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Factors that Affect Grade 12 Senior High School Students Alumni of DMMC Institute of

Health Sciences in Taking Unrelated Courses to their Track

A Research Proposal
Presented to
The Faculty of Senior High School Department of
DMMC Institute of Health Sciences

In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for Research II
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL (STEM)

Anciado, Kyzel
Badilla, Micah
De Vera, Hazel
Villalobos, Riyanna Maura
Yamaro, Missyann

Grade 11 Fleming

2019
Chapter I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

INTRODUCTION

K to 12 (also K-12) is an education system under the Department of Education that aims

to enhance learners’ basic skills, produce more competent citizens, and prepare graduates for

lifelong learning and employment. “K” stands for Kindergarten and “12” refers to the succeeding

12 years of basic education (6 years of elementary education, 4 years of junior high school, and 2

years of senior high school) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop

lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development,

employment, and entrepreneurship.

Each student in Senior High School can choose among three tracks: Academic;

Technical-Vocational-Livelihood; and Sports and Arts. The Academic track includes three

strands: Accountancy, Business, Management (ABM); Humanities (HUMSS); and Science,

Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM). Students undergo immersion, which may

include earn-while-you-learn opportunities, to provide them relevant exposure and actual

experience in their chosen track. As today ‘reception to the curriculum in accordance with Kto12

program implementation, many factors are affecting the senior high school student’s course

preference.

The importance of Kto12 is to give students enough time to master skills and concepts so

that they are ready for tertiary education when the time comes. Choosing and deciding on

something has consequence. The results of what you have chosen can either help you, it will

hinder you in the future. It is also the same with the course that you will have to decide. In

choosing course, there are a lot of factors that the student that the students must consider.
Making decision implies that there are choices to be considered, and in such case we

want only to identify as many of these alternatives as possible but to choose the one that best fits

with our goals, objectives, desire, values and so on.

It is a common observation during enrollment time that there are a number of college

students who sift from one course to another for the reason that they do not like their former

course. They either got low grades or drop out from the school for reason or another. They

finally realize that what they enrolled in is not their passion or line of interest because they were

only persuaded by their friends to join them. Others enroll in a course that is their parents’ choice

even if they did not like making college schooling a waste of time, money and effort for both the

students and the parents. Hence, proper counseling and career orientation must be provided to

senior high school students so that they are properly guided on the choice of a course which will

enable them to obtain, within the limits of their capacity and potentials, reasonable success,

satisfaction and happiness in the course that they want.

REVIEW RELATED LITERATURE

Career selection is one of many important choices students will make in determining their

plans. This decision will impart them throughout their lives. The essence of who the student is

will revolve around that the student want to do with their live long work.

Based on Statistics, more than 15,000 typical young people have problems about school.

Surprisingly, most students approve wholeheartedly of their schools. Despite a certain amount of

groaning and grumbling, 79 percent of those polled frankly admit that they like school. Only 6

percent dislike it so much that they would like to quit. Despite their general approval, however,

many young people complain that their problem is not knowing how to study effectively. Big
majorities mention problems that stand in the way of getting the most out of school. Here are

some of those problems:

I would like to do well I my school work, but I do not know how to study effectively; I

could do better if I had more definite idea of how well I’m doing during the semester; It is the

test that worry me. Even when I “know my stuff” I get so tense and worried that I don’t do as

well as I should; I know exactly what I want to say, but putting it down on paper is what gets me.

Robert H. Seashore (2010),

A consideration of their profile of abilities can help them avoid mistakes too. If they are

very high in physical ability and manual dexterity, but below average in mechanical

comprehension, reasoning, and space ability, it probably would be unrealistic for them to look

forward to a career in engineering, and more practical to try for success as skilled sheet metal

worker or in some other requiring their particular combination of abilities. If a person’s ability

does not support the course they like, they need to think for alternatives that would suit it. It is

better to go for a course in which the student is interested and which his abilities go well rather

than going for a course in which the abilities of the student are not compatible which can result

to failure.

