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Toward a Standard Thermistor Calibration Method:

Data Correction Spreadsheets


by Matthew D. Alexander and Kerry T.B. MacQuarrie

Abstract
Temperature is one of the most frequently measured physical phenomena in environmental research. Many laboratory
and field investigations of temperature use commercially available temperature loggers that come from the manufacturer
precalibrated. After-market calibration of temperature loggers provides more confidence in measured data. This paper pro-
poses a general method for calibrating temperature loggers in order to obtain consistent, high-quality data. A procedure and
derivation of equations for performing logger calibration is presented. Spreadsheets are described for calculating correction
coefficients and adjusting proxy data to a reference temperature. A temperature logger calibration example demonstrates the
importance of instrument calibration and the improvement in accuracy. The procedure and spreadsheets presented here can
be used for calibration and correction of data from any type of thermistor.

Introduction require little maintenance while deployed. Temperature


Temperature is one of the most frequently measured loggers generally come from the manufacturer precali-
physical parameters in environmental research. Many sur- brated, but this calibration should be tested for correctness.
face water studies use temperature for investigating anthro- Calibration of multiple loggers installed at a site or study
pogenic impacts, such as forest harvesting (Holtby 1988; area will ensure that all data are comparable. Additionally,
Johnson and Jones 2000) and climate change (Hauer et al. calibration will typically yield improved logger accuracy.
1997; Westmacott and Burn 1997; Langan et al. 2001). The The sensitivity and measurement range for a thermistor
accurate determination of temperature is important in may also degrade over time, and recalibration may be
ground water–surface water interaction studies focusing on required on a regular basis.
ground water–surface water connectivity (Doussan et al. Figure 1 shows data obtained from a temperature log-
1994; Silliman et al. 1995) and in research focusing on ger that was received from a manufacturer and used with-
cold water fish habitat (Curry et al. 1995; Alexander and out after-market calibration. Temperatures measured using
Caissie 2003), lake hydrology (Mellina et al. 2002; Oltchev a mercury thermometer calibrated to National Institute of
et al. 2002), wetland hydrology (Hunt et al. 1996; Bravo Scientific Testing (NIST) standards are also plotted. The
et al. 2002), and near-shore ocean environments (Land and data show that the logger underestimates the reference tem-
Paull 2001; Moore et al. 2003). Temperature has also been perature during step 1 and step 3 and overestimates the ref-
extensively used for investigating ground water recharge erence temperature during step 2. Data from the same
(e.g., Stallman 1965; Sorey 1971; Boyle and Saleem 1979; logger, following after-market calibration, is plotted for
Taniguchi et al. 1999; Constantz et al. 2003; Ferguson et al. comparison (Figure 1). It is evident that calibration pro-
2003), interpreting ground water flow direction (Drury duces a more accurate fit of the proxy data to the reference
et al. 1984; Reiter 2001), determining ground water travel temperature.
time (Nightingale 1975; Lapham 1989), and monitoring the The purpose of this paper is to propose a general
progress of ground water remediation (Puhakka et al. method for calibrating temperature loggers (i.e., those that
2000). employ negative temperature coefficient [NTC] thermis-
Commercially available temperature loggers (i.e., self- tors) in order to obtain consistent, high-quality data. A pro-
contained data measuring and recording instruments) are cedure and derivation of equations for performing logger
used for many field investigations. These loggers, which calibration are presented. Spreadsheets are described for
often employ a thermistor, are very user friendly and calculating correction coefficients and adjusting proxy
data to a reference temperature. The importance of instru-
ment calibration and the improvement in accuracy is dem-
Copyright ª 2005 National Ground Water Association. onstrated through an example.

Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation 25, no. 4/ Fall 2005/pages 75–81 75
40

30000
30 Step 3

Resistance (Ohms)
Temperature (ºC)

20 20000

10 Step 2
10000

Step 1 Mercury thermometer temperature


0 Uncorrected temperature logger data
Corrected temperature logger data

0
-10 -40 -20 0 20 40
09:00 11:00 13:00 15:00
Temperature (ºC)
Time (HH:mm)
Figure 2. Example of the nonlinear response of resistance vs.
Figure 1. Example of how the temperature from a thermistor temperature for an NTC thermistor.
can deviate from that of a reference temperature. Data correc-
tion, via thermistor calibration, produces data that better
matches the temperature it is referenced to.

