepefunt coeperant
1st ferson plural meminimus
2nd person plural
3rd ferson plural
1st person singular
Future perfect
coepero r I shall have begun

o . Indicative pluperfect (imperfect in meaning)

singiulai - I hated memineram + I remembered
2nd person singular
3rd person singular

1st person
2nd person
3rd person
1st person plural
2nd person plural

1st person plural oderamus memineramus 3rd person plural coeperint

plural . Subjunctive
o .
2nd person
3rd person plural
Indicative future perfect (future in meaning)
memlnerant 1st person singular
2nd person singular
1st person singular odero -r I shall hate meminero + I shall remember 3rd person singular coeperit
2nd person singular oderis memineris lst person plural coeperimus coeplssemus
5 3rd person singular oderit meminerit 2nd person plural coeperitis coepissetis

ct lst person plural oderimus memlnerlmus 3rd person plural coeperint coepissent

o 2nd person plural

3rd person plural
o Perfect infinitive: coepisse -+ to haue.b3gwn; perfect participle:
coeptus -4 -um ) begun; future participle: coepturut-a -um +
. Subiunctive perfect about to begin
1st person singular oderim memmenm 9 Rio inqo4- - say and for fari fatus sum (deponent)
2nd person singular oderis memineris + stteak?,say,
have few forms.
3rd person singular oderit meminerit . aio: present indicative: aio, ais, aitr- aiunt
1st person plural oderimus meminerimus -
imperfect: aiebam, aiebas, aiebat, aiebamus, aiebatis, aiebant
2nd person plural oderitis memineritis present subjunctive: aiat, aiant; participle: aiens, aientis
3rd person plural oderint meminerint r inquam: present: inquam, inquis, inquit, inquimus, inquitis,
r Subiunctive pluperfect lnqurunt
1st personsingular odissem meminissem imperfect: inquiebat, inquiebant; future:
2nd person singular odisses meminisses -.-
il'rqules, lnquret - - -
3rd person singular odisset meminisset pcrfect: inquisti, inquit; imperative:.inque, inquito
1st personplural odissemus memmlssemus . lor: present:- fatur; future: fabor, fabitur; itnperative: fare;
2nd:person plural odissetis meminissetis
prcsent participle: fantem (acc.); perfect paiticiple: fatus;
3rd ierson plural odissent meminissent
f.icrund: fandi, Iando; gerundive: iandus -a -um
. peifect infinitive, odisse + to hatei perfect participle: osus -a - 0't-he verbs nosco noscere novi notum and its compound
rrm+ bating (active); future participle: osurus -a -um about to r (,l1nosco cognoscere cognovi cognitum both mean 'get to
hate; imPentive: Irrow'. Like odi and memini their perfect tenses have a present
. -
Perfect infinitive: meminisse + to remember; perfect rrrr..rrring. So novi + I haue got to know and, therefore, i know;
p"tti.ipl.t future participle: imperatiYe: memento (s') ff(rvcro + I shall know; noveram (often syncopated to noram)
m.-.ntote (pl.) - remember -; . I knewi novisse (or nosse) : to knowi notus -i knotun.
U t2ueo quire quivi quitum + I am able and nequeo + I am
,tt11l1lg are defective and, where tenses exist, conjugate like
.,lnrlx)unds of eo (see Unit 61 [): queo, quis, quit, quimus,
.lurtrs, queunt. (As does the verb veneo venire venii venitum --+ 6e
', '1,1,
lrc on sale, which has an active form but a passive meaning.)
El the finite indicative tenses of the irregular verb sum esse fui
- to be, are given in Unit L2. The other forms are as follows:
In prosum the letter d appears between the o and e, as in
These compounds have active participles like praesens + iz
(tl Subiunctive Present lmoerfect
charge, absens + absent,
o 1st person srngular
2nd person singular
3rd person singular
1st person plural
9 Possum posse
potens sum.-f
potui +
I am able,
I can is a shortened compound of

2nd person plural sitis essetis Indicaiive P€sEnt Fut re

3rd oerson olural sint essent 1st person singular possum potero
d Subiunctive Porfect Pluperfect 2nd person singular potes poteris
1st person singular fuerim fuissem 3rd person singular potest poterit
GT 2nd person singular fueris fuisses 1st person plural possumus poterimus
3rd person singular fuerit 2nd person plural potestis poteritis
1st person plural fuerimus
fuissemus 3rd nerson nlural nosslnf nofeflrnf
qt 2nd person plural fueritis fuissetis Indicative lmpeffect Perfect
3rd person plural fuerint fuissent 1st person singular poteram potui
- 2nd person singular poteras potuisti
Alternative forms exist in the present subjunctive: 3rd person singular poterat potuit
1st person singular siem or fuam 1st person plural poteramus potuimus
o 2nd person singular sies or fuas
3rd person singular siet or fuat
2nd person plural
3rd oerson olural
- Inqicative Futur€ perfect
cr 1st person plural
2nd person plural
1st person singular potuero
2nd person singular potueris
?. 3rd person plural sient or fuant 3rd person singular potuerit
and in the imperfect subjunctive: 1st person plural potuerimus potueramus
co 2nd person plural potueritis
s 1st person
2nd person
3rd nerson nlrrral
3rd person singular
3 1st person plural
foret 1st person singular
2nd person singular
qt 2nd person plural
3rd person plural forent
3rd person singular
1st person plural

5 Imperative: 2nd person: es or esto (s.) este or estote (pl.); 3rd

2nd person plural
3rd oerson olural
CL person: esto (s.) sunto (pl.) Subiunctive Perfect Pluperfect

bo lnfinitives: present: esse; perfect: fuisse; future: futurus esse

Participles: future: futurus -a -um
perfect). No gerund or supine.
or fore (no present or
1st person singular
2nd person singu.lar
3rd person singular
potuisses ..
potuisset { g

ca lst person plural potuerimus potuissemus

E the compounds of sum conjugate as it does: 2nd person plural potueritis potuissetis
tn absum + I arn absent, adsum + I am present, desum ) I atn 3rd person plural potuerint potuissent

s uanting, insum + I amin, intersum + I am among, obsum +

I hinder, praesnm + I am in charge of, prosum a I am of use, Infinitives: present: posse; perfect: potuisse. The participle
3 subsum a I am under and supersum + I suruiue. potens. is used only as an adjective and there are no imperativis,
gerund, gerundive or supine.
E Volo velle volui I wish, u)ant. This verb takes the prolative
FrA infinitive E Nolo nolle nolui + be untuilling is a compound of ne volo "+
(see Unit 48 tr). I do not utant.This verb takes the prolative infinitive (see Unit
L--J 48 tr).
(rl lndlcative Prcsent
Indicative Present
(o 1st person singular
2nd person singular vis
voles lst person singular nolo
3rd person singular vult volet 2nd person singular non vis noles
II 1st person plwal volumus volemus 3rd person singular non vult nolet
2nd person plural vultis voletis
- 3rd oerson olural volunt volent
lst person plural nolumus
non vultis

a lndicative
1st person singular
2nd person plural
3rd person plural nolunt
GT volebas
lndicative lmD€rfect Perfect

2nd person singular
3rd person singular volebat
1st person singular
2nd person singular
qt 1st person plural
2nd person plural volebatis
3rd person singular
lst person plural
- 3rd oerson olural volebant voluerunt 2nd person plural nolebatis noluistis
lndlcetlve Futn€ Dertect Pluoerfect 3rd person plural nolebant noluerunt
o lst person singular
3rd person singular
1st person plural
1st person singular
Derfect Pluoerfect
- 2nd person singular nolueras
ct 2nd person plural
3rd oerson olural
3rd person singular noluerit

n Subiunctive
lst person singular
1st person plural
2nd person plural
3rd oerson olural
2nd person singular velis velles Subiunctive Prcs€nt lmoerfect
5 3rd person singular velit
vellet lst person singular nolim nollem

d lst person plural

2nd person plural
3rd person plural
2nd person singular
3rd person singular
1st person plural
st 1st person singular voluerim voluissem
2nd person plural
3rd oerson olural nolint
2nd person singular volueris voluisses Subiunctive Perfect Pluoerfect
C 3rd person singular
1st person plural
voluisset 1st person singular noluerim noluissem
voluissemus 2nd person singular nolueris noluisses
T 2nd person plural volueritis
voluissetis 3rd person singular noluerit noluisset

o 3rd person plural voluissent 1st person plural

2nd person plural
noluissetis " f

d Infinitives: present: velle; perfect: voluisse

Present participle: volens
Gerund: volendum (no imperatives or gerundive)
3rd person plural noluerint noluissent

Imperatives: 2nd person: noli or nolito (s.) nolite or nolitote

3rd person: nolito (s.) nolunto (pl.)
Infinitives: present: nolle, perfect: noluisse
Present participle: nolens
Gerund: nolendum (no gerundive or supine)
E tvtdo malle malui a prefer is a compound of magis volo r E fio fieri factus sum -) become, be made is an irregular
@ wish more.It takes the prolative infinitive (see Unit 48 tr).
defective verb. W.hen it means 'be made'. the verb is actiie in
L-J form but passive in meaning and must be used as the passive of
lndicative Prosenl Futurs facio faceie feci facnrm J make, which supplies the perfect
CD 1st person singular
2nd person singular
3rd person singular
tense factus sum -) I haue been made, the future perfecifactus
ero + I shall haue been made and pluperfect facius eram -r 1
had been made.'lfhen meaning 'beiome' fio is followed by a
II 1st person plural malumus malemus
- 2nd person plural mavultis maletis
d 3rd oerson nlural
lndicative lmoerfect
1st person singular
GI lst person singular malui 2nd person singular fis fies

c 2nd person singular

3rd person singular
3rd person singular
1st person plural

1st person plulal
2nd person plural
2nd person plural
3rd person olural fiunt
- 3rd oerson olural
lndicative oerfect
maluerunt Subiunctlve Perfect lmperfect
Future Pluoerfect 1st person singular fiam fierem

o 1st person singular

2nd person singular
2nd person singular
3rd person singular
- 3rd person singular maluerat 1st person plural fieremus
ct 1st person plural
2nd person plural
2nd person plural
3rd person plural
?. 3rd Derson plural maluerint maluerant
Subiunctivo Pr€sent lmperfect
malim E| ndo €sse Edi 6sum .+ e4t. Note the similarity between this
1st person singular
2nd person singular
3rd person singular
and parts of sum (see Units 12 and 58 tr). Th6 verb to eat is
distinguished by the long vowel in 6s- but this will not be
1st person plural malimus mallemus apparent when you are reading 'real' Latin. The parts of the
g- 2nd person plural
3rd person plural
verb which are not listed here are regular.

Subiunctive Pertect Pluperfect Prcsent indicative Actfue Passtue

1st person singular maluerim maluissem lst person singular edo 1
E}| 2nd person singular malueris maluisses 2nd person singular Es
3rd person singular maluerit maluisset 3rd person singular 6st Estur
qt 1st person plural maluerimus
maluissemus 1st person plural edimus

5 2nd person plural

3rd person plural maluerint
2nd person plural
3rd oerson olural
I t
CL Subiunctive lmperfect
Infinitives: present: malle, perfect: maluisse 1st person singular edam or edim Essem

o Gerundive: malendum (no participles or imperatives) 2nd person singular

3rd person singular
edas or edis
edat or edit

a. lst person plural edamus

\J 2nd person plural
3rd person plural
edant or edint

Imperfect subjunctive passive: Essetur

Imperative active: 2nd person: Es or 6sto (s.) este or €stote
(pl.), 3rd Person: esto (s.) edunto (pl.)
Present infinitive: Esse
E Eo ire ii (less commonly ivi) itum a go. In the perfect tenses Indicative active Perfect Futrrc pertect pluperfect
hrA the iis- is sometimes contracted to is-, e.g. isti, istis, isse etc. tuli tulero
tl Indicative Present Future
1st person singular
2nd person singular tulisti tuleris
o) 1st person singular eo ibo
3rd person singular
1st person plural
-l 2nd person singular is ibis ibas 2nd person plural tulistis tuleritis tuleratis
3rd person singular it ibit ibat 3rd person plural tulerunt tulerint tulerant
1st person plural imus ibimus ibamus lhdicative Dassive Pr€sent Fuhrre Immrfe.rt
- 2nd person plural itis ibitis ibatis 1st person singular feror ferar ferebar
3rd person plural eunt ibunt
d Pefiect Fut Perfect
u lero
2nd person singular
3rd person singular
1st person plural
fereris or
ferris fereris (or
-re) ferebaris (or -re)
GT 1st person singular leram ferimur feremur ferebamur

2nd person singular
3rd persoir singular
2nd person plural
3rd oerson olural
ql 1st person plural
2nd person plural
Perfect Futur€ Derfect PluDerfect
1st person singular latus sum erolatus latus eram
- 3rd person plural ierunt ierint ierant 2nd person singular latus es eris
latus latus eras
Subiunctive Pertect lmD€rfect Perfoct PluDerfect 3rd person singular latus est erit
latus latus erat

o 1st person singular

2nd person singular
1st person plural
2nd person plural
3rd oerson olural
lati sumus
lati estis
lati erimus
lati eritis
lati erunt
lati eramus
lati eratis
- 3rd person singular iisset lati sunt lati erant
C' 1st person plural
2nd person plural
Subjunctive active
1st person singular
Prcsent Perfuct Passiye: Prcsent Perfect
feram tulerim fenr latus sim
?. 3rd person plural eant irent ierint iissent 2nd person singular feras tuleris feraris (or -re) latus sis
3rd person singular lerut tulerit feratur.
o Imperatives: 2nd person: i, ito (s.) ite, itote (pl.); 3rd person!
1st person plural feramus tulerimus feramur
latus sit
lati simus
o ito (s.) eunto (pl.)
Infinitives: present: irel future: iturus esse; perfect: rrsse or
2nd person plural
3rd oerson olural
feratis tuleritis feramini
ferant tulerint ferantur
lati sitis
lati sint
qt ivisse; passive: iri (see Unit 47 9) Subjunctiveactive lmp6rf6ct Pluperf6ctPapsivelmperfectplup€rfect
1st person singular ferrem tulissem feirer latus essem
Participles: present: iens euntis; future: iturus -a -um 2nd person singular ferres tulisses ferreris (or -re) latus esses
Supine: itum (acc.)itu (abl.). Gerund: eundum
C 3rd person singular passive: present: itur; imperfect: ibatur;
3rd person singular ferret tulisset ferretur latus esset
1st person plural ferremus tulissemus ferremur lati essemus
perfect: itum est 2nd person plural ferretis tulissetis ferremini lati essetis
6" Compounds of eo like adeo + approach have a full passive 3rd person plural ferrent tulissent ferrentur lati essent
d E Fero ferre tuli latum - bring, bear, carry.Like fero goes its
compound auferro auferre abstuli ablatum + take away.It also
Active imperative: 2nd person: fer/ferto (s.) fertefertore (pl.),
3rd person: ferto (s.) ferunto (pl)
shares forms with tollo tollere svshrli sublaum 4 raise. Passive imperative: 2nd person: ferre/fertor (s.) ferimini (pl.),
3rd person: fertor (s.) feruntor (pl.)
Infinitives: present active: ferre; present passive: ferri; perfect
1st person singular
active: tulisse; perfect passive: latus esse; future active: laturus
2nd person singular fers feres ferebas
essel future passive: latum iri
3rd person singular fert feret ferebat
1st person plural ferimus feremus ferebamus Participles: present: ferens ferentis; perfect: latus -a -um;
2nd person plural fertis feretis ferebatis tuture: laturus -a -um
3rd person plural ferunt ferent ferebant Gerund: ferendum; gerundive: ferendus -a -um; supine: latum
Direct questions are those asked directly of someone and E the subjunctive is used for deliberative questions (Unit 54 E).
ending in a question mark. + wbat are tae to do?
11261 ffiffi q"id faciamus?
L--J E Single direct questions E Rhetorical questions are those which do not really expect an
o) . In English, when we turn a statement lnto a questron we
answer and take the accusative and infinitive construction (Unit
N change the position of the verb.
ffi*lnstatement:This kangaroo. question: Is tbis a kangaroo?
is a
76E and 9).
ffiffi cur hosnbus auxilftrm misisse? q Why has he sent help to his
Latin. the svllable -ne is added to the first word.
e W statement: tu'hoc fecisti a you did fbls. question: tune hoc
fecisti? 4 didyou do this?
E the single answers yes and no do not exist in Latin. The
+ just so, ita vero -) iust so indeed,
d r'W'hen nonne iniroduces the question it implies that the closest are phrases like ita
vero or sane + truly, etian - euen (so), non ita or non vero +
questioner would like to hear the answer 'yes'. This requires
something like'surely?' in English. not so and minime or minime vero + least of all.
ffi rrot^" hoc fecisti? - surely you did this? ot you did do this,
.cl didn't,towl
.'When num introduces the question it implies that the E Translate the following questions into English.
tr questioner would like to hear the answer 'no'. This requires rffi visne fabulam spectare? + do you want to watch the play?
o something like 'surely not?' in English. a an Caesar necatus est? e illumne gladiatorem antea vidistis?
o ffi num hoc fecisti? + surely you did not do this? ot you did
b canemne meam vidisti? f puerine in harena ludunt?
c an ille pecuniam abstulit? g num isto candidato favetis?
cli not do thi.s, did you? d num Titus cras veniet? h nonne flores pulchrae sunt?
o o I7hen an intioduc-es a question it expresses the speaker's
surprise. E Translate the following questions into English.
* + ffi qoo vadis domine? + uthere are you going, master?
= H$ffi
tu hoc fecisti?
As in English, direct
did you really do this?
questions may be an a quando princeps meus adveniet? g quomodo urbem antiquam
interrogati"ve (question) yo!d,. such as,quisl i gyil (who?l or b quomodo Caesar Rhenum transiit? invenisti?
one of its compounds which decline (listed in Unit 429 and c cur eam non amas? h quam durus est hic gladius?
E), or any of ihe following: d qua fur in atrium venit? i quotpves sunt in agris?
J + ihere? uutflsl.' ftom where e ubi sunt sellae, ancillae? j unde Claudius illam togam
' (rfuhher)?
qrc? to :ubl?
@hmce)? f quamdiu in cubiculo iacebas comparavit?
qo*dol + uthen? oft
q:urlts? + what kind qwmtus--a -um? +hwt Quinte?
quotiens? a how oftm? qaf/.? + haa nany?
utf': wl-oidt (of two)? El Translate the folloWing questions into English.
quomodo? abow
' (inwhatway)?ott?+why? quam?+han(asn
hw,long)? ffi utrum domi manebis an mecum amlulabis? + will you
gua?'+ by what way? qtarc? + whyi quamobrem? + why! stay at home or walk with me? r
quamdiu? + for how long? a clipeum perfecisti faber? e utnrm Vesuviumrvisitavisti
ffi quomodo hoc fecisti? + how did yow do this? b utrum Tiberium an Quintum annon?
. Sometimes a single direct question is no-t introduced. by. a amas? f quamobrem Romani Gallos
ouestion word bu"t is impliedin the tone of voice. In Latin the
c quotiens dicit?
haec verba oppugnant?
d cenam parabis annon? g nuces an uvas mavis?
question mark will tell you whether it is such a question.
#ff|ff t" hoc fecisti? + did you do this? E Translate the following questions into Latin.
E Direct questions which offer an alternative are-introduced by W yo, dre not waiting for the emperor, are you? '+ num
... in (or anne). The negative is annon. Sometimes the imperatorem exspectas
word utrum is omitted.

