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Behavior of End-Plate Moment Connections with

Bolts in the Extended Portion

by
Raasheduddin Ahmed

A thesis submitted to the Department of Civil Engineering of Bangladesh


University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, in partial fulfilment of the
requirements for the degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING (STRUCTURAL)

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• #1072a7#

2009

ii
The thesis titled "Behavior of End-Plate Moment Connections with Bolts in the
Extended Portion" submitted by Raasheduddin Ahmed, Student No. 100704309P,
and Session: October 2007 has been accepted as satisfactory in partial fulfilment of
the requirement for the degree of M.Sc. Engg. (Civil and Structural) on 41h July,
2009.

BOARD OF EXAMINERS

Dr. Khan Mahmud Amanat Chairman


Professor (Supervisor)
Department of Civil Engineering, SUET, Dhaka-1000

!L-,~""- Ala 1_6;:) __


Dr. M~kaHa
Professor and Head
rt Member
(Ex-officio)
Department of Civil Engineering, SUET, Dhaka-1000

~-----------
Member
Professor
Department of Civil Engineering, SUET, Dhaka-1000

Dr. Raquib Ahsan Member


Associate Professor
Department of Civil Engineering, SUET, Dhaka-1000

" A~_~.v _
Dr. Anwarul Mustafa, P.Eng. Member
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, (External)
Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology,
141-142 Love Road, Tejgaon IIA, Dhaka-120B

iii
DECLARATION

It is hereby declared that this thesis or any part of it has not been submitted
elsewhere for the award of any degree or diploma.

41h July, 2009

Raasheduddin Ahmed

iv
Dedicated

to

Ma & Saba

v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
No.
Declaration iv

Dedication v

Acknowledgement ix

Abstract x

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 General 1
1.2 Background and Research Significance 1
1.3 Objectives of the Present Study 2
1.4 Methodology of the Study 2
1.5 Organization of the Thesis 3

Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction 4
2.2 Typical Extended End-Plate Moment Connections 5
2.2.1 Typical Configurations 5
Advantages and Disadvantages of End-Plate
2.2.2 8
Connections
2.2.3 Connection Classification 8
2.3 Previous Works 9

2.3.1 Introduction 9

2.3.2 Early Attempts 10

2.3.3 Yield-line Analyses 10


2.3.4 Finite Element Analyses 12
2.4 Recommended Design Procedures 16
2.5 Failure Modes of End-Plate Connections 18
2.6 Performance of Steel Connections in Selected Earthquakes 19
2.7 Remarks 20

vi
Chapter 3 FINITE ELEMENT MODELING AND VALIDATION

3.1 Introduction 21
3.2 Moment-Rotation Relationship 21
3.3 Finite Element Model 23
3.3.1 Modeling Methodology 23
3.3.2 Material Properties 27
3.3.3 Bolt Diameter 28
3.3.4 Loading and Boundary Conditions 30
3.3.5 Meshing 31
3.3.6 Solution Method 31
3.4 Typical Analysis Results 32
3.4.1 Typical Moment-Rotation Behavior 32
3.4.2 Deflected Shapes 34
3.5 Mesh Sensitivity Analysis 36
3.6 Validation of Finite Element Model 38
3.6.1 Modeling Methodology 38
3.6.2 Typical Deflected Shapes 39
3.6.3 Stress Contours 41
3.6.4 Comparison with Test Data 42

Chapter 4 RESULTS OF THE FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

4.1 Introduction 44

4.2 Contribution of Components to Moment-Rotation Relationship 45


Comparison between Conventional End-Plate Configuration
4.3 48
and Configuration of Present Study
4.4 Bolt Stresses over Loading History 49
4.5 Stress Contours 51
4.6 End-Plate Bending 53

4.7 Effect of End-Plate Thickness on Connection Behavior 55

4.8 Effect of Beam Depth on Connection Behavior 56

vii
Chapter 5 ANALYTICAL FORMULATION

5.1 Introduction 61
5.2 Proposed Analytical Formulation 61

5.2.1 Description Of Problem and Objective of Formulation 61

5.2.2 Development of End-Plate Thickness Formula 62


Comparison with Finite Element Analysis Results and
5.3 65
Modification of Analytical Formulation

5.3.1 Development of Modified Analytical Formulation 65


Application of Modified Analytical Formulation and
5.3.2 71
Comparison with Finite Element Results

5.4 Remarks 73

Chapter 6 CONCLUSIONS

6.1 General 74
6.2 Findings 74
6.3 Design Rationale 75
6.4 Scope for Future Investigation 76

REFERENCES 77

Appendix A Beam Sections Used in Finite Element Analysis 81


Appendix B Contribution of Components to Rotation 82
Appendix C Effect of End-Plate Thickness 88
Appendix D M/,o75 vs Rotation Curves 89
Appendix E Finite Element Modeling Data 93

viii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to express my wholehearted gratitude to the Almighty for each and every
achievement of my life.

I would like to express my sincerest gratitude to my thesis supervisor, Dr. Khan


Mahmud Amanat for his guidance and encouragement during the course of this
research and throughout my undergraduate and master's education. I am greatly
indebted to him for all his adept guidance, affectionate assistance, and enthusiastic
encouragement throughout the progress of this thesis. It would have been
impossible to carry out this study without his dynamic direction and critical judgment
of the progress.

I wish to express my deepest gratitude to the Department of Civil Engineering,


SUET, the Head of the Department of Civil Engineering and all the members of the
SPGS committee to give me such a great opportunity of doing my M.Sc. and this
contemporary research work on end-plate connections. I would also like to specially
thank the members of the defense board for their time and patience.

