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# MAJOR LOSSES

EXPERIMENT NO: 6

18335A0301

(Submitted on 10/02/19)

ABSTRACT: -
In this experiment Darcy’s friction factor of pipes having different diameters due to viscosity
of fluid are determined. The head loss due to friction results in an equivalent increase in the
internal energy (increase in temperature) of the fluid. Based on this principle many industries
increase their productivity.

## Keywords: Darcy’s friction factor, head loss due to friction, viscosity.

1.INTRODUCTION:
Major losses, which are associated with frictional energy loss per length of pipe depends on
the flow velocity, pipe length, pipe diameter, and a friction factor based on the roughness of
the pipe, and whether the flow is laminar or turbulent (i.e. the Reynolds number of the flow).
Although the head loss represents a loss of energy, it does not represent a loss of total energy of
the fluid. The total energy of the fluid conserves as a consequence of the law of conservation
of energy. In reality, the head loss due to friction results in an equivalent increase in the internal
energy (increase in temperature) of the fluid.
By observation, the major head loss is roughly proportional to the square of the flow rate in
most engineering flows (fully developed, turbulent pipe flow). Moody chart gives the relation
between friction factor, Reynolds number and relative roughness of the pipe.
1.1OBJECTIVES:
 To know various components used in experimental setup
 To design experimental input parameters like diameter of pipe and flow rate of liquid
 To measure different parameters like length of pipe,time required to fill the tank anf
velocity of liquid for different flow rates,
 Evaluate friction factor in pipes using formula f=2gdhf/4lv2
 To compare experimental values with standard values
2.METHODOLOGY:

## 2.1. APPARATUS USED:-

A flow circuit of G. I. pipes of different diameter viz. 16 mm, 21mm, 27mm diameters,
U-tube differential manometer, collecting tank.

## Fig :Major losses experimental setup

2.2SPECIFICATIONS:
Area of collecting tank = 0.075 m2
Length of pipe = 1.3 m
Area of 1 inch pipe = 5.75 ×10-4 m2
Area of ¾ inch pipe = 3.08×10-4 m2
Area of ¼ inch pipe = 2.01×10-4 m2

2.3PROCEDURE:
 Relevant dimensions as diameter and length of pipe between the pressure tapping, area
of collecting tank etc. are taken
 Pressure tapping of a pipe is kept open while for other pipe is closed.
 The flow rate was adjusted to its maximum value. By maintaining suitable amount of
 The discharge flowing in the circuit is recorded together with the water level in the left
and right limbs of manometer tube.
 The flow rate is reduced in stages by means of flow control valve and the discharge &
 This procedure is repeated by closing the pressure tapping of this pipe, together with
other pipes and for opening of another pipe.

3.MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION:

## Hf=head loss in terms of water

Sm=specific gravity of mercury=13.6
Sf=specific gravity of water=1
Discharge, Q=[area of tank×height of tank]/time
Velocity, V = Q/Area of pipe
Friction factor, f = 2gdhf/4lv2
Reynolds Number, Re= 𝛒vD/𝛍
Relative roughness = 𝛆/D
Where,
ρ = density of fluid = 1000kg/m3
v = velocity of fluid
μ = viscosity of fluid
D = diameter of pipe
ε of G.I = 0.15mm
RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS:
Major losses experiment for various pipe fittings has been conducted and Darcy’s friction
factor is calculated and observed the following things.

 Major losses, which are associated with frictional energy loss per length of pipe
depends on the flow velocity, pipe length, pipe diameter, and a friction factor based on
the roughness of the pipe, and whether the flow is laminar or turbulent (i.e. the Reynolds
number of the flow).
 The major head loss is roughly proportional to the square of the flow rate in most
engineering flows (fully developed, turbulent pipe flow).
 When the velocity is reduced there is lower head loss due to friction in the pipe. On the
other hand, if the inside diameter of the pipe is reduced, the flow area decreases, the
velocity of the liquid increases and the head loss due to friction increases.

## TABLE 1 : OBSERVATIONS FROM EXPERIMENT

Tabular form to find friction factor.
DIAMETER VALVE ∆h, Hf=12.6h TIME ACTUAL FRICTION
OF PIPE OPENING h=h1~h2 m of ( sec) DISCHARGE VELOCITY FACTOR
(mm) water (m3/sec) (m/sec)
Full 0.059 0.7375 21.37 3.509×10-4 1.746 0.0146
¾ 0.056 0.7056 22.19 3.379×10-4 1.0815 0.0156
16 ½ 0.057 0.7182 22.70 3.303×10-4 1.644 0.0164
¼ 0.054 0.6804 22.84 3.284×10-4 1.634 0.0154
Full 0.010 0.126 23.72 3.229×10-4 1.048 0.0091
¾ 0.006 0.1008 23.78 3.154×10-4 1.0227 0.0076
21 ½ 0.008 0.110 24.02 3.126×10-4 1.013 0.0078
¼ 0.007 0.0882 25.41 2.956×10-4 0.9578 0.0076
Full 0.005 0.063 23.05 3.170×10-4 0.554 0.0209
27 ¾ 0.004 0.0504 25.61 2.433×10-4 0.512 0.0196
½ 0.004 0.0504 25.97 2.880×10-4 0.505 0.020
¼ 0.002 0.0252 31.38 2.394×10-4 0.417 0.1316

## DIAMETER VALVE Re RELATIVE FRICTION

OF PIPE (mm) OPENING ROUGHNESS FACTOR
Full 27936 0.009 0.017
¾ 26720 0.009 0.018
16 ½ 26240 0.009 0.019
¼ 26080 0.009 0.018
Full 20960 0.008 0.010
¾ 20900 0.008 0.009
21 ½ 20240 0.008 0.009
¼ 19140 0.008 0.009
full 14958 0.006 0.029
¾ 13824 0.006 0.023
27 1/2 13581 0.006 0.006
1/4 11259 0.006 0.006

The actual value of frictional factor are always less than the standard values. The reason for
the deviation may be
 Parallel error in measuring mercury level in manometer
 Improper opening of valves of pipes of different diameter also effects the friction factor
values.
 Improper calculation of time required to fill the tank results in error in discharge of
pipe.
 Taking decimal values in calculating velocity of water also effects friction factor.

CONCLUSION:
 Thus the given experiment is calibrated by finding out the friction factor.
 The various components used in experimental setup such as manometer, ball valves,
pipes of different diameters are studied.
 Evaluated friction factor by varying input parameters like flow rate and diameter of
pipe and calculated the Reynold’s number and relative roughness of various pipes.

REFERENCE:
 www.nptel.com