a You (s.) did hide the gold,

W&, ttttt vos exspectabimus annon? + shall ue expect you or didn't you?
d Did the dog really bite you (s.)?
e Surely he has not sold the farm?
not? b Where are the merchant's gems? f Vill Aemilia come to Rome or
c Is Marcus at home? not?
clause like an adverb, answering question such as how?, why?
E So far we have looked at simple sentences which make a
Fra ;t.-; or ask a question in the^indicative, express a wish in or when?
tl the subiunctive or give an order in the imperative'
r Consecutive clauses (Unit 57): so that
o Final clauses (Unit 55): in order that
q) E In complex sentences we encounter more than one clause ald . Causal clauses (Unit 55 Ell because
always has a more important status than the . Temporal clauses (Units 58 and 691: uhen, until
;L;i;i:it;i; is called the main clause and the others are called
. Conditional clauses (Units 74 and75): if, unless
o subordinate clauses.
. Concessive clauses (Unit 55 !fit abbough, euen if
tr El the main clause can stand on its own and still make sense
*tt*."t " i"Utiditt"t" clause cannot' e,g.'WhileyouI cuas cooking
. Clauses of proviso (Unit 71, 4llz prouided that
cr iiiiiiln" i"s stole the cakes.In this sentence can identify . Comparisons (Unit 71. ED: as, as if, as though
o the main clauJe, which is the dog stole the cakes, because it can
stand on its own and still make sense. However, the other
. Clauses of fear (Unit 7| 9\ lest
E the indirect statement (Units 75 and77), indirect question
4 ;i;;;.. wbile I was cooking dinner, does not make complete
i."r. 6n its own and so is isubordinate,clause. The imp.ortant
idea in the sentence is that the dog stole the cakes while the
(Unit 78), indirect command and indirect wish (Unit 791 are
called substantival clauses because thev stand like a noun in
relation to the main verb.
=, i"Uorai""t. clause simply sets the main clause in a context. It
;;iir at what point tfie'dog stole the cakes and what else was E Sequence of tenses
?.+ going";on at the same time. The tense of the Latin verb in a subordinate clause is not
o Et Latin sentences are usually much longer than English one.s,
necessarily the same as it would be in English. In Latin

sometimes as long as a paragraph. They may theretore contaln
a large number ofsubordinate clauses.'srhen you are translatlng
-Enelish, is good idea to split a Latin sentence up rnto a
it a
something called the sequence of tenses is applied. There are
cxceptions to it but the broad principle is that:
. If a verb is in the present, future or future perfect indicative or
the imperative or in the present or perfect subjunctive, then it
tr number-of smaller English ones to avoid a cumbersome result' is said to be in primary sequence.
o E Subordinate clauses in English are usually linked to the_main . If a verb is in the imperfect or pluperfect indicative or
o .l"ot. by a conjunction and t-his is frequently the same in Latin' subjunctive, then it is said to be in historic sequence.
. The perfect indicative tense straddles these definitions. If it is
o E the key to understanding subordinate clauses lies in the
[tUr. r"iit subordinate clarise is governed by its own verb' used to mean, e.g. I haue eatenthen it has some reference to
the present and so is primary. If it is used simply to mean e.g.
That verb is commonly a finite one, often a sublunctwe' as ln I ate,then it has no reference to the present and so is historic.
final clauses (Unit 65),-consecutive clauses (U.lit 67)' clauses ot . If the main verb is primary, then it is followed by a verb in a
fearins (Unit 71 p),' clauses of doubting (Unit 72 ll) and primary tense in the subordinate clause. On the other hand, if
indireit questions (Unit 78). Indicative verbs are touncl a main verb is historic, it is followed by a verb in a historic
(Unit 55 El) and
il;;;. su'bordinate clauses like causal clauses verb m-ay also be tense in the subordinate clause.
concessive clauses (Unit 55 El). However' t-he . In subordinate clauses, the present and imperfect subjunctive
a-patticipl., as in the case oFthe ablative absolqte (Unit 70) or
tenses are used for incomplete action, while the perfect and
."'i"ii"i[iu,J. as in the indirea statement (Units 76 and77)'
pluperfect subjunctive tenses are used for completed action.
once vou have identified the main verb (or verbs) and clause of
,.ni.n... look for all the other verbs which will be the
"foundationi of the subordinate clauses.
E Relative clauses (Unit 54) are also called_ adiectival clauses
because they qualify a word or idea in another clause, lfte an
adf.ti;..- (elitive particles like ubi (r.uhere) also introduce
adjectival clauses.
lil Those clauses known as adverbial clauses qualify the main
E the relative pronoun qui quag quod (who,labichl (Unit,41 El) ffiffi nemo erat tam fortis qui illis leonibus resisteret 1 no-one
t'*l usuallv introduces relative clauses but they may also De uas so braue as to resist those lions
L__J introduced by relative adverbs like ubi kahere). lil The relative pronoun can also be used to introduce causal clauses
o) ffi .ororra quam rex gerebat erat aurea + the crown uhich (Unit 55 E) in which case it is also followed by a subjunctive.
5 the king wore was golden
castra posuerunt ub"i flumen latissimum est+ they camped
ffiW ," culpo qui hoc facias + I blame you'for doing this
whereThe riuer is' wi'dest
E Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
E As well as coming after the main clause or even in the middle E E
d. of it, relative clausei sometimes come before it.
and opposite.
nit quem iudex arcessivit est innocens +
qt ffi qa rverba pater tibi dicet ea audi + listen to those uords
the man whom
iIT which father will saY to You
the iudge sent for is innocent
a ille qui in spelunca dormiebat antiquissimus erat.
El tf the relative pronoun is the subject of a verb which links a b hodie illa templa quae Romani aedificaverunt videre volumus.
*tr|..t with a complem-ent (see Unit.23.Q), like t\\- I (K,
o : I aDDeai,audio + I am called (lit. I hear [of myseltl)'
c terra unde peregrinus advenit paene deserta est.
d viros quos elegisti nos iam vidimus.
.iido ot exisi6 - I turn out and videor + I seem, then the
"oo"t.o e quem tu sequeris nos quoque sequemur.
;;I";itr p;;orln often agrees in number and gender with the
f Claudiam manebam ubi casa arboribus celatur.
g verba quae imperator dixerat milites delectaverunt.
g ffino quod mundi caput est + Rome, uhich is the capital
of tbe^ world
h statim prosiluit ubi hostes densissimi erant.
i bene eum cognovi cuius filius mortuus est.
o Et A relative pronoun or an ablative absolute (Unit 70) which
j candidatum cui favemus numquam amavistis.
o a sentence to a connection
found at the.beginning of
^show is sometimes with something that has
uses a relative pronoun E
Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
and E opposite.
happened previously. e.N quod locuti sunt, nemo id intellegit ) as to wbat they haue
,W qot- ob rem + for which reason (often written as one said, no-one understands it
word) ir Londinium, quae urbs maxima videtuq multo minor quam Roma est.
ouo facto + wben this was done (ablative absolute) b uxor mea, quod mihi praesidium semper -erat, est iam avia.
<iuod viderunt - as to that which they saw c Athenae quod est caput Atticae pulcherrima urbs est.
d quam ob rem Cassius etiam divitior factus est.
El tf the relative clause simply stares a fact about the antecedent c quo facto, ille valde iratus e foro discessit.
(U-t 4i E ), th.n the verb oi the relative clause is in the indicative. f ille est Catilina, quod evasit eitium reipublicae.
r"* in
fu& silvis sunt multae ferae quas timemus + in the uoods B quam ob rem non iterum navigabimus.
there are many wild beasts which we fear lr quod Caesar faciet, nemo volet parere.
E the relative pronoun can be used to introduce final clauses i quo facto Romani multos dies gaudebant.
(Unit 66 El), in which case the verb is in the subjunctive'
j Sirius, quae est clarissma stella iam ortus est.
Wimpentor legatos misit quigiue dona. regi datynt,,.+ tlte
the king gifts (lit' who
El Translate the following into Latin.
emperor sent ambassadors to .,t, what I baue said, eueryone has heard + quod ego dixi
would give the king gifts) omnes audiverunt
When a finafchuse cottiait r a comparative then it is introduced r llc will look for the bird where he saw the nest.
by quo. lr llrrve you (s.) seen the young man whom Lucretia loves?
p.#, eouos
-J conscenderunt quo celerius ad villam perveniremus r As to that which we did, everyone will be silent (taceo).
*" *ornted the horses to reacb the uilla more quickly ,l lirr which reason the procession halted.
llrutus whose clan (gens) is noble, has saved the republic.
Et The relative pronoun can also be used to introduce
I I hc dog caught the cat which had caught the mouse.
*"r"i"tir" ii" gJnit 67 E) when the verb is also in the_ l( r\ugustus, who was the ornament (decus) of his time.
;i;il;i;;.-ei"a ih. *.l"i"s of qul in these cases amoultsoft9the
9f tr lhcy killed the goose which used to lay (pario) the golden eggs.
,i"ii init and the"clauie defines a characteristic I (,loclia, who was a model to the Romans.
antecedent. (For quin see Units 72 and73.) I When this was done, the spectators applauded.
El Concessive clauses are those which indicate a concession E Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
(althougb\. They are introduced by the concessive conjunctio-ns concessive clauses.
L-J 'E) eisi, etiamsi or tametsi (euen
iUnit :7 .if',euen .thoughl, lffiffi qo"-quam dives sum, te non spernam + although I am
quamquam, quamvis, ut (negative ne), licet (althoughl or cum
(rl (whereasl. rich, I sball not spurn you
I a quamquam femina pulchra erat, avarus eam suspicatus est.
If th. ciause is introduced bv quamquam, then its verb will be in b quamvis signum captum esset, legionarii fortiter pugnaverunt.
the indicative. (Some later writers used it with the subjunctive.)
o ffi quamquam pons deletus est' e-go flumen transivi a
c licet tabernarii inurbani sint multas tamen stolas emam.
d ut gladius in saxo infixus sit, Arturus eum extrahet.
o ittt o"gb thebridge u.tas destroyed,,l crossed the riuer
. If the clauie is introduced by quamvis, licet, ut or cum then its
e quamquam Gaius modo septem annos natus est nihilominus inter
iuvenes ludit.
verb will be in the subiunctive. f
= ffi quamvis pons deletus sit, ego flum9q transivi + although g
etsi vesperascit, pueri in silvas repunt.
etiamsi pater discessit strenue laboramus,
o I crossed the riuer
the bridge was destroyed, h tametsi gladiator ingens est, cum eo qggrybo.
o . If the clauie is introducid by etsi, etiamsi ot tametsi (euen i quamquam avum meum numquam vidisti eum certe amabis.

thoush\.then the mood of its verb is decided by the same rules
as foi conditionals (Units 74 and75). Generally it is in:
tametsi exercitus non paratus fuisset, barbaros superavissemus.
Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
i the indicative if the concession did occur, is occurring or will causal clauses.
o occur,
-- ""-" etiamsi
pons deletus erat, ego flumcn transivi 1 euen
,#ffi fuliot abest quod aeger sit + lulius is away because, some
qt thowgh the bridge bad been destroyed, I riuer
crossed the
say, he is ill
5 or
ii the subiunctive, if the concession might have occurred, may be
a Aemilia Caelium non amat quod pater eius pauper sit.
b Cicero coniuratos interfecit quia respublica in maximo periculo esset.
CL occurring or might occur. The subjunctive verb in the main
c Quintus non venabitur quippe qui feras timeat.
d senex sero adveniet quod sero discessit.
clause is" comm-only translated into English by the words
q, utould or should.
e Cassius Caesarem odit quod Romam amet,
f canem expuli quia felem insequebatur.
ffi etsi pons deletus esset' ego flumentransivissem +-euen if the g es dives Cassius quoniam felix sis.
tr ^ --"
briige had been destroyed, I would haue crossed the riuer h harundines comparaverunt quando cras piscabuntur.
o E Causal clauses indicate the reason for something (becausel. i cum iter certe longum sit tecum ibo.
j pueri altercantur quoniam fessi sunt.
gl, They are introduced by quod, quia, quoniam, quando +
because, since, and cum ) since. E Translate the following sentences into Latin. Use the
. In causal clauses introduced by quod, quia, quoniam or conjunctions provided.
a. quando, when the person (author or character) stating. the
,'."tott is also supporting the reason as true' then the verb of
""', *t are ueeping because the enemy are here + lacrimamus
st quod hostes adsunt
co the clause is in the indicative.
'"ffi t"non vocavi quod dormiebas + I did not call you becawse
a Although (quamvis) Alexander had been wounded, h6 fought more

