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Designation: D 2729 – 96a An American National Standard


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Reprinted from the Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Copyright ASTM

Standard Specification for

Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Sewer Pipe and Fittings1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 2729; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

1. Scope Thermoplastic Sewer Pipe3

1.1 This specification covers requirements and test methods D 2412 Test Method for Determination of External Loading
for materials, dimensions, workmanship, chemical resistance, Characteristics of Plastic Pipe by Parallel-Plate Loading3
water resistance, and joint tightness of poly(vinyl chloride) D 2444 Test Method for Impact Resistance of Thermoplas-
(PVC) sewer and drain pipe and fittings. Four-inch perforated tic Pipe and Fittings by Means of a Tup (Falling Weight)3
pipe is also covered; the joint tightness test is not applicable for D 2564 Specification for Solvent Cements for Poly(Vinyl
this product. A form of marking to indicate compliance with Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Piping Systems3
this specification is also included. F 412 Terminology Relating to Plastic Piping Systems3
1.2 The text of this specification references notes, footnotes, 2.2 Federal Standard:
and appendixes which provide explanatory material. These Fed. Std. No. 123 Marking for Shipment (Civil Agencies)4
notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall 2.3 Military Standard:
not be considered as requirements of the specification. MIL-STD-129 Marking for Shipment and Storage4
1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded 3. Terminology
as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for
information only. 3.1 Definitions—Definitions used are in accordance with
1.4 The following precautionary caveat pertains only to the Terminology F 412, and abbreviations are in accordance with
test methods portion, Section 6, of this specification: This Terminology D 1600, unless otherwise specified. The abbre-
standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, viation for poly(vinyl chloride) is PVC.
if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user 3.1.1 Pipe having perforations is called perforated pipe;
of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health without perforations it is called standard pipe.
practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limita- 4. Materials
tions prior to use.
4.1 General—The pipe shall be made from virgin cell
2. Referenced Documents 12164B with a minimum tensile strength of 4000 psi (28 MPa),
2.1 ASTM Standards: 12454B or 12454C poly(vinyl chloride) compounds, as defined
D 618 Practice for Conditioning Plastics and Electrical and described in Specification D 1784. The fittings shall be
Insulating Materials for Testing2 made from virgin poly(vinyl chloride) compounds of cell
D 1600 Terminology for Abbreviated Terms Relating to classification PVC 12454B, PVC 12454C, or PVC 13343C.
Plastics2,3 Compounds that have different cell classification because one
D 1784 Specification for Rigid Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) or more properties are superior to those of the specified
Compounds and Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) compounds are also acceptable.
(CPVC) Compounds3 4.2 Rework Material—The manufacturer shall use only his
D 2122 Test Method for Determining Dimensions of Ther- own clean pipe or fitting rework material; the pipe and fittings
moplastic Pipe and Fittings3 produced shall meet all the requirements of this specification.
D 2152 Test Method for Degree of Fusion of Extruded 5. Requirements
Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe and Molded Fittings by
Acetone Immersion3 5.1 Qualification and Referee Testing:
D 2321 Practice for Underground Installation of Flexible 5.1.1 Water Resistant—The pipe and fittings shall not
increase in weight more than 0.6 % or change in tensile
strength more than +15 % when tested in accordance with 6.5.
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee F-17 on Plastic 5.1.2 Joint Testing—Joints made with pipe and fittings or
Piping Systems and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee F17.62 on Sewer.
Current edition approved Dec. 10, 1996. Published November 1997. Originally
published as D 2729 – 68. Last previous edition D 2729 – 96.
2 4
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 08.01. Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, Bldg. 4 Section D, 700
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 08.04. Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094, Attn: NPODS.