Family factors has in increased rapidly during the last couple years, yet an understanding

of family influences on career choices still remains spares. The first interaction of a child with

people takes place within its among members of its family who include parents, siblings and

relatives (Bollu-steve & Sanni, 2013).

Many Career choices theories indicate that, family plays a role in shaping the values and

needs of its member. Social Learning Theory points out possible influences that the family can

have on adolescence’ career development. Parents can have an influence on their child’s career

development by positivizes developing or punishing certain behaviors that can encourage or


discourage certain interests or ability. Mitchelle & Krumboltz (2014) and krumboltz (2012)

pointed out that it is almost impossible to make a decision completely independent from our

families.

The constitution allows parents to bring up their children according to their own values

and beliefs. Parental responsibility includes: Providing a home for their children and; Choosing

and providing for their child’s education. Parents have the rights to make decisions about their

child’s upbringing without interference. Parenting involves providing a safe environment for

their child’s growth, providing for their basic needs, allowing them to develop their own identity,

nurturing their self-esteem, respecting them, educating them, spending time with them etc.

Parents have a duty to protect their children from abuse and neglect.

Having parental responsibility basically means that as a parent they have the right to

make important decisions. Parents are the ones who nurture and raise a child. Being a parent is

not that easy, they have their duties and responsibilities not only to themselves but also to their

children. As their children grow up they have needs that parents should provide. Parents provide

them their basic needs, teach moral values, show them what is right and help them develop their

own being. Parents should also provide their child’s education. We all know that every parent

dreams for their child to have a great future. For them, education is the best treasure they can

give to their child. That’s why sometimes they don’t even care how much money it will cost

them just to put their child in a school with high standard a school they envision to help their

child embodiment his skills and flourish it for him to be a great and successful person as he

grow-up. It is also part of their duty not to abuse their child. As we all know many parents now a

day abuse their own child. They punish them, bit them to death. As parents it is not right to

commit such thing, parents can’t just have bit their child because he commits a mistake or didn’t
emulate their command. Children have the right to be protected, to be loved by their parents not

to be abused.

Peer influence becomes a factor in career decision making because individuals who are

closely involved with their friends tend to be involved in the decision of their friends. Take

example in career choice, if one person chooses Nursing, other will also be forced to choose

Nursing because they don’t want to be independent from them. Sometimes peers influence others

to take that certain course because they think that it is better for them to take that particular

course. Andrew Sokatch, Education and Urban Society (2010).

Teenagers some feel are too young to decide their own career matters. Parents

particularly are very concerned about their affairs. On the other hand, in this modern day and

age, teenagers are revolting against too much parental interference and guidance.

Economy factors has been very harsh for students who are hoping to attend higher

education to further their studies and hopefully, get better jobs upon graduating. But often,

various obstacles tend to block this route and this challenge often comes from one object: money.

Pursuing your dreams after college will always remain a possibility, with or without money.

Studying will not be a question for those with eagerness to earn a college degree. However,

despite all this eagerness and fervor lies the fact that not all students can afford the course they

primarily want. The problem at hand is that their financial stability limits their choice which

latter led them to a more, said practical course.

Economic growth leads to higher employment rates and increased spending. The growth

of business leads to possible expansions, which create more job opportunities in the workforce.

A growth in the economy of some fields can attract students to those fields. These changes in

technology can have both a positive and negative effect in the workforce.
Studying will not be a question for those with eagerness to earn a college degree.

However, despite all this eagerness and fervor lies the fact that not all students can afford the

course they primarily want. The problem at hand is that their financial stability limits their choice

which latter led them to a more, said practical course. A glimpse of risks along this part where

one decides critically, describes a hesitation of why pursue that course if the chances are too low

for that student to endure anyway; regarding the expenses that are to be covered. One might

disregard his interest over this matter and end up with a college course he is aware he won’t be

able to excel or fit in. This in time will be a more serious concern, anticipating wasted efforts,

finances, opportunities and time. That, for instance is the situation where the researchers

wouldn’t assume the students to engage in if they did not arrive to an appropriate and logical

decision.