o vou were aslee|

However, when the'speaker gives a reason with which others,
b Although (quamquam) Gaius is lazy,he will repair the wheel.
o including the speaker,-may noi agree' then the verb of the clause
is in the subiunctive.
c Even if (etsi) you (s.) had killed the king, we would not have escaped.
d Even though (etsi) the river was very wide, we reached the bank.
e The mice are playing because (quia) the cat is away.
: Romani victi sunt quod perfidi essemus + the Romans f Rome was burned, some say, because (quod) Nero wanted to build
were beaten (some say) becawse we were treacherous a new palace.
. When cum introduces a causal clause, then its verb is in the g The king has summoned me doubtless because (quippe qui) he
subjunctive, whether the speaker vouches for the reason or not. admires me.
. h The prince will come because (cum) he loves you (s.).
The verb of a causal clause introduced by the relative pronoun
qui or quippe qai (since, for in fact, doubtless, because loften i Titus will not fight because (quoniam) he is gentle.
sarcasti;l)-i in-the subiunctive (see Unit 64 lil). i Although (quamquam) we cannot see you (pl.), we can hear your
E final clauses (commonly called purpose clauses) expresl the Il Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
tl purpose for which something is done. They are introduced by ut I i opposite.
L____J (siihat), if they are positiviand by ne (sometimes ut ne).(/esf, ad pornrm curremus ut naves videamus + ute shall run to tlte
io that'iot, in'casel,-1f they are negative. S-ome are introduced harbour to see the ships
CD by the rehfive pronoun qui quae quod and.some !v. quo' It is
o) common in English to tran_slate a purpose clause wrth a slmple
tene speculum ut te videas.
oves custodio ne leonibus edantur.
f canes latrant ne quis domui
infinitive, e.g. I opened to box to see the contents. c pavimentum puer lavat ut a matre g Caesar collem munit ne Galli
laudetur. castra capiant.
E the following phrases can introduce a negative final clause
as well as ne (/est):
ne quis q lest anyone, so that no-one
pictores strenue laborabunt ut
atrium uno die pingant.
tabulam celavi ne illa insula
omnia nomina appello ne quis
nonne plaustrum reficies ut
ne {uid + lest aiything, so tbat nothing usquam inveniatur. frumentum feramus?
ne umquam + lest euer, so that neuer
ne usquam + lest anyuhere, so that nouhere
qt ne ullus + lest any, so that no
E Translate ttre following sentences into English. They illustrate
El iiopposite.
E the verb of the final clause is in the subiunctive. The tense of the +
tr subjunctive depends upon the sequence of tenses (Unit 63 E).
ffi arborem succidit ut lignum compararet he cut the tree
o i If the verb of the main clause is primary (in the imperative or a
down to get firewood
o the oresent. future. future perfect or perfect with 'have'), then b
equum conscendi ut artem meam demonstrarem.
corpora sepeliebat ne quid videretur.
o the verb of'the final clause will be irrthe present subiunctive.
ffi- i.nua- claudo ne hi canes effugiant + I am closing the
mercator aediculam occultam fabricavit ut gemmas intus celaret.
venatores cervis insidiebantur ut cibum liberis praeberent.
e fundos vendiderat ut aes alienum exsolveret.
door so that these dogs do not escape f canem comparavi ne Claudius usquam se celare posset.
ii If the verb of the main ilause is historic (perfect without g homo scelestus arborem succidit ne ulla avis ibi nidificaret.
'have'. imperfect or pluperfect), then the verb of the final h puellae libros legebant ut carmina antiqua cognosierent.
clausewilibe in the impCrfea subiunctive. i portas clauseramus ne quis admitteretur.
clauseram ne hi canes effugerent + I had closed
j portam obseravi ne umquam domum iterum reviseremus.
' * ianuam
the door so that these dogs uould not escdpe EI Transtate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
E A final clause may be introduced by the relative pronoun qui E and El opposite.
quae quod (see Unit 64 E). legatos mittemus qui foedera renovent I we shall send
ffiffi senatores Caesarem misit qui Gallos^superatet + the ambassadors to renew the pdcts
senators sent Caesar to ouerpouter the Gauls a dux novas copias misit quae nobis e Quintia, dona misi quae te
subveniant. delectent.
El If a final clause contains a comparative adjective or adverb b fabros conduxeramus qui thermas f oculos magnos habeo quo melius te
then it is introduced by quo (see Unit 64 E). aedificarent. videam.
# dies exercebat quo citius cursum cufietet ' he c athleta diu exercebat quo facem g murum dirueba$qqo plus horti
" d.ce*exercised for ten days so that he migbt run the race more celerius ferret. videret. I

d hunc scribam comparavi qui meos h pastor ovile aedificavit quo oves
libros scribat. tutrus protegerentur.

!l Translate the following sentences into Latin.

W t drink utine to take the pain away ) vinum bibo ut
dolorem emoveam
a Are you (s.) hiding the bread to d I washed the floor so that no mud
annoy mother? might be seen.
b The farmer was watching the field e I have large teeth so that I may eat
in case any cow should escape. you (s.) better.
c We have sons to avenge us. f I showed everyone the box so that
they would not suspect me.
Et Consecutive clauses (commonly called result clauses) expfess
E Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
11361 ,n. t.Ji G"nreqo.t..i of an action. T!t.y are introduced by ut E iopposite.
tl futith the resuh that or so that). A negattve result rs exPressecl,Dy W adeo cunctatur ut omnes perituri sint --+ he is delaying so
o) ut non (or quin - see Unit 73 ED.In Elglish we usually lse tbat much that eueryone uill die
to introduc6 a consecutive clause, e.g-'We ualked so lar that we a tot milites rex comparavit ut f totiens decidit ut crura fracturus sit.
{ Luere exhausted, Sometimes, however, we can omrt a expeditio certe victura sit. g tam esuriens est pauper ut calceos
;;;idi;;-"tllg.ttt.t, e.g.'We'were so late we missed the boat' b tam laetus erit pater ut nobis dona suos esurus sit.

o Et A consecutive clause is usually (but not always) signposted in c

daturus sit.
tanta est venti velocitas ut hodie
h tam infirmus est pons ut etiam capri
non transituri sint.
o the
- main clause by one of the following: --
i"* rfu or ita - so ldis -is -e q swch, of
non navigaturi simus.
d adeo ningit ut nihil visuri simus.
i talis est Titus ut duci optime
subventurus sit.
ra* to suclt an extent, such a kind e tot pisces feles devorat ut mox j tam celeriter currit ut periculum
= so
-much tot + so ?nanY dormitura sit. non visura sit.

o tantus -a -um - so Tredt, so big totiens + -

so often El TransHe the following sentences into Engtish. They illustrate
o E the verb of a consecutive clause is in the subiunctive' The I ii opposite.
W adeo pluit ut flumen inundet )
tr tense of the subjunctive does not de-pend on the sequence of
tenses but stays for the most part in the same tense as it would the riuer is flooding
it is raining so much that

E!. appear
--i in English. a tam alta est turris ut tectum non f haec avis totiens cantat ut me
if tt . resuli is going to occur in the future, then l-atin invents videam.
o a future subiunctive tense. This consists of the tuture
p*iapt. (Vni 44El;, which agrees with whatever it refers to,
b talis est Crassus ut fautores non
semper delectet,
tam gravia sunt plaustra ut pons
'""a tft! present subiunctive ofihe verb to be (Unit 58 El)' c tanta sunt saxa ut asini ea non h tam clare loquitur ut omnia verba
qt ffi t"* sero advenisti ut pompam non visurus sis a
possrnr ponare.
d terra adeo tremit ut paene cadam. i
audire possim.
tanta est fides mea ut inermis
"* ;;;-iaue arriued so- lati that yow will not see the
co processton
ii If ihe result occurs in the pr€sent' then the present
e tot oves viae obstant ut pastores

haereant, i
aqluaita calida est ut non bibi possit.
Translate tfie following sontences into English. They illustrate
o subiunctive is used.
;ffi-iarrr altum est flumen ut transire non possim + the riuer
g iii and iv opposite.
o ,s so deeP that I cannot cross
lffi t^ parvus erat ut in hama sederet'+ he was so small
that he used to sit in a bucket
iii If the result occurred in the past and stress is being laid upon a mater nostra tam benigna erat ut semper amaretur.
the fact that it actually happened, then the pertect subfunctrve b magistratum totiens vituperaveram ut compreh€nsus sim.
is used. c tantos montes transiveramus ut defessi essemus.
* Cicero Catilinam tam ferociter obtrectavit ut senatores d puellae adeo lacrimabant ut dictatorem commoverint.
il"; evitaverint + Cicero disparaged Catiline so e tot barbari per portas irruerunt ut custodes resistere non possent.
fiercelv that the senators actwally auoided bim
f Tarquinius tam superbe regnaverat ut cives eum expulerint,
g elephanti tam ingentes erant ut Romani valde timerent. "
iv If the 't.t.tlt t..otred in the past and ii expressed simply as a
h picturam tam bene pinxit ut multa praemia acciperet.
consequence of the action in the main clause' then the i tam celeriter equos equitabat ut tandem interfectus sit.
imperfbct subiunctive is used. i tot viros vexaverat ut in insula solus derelictus sit.
'ffS ,*r" erat tempestas ut velas dare non p9?:"-":, + the E Translate the following sentences into Latin.
storm was so great that we could not set the sltls +
ffi D, was so amazed that he did not speak adeo
E Some consecutive clauses may be introduc_ed by a _r_elative stupefactus est ut non locutus sit
pronoun which has the sense 'of such a kind that' (see Urut 62+ a Helen had so many wooers that she could actually choose her husband.
Er. b Marius is so great a general that the soldiers will follow him faitMully.
Boudicca non est-femina quam irrites + Boudicca is not a
Pausanias so (ita) liked the temple that he would always praise it.
ffi d V'e are so many that you (s.) cannot resist us.
rtolnun to prouoke (lit. is not a woman of such a kind that e The boy used to cry 'wolf' so often that no-one would believe him.
you may provoke her) f Cato was so honest that he would not lie.
the tiqe when something Il Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
Et Temporal clauses express
teririrord coniunctions (unit :7 tr)'
quotiens tu vocabis ego veniam + wheneuer you (will) call,
I shall come
o) B Temporal clauses introduced by uQr' ut (when)'.postquam
(as soonas) or quotiens (wheneuerl a ubi tu in silvis errabas ego in horto laborabam.
@ Gn)"ri.'"iiit;;;;;fia;e
hive iheir verbs in the indicative' b postquam fures togas abstulerunt ianitor verberatus est.
+ uhen c postquam Valeria cecinit omnes plauserunt.
t+ *
ffiffi ubi in Gallia habitabam magnam villam habebam d simulac taurus intravit nos diffugimus.
o Lsed to liue in Gaul,I had a large country estate
After postquam' simulac or ubi, ,a-Latin perfect tense is
e simulatque patronus advenit, clientes surrexerunt.
f ut tecta viderunt Romam agnoverunt.
3 rit""rii".t 6.tlii"tttl"t.d tense'-
by an English pluperfect g ubi haec verba iudex dixit reus tremuit.
tto **-
m-;;;q"am Caelius intravit orrnes tacuerunt
had intered eueryone fell silent
after Caelius h simulac pons fracta est Horatius in flumen desiluit.
i postquam Milo Clodium interfecit in exsilium relegatus est.
j quotiens galli cantabant 4gricolae expergiscebantur.
Et Clauses introduced by dum, donec, qyod arrd quam diu
-g. irnUiitiiiot;, h"u. iheir verbs in the indicative' E Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
M nosfiorum discunt donec ludunt + rrurn!
* mdti fib-er"*- learn 9,EandEopposite.
il ou, children uthile they are playing ffi dum liberi ludunt iuvenes coniurabant + while the
dum (u.,hite), is regularly followed by the present
referring to a past
tense' even
t" indicaie. a piriod of time during
if children played, the youths plotted
a navem paraveramus priusquam nautae advenerunt.
co ;iri;-[-;;"lti"g .tr.-r,ipp."r. (This is called the historic
t#"lll + uhile
b dum sol fulgebat apes mel faciebant.
c atrium ornabimus antequam hospites advenient.
* Roma incenditur, Nero {idibus canebat d hostes latebant donec agmen in saltum venerit.
o [i*"-iit burning, Nero uas playing on the lyre e in castris manebamus donec periculum emotrim sit.
o E Clauses introduced
ptintqo*l uifgil in
by du4, donec, qgoad .(untill'
the indicative
f dum sacerdotes sacrificant sicarius me percussit.
g poeta recitabat quam diu turba manebat.
;"-;;""\ have their verbs h ignem exstinxit antequam casa flammas conciperet.
if all that is being conveyed is an tclea ot trme' + i dum canes dormiunt fures domum intrabLnt.
* io rotl cum arnicis manebam,donec sol occidit the i tribunus perstiterat donec consul cessisset.
y)rt"rday t tuyia l'" *" forum uith my friends until
El Translate the following sentences into Latin.
sun set
words ffiffi WDez (ubi) ir snous the water freezes + ubi ningit aqua
Often antequam and.priusquam 31:-ill'.i"to separate stand
(ante ... quam anc priir, ..' quam) whlch do not ieed to
next to each other. a l7hile (dum) the guards were shouting amongst themselves, the
priu.s vidit.qulm.ille latravit + captives escaped. $ .
ffi S"ptitttos canemtheingenteyr
** h:uge dog befure it barked
b Did you (s.) wait until (quoad) the poet had recited the story?
Septimus sata c The lion lay hidden for a long time before (antequam) he attacked
Ef clauses introduced by dum, donec, quoad
(u.ntill and the ram.
;r;;;;il @Lfiil 1"" hav'e iheir verbs in the
fut t;fi""i
subiunctive rt tne afrtj;f thd chuse is anticipated or has an
d We listened as long as (quam diu) the orator was speaking.
e While (dum) Decius was approaching, the dog barked.
idei of purPose as well as time' f Whenever (quotiens) I buy a puppy for you (s.) you ask for (peto)
ffi@ celeriter coquus parat antequam hospites adveniant another.
".rr.* g We shall knock the door until (dum) you (s.) open it.
:^th; It preparlig dinner qulckly before the guests
arriue "iii h After (postquam) the earth trembled, the mountain exploded.
i Marcellus, hit the nail as soon as (simulac) I nod.
j While (donec) Julia was walking on the riverbank, the otters were
playing in the river.
E cum can mean uthen, tuheneuer, since or because, according E Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
t'*l to its context. El opposite.
L__J Et cum can only govern an indicative verb under the following ffi "o- tuba sonabit pompa discedet + uhen the trumpet
(9 circumstances:
. When cam (whenJ introduces a temporal clause with a verb
sounds, the procession will depart
a cum domina loquitur ancillae audiunt.
referrine to the present or future. b cum Sulla dictator erat omnes senatores in magno periculo erant.
t &# *- anrum invenero dives ero + when I find (lit' shall c coniurati Caesarem tenebant cum Casca eum percussit.
o .
have found) tbe gold,l shall be rich
lrhen arm (when) introduces a temp_oral clause referring to
d cum te vidi vox mea deest.
e cum illum gladiatorem vident spectatores plaudunt.
3 *. p"tt *nitft emphasizes the idea oJ time. (Note the phrase
cum librum leges fabulam intelleges.
g montibus appropinquabamus cum Galli oppugnaverunr.
!to cum primum 1 4s soon asl.
-ffi ""- nos hostibus appropinquabamus vos terga dabatis
h cum primum pons deletus est Horatius se in flumen coniecit.
i cum pater intraverat pueri riserunt.
'+ dt the tiftre when we were approaching the enemy' you j cum primum porta clausa erat puella puerum osculata est.
gL were retreating Ef Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
o !(hen cam (tuhen) introduces a temporal clause r_eferring to I opposite.
,h. o"r, *iti.h is positione d aftei the main clause and,
o ;ftiJdt; a subordinale clause, expresses the main event of the ffi cum viam invenissent omnes riserunt + when they had
s sentence.
navispaene ad portum advenerat cum gubernator-excidit
found the road eueryone smiled
a cum montes relinquissent peregrinatores gavisi sunt.
3 -r thi ship had almost reached tlte harbowr when the b cum hospites advenissent vinum Sextus distribuit.
c cum canes latrarent fures diffugiebant.
helmsman fell out d cum sol oriretur custodes dormiebant.
. When cum means wheneuer.If the verb in the main clause is
in the present tense, then the verb of the temporal clause will
e cum hoc scelus patefecisset Cicero coniuratos comprehendit.
f Romam cum iter fecissemus nusquam hospitium invenire poteramus.
be in the perfect tense. However, if the verb in the main clause g cum venatores lente reperent aper se celabat.
C ir i"-" p"Iiierrse, then the verb of the temporal clause will be h Caesar, cum Rhenum transire constituisset, pontem aedificavit.
o in the pluperfect tense. i cum auditores riderent poeta irascebatur.
o ffi cum tuba sonuerat athletae quam (lit. celerrime cucurrerunt i cum litus vidissent nautae navem verterunt.

o + wheneuer tbe trumpet sounds

athletes rdn as quickly as possible
had sounded)' fbe El Translate the following sentences into Latin. Use the
conjunction cum ln each one,
E Tfhen atn (when, since or because) introduces a temporal !t$HW rre sailors sing when they set sail + nautae cantant cum
clause referring to a past action other than those mentlonecl vela dant
above, then thJ verb uiill be in the subiunctive: a You (s.) were turning the ship when the pirates attaqked us.
. If tfj, u.iU of the temporal clause refers to an action which b Iflhen we had reached the shore, we thanked the goils.
o..urt at the same time as the action of the main clause, then c I was walking home when the dog attacked me.
it is in the imperfect subiunctive. d As soon as (cum primum) the bell rang, the monks departed.
ffi o"i peregrinatores ad montes e When they had killed Caesar, the conspirators fled.
profecti tu"i +
when spring taas approaching, the f At the time when the young men were ill, the thief stole the gold.
g When they had seen the bear, the boys fled.
trauellers set off for tbe mountains
. Ir th. of th. temporal clause refers to an action which h Whenever the moon was bright, the werewolf walked.
the of the main verb, then it is in the i The women used to sing when they span tfuead.
pluperfect ".tiotr
subiunctive. I At the time when the cook was preparing dinner, the guests arrived.
iffi hospites discessisent Cassius coniurationem
patefeat J tahen the guests had le{t, Cassiws reuealed the
El the ablative absolute construction is a phrase which comes E Translate the following sentences into English. They iilustrate
11421 at the beginning of a sentence (or of a subordinate clause) and El opposite.
tl which is grammatically
independent of the rest of. the sentence, .ffi rotis fractis plaustrum inutile er^t + after the wheels uere
but does a connettion in sense with it. The phrase consists
o of a noun or pronoun in the ablative and a-participle (Unit 44)
(or another noun or adiective) agreeing with it.
broken, the cart was wseless
a auro invento avarus stupefactus est.
b civibus loquentibus te audire non possum.
E An ablative absolute is not used if the noun in it would refer c sole oriente matrona ancillas arcessivit.
to either the subject or the object of the main clause.
El It is sometimes possible to translate the ablative absolute
literally into English.
d his verbis dictis legatus celeriter discessit.
e militibus discessuris foedus renovatum est.
f tempestate adventura nautae in portu manebant.
g nuntio locuto portae apertae sunt.
d. ffi labore confecto, agricolae domum redierunt + witb the h victoria nuntiata epistulam patri misimus.
utork finished, the farmers returned home i obsidibus necatis sicarius de vita desperabat.
o E If a participle is used in an ablative absolute, then the phrase
can nearly always be translated as a temporal clause in English.
nave refecta nautae statim vela dedeiunt.

El Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate

g) The tense of the participle depends not btt whether the time of
its action is in the preient, past or future, but on whether it
E anO El opPosite.
cr happens before, during or after the action of the main verb in its
*,$ me duce certe vincemus + with me as lead.ex we uill
o certainly win
g clause:
o Caesare interfecto Brutus Roma effugit
killed, Brutus escaped from Rome
a after Caesar was a illis virginibus cantantibus nautae delirant.
b Claudio et Aemilio praetoribus, nulli latrones damnati sunt.
. spectatoribus tacentibus imperator signum dedit + as the
spectators were falling silent, the emperor gaue the signal
c custodibus captivos comitantibus agmen per silvas erravit.
d Tarquinio rege Romani Cloacam Maximam consrruxerunt.
o . fratribus discessuris nuntius regis advenit + uhen the
brotbers were on the point of departing, the king's messenger
c civibus secundis statuam patri meo erexi.
f hostibus urbem oppugnaturis Iuppiter tonuit.
g Marcello pecuniam adepto fundum comparavimus.
arriued h imperatore se necaturo milites seditionem fecerunt.
E In an ablative absolute, participles can take objects and i Boudicca regina Britanni Camulodunum e'xpilaverunt.
constructions. j filo ductore Theseus e labyrintho effugit.
ffi auriga equos flexuro rota fracta est + as the charioteer E Translate the following sentences into Latin. Use the ablative
was about to wheel the horses around, the wheel broke absolute construction.
E As there is no participle for the verb to b9 in Latin, in an effiuhen the dice had been cast, the gambler smiled --+ aleis
ablative absolute where one would be used if it existed' Latin iactis aleator risit
just has the noun and adjective, or the noun and another noun, l As Jupiter was about to hurl a thunderbolt, Juno sKogted.
without any participle. b tJflhile you (s.) were sleeping, I painted the bedroom.
,NW Pompeio duce legiones Spartacum superaverunt + uith c After the light had been extinguished, we walked in darkness.
Pompey as leader the legions ouercdme Spartacus d lfhen we were on the point of seeing the target, the referee stopped
''W; a the contest.
ventis adversis, naves aegre in pornrm intraverunt since
c After the tyrant's brother was slain, the Athenians were severely
the uinds u)ere contrary the ships barely got into the oppressed.
harbour f Ifhen the water had been drained off, the soldiers crossed the river
g While the fishermen were bringing the rods, the boys were
preparing the food.
h u7ith Marius as general we shall overcome the barbarians.
i When camp was pitched (pono), the soldiers made bread.
i lfith Mercury as our guide we shall reach the land of the dead.
E Clauses of proviso E Translate the following into English. They illustrate E opposite.
f;*] A clause of proviso is introduced by dum, dummodo or modo =ffi^" conducet dum ne stertam + he uill hire me prouided
L_J brouided that\. The construction ii really an extension of the that I do not snore
{ i!-poral clause dum (as long asl (Unit 68 E). However, the- a laverint. f illos iuvenes certe vides dummodo
cenent pueri dum se

J verb' of the clause is in the iubiunctive. A negative clause of b dummodo puellae quoque adsint.
hodie dormiant fabri
cras strenue laborent. g pueri fabulam spectent dummodo
proviso is introduced by dum ne.
c invita Caecilium dum fratrem ne
ffi oderint dum metuant q let them hate prouided that they

q let them play in
ffi i" horto ludant dum flores ne caq)antpick
d stolam eligam dummodo tu eam
h domum explorate pueri, dum in
illam partem ne erretis.
i maritum eligat filia tua dum eum amet.
e liberi loquantur dum inter se ne j canes in atrio ludant dum ne quid
C the garden prouided that they do not the flowers pugnent. frangant.

o El Glauses of comparison El translate tre following into English. Th€t, illusilrate E opposite.
In a clause of comparison the action of the clause is compared
with the action of the main clause.
,ffi Caerar se gerebat tamquam fex esset q Caesar behaued as
. If the comparison is being made with.something that is an if he were a king
q actual f^ctthen the clause ls introduced by velut, sicat (iust as)
or ut (4s) (often with ita in the main clause), and the verb of
a panem pauper consumit velut si non f leo in spelunca vero habitat sicut

iterum edat.
lupa pueros alebat ut si catuli g
saepe confirmas.
ruvenes navrgant ceu ventr non

tt the clause is in the indicative.

Caesar postridie necatus est, sicut vates praedixerat +
Caesar was killed on tbe follouing day, iust as tbe
pueri ludunt sicut viri
cur locutus es quasi Catilina
fortes sint.
laborant. h candidatus novas thermas
aedivicavit ut promisit.
a proPhet had Predicted
proditor esset? i spectatores plauserunt tamquam
c filius meus pecuniam impendit velut fabula conclusa esset.
. If the comparison is being 6a.t with an event that is si patrimonium exceperit. j poeta viros sapientiores facit sicut
6' imasinary. then the clause iJ introduced by quasi, ut si, velut
si (is ifl, or ceu, tamquam (as thoughl, and the verb of the E
magister pueros docet.

Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate

clause is in the sublunctive.
"9 ffi mihi mandata insolenter dedit quasi servus quidamI
Q opposite.
o essem + he gaue me the instructions haughtily, as if
4ffi timesne ne pater nos non eripiat? - are you afraid that
o uere some slaue
father may not rescue us?
piscatores metuebant ne retia f athletae metuunt ne praemia non
3 I Glauses of fear frangerenfur. auterant.

I'q) . These are introduced by a verb of fearing such as timeo,

vereor or metuo and the conjunction ne. They express fear
about something that is happeninS, mlY h4-ppen .or has

duces timent ne novae copiae non
veremur ne Titus arcam non
metuebam ne pecuniam non
Cassius timuerat ne proditor
inveniat. consilium consulibus patefecisset.
- happened and the verb of the clause is in the subiunctive. d pastor veritus est ne agnam lupi i estne periculum iie gapiamur?
. The tense of the subjunctive usually depends upon the cepissent. i timebam ne Caesar Rubiconem

o sequence of tenses (Unit 63 U) but when you come to

translate extended passages of Latin, it is always necessary to
c magister timebat ne liberi in silvas

take account of th6 context in which these clauses appear in !l Translate the following sentences into Latin.
qt order to get the most appropriate texse in, your English offi I am afraid that the Troians may attack -+ rimeo ne Thoiani
translation-. For example, vereor ne captivi necentur can mean
5 either 1 am afraid thit (iest) the gr9- b.eing killed ot
am afraid that (lest) the captiues may be killed-
I oppugnent
ir Rufus carries a sword as though (tamquam) he is a soldier.
CL .
b Let the young men approach, provided that (dummodo) they are unarmed.
If the fear is that something will not happen, then ne non (or c There was a danger that the wall would collapse.
sometimes ut) is used. rl The conspirator persuaded the assassin just as (sicut) the serpent beguiles its
ffiffi timemus ne milites non adveniant 1 Lt)e are afraid that prey.
0) c Let Cicero come in provided that (dum) he does not (ne) speak.
the soldiers rnav not come f Were they afraid that Sulla would find him?
- B I shall dine with (apud) you tomorrow Titus, provided that your wine is good.
El Glauses of doubting
e.g. Quintus Fabius milites prohibuit quominus
FA . A.l"or. which expressei positive d9'ub9 qr{ is introduced by'.9'9'
Carthaginienses oppugnarsn1 - Quintus Fabius preuented
the soldiers from attacking the Carthaginians
L-J i*iti(t ii"br), iubium'4gjt,(it k doubtful),-or incertu45t est (it is

{ )ilrrtoi"fttiiiit aas an indirect questibn Qnit 78)' The verb of

the clause is in the subiunctive. E
19 8ffi; auUi"- erat utrum Tiberius adveniret necne + it was Translate the following into English. They itlustrate El opposite.
'-'- dowbtful whetber Tiberius would arriue or not ffi dubito num tua verba vera sint -r I doubt uhetber your
. Note th" pLr"s., dubito an (I am inclined to think thatl, and words are true
qt dubito nuin (f dowbt if lor wbetherll.
a dubitaveramus num ad tempus advenires.
b quis dubitavit quin Cicero servum liberet?
#i'ili,t3:*i.; Ponir,il"t ggderet be was inclined to think
tr fi1At rompey would yreta
h,t'- a" hoc audires + I doubted uhetber you
c dubium est num Carthaginienses re vera victi sint.
d dubitaverunt num Valerius testamentum scripsisset.
o * a"6it"nihear
about this c incertum est unde advena venerit.
o . .When
dubito, dubium est or other expressions of doubt
f dubitavisti an talis candidatus pessimus esset.
o introduce a negative doubt or occur -in questions (otten
aicompanied bv-the archaic haud lnotl),they are followed by a
g dubium erat num Ulysses domum rediret.
h Caesar dubitavit an Cassius non fidelis esset.
i Cloelia dubitavit an virgines sequerenrur.
{r clause introduc'ed by qun (but tbat ot tbat "' not)' whlch has
its verb in the subiunctive.
i haud dubium erat quin navis demergeretur.
a"U""i est quin regina-captivis parcant there is no + El Translate the following into English. Tlrey illustrate E opposite.
CL *"
;;;b;b;t iioitni queei will $are the prisoners (ot there
r.$1,[Titus non me prohibebit quin cantem + Titws cuill not
o prisoners'l
is no doubt that thi queen will spare the
'* quis dubitat quin Verres innocens sit? who doubts but
preuent me from singing
tr i$fu
that Verres is innocent?
.r Valerius deterruit pueros ne iter longum facerent.

* E Clauses of hindering, preventing a-nq forbiddingpartlclPle
b magistratus vetuerunt cives legatos accipere.
c interdictum est nobis ne illum proditorem defendamus.
In Enelish these clauses usually consist oI lrom wlth a d rex captivos non prohibuit quin liberentur.
or atiinfinitive after forbid, e.g. The storm -preuents us from c custodes impediebantur quominus portas aperirent.
enterins the harbour, I forbid you to do that' Uompare the f vetabuntne nos sacrificium tangere?
=' indireci command in Unit 79. g centurio prohibuit legionarios diu dormire.
qt Th" verb veto (I forbidl ,takes the accusative of the person ordered h oneribus gravibus asini impediuntur quominus pontem transeant.
and a prolative infinitive (Unit 48 9) of the action torbrclcten. i nihil obstat quin nos amici simus.
5 @{' Titus vetuit milites oPpugnare ',ry!:
forbade the soldiers i num nos impedies ne gladiatores videamus?

CL to attac*; oq rn more natural rnglish, Titus told the

E Translate the following sentences into Latin.

tt ii
soldiers not to attack-
Apart from veto and prohibeo (l preuent
- see below), allother
of hindering, pieventing or forbidding are tollowed by a
e,g,1, wby do you doubt bwt that Titws loues yow?
quin Titus te amet?
+ cur dubitas
{ ,
d with a subiunctive verb.
iii If the main clause contains a positive prohibition,. then the
,r The Gauls were hindered (impedio) from crossing th6 river by the
flood (gurges).
h Portia has forbidden (veto) us to annoy the geese.
o r"U"iai*t
* luto
clause is introduced byne or quominus (so tbat."' not)',
impedimur ne viam ffanseamus u)e are htncterect
c There is no doubt but that the Romans will burn the village.
d The omens do not hinder (impedio) the general from setting out.
fro* ciossing the road bY mud c Cornelius, will you prevent (prohibeo) the dogs from attacking my
* - If ttre main clauie contains
iv a negative prohibition, 9'8' no1 son?
L;;dd i' a" hinderl,
then- the subordinate clause is f We were inclinedto think that you (s.) would prefer to leave.
int?oduced bv quominus or quin. g I doubt if Servius is able to ride.
GT quin in via,ludamus
#fu!J-;;-;; "+nqdi, tn tne roaa
+ lte is not hindering h Certain people doubted whether Augustus would like the poem.
us lrom PlaYtng i Magistrates, prevent (prohibeo) that man from entering the house.
v The verb piohibeo (l ,preuent) can either take the same 1 It is doubtful whether the workmen have finished the bridge.
constructioir as veto or the construction in iii or iv above'
#ilf;t;iilit- agricolas agros arare - + he preuented the
farrters Trom ploughing their fields
suin (but that, that ... not) is the shortened form of an archaic E Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate

interrogative adverb qurne (low not whl not?|. Apa.rt.ftom
being rised in clauses bf doubting (tJnit 72 E) and hindering
i0..ilniL 72 El), quin is also used after some
other expressions
E and El opposite.
ffi nemo est quin domum meam amet -+ there is no-one uho
does not like my house
q) which involve negatives. a nullus miles tam fortiter pugnabat quin praemia mereat.
E Usuallv ouin introduces a consecutive clause (Unit 57) and b non potest fieri quin Claudius eligatur.

as some other .l"ot.t, when it is used as the equivalent of ut ...

non. It is followed by the subiunctive.
'M nallus tyrannus tam potens est quin deleri possit + zo
c nulla feminatam dives erat quin prudens esset.
d nemo erat quin Alexandrum Magnum sequeretur.
c nemo est quin Brutum admiretur.
tyrant is so powerful that be cannot be destroyed (ot no
f nullus puer est tam bonus quin mala mea furetur.
S. tyrant is so powerful but that he can be destroyed)
B non potest fieri quin Caesar dictator fiat.
h non potest fieri quin Cloelia reddatur.
ffi tton potest fieri quin hic Verres convincatur + it cannot i nemo est quin oratori illo credat.
happen that this man Verres is not conuicted (ot it cannot i nullus dux est tam durus quin captivis parcat.
happen but that this man Verres is conuicted) El Translate the following sentences into English. They
E In expressions like nemo est quin (There is no-one who ... E, E and E opposite.
not), quin acts like a relative pronoun followed by non ( ag-. quin Iuliettam petam? - why should I not tuoo Jwliet?
is followed by the subiunctive. .r cluin tribunus consuli resistat?
nffi tr"*o est his temporibus quin tale scelus admittere audeat h is gladiator notissimus est; quin libertus mox erit.
+ tbere is no-one in these tirnes who uould not dare to r' rluin serva infantem frater!
cornmit such a crime rl quin fugitivus hic maneat?
c iuvenes fortissimi erant; quin Hercules leonem interfecerat.
Et quin can also be used with its original meaning as an adverb I tluin emovete gregem pastores.
(hoit not, why notl to introduce direct questions (Unit 62)' [ (luin mater filium amet?
followed by the subiunctive. h quin agite pueri, pilam capire.
'W. qlurin nos clementiam de imperatore petamus? + tuh! r cluin eam pilam videre potueris?
sbould Lue not ask for rnercy from tbe general? 1 tluin eos flores carpamus?
E ouin can be used as an emphasizing adverb at the start of a El Translate the following sentences into Latin.
stat6ment which supports or emphasiies something which has a,8, I am not so deaf that I cannot hear you -) non tam surdus
been stated previouiiy. Unusually, in th!s- usags quin does rot sum quin te audire possim
have a negative sense. It may be followed by the indicative. It is
best translated as indeed or in fact.
r (laecilius is not so poor that he cannot buy a bigger house.
h lt cannot happen that the treaty is not renewed.
'{ffi multos clientes ille patronus habet quin Cassius interest 4 , I'here was no-one who did not know about the wedding.
That patron bas many clients. In fact Cassius is among rl No knot is so complicated that it cannot be undonb. "
them. r I low should Sextus not believe us?
| ()uintus does not like me; in fact yesterday he insulted me.
El quin may be used as an emphasizing adverb to reinforce an x !(hy should Felix not sell the horse?
impirative. it is best translated-as well or well then. h I'here is no soldier who does not fear death.
W quin eos oppugnate, milites! + tuell then, attack" them, r Well then, seize the day, children.
soldiers! 1 I low should I not defy (adversor) such a cruel master?
E Il illusffie E i opposite.
F*l A conditional statement consists of two elements. either of which
can appear fust:
Translate the following into English. They
ffiffiffi si hoc feceris omnes delectabis + if you do this, you ruill
L-J r A clause, introduced by si (fl or nisi (unless, if ... not) which amuse eueryone
{ contains a condition. This clause is called the protasis.
5 . A main clause containing the consequence of the condition.
This is called the apodosii.
amborum laetae
si Romani Alexandriam
matres f nisi Fabius curret leporem non
si Metella Aemilio nupserit
erunt. capiet,
ceperint g domus cefte ruet nisi parietes refecti
El Conditional sentences are of two kinds: regent.
o . A condition which is, was or will be true, and whose consequence c
nisi nos liberabis nihil de amico
tuo h si imperatori epistulam mittes tibi
o will be true in the future, is true in the present or was true in the audies.
d si Aulus magnum piscem capiet eum i
consilium dabit.