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D 2729
belled end pipe shall show no signs of leakage when tested in TABLE 2 Diameters and Tolerances for PVC Sewer and Drain
accordance with 6.6. This test is not required for perforated Pipe
pipe. Nominal Average Inside
Average Outside
Pipe Size, Diameter, min,
5.2 Quality Control Testing: in.
Diameter, mm (in.)
mm (in.)
5.2.1 Workmanship—The pipe and fittings shall be homo- 2 57.15 6 0.15 50.80
geneous throughout and free from visible cracks, holes, foreign (2.250 6 0.006) (2.000)
inclusions, or other injurious defects. The pipe shall be as 3 82.55 6 0.20 73.02
(3.250 6 0.008) (2.875)
uniform as commercially practical in color, opacity, density, 4A 107.06 6 0.22 98.42
and other physical properties. (4.215 6 0.009) (3.875)
5.2.2 Flattening—There shall be no evidence of splitting, 5 134.62 6 0.25 123.82
(5.300 6 0.010) (4.875)
cracking, or breaking when the pipe is tested in accordance 6 159.39 6 0.28 149.22
with 6.4. (6.275 6 0.011) (5.875)
5.2.3 Extrusion Quality—The pipe or fittings shall not flake A
Standard and perforated pipe.
or disintegrate when tested in accordance with Test Method
D 2152. In the case of fittings, slight flaking in the gate area is TABLE 3 Minimum Wall Thicknesses for PVC Sewer and Drain
acceptable. Pipe
NOTE 1—This test is intended only for use as a quality control test, not Nominal Pipe Min Wall
Size, in. Thickness, mm (in.)A
for use as a simulated service test.
2 1.78 (0.070)
5.2.4 Impact Resistance—The impact resistance of pipe 3 1.78 (0.070)
shall be determined in accordance with Test Method D 2444, 4B 1.90 (0.075)
5 2.27 (0.090)
using a 20-lb (10-kg) Tup A and Holder B (flat plate), and shall 6 2.54 (0.100)
comply with the requirements given in Table 1 (Note 1). For A
Fitting Wall Thickness—The wall thickness is a minimum value except that a
perforated pipe, samples are to be cut and tested at random 610 % variation resulting from core shift is allowable. In such a case, the average
without regard to hole location, except that the point of impact of two opposite wall thicknesses shall equal or exceed the value shown in the
shall not coincide with a perforation. table.
Standard and perforated pipe.
5.2.5 Dimensions: Pipe and fittings dimensions (for both standard and respect to in-use deflection. The engineer is responsible for establishing
perforated pipe) shall comply with Table 2, Table 3, or Table 4, the acceptable limit.
as applicable, when measured in accordance with Test Method Note 3—The strength and load-carrying capabilities of plastic drain and
D 2122. sewer pipe are measured and reported as Pipe Stiffness which is Pipe shall be supplied in 10 ft 6 1⁄4-in. laying determined in accordance with Test Method D 2412. The term “crush
strength” is not applicable to plastic piping because (a) the values obtained
lengths unless otherwise specified. can be significantly different, depending on the bedding, loading, or For belled pipe and fittings fabricated from pipe testing technique used; and (b) the term derives from rigid pipe and refers
sections, the thickness of the belled section shall be considered to its ultimate strength at rupture.
satisfactory if the bell was formed from pipe meeting the 5.2.7 Solvent Cement—The cement shall comply with
requirements of Table 3. Specification D 2564. For molded fittings, the wall thickness of the water- 5.2.8 Perforations—Unless otherwise specified, the perfo-
way and socket or bell shall be no less than the respective rated pipe shall have two rows of holes 13 mm (1⁄2in.) in
minimum thickness listed for the equivalent pipe wall in Table diameter on 125-mm (5-in.) centers, with allowable tolerances
3. For reducing fittings or those with smaller inlets, the of 61 mm (1⁄16in.) on the diameter and +6, −0 mm (+1⁄4, −0 in.)
minimum wall thickness of each inlet shall be no less than the on the spacing, and the rows shall be parallel to the axis of the
minimum wall thickness for that size pipe. pipe and 120 6 5° apart when measured in accordance with
5.2.6 Pipe Stiffness—The pipe stiffness at 5 % deflection 6.7.
(F/Dy) shall not be less than the values given in Table 5 when
tested in accordance with Test Method D 2412. This require- 6. Test Methods
ment does not apply to fittings. 6.1 Conditioning:
NOTE 2—The 5 % deflection criterion, which was arbitrarily selected 6.1.1 Qualification and Referee Conditioning—Condition
for testing convenience, should not be considered as a limitation with the specimens prior to test at 23 6 2°C (73.4 6 3.6°F) and 50
TABLE 1 Impact Strength Requirements for PVC Sewer and
6 5 % relative humidity for not less than 40 h in accordance
Drain Pipe at 23°C (73°F) with Procedure A of Practice D 618 for those tests where
Nominal Drop Height
conditioning is required.
Pipe 6.1.2 Quality Control Testing—Condition specimens for a
Size, in. ft (20-lb Tup A) mm (10-kg Tup A) minimum of 4 h in air or 1 h in water at 23 + 2°C (73.4 +
2 1.75 485 3.6°F). Test the specimens at 23 + 2°C without regard to
3 2.00 555
4A 2.25 625
relative humidity.
5 3.00 830 6.2 Test Conditions—Conduct the tests in the standard
6 3.50 970 laboratory atmosphere of 23 6 2°C and 50 6 5 % relative
Standard and perforated pipe. humidity, unless otherwise specified.