Schruder (2012) mentioned factors basis theories for career of an individual which are

reviewed to understand how factors theories help individual in career. Objectives factors: This

theory assumes that the applicants are rational and the Right Management carried out a survey on

the reason why people’s change their jobs and found the following reasons for career changing.

Career can also be described as profession occupation or business of any individual and

can be considers as a person’s working life.


STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The main problem of the study was to know the factors that affect grade 12 senior high

school students’ alumni of DMMC Institute of Health Sciences in taking unrelated courses to

their track. Specifically, this study seeks to answer the following questions:

1. What are the demographics profile of the respondents;

1.11 Age

1.12 Gender

1.13 Track

1.14 Course in college

2. What are the factors that affect grade 12 students taking unrelated courses to their track?

1.11 Family factors

1.12 Schools factors

1.13 Financial factors

1.14 Economic factors

1.15 Peer influence

3. What are the advantage and disadvantage of taking unrelated courses to their track?

4. What are the concerned of grade 12 student’s alumni to the practicality of the course?

5. How does financial stability affect the availability and duration of the course?
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

This study uses the Input, Process and Output Framework below is the diagram that

shows the framework of the study.

Input Process Output

Factors that affect grade Conducting survey Propose plan of action

12 SHS student’s alumni through distributions strengthen the course

of DMMCIHS in taking of questionnaires. preference of senior

unrelated courses to their high school students at

track in terms of: DMMCIHS.

 Family factors

 Schools factors

 Financial factors

 Peers influence

Figure 1: Conceptual chart about the process for conducting this study

Research Paradigm

The objectives of this study is to understand and to know the factors that affect grade 12

senior high school students’ alumni of DMMC Institute of Health Sciences in taking unrelated

courses to their track

Figure 1 above showed the conceptual chart of the process on how the researcher is able

to conduct this study and to collect the data which is need to get a result. The input indicated the

data that were use, then the process showed where you could read the different techniques in

collecting data, followed by the output, where the expected outcome result was located.
The flow of this study was; first, the data needed to this research was the demographic

profile of the respondents and the perception of the following tracks (STEM, ABM, HUMMS)

about the factors that affect grade 12 senior high school students’ alumni of DMMC Institute of

Health Sciences. Then in order to get the result, the researchers conducted a survey to the

selected respondents. After conducting the survey, the researchers arranged the data that were

collected and with the use of some statistical techniques the researchers were able to compute the

results in order to create the conclusion for this study.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

A course can have a lot to say about the employment prospects of job seekers it is

important that incoming college students take some time to evaluate options. A path can make

grate impact for your future which plays a great role on what you will become, that is why, as a

graduating student, it is important to consider various options that will affect your choices on

what course to take in college.

The academic experience is a work experience obtained in an academic environment of

the respondent. Educational experience refers to the problem on the academic knowledge of the

defendants, and the general average of the grades.

Educational aspiration refers to the wants, ambition, and expectation among the grade 12

students. Educational aspiration denotes the determination of a students with the skills, capacity

and abilities. Parents, in particular, have been seen as the most significant theirs in shaping

aspiration because they provide the opportunities, encouragement, and support for their children

are teaching. For students who have aspiration and expectations for their future, they have

perseverance in pursuing their studies


HYPOTHESIS

The researchers hypothesized that:

H1. There is a significant relationship between the factors and the effect in taking unrelated

course on their track.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study can be very important to the following:

Students. the study will provide the students with enough knowledge to the students more

specifically in the senior high school students. It will give them an idea and awareness in

different factors that affect senior high school students in taking unrelated courses in college.

Parents. Knowing the factors that affect course preferences and understanding their children’s

choice will save them from unnecessary expenses due to failures and shifting of courses. The

findings could serve as advice to them that they should not be the one to decide on the course

which their children would pursue.

