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Nature Reserves:

A nature reserve (also known as natural reserve, bioreserve, natural/nature preserve, or natural/nature
conserve) is a protected area of importance for flora, fauna or features of geological or other special
interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or
research. Nature reserves may be designated by government institutions in some countries, or by private
landowners, such as charities and research institutions, regardless of nationality. Nature reserves fall into
different IUCN categories depending on the level of protection afforded by local laws. Normally it is more
strictly protected than a nature park.

Nature reserves can be classified into different categories. Many countries have adopted the International
Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) system of categorization to classify their protected area in
accordance to their management objectives.

The different categories consist of :

 Strict Nature Reserve

 Wilderness Area

 National Park

 Natural Monument of Feature

 Habitat/Species Management Area

 Protected Landscape/ Seascape

 Protected Area with sustainable use of natural resources.

Some top Nature Reserves in India are:

Ranthambhore National Park, Jaipur

One of northern India’s largest national parks, Ranthambore National Park is renowned for its population of
tigers. Named for Ranthambore Fort, the Park also contains a number of heritage sites. Along with the
possibility of spotting tigers, wildlife worth keeping an eye out for include leopard, nilgai, wild boar, sambar,
hyena, sloth bear and chital.

Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park, Hyderabad

Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park is the largest greenbelt in Hyderabad and offers sanctuary to
numerous black buck and cheetal deer. It’s also home to panther, civet, wild boar and porcupine, 30 species
of reptiles and over 120 bird species.

Mrugavani National Park, Hyderabad

Protecting an area of 3.6 square kilometres, Mrugavani National Park is home to over 600 plant types.
Animals worth keeping an eye open for include forest cat, civet, Indian hare, cheetal, sambar and wild boar.

Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park, Pune

The Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park, also known as the Rajiv Gandhi Zoo, comprises an animal orphanage, a
zoo and a snake park. The Park is home to a wide variety of reptiles, birds and mammals including a white
tiger, leopard, sloth bears, barking deer, monkeys and elephants.
Indian Botanical Garden, Kolkata

Founded in 1786, the Indian Botanical Garden is home to around 12,000 living plants and over 2.5 million
dried specimens in the herbarium. A famous landmark is the Great Banyan Tree, considered to have the
largest canopy in the world. The garden is also renowned for the massive collections of orchids, palms,
bamboos and screw pines.

Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary and Mollem National Park, Molem

Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary and Mollem National Park is a large protected area situated 57 km east of
Panaji. Home to Bengal tigers, black panthers, leopard, antelope, numerous small animals and prolific
birdlife, the Park encompasses a number of significant temples and the Dudhsagar Falls. It’s also the
homeland of the Dhangar, a group of nomadic shepherds.

Desert National Park, Jaisalmer

The spectacular Desert National Park is a proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site, recognized for the beauty
of its desert ecosystems and fascinating diversity of plants and wildlife. Home to migratory and resident
birds of the desert, the park is a haven for the endangered Great Indian Bustard. Visitors are guaranteed
incredible sightings of birds of prey, reptiles, blackbuck, desert fox, wolf and chinkara. The Desert National
Park is also rich in fossils of dinosaurs and plants, most notably the Wood Fossil Park at Akal with tree
fossils dating back to the Jurassic era.

Bannerghatta Biological Park, Bangalore

Bannerghatta Biological Park is one of India’s national parks and a popular destination for day trippers.
Facilities include an animal rescue centre, a safari park, an aquarium, a snake house, a zoo and an enclosed
butterfly park. The Park is also a trekking destination and the site of ancient temples.

Eravikulam National Park, Kerala

Eravikulam National Park is situated within the mountainous Western Ghats, a UNESCO World Heritage site
and hotspot for biological diversity. Kerala’s largest national park is home to 26 species of mammals
including the ultra-rare Nilgiri Tahr.

Tribal Population:

Adivasi is the collective term for the indigenous peoples of mainland South Asia. Adivasi make up 8.6% of
India's population, or 104 million people, according to the 2011 census, and a large percentage of the
Nepalese population. They comprise a substantial indigenous minority of the population of India and Nepal
and a minority group of the Sri Lankan society called Vedda. The same term Adivasi is used for the ethnic
minorities of Bangladesh and the native Tharu people of Nepal. The word is also used in the same sense in
Nepal, as is another word, janajati (Nepali: जनजा त; janajāti), although the political context differed
historically under the Shah and Rana dynasties.

Adivasi societies are particularly prominent in Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Madhya
Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, West Bengal, and some north-eastern states, and the Andaman and Nicobar
Islands. Many smaller tribal groups are quite sensitive to ecological degradation caused by modernisation.
Both commercial forestry and intensive agriculture have proved destructive to the forests that had endured
swidden agriculture for many centuries. Adivasis in central part of India have been victims of the Salwa
Judum campaign by the Government against the Naxalite insurgency.
Most tribes are concentrated in heavily forested areas that combine inaccessibility with limited political or
economic significance. Historically, the economy of most tribes was subsistence agriculture or hunting and
gathering. Tribal members traded with outsiders for the few necessities they lacked, such as salt and iron. A
few local Hindu craftsmen might provide such items as cooking utensils.

Government policies on forest reserves have affected tribal peoples profoundly. Government efforts to
reserve forests have precipitated armed (if futile) resistance on the part of the tribal peoples involved.
Intensive exploitation of forests has often meant allowing outsiders to cut large areas of trees (while the
original tribal inhabitants were restricted from cutting), and ultimately replacing mixed forests capable of
sustaining tribal life with single-product plantations. Nontribals have frequently bribed local officials to
secure effective use of reserved forest lands.

Human–Wildlife Conflict:

Human–wildlife conflict refers to the interaction between wild animals and people and the resultant
negative impact on people or their resources, or wild animals or their habitat. It occurs when growing
human populations overlap with established wildlife territory, creating reduction of resources or life to some
people and/or wild animals. The conflict takes many forms ranging from loss of life or injury to humans,
and animals both wild and domesticated, to competition for scarce resources to loss and degradation of

Conflict management strategies earlier comprised lethal control, translocation, regulation of population size
and preservation of endangered species. Recent management approaches attempt to use scientific
research for better management outcomes, such as behaviour modification and reducing interaction. As
human-wildlife conflicts inflict direct, indirect and opportunity costs, the mitigation of human-wildlife
conflict is an important issue in the management of biodiversity and protected areas.


Human–wildlife conflict is defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) as "any interaction between
humans and wildlife that results in negative impacts on human social, economic or cultural life, on the
conservation of wildlife populations, or on the environment.Fund for Nature Southern African Regional
Programme Office . The Creating Co-existence workshop at the 5th Annual World Parks Congress (8–17
September 2003, Montreal) defined human-wildlife conflict in the context of human goals and animal needs
as follows:[2] “Human-wildlife conflict occurs when the needs and behavior of wildlife impact negatively on
the goals of humans or when the goals of humans negatively impact the needs of wildlife."


As human populations expand into wild animal habitats, natural wildlife territory is displaced. Reduction in
the availability of natural prey/food sources leads to wild animals seeking alternate sources. Alternately,
new resources created by humans draw wildlife resulting in conflict. The population density of wildlife and
humans increase with overlaps in geographical areas used increasing their interaction thus resulting in
increased physical conflict. Byproducts of human existence offer un-natural opportunity for wildlife in the
form of food and sheltered interference and potentially destructive threat for both man and animals.
Competition for food resources also occurs when humans attempt to harvest natural resources such as
fish and grassland pasture. Another cause of conflict comes from conservation biased toward flagship or
game species that often threatens other species of concern