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D 2729
TABLE 4 Socket Dimensions and Tolerances for PVC Sewer Pipe Fittings

Average Average Minimum Minimum
Entrance Bottom Socket Inside
Size, in.
Diameter, Diameter, Depth, Diameter,
mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.)A mm (in.)A
2 57.51 6 0.15 57.02 6 0.15 19.05 50.80
(2.264 6 0.006) (2.245 6 0.006) (0.750) (2.000)
3 83.08 6 0.20 82.42 6 0.20 38.10 73.02
(3.271 6 0.008) (3.245 6 0.008) (1.500) (2.875)
4 107.57 6 0.22 106.93 6 0.22 44.45 98.42
(4.235 6 0.009) (4.210 6 0.009) (1.750) (3.875)
5 135.38 6 0.25 134.49 6 0.25 63.50 123.82
(5.330 6 0.010) (5.295 6 0.010) (2.500) (4.875)
6 160.15 6 0.28 159.26 6 0.28 76.20 149.22
(6.305 6 0.011) (6.270 6 0.011) (3.000) (5.875)
The negative tolerance on minimum dimensions shall be zero.

TABLE 5 Minimum Pipe Stiffness, F/Dy, at 5 % Deflection with Test Method D 638, Type I, Fig. 1. The immersion period
Minimum Pipe Stiffness, kPa (psi) shall be 7 days. Calculate changes in tensile strength to the
Nominal nearest 0.1 %. Calculate changes in weight to the nearest
PVC 12454-B
PVC 12454-C 0.01 %.
PVC 12164-B
in. 6.6 Joint Tightness—Join two pieces of pipe by means of a
kPa psi fitting in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations
2 407 59 and with solvent cement as described in 6.8. Allow the joined
3 131 19 unit to stand for 24 h at room temperature. Subject the unit to
4A 76 11 an internal water pressure of 170 kPa (25 psi) at room
5 62 9
6 55 8 temperature for 24 h. Neither the pipe, fitting, nor joints shall
Standard and perforated pipe.
show any leakage.
6.7 Perforation—For the perforated pipe the hole diameter
and the distance between hole centers shall be measured with
6.3 Materials—Determine the physical and chemical prop- a steel rule with at least 1-mm (1⁄16-in.) graduations. The angle
erties of PVC compounds used in the manufacture of pipe and between the two rows of holes shall be measured with an index
fittings meeting this specification in accordance with the test head capable of measuring accurately to within 1°.
methods specified in Specification D 1784.
6.4 Flattening—Flatten three specimens of pipe, 51-mm 7. Significance and Use
(2-in.) long, between parallel plates in a suitable press until the 7.1 The pipe and fittings in this specification are designed
distance between the plates is 40 % of the outside diameter of and have the physical, chemical, and other properties for sewer
the pipe. The rate of loading shall be uniform and such that the and drainage applications outside the building. The pipe is not
compression is completed within 2 to 5 min. On removal of the intended for use as public or municipal collector sewers. The
load, examine the specimens for evidence of splitting, crack- following lists the typical applications for the sewer and drain
ing, or breaking. pipe:
6.5 Water Resistance—Flatten specimens by warming for 7.1.1 Building sewers and underground drains—standard,
10 min in a circulating air oven at 177 6 3°C and press 7.1.2 Storm drainage—standard and perforated,
between parallel plates prior to immersion or test as cut with 7.1.3 House connections to septic tanks—standard,
the use of curved grips. Prepare all specimens in accordance 7.1.4 Leaching system piping for septic tank effluents—