I would like to convey my gratefulness and thanks to all my friends and colleagues
for their assistance and encouragement. Finally, I would like to thank my wife, Rupa,
my parents and my sister, for their undying love, encouragement and support at all
stages of my life. The achievement of this goal would have been impossible without
their blessings.

ix
ABSTRACT
An investigation using analytical and finite element analysis techniques has been
conducted to study the behavior of extended end-plate moment connections having
bolts exclusively in the extended portions of the end-plate. The objective of the study
is the determination of the appropriate end-plate thickness and bolt diameter for a
particular design moment.

Finite element method has been employed to study the behavior of end-plate
connections of several universal beam sections. The moment-rotation relationship of
the connection has been singled out as the best characterization of connection
behavior. The finite element analysis techniques used have been validated against
previous full-scale experimental results of conventional end-plate connections
having both inner and outer bolts. In absence of any available experimental data on
end-plate connections with only outer bolts, the finite element analysis has been
considered as a substitute to full-scale experiments. The contribution of the end-
plate and the bolts to the overall connection behavior has been investigated over the
full range of loading. An analytical formulation to determine the required end-plate
thickness for the extended end-plate connection for a particular design moment has
been developed from plastic theories of structure. The results from the analytical
formulation have been compared against those from the finite element analysis.
Excellent agreement has been observed at design moments near the plastic
moment capacity of the connecting beam. In view of the deviation of results at lower
moment values the analytical formulation has been modified with a multiplication
factor. The modified analytical formulation gives excellent agreement over a wide
range of design moments.

Connection configurations of this type lead to greater flexibility as the connection


behavior is dominated by the bending of the end-plate. In view of the excellent
agreement of the proposed analytical formulation and finite element analysis results,
the proposed formulas for determining end-plate thickness and bolt diameters can
be said to be satisfactory for application in design of the particular connection
configuration of the present study.

x
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL
Bolted end-plate type moment connections are used extensively in steel structures.
However, despite the wide application of this connection and the great amount of
research in this field, it appears that no research has been carried out on the
specific configuration of an extended end-plate connection having bolts exclusively
in the extended portions and no inner bolts. Formal design guidelines are required to
assist designers in choosing the appropriate end-plate thickness and in determining
the corresponding bolt diameters for such a configuration. The selection of the
appropriate end-piate thickness and bolt diameter is of utmost importance to ensure
the safety and economy of the connection, and hence the steel structure. The
present study aims to provide the design engineer some definite guidelines on this
matter.

1.2 BACKGROUND AND RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE


Conventional extended end-plate connections have bolts both in the interior and
exterior portions of the end-plate, i.e. both within and beyond the flanges of the
connected beam. The arrangement of bolts in the connection causes the
conventional end-plate connections to be inherently highly restrained. While this is
not so much of a problem during normal loading conditions, the matter of concern is
the behavior in the event of a major earthquake. This is because joints are the most
vulnerable parts of the entire steel structure. During a severe earthquake only a few
cycles of large deformation may be sufficient to cause failure of steel structural
components (Lee and Stojadinovic, 2007). Steel structures and particularly steel
joints have a history of large-scale failures during earthquakes. The 1985 Mexico
City, Mexico earthquake caused the collapse of several large steel buildings in the
lake bed region of Mexico City (Hamburger, 2006). Brittle fractures were discovered
Introduction 2

in the beam to column connections of several buildings in the San Fernando Valley
immediately following the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake (Hamburger,
2006).

The search continues, therefore, for a particular connection configuration which will
exhibit ductile seismic response through plastic deformation consistent with the high
ductility and moment resisting requirements of seismic resistant connections. In
order to enhance the ductility of conventional end-plate connections, the present
study proposes the omission of the inner row of bolts. The possible advantages of
omitting the inside row of bolts is the increase in flexibility as the end-plate has
greater scope of bending and possible increase in ductility due to plastic
deformation of end-plate. This is in line with the findings of Salazar and Haldar
(2001) who concluded that partially restrained connections reduce the overall
stiffness of frames, but add a major source of energy dissipation. Thus, the resulting
semi-rigid joint behavior is more desirable from an earthquake resistance point of
view.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE PRESENT STUDY


The objective of the present study is to investigate a bolted extended end-plate
moment connection having bolts only in the extended portions of the end-plate
under loading, and to develop a decisive guideline to determine the appropriate end-
plate thickness and bolt diameter for the end-plate connection for a given design
criterion.

1.4 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY


For the purpose of carrying out the investigation, extended end-plate connections for
various universal beam sections have been studied. The moment-rotation
relationship of the connection has been singled out as the best characterization of
connection behavior. Various parameters such as end-plate thickness and beam
depth which influence the moment-rotation relationship and the contribution of
different components to connection rotation have been investigated in detail.

The problem has been approached from two sides. A theoretical analytical
formulation has been developed, and a finite element analysis of the problem has
been carried out. The analytical formulation is based on the fundamental plastic
Introduction 3

theories of structure. The finite element analysis uses shell element for the modeling
of beam and end-plate. Nonlinear spring has been used to model the bolts and
contact surface. The finite element problem is inherently nonlinear due to the
plasticity of the material and changes in the contact area between end-plate and
column flange. Therefore, this requires that, in addition to multiple iterations per load
step for convergence, the loads be applied in small increments, to characterize the
actual load history. Arc-length method has been applied to solve the concerned
nonlinear problem. Lastly, the two approaches have been compared with one
another, and the suggested analytical approach modified.