5 past is called an open conditional. ThE verb of both clauses is

ilmost alwavs in t-he indicative. hodie edemus.
e nisi donum mihi cras dederis i
Si vacca iuvencum pariet eum non
nisi tu ad me venies ego veniam ad
CL . A possible condition, the result of which is not certain to be ululabo. te.
r+ fulfilled or cannot possibly be fulfilled is represented in Enelish bv
the words would 6r shoild in the main cfause.ln Latin ttre verb El Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
6' of both clauses is in the subiunctive.
E The tense of the indicative in an open conditional depends on:
ii and iii opposite.
ti paratus es cives manent + if you are ready, the citizens
q i If the condition and its consequence refer to the future, then
=, Latin is much more precise thdn Enelish. As well as usins the
are uaiting
a nisi pecuniam comparavisti fundum f nisi Neapolim vidisti plane non
- future indicative in the main clauseJlatin uses either a future
or future perfect indicative in the protasis. English is rather
amisimus. vixisti.
b nisi praedones cavebant in magno g si Clodia te amabat felicissimus eras.
J lazv in the'se cases and mostly ,tr.tih. Dresenr rense. periculo erant. h nisi Egnatius ridet uxor misera est.
*Sfi4 nisi hoc facies numquam thesaurm invenies + if you c si vos disceditis nos laeti sumus. i nisi in agris laborabant totum diem
do not do this you will neuer find the treasure (lit. if you d si aves canant ver appropinquat. terebant.
will not do this ...) e si ullam navem vidimus ad portum j si magisuatum vituperavi
ii If the condition and its consequence refer to the present, then cucurrimus. stultissimus fui.
the present indicative is used in both clauses. E Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
ffi si,gagdes nos quoque gaudanus a ifyow are happy, u)e are
at$o happy
I iv, v and El opposite.

iii If the condition and its consequence refer to the past. then ffiffi si te offendi veniam peto + if I haue offended you, I beg
both clauses will contain eitfier the imperfect or perfect your pardon
indicative. a roga matrem, si eam invenire potes. f
iuvenis, bibe potionem nisi times.
b nisi ianua clausa est canis effugiet. g si umquam tu me asp€ctaveras
'ffi ti illo favebas, longe-errabas < if you uere supporting c si amphoras fractas vendidi pecunia erubescebam.
* "." that lnan, you were lar wrong tibireddetur. h proditorem neca nisi confitebitur.
ffiS si tu hoc fecisti, nos perdidisti + if you did this, you baue d si pueri aberant poenas dabunt. i occasionem cape si tibi offertur.
ruined us e si Quintum Sempronia amat i si illam urbem pulchram vidisti vero
iv It is possible for the condition to refer to one time while its certiorem eum faciat. felix es. I i
consequence refers to another.
ffi es 4 if you
ti umquam vitam servayisti valde laudanduspraised
*'-* haue E Translate the following sentenees into Latin.
euer saued a life you are greatly to be ffitf y*t see Milo, greet him + si Mlonem videbis eum
f* *"
v A pluperfect indicative verb in the protasis and an imperfect
^which saluapro me
inilica-tive verb in the apodosis refer to something a If the cook does not burn the f Ifthe bridge has been broken, the
happened frequently. peacock, dinner will be excellent. army cannol cross.
ffi ri+ qpquaT templum viderat statim sacrificare parabat
tl euer he saw a teffiple he at once prepared to ma{e
b I{ Cyrus has broken the vase, he g If Titus shows me the map, I will
will be punished. lead you (pl.) to the cave.
a sacrifice c Ifyou (s.) drink the draught, you h ff we ever greeted our patron, he
E Occasionally the apodosis contains an imperative or a will enjoy (utor) eternal youth. gave us dole money (sportula).
subjunctive of will or desire. d The city will be captured unless the i IfValgus is not in the baths, look
ffiffi Minotaurum neca, si audes + slay the Minotaur if yow dare
ambassador renews the treaty, (s.) for him in the forum.
e If the captives have not been bound,i If the dogs are asleep, the cat walks
ri eis.licentiam dedisti exeant - if you haue giuen them
ffi permrsston, the guards have neglected their duty. proudly around the garden.
let them leaue
E Conditionals which have would or should in the main clause E Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
11521 in English refer to conditions which are only possible or are E i and iiopposite.
tl contrary to known facts, rather than those which are certain. In
W ti rotg- fuacta sit curms ruat -+ if the wheel were broken,
{ Latin the verbs of both clauses are in the subjunctive and their
the chariot would crash
(rl tenses depend upon the following.
i If the condition and its consequence refer to the future and a si flumen latius sit id non transeamus. f si vas fractum sit aliquis puniatur.
b nisi Manlius adsit conventus not fiat. g si Cicero loquatur plurimi adsint.
the condition expresses something which may or may not be
o fulfilled, a preseit subiunctive is [sed in botli clauses.
,ilIffi; si episiulam lesas totam rem intelleeas + if you uere to
c si claves amissi sint coniurati
domum non intrent.
h si signum detur milites
o '* reaid the letterlyou would understulnd the ihole affair d nisi cautus sis capiaris. i
si liberi queraffur domi maneant.

5 ii If approprjate,.the perfect subiunctive can appear also in the

protasrs of such sentences.
e nisi flumen derivetur oppidum
nisi praetoriani imperatori faveant
sine dubio depellatur.

II &l#
* " si a sociis nostris relicti simus libertatem non sefvemus
''+ if we uere deserted by our allies, we would not
Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
El iii opposite.
6' preserue our freedom
iii If the condition and its consequence refer to the present and
ffiffiffi si sapientior esset vobis parceret
spare you
) if he uere utiser, he ruould

the condition expresses somethins contrary to known facts.

an imperfect subiunctive is used
s,ffi sn vinum biberes ebrius esses
both clauses.
+ i.f you were (now)
a nisi Romani essemus togas non
f si in urbe essetis multa spectacula

o iv
'*' drinking wine, you would be drunk
If the condition and its consequence refer to the past and the
b si pater miles esset imperium
Romanum defenderet.
g si iunior essem cum athletis

N condition is contrary to known facts, a pluperfect^ subiunctive

is used in both clauses.
si minus cautus essem fures
nisi cives superstitiosi essent deos
nisi legati essemus interficeremur.
nisi consules adessent milites minus
fortiores essent.
* * *, si curn Caesare pugnavisses, eum vero admiratus esses non colerent. i si innocens esses non timeres.
if. ygry .had foight uith Caesar, you t'uould haue e si oppugnareris multi tibi
ddfntred ntm
v It is possible for the condition to refer to one period of time E Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
whil6 its consequence refers to another. In such cases the El iv and v opposite.
imperfect and pfuperfect subiunctive are used.
* '' nisi pater suus dives fuisset numquam Quintus ignavus ffi ri fortior fuissem arcam aperuissem a if I had been brauer,
esset- a if his father had not beei rich, Quintus-would I uould ltaue opened the box
neuer be'idle a nisi Caesar Rubiconem transiisset f nisi puer esset latro eum
ffiffi nisi ibi aquas dulces invenirentur milites castra non bellum non exarsisset. interfecisset.
posuissent 1 if fresh utater were not found there, the b invictus g si epistulam scrutati
- Soldiers would'not haue pitched camp.
si anulum conservavisset
esset, agnovissetis.
essetis manum

c nisi vocem eius audivissent Publium h nisi cibum gustavigset veneno

E When conditional clauses are used in an indirect statement non invenissent. necatus esset. '' F
(Unit77 El), then the verb of the protasis is in the subiunctive d nisi Cleopatra pulchra esset i si ludos spectavisses Spartacum
and the verb of the apodosis becomes an infinitive. Antonius eam non amavisset. vidisses.
i The tense of the subiunctive depends upon the sequence of e si monachus linguam Graecam i si luscinia cecinisset valde delectati
tenses (Unit 63 q) except that ihe imp6rfect and pluperfect intellexisset librum legisset. essemus.
subjunctives can be used after a present indicalivE verb E Translate the following sentences into Latin.
introducing the indirect statement.
ii The tense of the infinitive of an open conditional depends on ffi ,/ you Luere to bribe me, I uould support you ) si me
the normal rules for indirect stateiment (Unit 75 9). corrumpas tibi faveam
a If the senators were to expel you (s.), we ourselves would follow you.
iii The infinitive of a conditional with would or should is in the b If we had seen the danger, we would not have arrived unarmed.
future tense and is accompanied by esse, for conditionals c If the road were wider, the wagons would not be blocked (intercludo).
referring to the future, or'fuisse foi' thos'e referring to. the d If you (pl.) had not believed Lucius, you would have convicted an innocent
present or past. man.
e If we were to sleep among the tombs, the ghosts would frighten us.
f If Larcius were kinder. the slaves would like him.
FA E An indirect statement is a reported statement ,which is ffi ("t sentimis eum portatum esse - we sense that he utas
introduced either by an impersonafverb (Unit 56) or a verb of carried
r__J saying, thinking, perceiving, knowing, believing or denying. For (a) dicam eum portavisse + .I shall say that he carried
{ example, direct statement (i.e. the original statement): the riuer (b) audivistine eum portatum esse? + did you hear that
o) k tu;rning with fish. Indirect statJment (i.e. the reported he bad been carried?
statement)i tbe angler says that the riuer is teeming with fish. Or (b) negabamus eum portavisse + ue denied that he had
I can see tbat the riuer is teeming u)ith fish. carried
E In Enelish we commonly use the coniunction that to link the iv In the case of future active and perfect passive (and deponent)
= main claise with the indirict statement, although we can leave
it out, e.g. they sau the riuer was teeming with fish.In either
case the indirect statement has its own finite verb.
infinitives, the part of the infinitive which declines agrees in
number, gendei and case with the accusative it refers to.
ffi Valerius dicit eam cras navigaturam esse + Valerius says
6 However, we could also say ue know the riuer to be teeming that she utill sail tomorraw
with fish.In this example the subiect of the indirect statement
(riuei\ has b'ecome the obiect (in thi: accusative) of the main verb
(ue knowl, while the verb of the indirect statement has changed
E I i opposie.
Tlanslate tre following into Engllsh. Thery illusFate
ffiffiffi ai"it
+ he said that the puppies
from a finite verb into an infinitive (to be teeming). This is how
the Romans used to exDress themselves and that is why the
catellas in horto ludere
were playing in the garden
gt indirect statement is oftEn called the accusative and infiiritive a nuntiavimus navem deseftam
f num dixisti custodes dormite?

;+ construction in Latin. The negative form is introduced by nego

S negant Catilinam innocentem
h videbitis me foftissimum esse.

o -are -avi -atum (I say that ... not, I denyl.

El The tense of the infinitive in an indirect statement is the same
b saepe dico eam felicem
c Galli negaverunt Druides celari. i cives credunt vos praetermitti.
d dicam te vestiri. i omnes sciunt Carthaginienses
3 as the tense of the original (direct) statement, regardless of the e putasne Septimum animalia alere? perfidos esse.
o tense of the introductory verb. The tense of the verb of the
indirect statement in Engiish does depend upon the tense of the E Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
introductory verb. You will need to find the correct tense I iiopposite.
= according to the conte)$s set out below, depending on whether + I see that
o the introductory verb is in the Dresent or future (a) or the past (b).
i A present in'finitive is used-in place of the present tense verb
ffi video Titum pulchrum fore (or futurum
Titus is going to be bandsome

J in ihe orieinal statement. If t}e orisinal itatement is he is a sciebamus coniuratos necatum iri. f negabas Caesarem dictatorem fore.
carryins oI he is beins carried.then ihe indirect forms are: b puto Catilinam nos relictumm esse. g praedones non crediderunt insulam

*ffi + i tbink that be is.carrying. c putasne meas fabulas ab actoribus defensum iri.
""" t"\ puto eum poitare iri? h
(a) ilicemus eum portari + we shall say that he ii being notissimis actum dux nuntiavit exercitum statim
d sciverasne Marium comprehensum profecturum esse.
camied iri? i tibi dixi Helenam cras discessuram
(b) dixi eum Dortare + I haue said that he is carryins e nonne videtis Gallos vicum censuros esse.
(bicrediderunt zum portari ) thq belieued tbat he luas esse? j negat puellam lectum iri.
being uffied
ii A future infinitive is used in place of a future tense verb in the El Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
original statement. If the original statement is he will carry or
beTpitt be carried. then the iidirect forms are: E| iiiopposite.

ffi ("1 nego eum portaturum esse "t I say that he taill not ffi di"it rationes probatas esse -) he says that the accounts
carr\) haue been dpproued
(a) sciuit eum portatum iri + they know that he will be a nupsisse? f negabimus senem aurum invenisse.
dicisne eam Tiberio
carried b omnes g Valerius dixit haruspicem mentitum
scimus agricolas vaccas
(b) dicebas_eum portaturum esse -+ you used to say that vendidisse. esse.

he would carrt c putabamus patriam a Cicerone h negasne te hanc feminam umquam

servatam esse.
(b) .*itportafim ii + we had seen that he vidisse?
d nonne vides hunc equum lautum i videmus hospites bene oblectatos
would be carried esse? esse.
iii A perfect infinitive is used in placeof anv past tense verb in e exploratores nuntiaverunt novas i custodes negabant captivum
th6 orieinal statement. If the orisinal stafement is he was copias advenisse. vinctum esse.
carryin"g or he was carried then th6 indirect forms are:
E'Ifhen the reflexive pronoun se (ltimself, berself, itself, E Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate

themselues) (Unit 39 E) and the possessive pronoun suus -a -um
(his, her, its, theirl (Unit 39 !l) appear in an indirect statement
then they refer to the subject of the main clause, whereas, e.g.
El opposite.
W C^"tu dixit suos Gallos superaturos esse 4
his men utould beat the Gauls
Caesar said

eum or eius would refer to someone other than the subject of the
{ main clause. a Quintus sciebat se poenas pro f milites negaverunt se effugisse.
g Egnatius dicit se a praedonibus
rfk custos dicit se discessurm esse the guard says tbat he b
scelere suo non datwum esse.
Marius putabat se necatum iri. spoliatum esse.

f 'ffi
(himselfl is poins to leaue c Cato iuvenem castigavit et dixit se h senatores nuntiaverant se

g custos {icit Eu-?rcessurum esse + the guard says that he

(someone eke) is going to leaue
E the word esse is frequently omitted from perfect and future
eum incusaturum esse.
cives nesciunt se a Tarquinio
deceptos esse.
Pompeium electuros esse.
Sempronia putavit se cultrum
e i scriba negat se haec verba scripsisse.
d infinitives in an indirect statement.
ue;fuS prima luce Caesar Pompeium necatum scivit + at first
Marcus negavit se arborem

" '' Iight Ctiewr knew that Pbmpey had been killed E Translate the following
sentences into English. They illustrate
E the infinitive of an indirect statement can govern its own +
construction (see e.g. Unit 75 E).
se velliequum conscendere -+ he says he is not
ffi fortor scit aurum ibi inventum
gold has been found there
the miner knows that

q, "F. "".qlt
wuung to mount a norse a dictum est Romanos bello g nesciebamus te picturam picturum.
1+ - si h
** dixit fabros arcum perfecturos fuisse
tris strenue intractabiles esse. negatum erat Augustum aegrum

o laboravissent -) he saif, that tbe workmen would haue

finished the arch if they had worked hard
b nego nos captum iri si lente
ambulemus. i
non putabam cives Cornelium

3 E Indirect statements can depend upon impersonal verbs.

negavistine te captum?
Horatius dixit se pontem
umquam electuros fuisse nisi ab eo
corrupti essent.
o @. constat omnes cives idem consilium cepisse + it is agreed custoditurum. i scio te turum futurum esse si mea

that all the citizens adopted the same plan
lil Indirect statements introduced by verbs of hoping,
e constat Marium Romam
f dictum est delphinum in portum
servavisse. verba respicias.