Community. this study will help to improve our community because of the readiness of the

students to their chosen college program that can help them to be a professional and well trained

that can make us to have an innovative community.

Guidance Councillor. one of the major functions of a guidance counsellor is helping

high school students select courses that are suited to their capabilities and interests. This study,

especially the career guidance program developed, would be very helpful to guidance

counsellors in performing this function.

Future Researchers. this study will give an idea to know the advantages of knowing the tracks

that are aligned to their chosen college program. They will be knowledgeable enough in handling

their chosen college program.


SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This research focus on analyzing the factors that affect grade 12 senior high school

students’ alumni of DMMC Institute of Health Sciences in taking unrelated courses to their track

in terms different factors such as family, schools, financial and peers influence.

The study is limited to determine the effect of the factors that affect the students’ decision

in taking unrelated course in their track. This study includes the grade 12 students of DMMCIHS

by conducting a survey.

Certain variables were including by the researchers to determine the effect of the factors

that affect the students’ decisions in taking unrelated course in their track. These variables

include the students’ family income, place in the family and reasons that made that students

choose the college course.

The respondents were limited only to the to the Grade 12 alumni students of DMMC

Institute of Health Sciences. Furthermore, the respondents will be 10 for the STEM, 10 for the

ABM, and 10 for the HUMSS total of 30 randomly selected students.

DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This study deals with the factors that affect grade 12 SHS students in taking unrelated

course in their track at DMMC Institute of Health Sciences during 2018-2019. The study was

focused on the grade 12 student’s alumni in DMMCIHS who are having experience to take

unrelated courses to their track.


DEFINITION OF TERMS

Department of Education. The executive department of the Philippine government responsible

for ensuring access to, promoting equity in, and improving the quality of basic education. It is

the main agency tasked to manage and govern the Philippine system of basic education.

Embodiment. A tangible or visible form of an idea, quality, or feeling.

Guidance Counsellor. A person who is employed, usually in a school, to offer advice on

problems, help troubled students and assist students in making career or college plans.

Educational Aspiration. This are an important in predicting academic achievements and may be

seen as an element in academic achievement motivation, focusing as they do on the desire for

success and the development of academic objectives to succeed in education, particular

education fields or to gain a particular degree.

Academic Experience. it is a defined as any work experience obtained in an academic

environment which may satisfy one or more areas of CIMA’S PER. Guidelines.

Adolescence. It is the period following the onset of puberty during which a young person

develops from a child into an adult.

Tertiary Education. It is also referred to as third stage, third level, and postsecondary education,

is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education.

The World Bank, for example, defines tertiary education as including universities as well as

trade schools and colleges.

Proper Counseling. advice and support that is given to people to help them deal with problems,

make important decisions, etc.

Career Orientation. is a career development instructional guidance program designed to

prepare students to have a greater understanding of educational and career opportunities and

options and to assist them in making meaningful and informed career choice?
Mechanical Comprehension. is an assessment tool for measuring a candidate's ability to

perceive and understand the relationship of physical forces and mechanical elements in practical

situations?

Social Learning Theory. is a theory of learning and social behavior which proposes that new

behaviors can be acquired by observing and imitating others?

Availability. the quality of being able to be used or obtained.

Academic Experience. defined as any work experience obtained in an academic environment

which may satisfy one or more areas of CIMA's PER. Guidelines. Teaching and lecturing, even

in accountancy and related subjects, do not satisfy any of the PER.

Educational Aspiration. relation to academic achievement and socioeconomic status among

high school students. A plan is defined as a person's perception of what he will be doing. or will

have accomplished at some future date.


Chapter II

METHODLOGY

This chapter deals with the procedures that was utilized in the study. This chapter deals with the

research design, sampling techniques, research locale, respondents of the study, source of data,

validity and reliability, data gathering, statistical analysis.