1.5 ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS


The study has been organized so as to best describe and discuss the problem and
the resulting findings. Chapter 1 introduces the problem and presents an overall
idea of the present study. Chapter 2 introduces the end-plate moment connection
and reviews the available literature that is required to understand the background
theories of end-plate moment connections. Chapter 3 presents the finite element
methodology used in the present study. The chapter describes the modeling,
meshing, boundary conditions, load conditions and solution methods used in the
finite element analysis. Also, in this chapter is the mesh sensitivity analysis required
to determine the appropriate mesh density and the validation of the finite element
modeling techniques against previous experimental data. Chapter 4 presents and
discusses the results of the extensive finite element analysis including the moment-
rotation relationships, deflected shapes and stress contours. Chapter 5 presents the
proposed analytical formulation, and compares the finite element analysis with the
proposed analytical formulation. Finally, the modified analytical formulation is
presented. Chapter 6, the concluding chapter, summarizes the entire work and
makes some recommendations for future research.
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 INTRODUCTION
The use of end-plate moment connections in multi-story, moment resistant frame
construction is becoming more common because of advancements in design
methods and fabrication techniques, both of which have resulted in decreased
costs. Bolted end-plate type moment connections are used extensively in steel
structures, e.g., buildings, bridges, water tanks and transmission towers. They have
the advantages of requiring less supervision and a shorter assembly time than
welded joints. They also have a geometry that is easy to comprehend and can
accommodate minor discrepancies in the dimensions of beams and columns. Also,
bolted joints can be disassembled, if necessary, and are not permanent like welded
joints. Furthermore, as a result of the poor performance of flange-welded moment
connections in comparison to that of bolted and riveted moment connections in the
1995 Kobe earthquake and the 1994 Northridge earthquake (Sumner, 2003), end-
plate moment connections are under serious consideration as an alternative to
welding in seismic regions. The selection of the appropriate end-plate thickness and
bolt diameter to transfer a particular joint moment is of utmost importance to ensure
the safety and economy of the connection, and hence the steel structure.

The extended end-plate connection is used for beam-to-column connections, and in


some cases for beam-to-beam connections. It consists of a plate with bolt holes
drilled or punched, shop welded to a beam section. In case of beam-to-column
connections, the connection is completed in the field when the beam end is bolted to
the flange of a column. The extended end-plate connection is termed "extended"
because the end-plate extends above the top flange of the beam and below the
bottom flange of the beam.
Literature Review 5

2.2 TYPICAL EXTENDED END-PLATE MOMENT CONNECTIONS


2.2.1 Typical Configurations
Four extended end-plate configurations are shown in Figure 2.1. The four-bolt
unstiffened configuration shown in Figure 2.1 (a) is probably the most commonly
used in multi-story frame construction (AISC, 2002). Figure 2.2 shows typical flush
end-plate connections. The difference with extended end-plates is evident as the
end-plates do not extend beyond the beam flanges.

) )
(a) Unstiffened (4 Bolts) (b) Stiffened (4 Bolts)

) )
(c) 4 Bolts Wide (d) Stiffened (8 Bolts)

Figure 2.1 Extended end-plate contigurations (Murray, 2002)

o
) o
)
Figure 2.2 Typical flush end-plate configurations (Murray and Shoemaker, 2002)

Figure 2.3 (a) shows a typical extended end-plate beam-to-column moment


connection. In Figure 2.3 (b) the photograph of an extended end-plate beam-to-
Literature Review 6

beam moment connection is shown. The moment connections transfer the moment
carried by the flanges of the supported beam to the supporting member.

,. ,
. " .. ~

Figure 2.3 (a) A typical extended end-plate beam-to-column moment connection

Figure 2.3 (b) Extended end-plate beam-to-beam moment connection, Desh Bandhu
Sugar Mills, Ghorashaal, Bangladesh
Literature Review 7

Further examples of end-plate moment connections are shown in Figure 2.4 and
Figure 2.5. Figure 2.4 shows a column base plate connection which is essentially
the same as an end-plate connection. In Figure 2.5 the application of the end-plate
moment connection in a gable frame is shown.

Figure 2.4 Column base plate connection, Desh Bandhu Sugar Mills, Ghorashaal

Figure 2.5 End-plate connection used in gable frame, Desh Bandhu Sugar Mills, Ghorashaal
Literature Review 8

2.2.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of End-plate Connections


As with any connection, end-plate connections have certain advantages and
disadvantages (AISC, 2002). The principal advantages are:
(a) The connection is suitable for winter erection in that only field bolting is required.
(b) All welding is done in the shop, eliminating field welding associated problems.
(c) Without the need for field welding, the erection process is relatively fast.
(d) If fabrication is accurate, it is easy to maintain plumbness of the frame.
(e) Lower total installed cost for many cases.

The principal disadvantages are:


(a) The fabrication techniques are somewhat more stringent because of the need for
accurate beam length and squareness of the beam end.
(b) Column out-of-squareness can cause erection difficulties but can be controlled
by fabricating the beams Y. in. to :y. in. short and providing "finger" shims.
(c) End plates often warp due to the heat of welding.
(d) End-plates are subject to lamellar tearing in the region of the top flange tension
weld.
(e) The bolts are in tension, which can result in prying forces.

A number of designers and fabricators in the United States have successfully used
moment end-plate connections for building frames up to 30 stories in height. It is
believed that, in spite of the several disadvantages, moment end-plate connections
can provide economic solutions for rigid frame construction. However, in the
knowledge of the author there is no previous study and hence, no formal design
procedure for end-plate connections having bolts exclusively in the extended
portions of the end-plate.