Steinhart and Hart (1968) examined ~100 relationships


between resistance and temperature using equations that
Steinhart-Hart Thermistor Calibration Method had from two to five fitted constants. Their analyses yiel-
ded a highly precise third-order modified log polynomial
The most critical concept in temperature measurement
equation (standard error of 1.62 3 104 over a 200C tem-
is instrument accuracy, which is a function of how well
perature range; n ¼ 21 observations) for correcting proxy
instrument-measured temperature agrees with a reference
temperature measurements made from NTC thermistors.
temperature. Ideally, all temperature instruments should be
The full equation was slightly modified because it was
calibrated to a reference temperature over the range of
determined that the squared term in the polynomial expres-
expected measurement before and after use (i.e., to deter-
sion resulted in a less accurate model fit, so the term was
mine potential drift in measurements). Only then can the
eliminated. The general form of the Steinhart-Hart equa-
temperatures measured by the instrument be adjusted to
tion is expressed as (Steinhart and Hart 1968):
a reference temperature. This is important when using tem-
perature from a series of different loggers because the cali- T 1 5 A 1 B ln R 1 Cðln RÞ3 (2)
bration procedure will align all the measurements to
a common benchmark. In addition, only temperatures from where A, B, and C are dimensionless variables referred to
calibrated instruments can be confidently compared. as the Steinhart-Hart calibration coefficients (hereafter
Thermally sensitive resistors (i.e., thermistors) are one referred to as the S-H coefficients). This equation remains
of the most commonly used temperature measurement de- in use because it is the most accurate function for fitting
vices because they are robust (they can be installed in proxy data to reference temperature data (ILX Lightwave
many environments), they have a high degree of accuracy 2000a, 2000b). The method generally yields a precision of
(generally <0.01C can be easily attained), and they are 60.001C over the range of 40C to 1150C.
relatively inexpensive (~$100US). Thermistors measure Manufacturers typically supply the S-H coefficients for
the response of resistance to temperature variations and thermistors. Manufacturer-applied S-H coefficients are
use this as a proxy for temperature. There are two types of sometimes identical for the same model of thermistor; how-
thermistors available, NTC thermistors and positive tem- ever, these coefficients may vary for individual thermistor
perature coefficient (PTC) thermistors, of which NTC ther- units. The procedure for determining the S-H coefficients in-
mistors are the most common. The response of resistance volves measuring the thermistor resistance for three known
vs. temperature for a thermistor is highly nonlinear and is temperatures (i.e., measured using a previously calibrated
almost exponential in nature as shown in Figure 2. An instrument). The temperature span for calibration should
approximation for the relationship between resistance and extend slightly beyond the range of measurement desired
temperature is given by (BetaTHERM Sensors 2004): for the thermistor (the smaller the range, the better the
b  model will fit the data) using evenly spaced measurement
R 5 ae T (1) points. Generally, the three temperature points used for the
calibration are the lower bound, upper bound, and midpoint
where R is resistance [L2MT3I2], a is the temperature between the two bounds of maximum desired range.
coefficient of resistance, which is a material characteristic To perform the calibration, it is critical to have a system
[T1], b is a material constant that accounts for the expo- that can maintain temperatures with a high degree of sta-
nential nature of the equation [L2MT3I2], and T is tem- bility. A highly stable thermal environment can be created
perature [T]. Equation 1 is a general approximation for within a circulating liquid bath because logger immersion
curve-fitting thermistor data. ensures complete contact between the thermistor and the