o navisse,
promising, threatening and swearing take the accusative and
future infinitive. El Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
N ffiffi speramus te mox adventurum esse -) we hope that you will
arrtue soon
[, E and E opposite.
speto vos semper felices fore (or futuros esse) -+ I hope
I the accusative and infinitive construction can also be found tltat you tuill always be fortunate
after the verbs iubeo (I order), veto (1 forbid), patior and sino (1 a nonne promittes te mecum iter f magistratus vetavit pistores
allowl. factunrm esse? collegium condere'
a&, vos vetamus illos captivos tangere 4 we forbid you to b hostes minantur se urbem g sperabamus vos fundum empturos
touch those capttues incensuros esse. esse.
c iuro me semper fidelem fore. h Publius gaudet avum suum
lI the construction can also follow volo (1 want), nolo (I do d patronus pollicitus est se dona convalescere.
not want), malo (I prefer) and cupio (I desire), if the subject of clientis daturum esse. i volo te aquam de fonte portare.
e iubesne me ab urbe discedere? i lugemus Ciceronem necatum esse.
the indirect statement is different from the subject of the main
verb. E Translate the following sentences into Latin.
#G malo te fundum colere + I prefer you to tend to the farm +
ffi: Lwcius thinks be is being watcbed by a gnome Lucius
El tt may also follow verbs of rejoicing and grieving. putatse a terricula spectari
" hostes vinctos esse gaudebant
the enem\ had been beaten
- tbey were rejoicing that a Calp-urnia thinks she will be attacked by the dog.
b Catullus knows that he loves Clodia.
c I know that the fox will escape if the gate is opened.
d It has been said that Nero killed his own mother.
e They have promised that the new statue is not going to fall.
f Do you (s.) forbid me to eat beans?
g They are unwilling for us to see the new carpet.
E An indirect question is a reported question which is E When the indirect question offers a negative alternative, then
11581 introduced by a verb of questioning, enquiring, knowing or necne (or zot) is used.
L--J telling, and the same interrogative word which introduced the *,8r iudex rosavit num Bruti filius patriam prodidisset necne'+
direct question, except that num (if, uhether), may be used to ::q:'
{ replace the interrogative ending -ne (see Unit 62 El). Note that
ilie iudgi asked whether the s6n of BruTus had betrayed his
country or not
@ the word num means something else when it introduces a direct
question (see Unit 62 ED.
For example, direct question (i.e. the original question): Hout did E Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
they do that? lndirea. question (i.e. the reported question): We
as6ed hou the,v did that.
E the verb of the indirect question is in the subjunctive. Its
E iopposite and E above.
lMii!:ZTalliarogat cur feles in culina ludat + Tullia asks uthy the
cat is playing in the kitchen
d tense depends upon its context, the tense of the original question
a Caelia rogat num fabri cras laboraturi sint.
and the tensg of the main (introductory) verb. As a general rule,
the sequencei cif tenses (Unit 53 [) is followed, although there b rogabo num Hortensius liberos ducturus sit
c rogavi quando regina advenerit.
is a greater variety of subjunctive tenses available for use in the
indirect question. Just remember that a primary verb in the main d Tullius rogabit Decimum num aurum inventum sit.
e Decius non vult rogare quomodo id acciderit.
^cl clause is always followed by a primary subiunctive verb in the
indirect question and a historic verb in the main clause is always
f pueri,.rogate matrem num poetam audire velit'
o followed by a historic subjunctive in the indirect question. Bear
g rogavrstrne me num laetus srmt

o in mind also the difference between the perfect tense with 'have'
h rogavimus num Servius Caeciliam amet necne?
i tribuni rogabunt quis consilium patefacturus sit.
+. (primary) and the perfect tense without 'have' (historic).
i If the main verb is primary, then the verb of the indirect i roga quot plaustra sint.
o question will be in the present subiunctive if the original
question was of the present (a), in the perfect subiunctive if
E Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
E iiopposite and I above.
= the original question was of the past (b), and in the composite
'future s.ubiuhctive'.(see Unit 52 E) if the original qui:stion if rogavi ubi aurm inventum esset + I asked where the gold
had been found.
was ot the tuture (c).
Original question Possible main verb lndircct question a rogavimus cur puellae non cantarent.
(a) quis est? + Who is it? rogo - I ask (a) quis sit + who it is b fossores rogaverunt num mercedes accepturi essent necne.
(b) quis fuit? + 'Who uas iti rogabo + I shall ask (b) yis fuerit - who c num rogavisti num Titus Liviam osculatus esset?
d non rogaveram quem dux electurus esset.
(c) quis qit? + Who will it rogti+ I baae *n"a p|t'{rffmurus sit + e Romulus non rogavit quid accidisset.
be? rcgauerc + I shall who it oifl be f ductor nos rogaverat quomodo iter faceremus.
g semper rogabant quando ibi adventuri essent.
+ ask toga h rogaveramus quotiens Marius consul fuisset.
ii If the main verb is historic then the verb of the indirect i nonne Sulla rogavit num exercitus victus esset?
question will be in the imperfect subjunctive if the original E Translate the following sentences into Latin.
question was of the present (a), in the pluperfect subiunctive
if the original question was of the past (b), and in the )ffi I shall ask whether the guests baue arriued "+ rogabo num
composite 'future perfect subiunctive' (see Unit 52 E) if the hospites advenerint
original question was of the future (c). a Have you (s.) asked whether the gates are closed or not?
Original question Possible main verb Indirect question b Ask (s.) whether the boys are working in the garden.
(a) quis e*t? + Wbo is it? rogabarn +I tuas asking (al quis esset - c 'We used to ask whether the statue was alive.
who it u.,as d He had asked whether you (s.) were a farmer.
(b) quis fuit? + Who was it? rcgaviq I asked (b) quis fuisset + e The citizens are asking who will be queen.
who it had been f Did he ask if I had been wounded?
(c) quis erit? +'Who will it be? rogaverarn + I had asked (c) quis futurus g They are asking whether the dinner is ready.
6set l ulio it h I had asked whether Marius would arrive.
would be i The maidservant is asking whether you (s.) are asleep or not.
E An indirect command lJnit 72 E) is a reported
(see also the imperfect subiunctive is used to refer to wishes for the
tl command which can be introduced not only by a verb of present-and the phiperfect subjunctive is used to refer to wishes
tor the past.
commanding or demanding but also by any verb which implies
{ an act of the will, like verbs of decreeing, persuading, ffi cupivit ut tu mansisses a he wished that you had stayed
(o requesting, warning, entreating, permitting, urging,
encouraging, taking care (that) and resolving and some
impersonal verbs. In English the indirect command is usually E Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
El, El and E| opposite.
f exDressed by an infinitive.
Fo? exampl6, direct command (i.e. the original command): Open ffiffiffi mandata eis dedi ut collem ascendant
+ I haue giuen them
CL the doorsl. orders to climb the hill
I Indirect command (i.e. the reported command): I told birn to
a anus regem monet ut libros emat.
open the doors.
$, b Stephanus domino persuasit ut Furium manumitteret.
In Latin, ap indirect command which is inuoduced by any of the
verbs iubeo ( eder), veto (I forbid,I order ... not), sino (I allowl
c Holconius curat ut novae thermae aedificentur.
d Sextus vetabatur potionem tangere'
Agd patior (l allow), has its verb in the infinitive, as in English. e agricolae postulabunt ut rex se abdicet.
o ffi eum vetui hoc facere + I forbade him to do this (or: I told f hortati sumus Plautum ut fabulas scriberet.
g iubebimus Terentium
o him not to do this)
E Other indirect commands in Latin are introduced bv ut i
cenam coquere.
h.Iuppiter Minervam permiserat ut Graecis subveniret.
mater nos sinet pullos agitare.
3 (negative: ne) and a verb in the subiunctive which is'the
equivalent of an infinitive or a 'that' clause in English. The tense
i imperavit nobis ut pavimentum lavemus.

of the subjunctive depends upon the sequence of tenses (Unit 63
Translate the following sentences into English. They illustrate
. If the verb of the main clause is primarv (in the imperative or cupit ut tu ibi nunc adesses + he utishes that you were
5 present, future, future perfeci or peifect with 'hlve'), then
the ^verb
there nout
cr the of the indirect tommand- will be in the piesent a cupimus ut pater ursum nobis demonstret.
o subiunctive.
ffi philosophi nos persuadent ut pacem amemus + b optaveramus ne Lucius ebrius esset.
c volo ut tu mihi nubas.
philosophers persuade us to loue peace
s, . If the verb of the main clause is historic (perfect without d Cicero cupivit ut Catilina interfectus esset.

5 pluperfect). then the verb of the indirect

'have'. imperfect or -theimperf6ct
e omnes malumus ut tu domi maneas.
f baiuli cupiunt ne onera gravia sint.
CL comrnand'will be in subiunctive. g volo ut anulum invenissem.
ffiffi 4gpicola saepe te monebat ne mala surriperes ) the h voluisti ut Cato electus esset.
farmer often used to raarn you not to steal the apples i visne ut thesaurus inventus esset?
. Sometimes the word ut is omitted after rogo (l ask), moneo (I I Hadrianus cupit ut murus aedificefur.
warn), suadeo (l persuade), impero (I order), curo (I take care
[that]), necesse est (it is neceisary), licet (it is allowed) and E Translate the following sentences into Latin.
J oportet (it behoues\. ffi D" has warned tlte citizens not to ercpect much + cles
o '"*' ^ot"o vos quam celerrime discedatis + I taam you to
M monuit ne multa exspectent
o depart as quickly as possible
tr An indirect wish is a reported wish (compare clauses of fear
a I demand (postulo) that you (s.) free the slave.
b They are urging (hortor) us to attack the camp'
in Unit 7t g).It is introduced by a verb of wishing like cupio (I c I took care (curo) that the togas would not be dirty.
desire), opto (1 choosel, volo (I want), nolo (1 do not wantl or d Order (impero) (s.) the guard not to sleep.
malo (/ prefer) and by the conjunction ut (negative: ne) and a e I implore (obsecro) you (pl.) not to kill Caesar.
subiunctive verb. (Some of these verbs also take the accusative f \Ve warned (rnoneo) you (s.) not to wander into the woods.
and infinitive construction. See Unit 77 ll). The verb of the g We desire (cupio) that you (s.) depart from the palace.
indirect wish is an optative subjunctive (Unit 54 El). Present and h They had forbidden (veto) the boys to swim in the river.
perfect subjunctives are used to refer to wishes for the future, i She had persuaded (persuadeo) him to eat the apple.
i I[e shall permit (permitto) them to buy the horse.
El Roman years can be reckoned Ab Urbe Condita (from the All other dates are reckoned as beins so many days ante diem
tl founding of the city |iterally from the founded cityl). This is
(before tbe next named day, normalli abbreviited io a.d.). The
*nbt. phrase is in the accriiative. Unusually, when the Romans
often abbreviated to AUC. 753 years must be added to a date cE
while a date BcE must be taken away from754 to get the Roman calcula'ted this thev included both the date'ind the named day
o MMDCCLN AUC + 2754
city -r 2001 cn
years from the founding of the
in the interval.
ffid a.d. III Non. Mar. a ante diem tertium Nonas Martias +
three days before the Nones of March (including the
Nones and the date mentioned) + on 5th March
CL Years after the institution of the republic in 5L0 BCE can also be
recorded as 'the year in which x and y were consuls'. In such E the following sample months are enough to give a guide to
t phrases the namei of the consuls are in in ablative absolute with the dates of any month in the year. They have been modified for

o ihe-yord consulibus (sometimes abbreviated to coss) (see Unit

70 E).
the Gregorian talendar with months of 30 or 31 days.

o &ii+ p. Cornelio Scipione Sempronio Longo coss. +

Publius'Carnelius Scipio and Tiberius Sempronius Longus
'When lst
Kal. Apr.
a.d. IV Non. Apr.
Kal. Mai.
a.d. M Non. Mai.
XV Kal. Mai.
XIV Kal. Mai.
a.d. XM Kal. Iun.
a-d. XV Kal. Im.
3rd a.d. III Non. Apr. a.d. V Non. Mai. 19th a.d. XIII Kal. Mai. a.d. XIV Kal. Iun.
tuere consuls. +
218 BcE. 4th prid. Non. Apr. a.d. [V Non. Mai. 20th
a.d. XII Kal. Mai.
XI Kal. Mai.
a.d. XIII Kal. Iw.
sth Non. Apr. a.d. trI Non. Mai. a.d. a.d. XII Kal. Iun.
E the Roman year was divided into 72 months. The titles of 6th
a.d. MII Id. Apr.
a.d. VII Id. Apr.
prid. Non. Mai.
Non. Mai.
X Kal. Mai.
D( Kat. Mai.
a.d. XI Kal. Iun.
a.d. X Kal. Iun.
the months are adjectives used in agreement with the implied 8th a.d. M Id. Apr. a.d. MII Id. Mai. 24th a.d. MII Kal. Mai. a.d. D( Kal. Im.
word mensis (month), or the special days mentioned in I below. 9th a.d. V Id. Apr. a.d. VII Id. Mai. 25th a.d. MI Kal. Mai.
M Kal. Mai.
a.d. MII Kal. Iun.
10th a.d. IV Id. Apr. a.d. M Id. Mai. 25th a.d, a.d. VII Kal. Iun.
Most of them are the words we still use. The names Quintilis l1th a.d. III Id. Apr. a.d. V Id. Mai. 27th a.d. V Kal. Mai. a.d. VI Kal. Im.
and Sextilis were changed in honour of Julius Caesar and 12th
prid. Id. Apr.
Id. Apr.
a.d. IV Id. Mai.
a.d. III Id. Mai.
28th a.d.
29lJl. a.d.III
Mal. Mai.
Kal. Mai.
a.d. V Ka-l. Iun.
a.d. IV Kal.Iu.
Augustus. l4rh a.d. XMII Kal. Mai. prid. Id. Mai. 30th prid. Kal. Mai. a.d. III Kal. Iun.
Drid. Kal. Iu.
Januarius -a -um Julius -a -um (Quintilis -is -e) l5rh
a.d. XMI Kal. Mai.
a.d. XVI Kal. Mai.
Id. Mai.
a.d. XMI
Februarius -a -um Augustus -a -um (Sexilis -is -e)
Martius -a -um September -bris
Aprilis -is -e Oitober -bris El the Romans frequently had to add days or even months to
Maius -a -um November -bris years in order to make up for the difference between their
Junius -a -um December -bris calendar year and the solar year and in 45 scs Julius Caesar
El Roman months were 29 and 30 days long alternately. They revised their calendar. In the leap years 24th February (a.d. VI
had no equivalent of a week but did divide their months up into Kal. Mar.) was counted twice and called dies bissextus.
periods between three significant days in each month. The E After Constantine legalized Christianity the seven days of the
names of these days are feminine and plural: week officially acquired Latin names in 321cE. Some of these
. Kalendae -amm the Kalends. The first day of the month. survive in modern European Romance languages today. Even
o Nonae -arum the Nones. The seventh d,ay of March, July, English still has Saturday.
October and Ma5 but the fifth day of the other months. dies Solis day of the sun Sunday
o Idus -aum the ldes. The fifteenth day of March, July, October dies Lunae dart of the moon Mondiv
and May, but the thirteenth day of the other months. dies Martis dai of Mars (eod of war) Tuesdav
If a date is one of these days. it is expressed in the ablative with dies Mercuri day of tfierc"fi lthe messenger god) Vedneiday
the adjective of the month in agr^eement with it. It is also dies Iovis dav of luDiter (kine of the eods) Thursday
normallv abbreviated. dies Veneris dai of Vinu.s (eodiless of ldve) Friday
Wl$Eld(ibas) Mar(tiis) 1 on the Ides of Marcb + on 15th dies Saturni day of Saturn.(father ofJupiter) Saturday
If a date is the day before one of these days. it is expressed by
pridie ([oz] the day before), followed by ihi: accusaiive of th-e
day. It is sometimes abbreviated to prid.
ffi prid. Non(as) Mar(tias) + on-tbe day before the Nones of
March -r on 6th April.
E Money o Six sextarii made one congius.
tl It is impossible to give modern equivalents for the value of . Eight congii made one amphora.
money in ancient times. Not only did it fluctuate considerably
during the centuries of Roman history but also the value of
today's currency is soon out of date itself. It is possible to get an
o Twenty amphorae made one culleus.
E Dry capacity
. The smallest unit was the cochlearium.
idea of the value from contemporary writers.
. The as (as assis m.) (unitl, was the coin of lowest value. o Four cochlearia made one cyathus.
r Twelve cyathi made one sextarius.
3 c Tivo and a half asses was worth one sestertius (-i m.), a word
formed from semis tertius (the third half, i.e.2.5). ttrfe usually . Eight sextarii made one semodius.
o call this a sesterce in English. The symbol for a sesterce was
HS, an abbreviation for duo et semis 1 two and a half (asses).
o Two semodii made one modius (two English gallons or about
nine litres).
= Sometimes the word nummus (-i m.) (coin), was also used for
the sesterce.
Gl Length
. The smallest unit was the lurncra (Roman inchl.
o Four sesteitii made one denarius.
r Twenty-five denarii made one aureus. . Trvelve unciae made one pes (Roman foor, which was slightly
st less than an English foot or about 30 centimetres).
E the sesterce was a unit of currency which was mentioned . Eighteen unciae (1..5 pedes) made a cubitum (Roman cubitl.
very frequently with reference to large prices or sums of money. . Five pedes made one passus (Roman yard [pace]|.
C o $7hen expressing thousands of sesterces the Romans used the
o One hundred and twenty-five passus made one stadium
special neuter plural word sestertia (thousands of sesterces),
3 with a distributive numeral (Unit 38 E).
(Roman fwrlong).
. Iright stadia made one mille passus (Roman mile 1L,000
o #ffi HS y-r quina sestertia + fiue thousand sesterces pacesl; about 1,,620 English yards or 1,481 metres).
qt r When expressing hundreds of thousands of sesterces the
lll Area
o Romans used the genitive plural sestertium (with centena milia
understood) with a numeral adverb (Unit 38 E).
. 'I'he smallest unit was the pes quadratus (square footl.
c a,#E;::HS lXl-r decies sestertium + one million (10 x 100,000)
. One hundred pedes quadrati made one scripulum or
decempeda quadrata (ten feet squarel.
d E the
of Greek (silver) units of . One hundred and forty-four scripula made one actus
o curfency.
Romans also made use
. The smallest unit commonly mentioned by the Romans is the r
Two actus quadrati made one iugerum (Roman acre, about
drachma. five-eighths of an English acre or 2,529 square metres).
r One hundred drachmae made one mina. r Two iugera made one heredium.
o Sixty minae made one talentum (talent). . One hundred heredia made one centuria.
El weigtrt
. The smallest unit was the scrupulum (Roman scruple).
r Four scrupula made one sextula.
. Six sextulae made one uncia (Roman ounce).
. Twelve unciae made one hbra (Roman pound, about 1L.5
English ounces or 326 grams).
E Liquid capacity
. The smallest unit was the cochlearium.
r Four cochlearia made one cyathus.
r Twelve cyathi made one sextarius (a little less than an English
pint or about half a litre).
Vhen we write Latin names in English we use anglicized
[64 AE Roman
man had three names: a praenomen, a nomen and a versions of the names of those authors and personalities who
L-J cognomen, in that order, e.g. Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus. are more familiar to us, e.g. Vergil (or Virgil) for Vergilius,
Some even had a fourth or fifth name (agnomen).
The praenomen (forename), is an individual name used by
Horace for Horatius, Ovid for Ovidius, Pliny for Plinius and
Livy for Livius.
family and close friends. There are not many to choose from and E Place names
thev are written in an abbreviated form when the other names These are classical Latin place names' not mediaeval ones.
are given. The commonest are:
A. Aulus P. Publius
The Adriatic Sea
The Aegean Sea i
a mare supenrm
mare Aegaeum
France (Gaul) + Gallia
Genoa + Genua
C. Gaius Africa + Libya, Africa Germany + Germania
a. Quintus
3 Cn. Gnaeus Ser. Servius Alexandria + Alexandria
The Alps -r Alpes (t pL)
The Straits of Gibraltar
Greece + Graecia
fretum Gaditanum