2.2.3 Connection Classification


A fully restrained (FR) connection assumes the measured angles between
intersecting members are maintained (i.e. no relative rotation) and there is full
transfer of the moments. Partially restrained (PR) connections assume that there will
be some relative rotational movement that occurs between intersecting members,
though there will still be transfer of the moments. Infinite rigidity can never be
realistically attained; therefore, even fully restrained moment connections do
possess some minimal amount of rotational flexibility, which is usually neglected. FR
Literature Review 9

connections are idealized as having full fixity between members. This study
recognizes the importance of considering the actual joint rotation that occurs in a
particular connection. Neglecting the joint rotation and wrongly assuming the joint to
be rigid leads to an erroneous estimation of joint behavior and hence, overall
structural behavior.

A connection can also be classified in terms of strength as either a full-strength (FS)


connection or a partial-strength (PS) connection. An FS connection develops the full
plastic moment capacity, Mp of the beam framing into it, while a PS connection can
only develop a portion of it. For classifying connections according to strength, it is
common to nondimensionalize the vertical axis of the moment-rotation curve by the
beam plastic moment capacity, Mp. Connections not capable of transmitting at least
0.2Mp at a rotation of 0.02 radian are considered to have no flexural strength
(Tamboli, 1999).

Another key parameter of significance is the connection ductility. The ductility


required will depend on the flexibility of the connections and the particular
application (for example, a braced frame in a nonseismic area versus an unbraced
frame in a high seismic area). A connection can be classified as ductile based on
both its absolute rotation capacity. The proposed absolute rotation criteria for special
moment frames is 0.03 radian and that for intermediate moment frames is 0.02
radian in seismic areas (AISC, 1997).

This thesis is concerned with extended end-plate beam-to-column moment


connections. The study aims to determine appropriate end-plate thicknesses and
corresponding bolt forces for a particular joint rotation and moment. The influence of
various connection parameters on the strength and overall behavior of the
connection is also studied.

2.3 PREVIOUS WORKS


2.3.1 Introduction
There are different configurations of extended end-plate moment connections
depending upon the arrangement and number of bolts. The most common are the 4-
bolt and 8-bolt connections having bolts both in the extended portions and inner
rows. These connections typically are highly restrained and less flexible.
Literature Review 10

The earlier design methods of end-plate connections were based on statics and
. simple assumptions concerning prying forces. These methods resulted in thick end-
plates and large diameter bolts. Other studies have been based on yield-line theory.
The more recent studies have used the finite element method and regression
analysis to develop design equations. Most of the early study was concerned with
flush end-plate connections.

2.3.2 Early Attempts


Early attempts (prior to about 1975) to develop design criteria for moment end-plate
connections were based on the "tee-stub" analogy. All of these methods resulted in
design procedures which predict a high degree of "prying action" resulting in large
end-plate thicknesses and large bolt diameters. The first application of the end-plate
moment connection was in the early 1960's. It was established that end-plate
moment connections offer several advantages over tee-stub-moment connections
(Disque, 1962). An early study by Johnson et al. (1960) concluded that end-plate
connections with high strength bolts can develop the full plastic capacity of the
connected members. The formation of a plastic hinge in the beam provides inelastic
rotation capacity within the member instead of within the connection. Douty and
McGuire (1963, 1965) investigated the increase in bolt tension caused by prying
effects in the end-plate and compared theoretical and experimental results. For the
thinner end-plates, significant increases in bolt tension were reported. Mann (1968)
conducted six beam-to-column end-plate connection tests and developed equations
to predict the strength of the end-plate. Surtees and Mann (1970) refined the work of
Mann (1968) and developed an alternate equation for determining the end-plate
thickness, suggested the use of a 33 percent increase of the direct bolt tension force
to account for prying forces, and concluded that the bolt pretension had little effect
on the connection stiffness.

2.3.3 Yield-line Analyses


More recently, methods based on refined yield-line analyses have been suggested.
A number of configurations have been studied in Europe (Zoetermeijer, 1974, 1981;
Packer and Morris, 1977; Mann and Morris, 1979) as well as in the United States
(Srouji, 1983; Hendrick et aI., 1985; Morrison, 1986). Most of these works, however,
has involved flush end plate configurations.
Literature Review 11

Mann and Morris (1979) considered the results of several research programs and
proposed a design procedure for the extended end-plate connection. The procedure
considered both strength and stiffness criteria. Yield line analysis was used to
determine the strength of the end-plate and column flange. Prying forces were
considered in the design of the bolts.

Bahia et al. (1981) investigated the strength of tee-stubs and beam-to-column


extended end-plate connections. The end-plate and column flange strengths were
determined using yield line theory. The bolt forces including prying action were
shown to depend on the areas of contact between the end-plate and column.
Kennedy et al. (1981) introduced a method for predicting bolt forces with prying
action in end-plate connections. The prediction equations were obtained by
assuming an end-plate to be analogous to a split-tee connection. Kennedy et al.
assume that a tee-stub or a flange plate goes through three stages of behavior as
the load applied to the plate increases. The first stage of behavior, at lower loads, is
thick plate behavior. At this stage, no plastic hinges have formed in the plate and
prying forces are assumed to be zero. The second stage of plate behavior occurs as
two plastic hinges form at the intersections of the plate centerline and each web
face. The yielding of the plate marks the thick plate limit and indicates the onset of
intermediate plate behavior. The prying force in this stage is between zero and
maximum bolt prying force. The final stage of plate behavior, thin plate behavior, is
marked by the formation of a second set of hinges at the bolt line. The prying force
after thin plate behavior is initiated is equal to the maximum prying force. Kennedy
et al. (1981) present equations which set thick and thin plate limits as a function of
geometric properties of the plate, yield stress values of the plate, and applied flange
force. Finally, bolt prying forces are calculated according to the type of plate
behavior determined.