76 M.D. Alexander and K.T.B. MacQuarrie/ Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation 25, no. 4: 75–81
liquid medium. Briefly, logger calibration is performed as and
follows: (1) set the lower bound temperature for the circu- 1
1
lating bath and allow it to stabilize; (2) following stabiliza-   
1 1 T1 T3
tion, read and record the temperature of the fluid (T1)  ½ðlnR1 ÞðlnR2 Þ3
T1 T2 ðlnR1 ÞðlnR3 Þ
using a calibrated reference temperature instrument; (3) C 5h i h i ðlnR Þ3 ðlnR Þ3
3 3 1 3
measure and record the thermistor resistance (R1) at that ðlnR1 Þ ðlnR2 Þ  ðlnR1 ÞðlnR2 Þ 3
ðlnR1 ÞðlnR3 Þ
temperature (resistance measurements should, at a mini-
(9)
mum, be made in triplicate for improved modeling accu-
racy); and (4) repeat the previous steps for the midpoint (T2 Entering temperature and resistance data for three mea-
and R2) and for the upper temperature bound (T3 and R3). surement points provides the solution to the system of
Following these steps, the data can be used with Equation 2 equations. The equations can be efficiently solved using
to calculate the S-H coefficients. a spreadsheet. Additionally, a spreadsheet formatted with
the equations is useful for calibrating a large number of
thermistors.
Derivation of Spreadsheet Equations
Equation 2 contains three unknowns (the S-H co-
efficients), which must be solved in order to model therm- The Spreadsheet Model
istor resistance data. The expression for the three The spreadsheet, S-H COEFFICIENTS.XLS, was dev-
temperature values is: eloped to perform two functions based on the Steinhart-
Hart equation. These functions are (1) to calculate the S-H
Ti1 5 A 1 Bðln Ri Þ 1 Cðln Ri Þ3 (3) coefficients from user-entered thermistor resistance and
where i ¼ 1, 2, 3. reference temperature data for three measurement points
Three unknowns (A, B, and C) are contained in the and (2) to use the calculated S-H coefficients to calculate
previous equations. These equations can be solved simulta- corrected temperature from measured resistance data.
neously using matrix solution methods or using sequential The spreadsheet was designed to run directly from the
substitution. Presented here is the method for sequentially windows environment within Microsoft Excel (version 9.0).
solving for the S-H coefficients. Combining Equations 1 S-H COEFFICIENT.XLS directs the user via a graphical
and 2 and expressing the resulting equation with respect to environment. The workbook is divided into three user-
R gives: friendly worksheets: (1) Homepage; (2) Calibration; and
" (3) Data Transformation. The Homepage worksheet pro-
 2 2 3   2 2 3 # vides information on the spreadsheet model (references)
a a b3 a a b3
1 1 1  1 and contains links to the other worksheets. The Calibration
2 4 27 2 4 27
R5e worksheet is used to calculate the S-H coefficients. In this
worksheet, the user is prompted to enter thermistor resis-
(4) tance data and temperature measured using a reference
The temperature coefficient of resistance in Equation 4 instrument for three measurement points. From these data,
can be defined as: the model will calculate the S-H coefficients for that partic-
ular thermistor. To convert resistance data measured from
A  T11 a thermistor to corrected temperature, the Data Trans-
a5 (5)
C formation worksheet can be used.
These spreadsheets are available for free download
Similarly, the material constant in Equation 4 is repre-
from http://www.unb.ca/civil/hydro/water.htm.
sented by:
sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 3  2 ffi
B a
b5 1 (6) Temperature Logger Calibration Example
3C 4
To demonstrate the importance of instrument calibra-
Now the system of equations can easily be solved. By tion, the results for a laboratory calibration of nine
combining Equation 3 with Equations 4 through 6, three VEMCO Minilog TX temperature loggers (VEMCO Lim-
functions for sequentially calculating the S-H coefficients ited, Nova Scotia, Canada) used by the authors are pre-
using laboratory calibration data can be derived. The first sented. These loggers are commonly used for measuring
S-H coefficient is defined as: water temperatures in the field (e.g., Alexander 1998;
Curry et al. 2002; Alexander and Caissie 2003; MacDonald
A1 5 T1  Cðln R1 Þ3  Bðln R1 Þ (7)
et al. 2003; Alexander and MacQuarrie in press; Dawe and
Equation complexity increases with the S-H coefficient as MacQuarrie in press). The loggers measure the NTC of
shown by the other two expressions: electrical resistance using a thermistor and record tempera-
  h i ture within the internal memory. The stainless steel sensor
1 1 3 3
T1  T2  C ðln R1 Þ  ðln R2 Þ is 3 mm in diameter and is located at the tip of a 10-cm-long,
B5 (8) 2-cm–outside diameter polyvinyl chloride housing. All log-
ðln R1 Þ  ðln R2 Þ
gers of the same type (i.e., TX) come from the manufacturer