RESEARCH DESIGN

This method of research used by the researchers is quantitative approach descriptive

research. Descriptive studies are aimed at finding out "what is," (what are the characteristics of

the population or situation being studied?) so observational and survey methods are frequently

used to collect descriptive data (Borg & Gall, 2010). Describe characteristics of a population or

phenomenon being studied. It does not answer questions about how/when/why the characteristics

occurred. The characteristics used to describe the situation or population are usually some kind

of categorical scheme also known as descriptive categories. It explores the relationship between

variables using statistical analyses and it is mostly observational in terms of data collection. This

kind of research design is the best way and applicable to the problem of the study that the

research wants to answered.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

The researchers will use stratified random sampling order to avoid biased samples. They

will use stratified random sampling to obtain a sample population that best represents the entire

population being studied. According to Investopedia (2017), its advantages include minimizing

sample selection bias and ensuring certain segments and it is also advantageous when it can be

used accurately because it ensures each subgroup within the population receives proper
representation within the sample. This sampling technique is done through dividing population

into categories or stratified random sampling and getting the accurate number of random

proportion to each stratum or subgroup. This technique will help the researchers to have an

accurate or precise answers coming from their respondents.

Track Number of respondents

STEM 10

ABM 10

HUMSS 10

RESEARCH LOCALE

The researchers will be conducting this study through the use of technology such as

google survey that will be send to the alumni of DMMCIHS by means of social media like

Facebook Messenger. It has been chosen as the locale of the study so it will be easier for the

respondents to answer the following questions just by clicking the link and the questions will

appear.

RESPONDENTS OF THE STUDY

The respondents of this study are randomly selected from each track of grade 12 student’s

alumni of DMMC Institute of Health Sciences. We chose them as our respondents to know what

are the possible factors that affect taking unrelated course to their track.
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

SOURCE OF DATA

The researchers made a self-made questionnaire as the primary source of data in

gathering information needed to support their study. Through this, the researchers will distribute

the survey questionnaire by means of internet to the alumni students of DMMC Institute of

Health Sciences to meet the aim of the research and it best served to answer the questions and the

purpose of the study.

VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY

The first draft questionnaire was presented to the adviser to seek comments and

suggestion, after all the suggestion was incorporated, the final draft of the questionnaire was

made and produced. The validity and reliability was tested by the statistician using Cronbach

Alpha.

DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE

All data that were relevant to the topics of the study were gathered personally by the

researchers. The secondary data were gathered from internet.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

In this study, statistical analysis will be done to determine the relationship between its

variable. Different statistical tool will be used such as frequency table and weight mean. The data

which will be used will come the result of the questionnaire. This will be computed using the

following formulas:
From question no.1,2,3&4. Weight mean and Frequency table

∑fx ∑𝑋 𝑊𝑥
W.M = ∑= x=
𝑁 𝑁 𝑁

Where: W.M = Weight mean

x = Weight of each scale item value

f = frequency of x

N = Overall total of the frequency for each item value

A frequency table is a method of organizing raw data in a compact form by displaying a

series of scores in ascending or descending order, together with their frequencies the number of

times each score occurs in the respective data set. Included in a frequency table are typically a

column for the scores and a column showing the frequency of each score in the data set.

However, more detailed tables may also contain relative frequencies (proportions) and

percentages. Frequency tables may be computed for both discrete and continuous variables and

may take either an ungrouped or a grouped format.

From question 5. T-test. the researchers use T-test to know if there is significant

difference between availability and duration of the course. According to Kim (2015) T-test is use

to determine whether the means of two groups are statistically different from each other. It is

also use when you want to compare the means of two groups.
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Andrew Sokatch, Education and Urban Society, (unknown place and name of publication), 2006

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Bolu-Steve, F. N., & Sanni, W. O. (2013). Influence of family background on the academic

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https://doi.org/10.1177/106907279300100405

Investopedia (2017), URL: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/stratified_random_sampling.asp

Borg & Gall, 2010, URL:

https://www.scirp.org/(S(351jmbntvnsjt1aadkposzje))/reference/ReferencesPapers.aspx?

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