Morrison et al. (1985) conducted an analytical study to develop a design method for
multiple row extended end-plates. The results were verified by full-scale testing. The
testing program involved the monotonic testing of six beam-to-beam specimens,
ranging from 30 in. to 62 in. in depth. The design methods derived and verified by
this testing include end-plate thickness requirements based on straight yield-line
analysis, as well as bolt force predictions. The method consists of finding a
thickness of the end plate based on strength. The thickness is then determined to
Literature Review 12

act as a thick, thin, or intermediate plate under a given load. The bolt forces,
including prying action, if present, are then determined using the modified Kennedy
method.

Aggarwal and Coates (1987) conducted fifteen experimental tests on four bolt
extended unstiffened end-plate moment connections. The specimens were tested
under static and dynamic loads. It was shown that the Australian and British
standards produced conservative end-plate and bolt strength predictions for the test
loading. Morris (1988) reviewed the connection design philosophies adopted in the
United Kingdom and made practical recommendations and observations that are
important for designers. The importance of proper design and detailing of extended
and flush end-plate moment connections was emphasized. Murray (1988) presented
an overview of the past literature and design methods for both flush and extended
end-plate configurations, including column side limit states. Design procedures,
based on analytical and experimental research in the United States, were
presented.

2.3.4 Finite Element Analyses


Finite element methodology for the analysis of end-plates was first developed by
Krishnamurthy (1978, 1981). His exhaustive analytical study of four-bolt, unstiffened,
extended end plates (Fig. 1.1(a)), along with a series of experimental investigations,
led to the development of a design procedure first published in the 8th edition of the
AI SC Manual of Steel Construction.

Krishnamurthy and Graddy (1976) conducted one of the earliest studies to


investigate the behavior of bolted end-plate moment connections using finite
element analysis. Packer and Morris (1977) developed design equations for
determining the end-plate thickness and the column flange strength. Yield line
analysis, considering straight and curved yield lines, was used to predict the end-
plate and column flange strengths. Good agreement with experimental results was
achieved. Krishnamurthy (1978) used finite element analysis to develop empirical
relationships for determining the end-plate thickness. The relationships resulted in
much thinner end-plates than previously obtained. It also resulted in much smaller
prying forces than predicted by previous studies. As a result, Krishnamurthy
neglected prying forces and determined the bolt forces directly from the flange force.
Literature Review 13

Tarpy and Cardinal (1981) used finite element analysis to develop equations for the
design of unstiffened beam-to-column flange end-plate connections. The adequacy
of the analytical model was shown through comparisons with experimental results.

Srouji et al. (1983a, 1983b) developed design methods for different end-plate
moment connection configurations. The end-plate thickness was determined using
yield line analysis. The bolt force predictions include the effects of prying, and were
based on the tee-stub analogy design method developed by Kennedy et al. (1981)
with a few modifications. Finite element analysis was used to establish stiffness
criteria. The analytical procedure was verified with experimental testing and good
correlation was observed. It was concluded that yield line analysis and the modified
Kennedy method accurately predict the end-plate strength and bolt forces.
Abolmaali et al. (1984) used finite element analysis to develop a design
methodology for the two bolt flush end-plate moment connection configuration. Both
2-D and 3-D analyses were conducted to generate correlation coefficients. Finite
element 2-D analysis was used to generate regression equations for the design of
the connections. The results were adjusted by the correlation coefficients to more
closely match the experimental results.

Kukreti et al. (1990) used finite element modeling to conduct parametric studies to
predict the bolt forces and the end-plate stiffness of the eight bolt extended stiffened
end-plate moment connection. Regression analysis of the parametric study data
resulted in equations for predicting the end-plate strength, end-plate stiffness, and
bolt forces. The predictions were compared to experimental results with reasonable
correlation. Murray (1990) presented design procedures for the four bolt unstiffened,
four bolt wide unstiffened and the eight bolt extended stiffened end-plate moment
connections. The end-plate design procedures were based on works of
Krishnamurthy (1978), Ghassemieh et al. (1983), and Murray and Kukreti (1988).
The column side procedures were based on works by Curtis and Murray (1989), and
Hendrick and Murray (1984).

Gebbeken et al. (1994) investigated the behavior of the four bolt unstiffened end-
plate connection using finite element analysis. The study emphasized modeling of
the non-linear material behavior and the contact between the end-plate and the
column flange or the adjacent end-plate. Comparisons between the finite element
Literature Review 14

analysis and experimental test results were made. Borgsmiller (1995) presented a
simplified method for the design of four flush and five extended end-plate moment
connection configurations. The bolt design procedure was a simplified version of the
modified Kennedy method to predict the bolt strength including the effects of prying.
The end-plate strength was determined using yield line analysis. Fifty-two end-plate
connection tests were analyzed and it was concluded that the prying forces in the
bolts become significant when ninety percent of the end-plate strength is achieved.
This established a threshold for the point at which prying forces in the bolts can be
neglected. If the applied load is less man ninety percent of the plate strength, the
end-plate is considered to be 'thick' and no prying forces are considered; when the
applied load is greater than ninety percent of the end plate strength, the end-plate is
considered to be 'thin' and the prying forces are assumed to be at a maximum. This
distinct threshold between 'thick' and 'thin' plate behavior greatly simplified the bolt
force determination because only the case of no prying and maximum prying must
be determined. Good correlation with past test results was obtained using the
simplified design procedure.