M.D. Alexander and K.T.B. MacQuarrie/ Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation 25, no. 4: 75–81 77
preloaded with a common set of S-H coefficients for con- temperature measurements. Temperatures within the con-
verting measured resistance to temperature. As received stant-temperature circulator were logged every 10 s, and
from the manufacturer, the temperature loggers have a mea- temperatures in the bath were maintained for a minimum of
surement range of 5C to 135C with a 0.2C resolution 15 min in order to obtain multiple measurements from the
and a 60.3C accuracy. These loggers do not measure loggers for improved calibration accuracy.
a continuous change in resistance but rather measure resis- Six temperature steps were imposed during the labora-
tance changes in steps that are directly recorded as tempera- tory calibration; however, data from only three steps were
ture in increments of 0.156C. used for calculating the S-H coefficients. Data from the
A constant-temperature circulator (Polyscience, Nites, other steps were used to verify the calibration results. The
Illinois) that has a temperature range of 45C to 1200C complete set of calibration data for two temperature loggers
and a stability of 60.01C was used for controlling and (i.e., logger 3634 and logger 3635) is shown in Figure 3.
maintaining constant temperatures. A 1:1 mixture of ethyl- For clarity, the data for the other seven temperature loggers
ene glycol and water was used for the reservoir fluid to cal- are not shown in the graph, but the results are similar to
ibrate the thermistors in the range of 30C to 140C. A those shown. Additional panels of Figure 3 show exploded
NIST-referenced mercury thermometer (scale range: 8C views of the individual temperature steps for comparison of
to 132C) with an accuracy of 60.1C was used for mea- the thermistor proxy data to the reference temperature.
suring the temperature of the reservoir fluid and is referred During all temperature steps, the true temperature of
to hereafter as the reference temperature. All the loggers the reservoir fluid was constant, indicating that the system
were programmed for synchronized time-triggered was stable at the set temperature. Logger 3634, during all

A) Thermistor data set prior to Steinhart-Hart coefficient correction


30 Step 6:
upper-bound
calibration point
Step 5

20

Step 1: Step 4:
10 lower-bound mid-point
calibration point calibration point

Step 3 Logger 3634 uncorrected temperature


Logger 3635 uncorrected temperature
Step 2
0 Reference temperature - NIST calibrated
Temperature (ºC)

Logger accuracy bounds

12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00

-3.8 0.2 4.2

-4.0 B) Step 1: lower-bound 0.0 C) Step 2 4.0 D) Step 3

-4.2 -0.2 3.8

-4.4 -0.4 3.6

-4.6 -0.6 3.4


12:00 12:10 12:20 12:50 13:00 13:10 13:30 13:40 13:50

14.2 24.2 32.2

14.0 E) Step 4: mid-point 24.0 F) Step 5 32.0 G) Step 6: upper-bound

13.8 23.8 31.8

13.6 23.6 31.6

13.4 23.4 31.4


14:20 14:30 14:40 15:10 15:20 15:30 15:55 16:05

Time (HH:mm)

Figure 3. Temperature measurement data for two temperature loggers for (A) the complete six-step laboratory calibration experi-
ment. Panels B through G show exploded views of each temperature step. Note: The time scale for step 6 is only 15 min as opposed
to 20 min for all other steps.