o D. Decimus
L. Luciuq
S. (or Sex.) Sextus
Anglesey + Mona Holland + Batavi (m. pl.)

o M. MarcfisF
Antioch -r Antiocha
The Apennines + mons Apenninus
Italy r
+ Hibernia
+ Hierosolyma (n. pL)
qI M'. Manius Ti. (or Tib.) Tiberius Athens a Athenae (f. pl.)
l,ebanon + Libanus
N. Numerius Avignon -r Avenio
Babylon + Babylon (f.) Lincoln + Lindum
The nomen (name), is the gens (clan, extended family) name and The Balearic Is. + Baliares insulae (f. pl.) London + Londinium
c=L usually ends in -ius. Famous Roman clans are the Claudii, Barcelona +"Barcino (f,) Lyons + Lugdunum
Bath q Aquae Su]is a
p. Sempronii, Cornelii, Iulii and Iunii.
The cognomen (surname), is the familia (family) name. Belgium + Belgae (m. pl.)
The Black Sea + Pontus (Euxinus)
Milan + Mediolanum
g) Originally cognomina were individual nicknames, often Bologna + Bononia Morocco + Mauretania
descriptive of appearance, e.g. Rufus + Redhead, Naso r Big
o nose, Caligula + Little boots, etc. Eventually cognomina
Brindisi + Brundisium
Britain + Britannia
Naples -r Neapolis (f.)
Nice q Nicaea
o became hereditary and were used to distinguish one branch of a Brittany + fumoricae (f. pl.) The R. Nile a Nilus

o clan from another.

An agnomen is a further name added onto the cognomen. It is
Cadiz'+ Gades (f. pl.)
Caerleon a Isca
Campagrra I
Padua a Patavium
Paris + Lutetia
The R. Po + Padus
used either: Canterbury + Dutovernum Pornrgal -r Lusitania
+ Majestic (His Majesty),
o As a title of honour, like Augustus Capri + Capreae (f. pl.) Pozzuoh + Puteoli (m. pl.)
Cartagena + Carthago Nova Provence + Provincia
Africanus + Conqueror of Africa, Numidicus + Conqueror Carthage + Carthago (f.) The Pyrenees a Pyrenaei montes (m. pl.)
of Numidia or Macedonicus + Conqueror of Macedonia, etc. Chester + Deva The Red Sea -r sinus fuabicus
Or Chichester Regnum{ The R. Rhine -r Rhenus
e As a sign that a person has been adopted into their current China + Seres (m. pl.) Rhodes -r Rhodos (f.)
Cirencester -r Corinium The R. Rhone + Rhodanus
gens from another gens. These agnomina of adoption usually Rome + Roma
Colchester -r Camulodunum
end in -ianus. The emperor Augustus' nomen was originally Constantinople (Istanbul) + Byzantium St. Albans q Verulamium
Octavius. After he had been adopted by his uncle Julius Cordoba + Corduba Scotland + Caledonia
Caesar and granted the title Augustus by the senate he was Corfu'+ Corcyra The R. Sevem a Sabrina
called Gaius Iulius Caesar Octavianus Augustus. Corinth + Corinthus Seville I
Crete + Creta Sicily + $i6i1i"
Roman women generally only used one name; the feminine Cyrene tCyrenae (f. pl.) Spain + Hispania
form of their nomen, e.g. Claudia, Sempronia, Cornelia, Iulia The (Lower) R. Danube a l$er Switzerland -r Helvetia
and Iunia. If there was a number of sisters in a family then the The Dardanelles + Hellespontus The R. Thames Tamesis (m.) r
eldest was called Maior (the Elder), the second Minor (the Dover -r Dubri (m. pl.)
i Thebes + Thebae (f. pl.)
Younger), the third Tertia (the Third), Quarta (the Fourth), etc. The Straits of Dover + fretum Gallicum The R. Tiber + Tiberis (m.)
Egypt r Aegyptus (-i f.) Tuscany + Etruria
Freedmen (ex-slaves) would take their ex-master's nomen and Mt. Etna + Aetna Venice + Veneti (m. pl.)
add their own cognomen, e.g. M. ARTORIUS M. L. PRIMUS Florence + Florentia York Eburacum r
ARCHITECTUS -) Marcus Artorius Primus, freedman
(libertus) of Marcus (Artorius): Architect (Inscription in the
theatre in Pompeii)
We have no orieinal Latin literarv documents but we have many rather like havine the freedom of a city. Holconius associated
11681 examples of LaIin written on wdlls or stone which come under himself closelv with the roval familv and was active at the start
L--J the t6chnical title epiEaplrV. llrey are generally graffiti or of the Christian era. Thi6 inscripdion is also found in metal
inscriptions and are valuable evidence for contemporary Latin letters in the floor of the second rbw of the theatre.
@ usage and spelling. As there was always a limitedspaci to fill r In the temple of the Genius of the Emperor (Vespasian in
CD abbreviations were common. These are from Pompeii: 79 ce) in the forum
o Record of the building of the amphitheatre c.70 BcE Mamia P[ubli] f[ilia] sacerdos public[a] Genio Aug[usti] solo et
C[aii] f[ilius] Valgus M[arcus] Porcius M[arci] f[ilius]
Quinctius C[aii] pecunia sua i Mamia daughter of Publius, Dublic priestess, on
5' duovir[i] quinqluennales] coloniai honoris caussa spectacula de
duovir[i]-qu1ng[gennales] ber own land and utith heiown money [dedicated a temple] to
o sua peqluhial facfiundal coerlaruntl et coloneis locum in
perpelru,5h deder[u:it] + Quinctius Vilgus, son of Galu9, fand]
the Genius of Augustus
o Marcus Porcius, son of Marcus, censors (quinquennuial duoviri),
The cult of tlie GJnius of the €mperor began in 7 scn. The public
paid for Mamia's tomb.
for the honour of the colony took care ihat a s,how-groun
showpround be
tt--.1+ for

tor causa, pequma

built out ofrtheii own money and they gaue tlte place to the
colonists for Euer. Note the spelling of coloniai- for coloniae,
pequnia for picunia,
pecunra, coerarunt
coeranrnt tor
for curaverunt,
o On the tomb of Scaurus who got rich producing garum
(fish sauce), a localspeciality
A[ulol Umbricio Scauro Ilvir[o] i[ure] d[icundo]. Huic
deturibnes locum monum[enti] et HS ... in funere et statuam
6' coloneis for colonis ind perpeliuom for pjlpetuum. Showground
(spectacula) is used instead of amphitlheatrum. Note the
equesltreml in f[orol ponendam censuerunt a To Aulus
Ilmbricius'Scauris, duimuir with the right of pronouncing
cohfidence of in perpetuon (for euerl. -town council decreed the blace for the
= o A graffito scratched on the wall of the basilica
'moiument'to The
this man and ... sesterces for his funeral'and an
C[aius] Pumidius Dipilus heic fuit a[nte] d[iem] v Nonas Octobrcis equestrian statue to be placed in the forum
M[arco] Lepid[o] Q[uinto] Catul[o]co[n]s[ulibus] -
Dioilus was here on October 3rd when M. Leoidus and O.
G. Pumidius o The Temple of lsis in Pompeii was restored after an
earthquake in 62 ce
Citulus uere consuls (78 ncn). Note the old spellingiof heic for ffc N[umerius] Popidius N[umerii] f[ilius] Celsinus aedem Isidis terrae
and Octobreis for Octobris, and the way of dating-a year. motu conllpsim a fundamento p[equnia] s[ua] restituit. hunc
r On the colonnade in front of the Eumachia building decuriones ob liberalitatem cum esset annomm sexs ordini suo
(tullers'guild) sratis adleserunt -) Numerius Popidius Cekinus, son of Numerius
Eumachia L[uci] f[ilia] sacerd[os] publ[ica] nomine suo et his oin money restored from its foundation the temple of lsis
M[arci] Numistri Frontonis fili chalcidicum cryptam porticum which had been destroyed'bv an barthquake. Because of his
Concordiae Augustae Pietati sua pecunia fecit eademque generosity the decurionei lthe {own council) admined this [boy] to
dedicavit + Euiachia, daughter of Licius, public priestess, bad iheir order free euen thoush he uas six years old
the uestibule, couered wal6uay dnd colonnade liuilt with her This bov's'father was a" freedman (the cult of Isis attracted
own rnone.|, in her name and that of her son Marcus Nutttistrius freedmeir) and rebuilt the temple in his son's name so that his
Fronto and dedicated the same to the Pietas Concordia Augusta son would have a social advantage in Pompeian society. Note
This orominent local woman was not only enhancine the fullers' the spelling of sexs q six.
euild with her qenerosity but also her sont social standine. The Political graffiti survives painted on walls. The aediles (town
tredication asso-ciates hei' with Augustus' political outlook-. officials) had not cleaned i^t off after the previous election before
o On the plinth of a statue of Holconius in the Via dell' Vesuvius erupted. It can therefore be dated to 79 cr,. Note the
Abbondanza politeness of the formulaic indirect wish oramus vos faciatis
M[arco] Holconio M[arci] f[ilio] Rufo trib[uno] mil[itum] a which crops up often.
populo duovir[o] i[ure] d[icundo] v quinque[nnali] iter[um] . A[ulum] Vettium Firmum aed[ilem] o[ramus] v[os] f[aciatis].
Datrono coloniae + To Marcus
Aueusti Caesaris sacerdlotil-Iilarcus, dign[us] est. Caparasia cum Nymphio rog[ant] + Ve pray that
Holconius Rufus, son'of tribune of the soldiers you make Aulus Vettius Firmus aedile. He is worthy. Caparasia
[chosen] by the people, duumuir utith the right of pronouncing asks lthkl utith Nymphius.
[jydgement] fiue times, censor a second time, priest of Augustus . M[arcum] Holconium II vir[um] i[ure] d[icundo] d[ignum]
Caesan Datron of the colony
Most of the abbreviatioirs are standard for inscriptions. rlel -iorthy' vlosl flaciatisl + We ask that you make
olublical olramusl-tt'olconius
Holconius is in the dative because the statue was put up in thd Aiarcus duumuir. uith the' right of
pronouncing iudgement
honour of (to) him. Notice the old form dicundo for dicendb. A
censor (quinquennalis) was elected every five years. To be . Satrium rogant + [...] ask for Satrius (to be elected)
patron ofthe colony was the highest honoirr a mah could have,
BCE 44 Caesar assassinated by Brutus, Cassius and others
753 Traditional date of the founding of Rome by Romulus 43 Formation of the second Triumvirate; Marcus Antonius (Antony),
tl 753-510 Rome traditionally ruled by seven kings: Romulus, Numa Pompilius,
Tullus Hostilius, Ancus Martius, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius
Octavian and Lepidus. Cicero, orator and man of letters, assassinated
at Antony's behest
@ and Tarquinius Superbus 42 Brutus and Cassius defeated at the Battle of Philippi

5 510

The expulsion of the royal family. Rome becomes a republic for the
next 452 yearc
Larcius was created the first dictator
Gaius Sallustius Crispus (Sallust), historian, dies
Octavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium
Octavian takes the title Augustus
494 The plebeians retir€ to Mt. Sacer. Office of tribune of the plebs 26 Vitruvius Pollio, architectural writer, dies
E!: established 25 Cornelius Nepos, biographer, dies
458 19 Publius Vergilius Maro (Vergil), poet, and Albius Tibullus, poet, die
3 450
Cincinnatus dictator
The Twelve Tables, a codification of Roman law, established c.l6 Sextus Propertius, poet, dies

g 439
Cincinnatus dictator again
Rome captured by the Gauls
The first plebeian consul elected
Quintus Horatius Flaccus (Horace), poet, dies