Sherbourne and Bahaari (1994) successfully simulated the entire behavior of


extended end-plate connections, up to the ultimate load, through a complete model
in three dimensions using plate, brick, and truss elements. The model was
examined for commonly used end-plate thicknesses and the predicted results were
found to be within the range of accuracy of experimental values. Prying forces in the
projected portion of the end plate were found to increase with the decrease of end-
plate thickness. The contribution of various components on the overall behavior was
identified. This can help the designer recognize which components should be
adjusted to achieve the desired flexibility. With thin end plates, 60-70% of the
rotation was found to be because of plate flexibility. The plate and bolt were found to
make equal contributions to the rotation for thick end plates. It was concluded that
the three-dimensional model can be used as a tool to develop analytical
formulations for behavior and strength of connection components.

Choi and Chung (1996) established a finite element model by the use of 3D
nonconfirming elements. Moment-rotation relationships, contact phenomenon and
effective stress distribution of each component were investigated in detail. The
comparison of the moment-rotation relationships obtained by the proposed scheme
Literature Review 15

with the experimental results revealed that the proposed modeling can properly
simulate the actual behavior of end-plate connections.

Sherbourne and Bahaari (1997) developed a methodology based on three


dimensional finite element design, to analytically evaluate the moment rotation
relationships for moment end-plate connections. ANSYS 4.4 was the software
package used. The purpose for this research was to provide designers with a
method of determining stiffness for these connections. It was apparent at the time
that the ability of designers to produce a moment-rotation curve for moment end-
plate connections was limited. Because of advancements in computer technology,
Sherbourne and Bahaari's models included plate elements for the flange, webs, and
stiffeners of the column and beam, as well as taking into account the bolt shank, nut,
head of the bolt, and contact regions. However, bolt pre-stressing was not included.
It was determined that the behavior of a moment end-plate throughout an entire
loading history, up to and including failure, can be feasibly and accurately modeled
by three-dimensional finite element analysis. This is particularly useful when one of
the plates in contact, either the column flange or the end plate, is thin. The analysis
of such a plate is inaccurate when using two-dimensional models. An additional
advantage to the use of the three-dimensional model is the separation of the
column, bolt, plate, and beam stiffness contributions to the overall behavior of the
connection.

Troup et al. (1998) presented a paper describing finite element modeling of bolted
steel connections. ANSYS was used for this study, which included an extended
moment end-plate model as well as a tee-stub model. The model utilized a bilinear
stress-strain relationship for the bolts. Also, special contact elements were used
between the end-plate and the column flange for the extended end-plate model, and
between the tees for the tee model. By using the contact elements between the
contact surfaces of the models, the geometric non-Iinearities that are present
between the surfaces as separation occurs due to increased load can be realistically
modeled. Both models were calibrated with experimental test data to show excellent
correlation between analytical and experimental stiffness. Bolt forces were also
analyzed. It was found that for the simple four-bolt arrangement about the tension
flange, the tee design prediction is accurate. However, for more complex bolt
Literature Review 16

patterns, the distribution of prying forces is not as clear. Troup, et al. (1998)
concluded the following:
1. Tee-stub analogy is a useful benchmark problem providing an indication of
the performance of analysis techniques.
2. Shell elements are more accurate for modeling beam and column
sections. Thick end plate design provides additional rotational stiffness and
moment capacity but may result in bolt fracture.
3. Thin end plates provide enough deformation capacity to allow semi-rigid
connection design, but may result in excessive deflection.
4. The moment capacity prediction of Eurocode 3 has been shown to be
reasonable, but conservative, for simple end-plate bolt configurations. The
code is inaccurate when analyzing more complicated bolt arrangements. If
these inaccuracies do not lead to bolt failure, they are acceptable.

Mays (2000) used finite element analysis to develop a design procedure for an
unstiffened column flange and for the sixteen bolt extended stiffened end-plate
moment connection. In addition, finite element models were developed and
comparisons with experimental results for the four bolt extended unstiffened, eight
bolt extended stiffened, and the four bolt wide unstiffened end-plate moment
connections were made. Good correlation with experimental results was obtained.

Mofid et al. (2005) developed an analytical procedure based on yield line


mechanism for estimating the behavior of unstiffened extended endplate
connections. Formulas of use to engineers were proposed to calculate the yielding
and ultimate moment stiffness of the connection, which demonstrated the
connection behavior. An excellent agreement between experimental data and the
presented technique was shown.

2.4 RECOMMENDED DESIGN PROCEDURES


According to AISC (2002), the recommended design procedures for the four- and
eight-bolt unstiffened end-plate configurations, Figures 2.1 (a) and (c), are based on
the work of Krishnamurthy (1978). The eight-bolt stiffened end-plate, Figure 2.1 (d),
design procedures are based on the works of Ghassemeih (1983), and Murray and
Kukreti (1988). There is, however, an absence of a formal design procedure for an
end-plate connection having bolts exclusively in the extended portions.
Literature Review 17