78 M.D. Alexander and K.T.B. MacQuarrie/ Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation 25, no. 4: 75–81
temperature steps, underestimated the true temperature. In
contrast, logger 3635, during all temperature steps except Table 1
step 1, overestimated the true temperature. The tempera- Statistical Summary of Laboratory Calibration
ture measured by each logger varied less than 61 logger Temperature (8C) Data for Nine Temperature Log-
temperature resolution (i.e., 0.156C); however, this gers Prior to Applying the Steinhart-Hart Correction
increased to almost 62 logger resolutions when data
Logger ID Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6
for the two loggers were combined. Temperature measured
by logger 3635 was more variable than that measured Reference 4.15 0.20 3.80 13.80 23.80 31.82
by logger 3634. The temperatures measured by the two 3628 4.40 0.27 3.69 13.75 23.79 31.87
loggers fall within the accuracy range reported by the 3629 4.23 0.26 3.69 13.75 23.72 31.69
manufacturer. 3630 4.23 0.26 3.80 13.84 23.88 31.88
Table 1 provides the mean temperature for each logger 3631 4.19 0.14 3.84 13.90 23.88 31.88
during the six temperature steps. The results show that the 3632 4.23 0.26 3.83 13.86 23.88 31.88
difference of the logger temperature from the true tempera- 3633 4.28 0.26 3.69 13.75 23.78 31.87
3634 4.40 0.41 3.69 13.68 23.72 31.69
ture, for all nine loggers, was within the manufacturer-
3635 4.23 0.20 3.84 13.82 23.87 31.88
reported accuracy bounds; however, in two instances dur- 3637 4.23 0.26 3.69 13.75 23.86 31.87
ing step 1 two loggers (i.e., 3628 and 3634) were very near Range1 0.215 0.265 0.155 0.221 0.16 0.19
the lower boundary. In all steps, the temperature range
among the nine loggers was less than the accuracy bounds. Note: All steps had 122 measurements per logger, except step 6 that only had 92
measurements per logger.
The temperature range for step 2 was very close to the re- 1
Maximum logger mean difference  minimum logger mean difference.
ported accuracy limits. For negative temperatures, the log-
gers tended to underestimate the true temperature. For
positive temperatures, the number of loggers that under-
estimated the true temperature decreased as the tempera- The data correction yielded an increased accuracy for the
ture increased. loggers. Following calibration, the accuracy became the
Temperature data from steps 1, 4, and 6 were used to same as the measurement resolution of 60.156C, which is
calculate the S-H calibration coefficients. The calculated a 100% increase in logger accuracy.
coefficients were used to correct the laboratory calibration A statistical summary for all nine loggers, after Stein-
data. The corrected data for the same two loggers in hart-Hart correction, is provided in Table 2. Results show
Figure 3 (i.e., logger 3634 and logger 3635) are plotted in that the difference from the reference temperature is zero
Figure 4. After correction, the temperature measured by or very near zero for the three steps used for calibrating the
the loggers fluctuated about the reference temperature loggers. The temperature range between sensors decreased
instead of measuring temperatures entirely above or below. considerably between pre- and post-data correction.

-3.8 0.2 4.2


A) Step 1: lower-bound B) Step 2 C) Step 3
-4.0 0.0 4.0

-4.2 -0.2 3.8

-4.4 -0.4 3.6


Temperature (ºC)

-4.6 -0.6 3.4


12:00 12:10 12:20 12:50 13:00 13:10 13:30 13:40 13:50

14.2 24.2 32.2


D) Step 4: mid-point E) Step 5 F) Step 6: upper-bound
14.0 24.0 32.0

13.8 23.8 31.8

13.6 23.6 31.6

13.4 23.4 31.4


14:20 14:30 14:40 15:10 15:20 15:30 15:55 16:05

Time (HH:mm)

Logger 3634 corrected temperature


Logger 3635 corrected temperature
Reference temperature - NIST calibrated
Improved logger accuracy bounds

Figure 4. Temperature measurement data following Steinhart-Hart correction for data from two temperature loggers for the
zoomed-in step data from Figure 3. Note: the time scale for step 6 is only 15 min as opposed to 20 min for all other steps.