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standard and perforated, clearly marked as follows at intervals of 1.5 m (5 ft) or less:
7.1.5 Footing drains (foundation drains)—standard and 10.1.1 Manufacturer’s name or trademark and code,
perforated, 10.1.2 Nominal pipe size,
7.1.6 Industrial waste disposal—standard and perforated,
and 10.1.3 The legend “PVC Sewer Pipe” or “PVC Perforated
7.1.7 Land drainage—standard and perforated. Pipe,” and
10.1.4 This designation, “ASTM D 2729.”
8. Retest and Rejection 10.2 Fittings in compliance with this specification shall be
8.1 If the results of any test(s) do not meet the requirements clearly marked as follows:
of this specification, the test(s) shall be conducted again only 10.2.1 Manufacturer’s name or trademark,
by agreement between the purchaser and seller. Under such
agreement, minimum requirements shall not be lowered, 10.2.2 Nominal size, and
changed, or modified, nor shall specification limits be changed. 10.2.3 This designation, “ASTM D 2729.”
If upon retest, failure occurs, the quantity of product repre-
NOTE 3—D 2729 pipe should be installed in accordance with Practice
sented by the test(s) does not meet the requirements of this D 2321. Perforated pipe should be installed using Class I material in order
specification. to provide ground water drainage and good side support.
9. Certification
11. Quality Assurance
9.1 When specified in the purchase order or contract, a
manufacturer’s certification shall be furnished to the purchaser 11.1 When the product is marked with this designation, D
that the material was manufactured, sampled, tested, and 2729, the manufacturer affirms that the product was manufac-
inspected in accordance with this specification, and has been tured, inspected, sampled, and tested in accordance with this
found to meet the requirements. When specified in the pur- specification and has been found to meet the requirements of
chase order or contract, a report of the test results shall be this specification.
furnished. Each certification so furnished shall be signed by an
authorized agent of the manufacturer. 12. Keywords
10. Marking and Labeling 12.1 drain pipe; fittings; perforated pipe; pipe; poly(vinyl
chloride); PVC
10.1 Pipe in compliance with this specification shall be



These requirements apply only to federal/military procurement, not domestic sales or transfers.

S1. Responsibility for Inspection—Unless otherwise speci- S2.1 Packaging—Unless otherwise specified in the con-
fied in the contract or purchase order, the producer is respon- tract, the materials shall be packaged in accordance with the
sible for the performance of all inspection and test require- supplier’s standard practice in a manner ensuring arrival at
ments specified herein. The producer may use his own or any destination in satisfactory condition and which will be accept-
other suitable facilities for the performance of the inspection able to the carrier at lowest rates. Containers and packing shall
and test requirements specified herein, unless the purchaser comply with Uniform Freight Classification rules or National
disapproves. The purchaser shall have the right to perform any Motor Freight Classification rules.
of the inspections and tests set forth in this specification where
S2.2 Marking—Marking for shipment shall be in accor-
such inspections are deemed necessary to ensure that material
dance with Fed. Std. No. 123 for civil agencies and MIL-STD-
conforms to prescribed requirements.
129 for military agencies.
NOTE S1.1—In U.S. federal contracts, the contractor is responsible for
inspection. NOTE S2.1—The inclusion of U.S. Government procurement require-
ments should not be construed as an indication that the U.S. Government
S2. Packaging and Marking for U.S. Government Procure-
uses or endorses the products described in this specification.

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if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible
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views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428.

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