The following assumptions or conditions are inherent to the design procedures


(AISC, 2002):
1. All bolts are tightened to a tension not less than that given in the AISC ASD and
LRFD specifications.
2. The design procedures for the 8-boit, stiffened configuration (Fig. 2.1 (d)) are valid
for use with A325 bolts. A490 bolts should not be used in this configuration.
3. Only static loading is permitted. Temperature, wind and snow loadings are
considered static loadings (AISC, 1986, 1989). The design procedures should not
be used, pending further research, when seismic loading is a major design
consideration.
4. The smallest possible bolt pitch (distance from face of beam flange to centerline
of nearer bolt) generally results in the most economical connection. The
recommended minimum pitch dimension is bolt diameter plus Y:z in. However, many
fabricators prefer to use a standard pitch dimension, usually 2 in., for all boit
diameters.
5. End-plate connections can be designed to resist shear force at the interface of the
end-plate and column flange using either "slip critical" or "bearing" assumptions. If
slip critical (type "SC") criteria are used, all boits at the interface can be assumed to
resist the shear force and shear/tension interaction can be ignored as explained in
the Commentary on "Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490
Bolts" (RCSC, 1985). This Commentary states: "Connections of the type in which
some of the bolts lose a part of their clamping force due to applied tension suffer no
overall loss of frictional resistance. The bolt tension produced by the moment is
coupled with a compensating compressive force on the other side of the axis of
bending." Thus, the frictional resistance of the connection remains unchanged. If
very high shear forces exist, a bearing type connection may be necessary. In this
case, the tension bolts must be designed with a shear-tension interaction equation.
It is noted that shear is rarely a major concern in the design of moment end-plate
connections.

6. It is assumed that the width of the end plate which is effective in resisting the
applied beam moment is not greater than the beam flange width plus 1 in. This
assumption is based on engineering judgment and is not part of any of the
referenced end-plate design procedures.
Literature Review 18

7. The gage of the tension bolts (horizontal distance between vertical bolt lines)
should not exceed the beam tension flange width, again based on engineering
judgment.
8. Beam web to end-plate welds in the vicinity of the tension bolts are designed to
develop 0.6fy of the beam web. This weld strength is recommended even if the full
moment capacity of the beam is not required for frame strength.
9. Only the web to end-plate weld between the mid-depth of the beam and the inside
side face of the beam compression flange or between the inner row of tension bolts
plus two bolt diameters and the inside face of the beam compression flange,
whichever is smaller, may be used to resist the beam shear.

Column web stiffeners are expensive to fabricate and can interfere with weak axis
column framing. Therefore, it is recommended that they be avoided whenever
possible. If the need for a stiffener is marginal, it may be more economical to
increase the column size rather than install stiffeners. If column web stiffeners are
required because of inadequate column flange bending strength or stiffness,
increasing the effective length of the column fiange may eliminate the need for
stiffening. This can be accomplished by increasing the tension bolt pitch or by
switching from a two row configuration, Figs, 2.1 (a), (b) or (c), to a four row
configuration, Fig. 2.1 (d). Alternately, column flange washer plates (loose plates with
holes, placed on the column flange opposite the end-plate and connected with the
end-plate connection tension bolts) may be used. This approach is widely used in
Europe (Mann and Morris, 1979; Zoetemeijer, 1981; Moore and Sims, 1986) and
has been studied in the United States (Curtis, 1985).

2.5 FAILURE MODES OF END-PLATE CONNECTIONS


Failure modes for moment end-plate beam-to-column connections are as follows
(AISe, 2002):
1. Flexural yielding of the end-plate material near the tension flange bolts. This state
in itself is not limiting, but yielding results in rapid increases in tension bolt forces
and excessive rotation.
2. Shear yielding of the end-plate material. This limit state is not usually observed,
but shear in combination with bending can result in reduced flexural capacity and
stiffness.
Literature Review 19

3. Bolt rupture due to direct load and prying force effects. This limit state is obviously
a brittle failure mode and is the most critical limit state in an endplate connection.
4. Failure of bolt, or slip of bolt in slip critical connections, due to shear at the
interface between the end plate and column flange.
5. Plate bearing failure of end-plate or column flange at bolts.
6. Rupture of beam tension flange to end-plate welds or beam web tension region to
end-plate welds.
7. Shear yielding of beam web to end-plate weld or of beam web base metal.
8. Column web yielding opposite either the tension or compression flanges of the
connected beam.
9. Column web buckling opposite the compression flange of the connected beam.
10. Column flange yielding in the vicinity of the tension bolts. As with flexural
yielding of the end plate, this state in itself is not limiting but results in rapid
increases in tension bolt forces and excessive rotation.
11. Column web stiffener failure due to yielding, local buckling or weld failure.
12. Column flange stiffener failure due to yielding or weld failure.
13. Excessive rotation (flexibility) at the connection due to end-plate and/or flange
bending.
14. Column panel zone failure due to yielding or web plate buckling.

2.6 PERFORMANCE OF STEEL CONNECTIONS IN SELECTED EARTHQUAKES


Steel structures and in particular steel connections have shown vulnerability in
certain past earthquakes. In the 1985 Mexico City, Mexico earthquake several large
steel buildings in the lake bed region of Mexico City collapsed (Hamburger, 2006).
This along with other earthquakes such as the 1987 Whittier Narrows, California
earthquake has prompted the introduction of additional requirements for detailing of
steel structures. Most of these requirements pertained to the detailing of braced
steel frames. The 1994 Northridge, California earthquake resulted in the introduction
of extensive code detailing requirements for moment-resisting steel frames
(Sumner, 2000). Immediately following the earthquake, brittle fractures were
discovered in numerous fully welded beam-to-column connections of several
buildings in the San Fernando Valley area. This damage was unanticipated and
contrary to the intended behavior of this framing system, causing a sense of crisis
among engineers and building officials.
Literature Review 20

The behavior of conventional steel connections in past earthquakes emphasizes the


need for innovative new connection configurations capable of dissipating the energy
of an earthquake without major structural damage. New connection configurations
are required which will exhibit ductile seismic response through plastic deformation
and be capable of handling the large inelastic deformations consistent with high
ductility moment-resisting frames.