Defeat of the Romans under Varus by Arminius (Herman) in the

5 338 Rome subdues the Latin League
Teutoburger 'Wald

o 281-72
Rome at war with Tarentum and King Pyrrhus of Epirus
The First Punic \ffar. Rome defeats the Carthaginians thereby gaining
Tiberius emperor
Titus Livius (Liry), historian, dies
Publius Ovidius Naso (Ovid), poet, dies
240 Plays (by Livius Andronicus) first acted at Rome 3741 Gaius (Caligula) emperor
219 Hannibal attacks Saguntum 4t-54 Claudius emDeror
218-2 The Second Punic War 43-5 The Romans annexe Britain
217 Quintus Fabius Maximus ('Cunctator') created dictator 5448 Nero emperor
216 Hannibal defeats Rome and her allies at the Battle of Cannae 51. Revolt of Boudicca (Boadicea), queen of the Iceni, against the
212 Marcellus captures Syracuse during which a Roman soldier murders Romans
Archimedes 62 Persius Flaccus, poet, dies
202 Scipio defeats Hannibal at the Battle of Zarna, winning the Second 65 Gaius Petronius Arbiter, novelist, and Lucius Annaeus Seneca,
Punic !(ar philosopher, commit suicide at Nero's behest. Marcus Annaeus
197 Rome defeats the Macedonians at the Battle of Cynoscephalae Lucanus (Lucan), poet, dies
184 Cato the Elder elected censor. Titus Plautus Maccius, playwright, dies 68-9 Galba, Otho and Vitellius emperors
159 Publius Terentius Afer (Terence), playwright, dies 69-79 Vespasian emperor
1494 The Third Punic Var 79 Pompeii destroyed by Vesuvius. Pliny the Elder, natural scientist,
146 Rome sacks Carthage and Corinth, becoming the supreme power in killed in the eruption
the Mediterrranean 79-8t Titus emperor
133 Tiberius Gracchus, reforming tribune, assassinated 8r-96 Domitian emperor. He was succeeded by Nerva
123 Gaius Gracchus, Tiberius' brother, tribune c.95 Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (Quintilian), orator, dies
107-100 Gaius Marius holds seven successive consulships to deal with military c.96 Publius Papinius Statius, poet, dies
emergencies from the tribes of the Cimbri and Teutones 98 Nerva dies and Trajan becomes emperor
91-88 The Social War 98-128 The writing career of Decimus Junius Juvenalis (Juvenal), satirist
88-2 Civil'War between Gaius Marius and Cornelius Sulla 100 Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus (Pliny the Younger), letter writer,
86 Sulla conquers Athens governor of Bithynia-Pontus
82-79 Sulla dictator 104 Marcus Valerius Martialis (Martial), poet, dies
70 First consulate of Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey) and Marcus Licinius 109 Roman empire reaches its greatest extent under Trajan
Crassus c.113 Pliny the Younger dies
73-l The revolt of Spartacus the gladiator ll7 Publius Cornelius Thcitus, historian, and Traian, emperor, die.
63 Marcus Tullius Cicero as consul suppresses the Catilinarian Hadrian emperor
consplfacy 127 Hadrian builds the wall across the North of Britain
60 First Triumvirate of Pompey, Crassus and Julius Caesar formed c.155 Lucius Apuleius, novelist, dies
58-1 Caesar campaigns in Gaul c.150 Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, historian, dies
55 6c 54 Caesar takes military expeditions to Britain 180 Marcus Aurelius, emperor and philosopher, dies
50 Caesar crosses the R. Rubicon. Civil war between Caesar and 274-337 Constantine emperor
Pompey begins 285 Division of the Roman empire into Eastern and 'Western parts by
c.55 Titus Lucretius Carus, poet, dies Diocletian
54 Valerius Catullus, poet, dies 313 ConstantinelegalizesChristianity
48 Caesar defeats Pompey at the Battle of Pharsalus, effectively ending the 476 Collapse of the'Western Roman empire
republic 565 Justinian, Eastern emperor and jurist, dies
It is easier than you might think to find Latin today. Look at the side ultra vires + beyond one's iurisdiction
11721 of a pound coin and you may read decus et tutamen + an obiect of viva voce - an oral rather ;han a wriften exam (lit. with the liue uoicel
tl beauty and a security. This is a quotation from Vergil (Aeneid 5.262)
and originally referred to a coat of chain mail (lorica), in fact the
Of particular interest to observers of the modern version of the
language is the Latin news website nuntii latini which can be found at
@ following two words in the Latin are in armis + in banle. You may also Click on transcriptio and you will find the
(tl find the motto of the royal house of Scotland on the side of a pound:
nemo me impune lacessit ) no-one assauhs me and gets away utith it.
prwious week's news in Latin. It is usually updated on a Monday. This
excellent service is provided by the Finnish Broadcasting Corporation.
Those which come from Jersey have insula Caesarea which was its
Roman name. The American dollar bill has on it e pluribus unum'+
one (state) out of more. Coins and notes will probably always be the
Since 1989 they had been broadcasting the news in Latin on the radio
for five minutes after their German and English language news
bulletins on a Sunday evening. As a good short wave radio is needed to
commonest place to find Latin. You will find it used in the mottoes of get a decent reception, the arrival of nuntii latini on the Internet was
+. institutions, especially schools, and Latin inscriptions are still used on
buildings today even if it is only to record the date of construction in
very welcome news. The bulletins cover all major topics of
international interest and there are often items of Finnish news. As the
Roman numerals. The numerals are also often used on clock faces and writers say themselves, nunc primum in historia fit ut lingua Latina iam
t+ to date filmqand television programmes. Botanical Latin is still used for nullos limites noverit ) notu for tbe first time in history it happens that
o the correct ndmes of plants and with the increasing popularity of
gardening, you can regularly hear it on radio and television prorammes
the Latin language knous no bounds.
The writers face the interesting and sometimes amusing challenge of
CL devoted to the hobby. Some series ofpopular children's books are now creating Latin words for modern objects or concepts. The following are
g) produced in Latin such as the stories associated with Asterix Gallus + good examples of their skill:
Asterix tbe Gaul,Vinni ille pu+ Winnie the Pooh and Petrus cuniculus
1 Peter Rabbit. You can even find volumes of Latin joke books. Latin apparatus stereophonicus auricularis + personal cossette pltyet
aeroplanum capacissimum + iumbo iet
is still the official language of the Vatican and important ecclesiastical
autocinetum laophoricum -t bns
documents like official papal lerers are written in Latin. The mass is +
bos grunniens yaA
still said in Latin on certain special occasions and the Vatican does Circuitus Galliae + the Tour de France
much to promote the language, such as publishing its own modern
cangurus + kangaroo
Latin dictionary.
charta creditoria + credit card
The following are some Latinwords and phraseswhich are stillin usetoday: chartula postalis ) postcard
ab initio .+ from the beginning, especially of the learning of languages cuniculus viarius + motoruay tunnel
aegrotat (pl. aegrotantl -
he (she, or they) are // (used in university demoscopia Gallupiana q Gallup poll
exam notices) diploma inventionis '+ patent
ad hoc +(for this) immediate, spontaneous, i.mprouised exercitia aerobica + aerobics
ad hominem + for the man (used of professorships, etc.) grex motocyclistarum + motorbike gang
ad infinitum -to the point of infinity horologium excitatorium - alarm clock
ad lib(itum) 1 at (yourl Pleasure liga pedifollica + football league
ad loc(um) 4 at the place linea diei + the International Date Line
ad nauseam 4 to the point of nausea machina vectoria + locomotiue engine
bona fides + good faith pellicula documentaria - docutnentary filrn
compos mentis 4 sound in mind pittacium epistulare ) postage stamp
e(xempli) g(ratia) + for the sake of example scacista + chess player
ex officio - by uirtue of tbe position one holds statio spatialis ) space station
habeas corpus q lit. you may baue the body. A right not to be detained syngraphus viatorius ) passport
without charge. systema cursus cambialis + exchange rate mechanism
i(d) e(st) + tbat is, namely telephonum portabile + mobile telephone
in vitro t in the test tube tempus suppletorium + ouertime
pro bono (publico) + for the public good tramen rapidum ) etcpress train
quid pro quo + sometbing in return for something uranium pauperatum a dePleted uranium
satis+ sufficient, enough virus grippicum + inflenza uirus
s(ub) v(erbuml + under the word (referring to dictionary entries) In addition to the news there are other items on the website menu
sub iudice + under tbe iurisdiction of a iudge, i.e. something which which are of interest. A list of reading material including modern Latin
cannot be discussed in case the outcome of a trial is prejudiced dictionaries, a background history of the site, the schedule of broad-
sub poena + under threat of punishment, i.e. a compulsory summons to casts, a questions pige, a letters page for e-mail (nuntii
court and an aichive of old bulletins. The entire site is written in Latin but
sub rosa + wnder tlte rose. i.e. secret an English version of some of the pages is available.
f-'A Unit 5
1 a aedificabo aedificabis aedificabit aedificabimus aedificabitis aedificabunt
L_J b miscebo miscebis miscebit miscebimus miscebitis miscebunt c ardebo ardebis
ardebit ardebimus ardebitis ardebunt d mulcebo mulcebis mulcebit mulcebimus
mulcebitis mulcebunt e sonabo sonabis sonabit sonabimus sonabitis sonabunt

- f crepabo crepabis crepabit crepabimus crepabitis crepabunt g stabo stabis
stabit stabimus stabitis stabunt h fundabo fundabis fundabit fundabimus
fundabitis fundabunt i narrabo narrabis narrabit narrabimus narrabitis
narrabunt j horrebo horrebis horrebit horrebimus horrebitis horrebunt

't+ 2 aThey will advise and persuade. b You will carry but we shall walk. c They
will call and save. d We shall wait and watch. e They will announce but we
shall be silent. f He will weep and mourn. g I shall bum but you will soothe.

o It is obvious*thlt the sentences in the exercises may be uanslated in a variety

of ways. The basic sense is given here but any sensible variation may be used.
h They will shudder and we shall frighten. i I shall relate and you will watch.
i He will build but they will destroy. 3 a cogitabo b volabimus c mutabunt
d lugebitis e monebit f placebit g debebis h nuntiabo I vocabunt j habebitis
4 a They give but you will owe. b They will beat and I shall call out. c You are
It is assumed that where 'he' is used with a verb then 'she' or 'it' would be
equally acceptable if the context allows it.
pacifying and they will be silent. d We carry but you will build. e You walk but
we shall hurry. f They build but we shall destroy. g I think but they will fight.
J Unit 3 h He stands and will stay. i I am preparing and you will approve. j We shall buy

o 1 a they beg b he/she/it gives c you (s.) care d I drink e we approve

f you (pl.) prepare g you (s.) give h we stand i he/she /it works i they drink
2 a servo servas servat servamus servatis servant b comparo comparas
and you will reckon up.

Unit 6
I a cingam cinges cinget cingemus cingetis cingent b scribarn scribes scribet

o comparat comparamus comparatis comparant c loco locas Iocat locamus

locatis locant d concito concitas concitat concitamus concitatis concitant
scribemus scribetis scribent c claudam claudes claudet claudemus claudetis
claudent d colam cciles colet colemus coletis colent e petam petes petet

e voco vocas vocat vocamus vocatis vocant f computo computas computat petemus petetis petent f faciam facies faciet faciemus facietis facient g iaciam
computamus computatis computant g muto mutas mutat mutamus mutatis iacies iaciet iaciemus iacietis iacient h rapiam rapies rapiet rapiemus rapietis
mutant h pugno pugnas pugnat pugnamus pugnatis pugnant i adflo adflas rapient I dicam dices dicet dicemus dicetis dicent j aperiam aperies aperiet

o adflat adflamus adflatis adflant j amo amas amat amamus amatis amant
3avocamus blaboras cprobo dprobat opotant fcuratis gvocat
h ambulat! i sto i cuant 4 a putare, to think b cogitare, to ponder c laniare,
to mangle d mandare, to command e praetervolare, m fly past I clarare, to
aperiemus aperietis aperient 2 a I shall say and you will believe. b We shall
summon but they will not hear. c You will dig and I shall drag. d He will not
sleep. e You will begin but you will not finish. r They will flee but we shall resist.

explai?t g demonsffare, to show h fatigare, to exhaust i coactare' to fotce
i appellare, to pronounce
g I shall open but he will close. h They will seek but they will not find. IYou will
depart and I shall arrive. i Ve shall agree but you will disagree. 3 a fodiam
b non incipient c non ludes d adsentiet e curram sed resistes f advenient

g capiet h non credetis i non cedemus j dormient sed trahemus 4 a You will
Unit 4 resist and you will not yield. b I close but they will open. c We shall not arrive.
I afourth bsecond cfirst dthird ethird rthird gfourth nthird
d He runs but he will not escape. e You are playing but I shall dig. f They are

o isecond j first 2 a We run and we win. b You sleep and snore. c He searches
and he saves. d You see and believe. e They know and are silent. I I inspect and
writing and they will not play. g They will not say. h I seek and I shall find. i He
says but you will not believe. i You are writing and will not hear.

a approve. 9 They flee and they weep. h I teach and you learn. i You laugh and
play. j We dance and sing. 3 a aperio aperis aperit aperimus aperitis aperiunt
b peto petis petit petimus petitis petunt c advenio advenis advenit advenimus
advenitis adveniunt d video vides videt videmus videtis vident e discedo
Unit 7
I a manebam manebas manebat manebamus manebatis manebant
b muniebam muniebas muniebat muniebamus muniebatis muniebant
discedis discedit discedimus disceditis discedunt f teneo tenes tenet tenemus o cenabam cenabas cenabat cenabamus cenabatis cenabant d coquebam
tenetis tenent g facio facis facit facimus facitis faciunt h vasto vastas vastat coquebas coquebat coquebamus coquebatis coquebant e regebam regebas
vastamus vastatis vastant i libro libras librat libramus libratis librant rcgebat regebamus regebatis regebant f veniebam veniebas veniebat veniebamus
j fugio fugis fugit fugimus fugitis fugiunt 4 a nubere, to rnarry b metere' to veniebatis veniebant g leniebam leniebas leniebai leniebamus leniebatis
deserue c arcessere, to sutntnon d claudicare, to litnp e gerere' to carry lcniebant h ambulabam ambulabas ambulabat ambulabamus ambulabatis
f implicare, to entwine g placare, to pacrfy h serere, to sew i stafircte, to set up i
rmbulabant ponebam ponebas ponebat ponebamus ponebatis ponebant
ivoverc, to uow I sedebam sedebas sedebat sedebamus sedebatis sedebant 2 a We were sitting
but we were not sleeping. b You were fighting and resisting. c You were listening miserant h reduxeram reduxeras reduxerat reduxeramus reduxeratis
and you were watching. d I was cooking but they were dining. e He was reduxerant i statueram statueras statuerat statueramus statueratis statuefant
walking and singing. f They were holding and shouting. g You were saying and j verberaveram verberaveras verberaverat verberaveramus verberaveratis
they were not keeping quiet. h I was dragging and I was groaning. i I7e were verberaverant 2 a you had warned b they had bought c I had taken d we had
playing but we were not laughing. j I was building and you were carrying. loved e you had run f he had played g you had inspected h they had yielded
3 a dormiebam sed non tacebant. b dicebamus et audiebant. c non spectabas. i you had dug j I had forbidden 3 a steteramus b manseras c putaveram
d adveniebam sed discedebatis. e assentiebat. trahebamus et fodiebant. d ceperant e effugerat f dormiverat g ieceratis h sederam i custodiverat
g stabat sed sedebamus. h arcessebat et veniebas. i ridebamus et flebant. j non i posueramus 4 a I had not hidden but they wept. b He slept and you had
videbam. 4 a He was ordering you were obeying. b He will not change. c I was worked. c'We had built but they destroyed. They had carried and we had dug.
preparing, you are cooking and they will dine. d We were resisting but you are e He had closed but I opened. f They walked but we had run. g He had taught
fleeing. e He was not writing. f We were carrying, we are digging and we shall and they had heard. h You had watched but you did not see. i You had not
build. g I was running but you are walking. h They were shuddering and we changed. j I had cooked and they dined.
were afraid. i They were sitting and they will sleep. j You gave and I received.
Unit 11
UnitS o s I a cecinero cecineris cecinerit cecinerimus cecineritis cecinerint
1 a timui b paravi c rexi d cubui e feci f traxi g tetigi h sparsi i fregi b accepero acceperis acceperit acceperimus acceperitis acceperint
i sensi 2 a demonstravi demonstravisti demonstravit demonstravimus c vertero verteris verterit vefterimus verteritis vefterint d tetendero tetenderis
demonstravistis demonstraverunt b secuvi secuvisti secuvit secuvimus secuvistis tetenderit tetenderimus tetenderitis tetenderint e tradidero tradideris tradiderit
secuverunt c dedi dedisti dedit dedimus dedistis dederunt d curavi curavisti tradiderimus tradideritis tradiderint f praebuero praebueris praebuerit
curavit curavimus curavistis curaverunt e vetui vetuisti vetuit vetuimus vetuistis praebuerimus praebueritis praebuerint g complevero compleveris compleverit
vetuerunt f iuvi iuvisti iuvit iuvimus iuvistis iuverunt g ambulavi ambulavisti compleverimus compleveritis compleverint h vexero vexeris vexerit vexerimus
ambulavit ambulavimus ambulavistis ambulaverunt h micui micuisti micuit vexeritis vexerint i surrexero surrexeris surrexerit surrexerimus surrexeritis
micuimus micuistis micuerunt i amavi amavisti amavit amavimus amavistis surrexerint j discessero discesseris discesserit discesserimus discesseritis
amaverunt j necavi necavisti necavit necavimus necavistis necaverunt 3 a you discesserint 2 a you will have led b you will have stayed c I shall have called
built u they gave c I have called d you have saved e we have placed t they d they will have warned e you will have made f we shall have walked g I shall
bought g he prepared h I prayed i you have cut j we have forbidden have taken h they will have come i you will have put j we shall have left
4 a speraverunt b amavimus c dedi O demonstraverunt e vetuistis f stetit Sasenseritbmutaveritcspectaverintddebueroefleveritffeceritisgvixerimus
g narravit h aedificavi i navisti i vocavit h petiveris i convenerint j vertero 4 a I was afraid and you will have been
afraid. b You have stayed but they will have fled. c We shall have worked and
Unit 9 you will have slept. d I shall have given and he will have received. e They will
1 + I belieuebveto: I forbidcvenio + I come dvideo+ I see epoto
acredo have departed but you have not arrived. f You will have run but I shall have
+ I drink f vincio a I bind g sedeo 4 I sit hcustodio + I guard i teneo + I walked. g He narrated and they will have heard. h He ordered and they will
holdifugro + I flee 2 a quaesivi quaesivisti quaesivit quaesivimus quaesivistis have obeyed. i You have asked and he will have replied. j He cooked and I shall
quaesiverunt b cessi cessisti cessit cessimus cessistis cesserunt c posui posuisti
have eaten.
posuit posuimus posuistis posuerunt d effluxi effluxisti effluxit effluximus
effluxistis effluxerunt e rupi rupisti rupit rupimus rupistis ruperunt f lusi lusidti Unit 12
lusit lusimus lusistis luserunt g vici vicisti vicit vicimus vicistis vicerunt I a ero b non est c eramus d erant