M.D. Alexander and K.T.B. MacQuarrie/ Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation 25, no. 4: 75–81 79
from spatially distributed temperature loggers, it is parti-
Table 2 cularly important to have loggers calibrated to common
Statistical Summary of Laboratory Calibration benchmark temperatures. The results presented here dem-
Temperature (8C) Data for Nine Temperature onstrate that temperature loggers can vary considerably in
Loggers Following Steinhart-Hart Correction the temperature that they record; however, through calibra-
tion the measurements can be referenced to a common
Logger ID Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6
benchmark and the temperature accuracy can often be
Reference 4.15 0.20 3.80 13.80 23.80 31.82 improved.
3628 4.15 0.08 3.84 13.80 23.78 31.82 The procedure and spreadsheet solutions for the S-H
3629 4.15 0.20 3.74 13.80 23.80 31.82 coefficients presented here allow for rapid calibration of
3630 4.15 0.21 3.82 13.81 23.82 31.82 multiple thermistor-based loggers. An additional spread-
3631 4.15 0.16 3.79 13.80 23.78 31.82 sheet is available that can be used to calibrate those loggers
3632 4.15 0.22 3.84 13.81 23.81 31.82 that directly store temperature, rather than resistance data.
3633 4.15 0.14 3.79 13.80 23.78 31.82
3634 4.15 0.20 3.87 13.81 23.84 31.82
3635 4.15 0.15 3.87 13.81 23.83 31.82
3637 4.15 0.18 3.77 13.80 23.86 31.82
Acknowledgments
Range1 0.002 0.144 0.129 0.014 0.08 0 The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Coun-
cil of Canada (NSERC) supported M.D. Alexander under
Note: All steps had 122 measurements per logger, except step 6 that only had scholarship 231069-2000 PGSA. Research support was
92 measurements per logger. Steps 1, 4, and 6 were used for calculating the
Steinhart-Hart calibration coefficients. provided through an NSERC Discovery Grant awarded to
1
Maximum logger mean difference  minimum logger mean difference. K.T.B. MacQuarrie. A Department of Fisheries and
Oceans Science Subvention Grant was also used for
research support. The authors wish to thank D. Caissie and
R.A. Curry for initial manuscript review and the anony-
The temperature loggers used for this example, as mous reviewers for their valuable comments.
with many other commercially available temperature log-
gers, record temperature and not resistance in their mem- Editor’s Note: The use of brand names in peer-reviewed
ory. These temperature loggers generally come from the papers is for identification purposes only and does not con-
manufacturer precalibrated with the S-H coefficients. A stitute endorsement by the authors, their employers, or the
particular model of temperature logger will often have National Ground Water Association.
a common set of calibration coefficients, which indicates
that each one is not individually calibrated. Although
these loggers record temperature and not resistance, they
References
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water inflow measurements in wetland systems. Water Re- Steinhart, I.S., and S.R. Hart. 1968. Calibration curves for ther-
sources Research 32, no. 3: 495–507. mistors. Deep Sea Research 15, no. 3: 497–503.
ILX Lightwave Corporation. 2000a. Selecting and using thermis- Taniguchi, M., D.R. Williamson, and A.J. Peck. 1999. Dis-
tors for temperature control. Application note: Report no. 2. turbances of temperature-depth profiles due to surface climate
ILX Lightwave Corporation, Bozeman, Montana. change and subsurface water flow: 2. An effect of step
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Land, L.A., and C.K. Paull. 2001. Thermal gradients as a tool for Biographical Sketches
estimating groundwater advective rates in a coastal estuary: Matthew D. Alexander, B.Sc., GIT, is completing a Ph.D. in
White Oak River, North Carolina, USA. Journal of Hydrology ground water studies from the Department of Civil Engineering,
248, no. 1–4: 198–215. University of New Brunswick (P.O. Box 4400, Fredericton, NB
Langan, S.J., L. Johnston, M.J. Donaghy, A.F. Youngson, D.W. E3B 5A3, Canada; (506) 453-4528; m.alexander@unb.ca). His
Hay, and C. Soulsby. 2001. Variation in river water temper- research focuses on the thermal regime of shallow ground water
atures in an upland stream over a 30-year period. The Science and a small Atlantic salmon stream bordering a clearcut with
of the Total Environment 265, no. 1–3: 195–207. a streamside buffer. His interests include the use of temperature to
Lapham, W.W. 1989. Use of temperature profiles beneath streams investigate ground water–surface water interaction, and numeri-
to determine rates of vertical ground-water flow and vertical cal modeling of ground water flow and heat transport.
hydraulic conductivity. USGS Water-Supply Paper no. 2337. Kerry T.B. MacQuarrie, Ph.D., P.Eng., is a professor in the
USGS, Washington, D.C. Department of Civil Engineering, coordinator of the UNB Ground
MacDonald, J.S., E.A. MacIssac, and H.E. Herunter. 2003. The water Studies Group, and currently holds a Canada Research
effect of variable-retention riparian buffer zones on water tem- Chair in ground water–surface water interaction at the University
peratures in small headwater streams in sub-boreal forest eco- of New Brunswick (P.O. Box 4400, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3,
systems of British-Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forestry Canada; (506) 453-4521; ktm@unb.ca). His research areas
Research 33, no. 8: 1371–1382. include the transport and fate of contaminants in the subsurface
Mellina, E., R.D. Moore, S.G. Hinch, J.S. Macdonald, and and the use of hydraulic, thermal, and geochemical information to
G. Pearson. 2002. Stream temperature responses to clearcut understand ground water–surface water interactions. In addition,
logging in British Columbia: The moderating influences of he conducts research in finite-element modeling of ground water
groundwater and headwater lakes. Canadian Journal of flow and solute transport, and multicomponent reactive transport
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59, no. 12: 1886–1900. modeling.

M.D. Alexander and K.T.B. MacQuarrie/ Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation 25, no. 4: 75–81 81

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