2.7 REMARKS
From the above mentioned works in Section 2.3 it can be seen that the studies
revolve around mostly 4-bolt and 8-bolt connections having both inner and outer
bolts. Other possible configurations are connections with bolts only in the extended
portions. The possible advantage of omitting the inside row of bolts is the increase in
flexibility as the end-plate has greater scope of bending and possible increase in
ductility due to plastic deformation of end-plate. The resulting semi-rigid joint
behavior is also more desirable from an earthquake resistance point of view. There
is a dearth of a specific guideline for determining the end-plate thickness and
corresponding bolt tension for extended end-plate moment connections having bolts
only in the extended portions. The proposed study is expected to provide the design
engineer some definite guidelines on these areas.
CHAPTER 3
FINITE ELEMENT MODELING AND VALIDATION

3.1 INTRODUCTION
Finite element analysis is rapidly replacing analytical methods, especially for
problems that have to be solved which are adjusted to specific tasks. According to
Mays (2000) finite element modeling can be used to accurately predict the behavior
of end-plate moment connections. In the present study a finite element model has
been developed to describe the behavior of the joint in a beam-to-column extended
end-plate moment connection. Apart from an exact geometry modeling, the
description of the material behavior of all components is of essence for the quality of
the performed analysis. This applies to finite element analytical models as well as to
numerical methods. This enables the accurate simulation of the elasto-plastic
behavior of steel. The actual work regarding the finite element modeling of the
beam-to-column extended end-plate moment connection and the various parametric
studies carried out has been described in detail in this chapter.

3.2 MOMENT-ROTATION RELATIONSHIP


To quantify the contribution of each component to the flexibility of the connection,
the M-B diagram is shown in such a way that the contribution to the connection
rotation, Ben, of the deform ability of the bolt (Ob) and the end-plate (Bep) is identified.
The contribution of each element to the total rotation is indicated as follows (Figure
3.1 ):

(3.1 )

e, = U,
d (3.2)

U 'J1
e'.r = em - e, = d t

(3.3)
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 22

\~
,
\ ;......--...
II I Ut
,
, I
,, ..
,

--r- Uep ,,
,,

\J
'--;:'-"
,,
,,
,,
,,
,,
~

d ,,
,,

Momenl

- -J'-- -
Figure 3.1 Definitions of End-plale rolalions

which is similar to that defined and implemented by Zandonini and Zanon (1987).
Where V, = horizontal deflection of the node at the juncture of tension flange and
end plate; Vb = horizontal extension of the nearer bolt shank located above tension
flange; and d = center-to-center distance between beam flanges. Since, the column
has been assumed to be rigid, the contribution of the column flange to the total
flexibility is nil in the present study.

A typical moment-rotation relationship for a particular extended end-plate moment


connection is shown in Figure 3.2. The ductile nature of the connection is evident
from the flattening out of the curve. The curve clearly has two zones - an elastic
zone and a plastic zone. The zones are defined by the intersection of the tangents
of the initial elastic part of the curve and the final plastic part of the curve. The
moment at the intersection is taken as the yield moment of the connection, My.
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 23

,
Elastic
••
I Plastic Zone
Zone I M
if ~ y __ -
I~ __ ----
--r
I
I
I
I
I

Rotation

Figure 3.2 Typical moment-rotation relationship

3.3 FINITE ELEMENT MODEL


3.3.1 Modeling Methodology
A large number of finite element analysis computer packages are available. Of these
packages ANSYS 10.0 has been chosen for its versatility and relative ease of use.
ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically
solving a wide variety of structural as well as mechanical problems. An example of
the configuration of the three-dimensional finite element model is shown is in Figure
3.3. The model consists of an I-beam welded to an end-plate which is then bolted to
a column flange. The configuration has a total of eight bolts, with four above the top
flange of the beam and four below the bottom flange of the beam. The top four bolts
are in a single row, as are the bottom four. A complete finite element model has
been examined taking into account beam and column elements, end plate, bolt
shank, nut and head and finally, contact region between column flange and end
plate in a 3D framework. The configuration is shown with the different components
labeled in Figure 3.4. A comprehensive understanding of important issues such as
the magnitude and distribution of stresses, bolt forces, etc., has been gained and
the gradual yielding of various components with increasing load has been monitored
through contours of stress and deformation components.
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 24

Column

Stiffener
Bolts 0 00

End-plate

Figure 3.3 General 3-D Sketch of the problem

The finite element modeling techniques used in the present study has been used by
previous researchers such as Sherbourne and Bahaari (1994). Plastic four-node
finite strain shell elements, so called SHELL 181 in ANSYS, have been used to
model the beam web and flange, end-plate, column web and flange, stiffeners and
bolt head and nut. The bolt head and nut should stay in close contact with their
connection plates through all load steps. For this reason certain nodes of the bolt
head and nut have been coupled in their degrees of freedom with the corresponding
end-plate and column flange nodes. Coupling degrees of freedom into a set causes
the displacement results calculated for one member of the set to be the same for all
members of the set. The bolt shank has been modeled using eight 3D nonlinear
spring elements (COMBIN 39) connecting the nodes of head and nut to each other.
Though these elements overlap the plate hole elements, mathematically there is no
connection between them. Using eight spring elements to model the bolt shank has
allowed the author to find both the magnitude and distribution of the bolt force within
the section. This is especially important for thin end plates in which the bolts in
tension undergo considerable biaxial bending (Sherbourne and Bahaari, 1994).
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 25

,1.4db' 2.5db '


't ,,ct
i..e--t.
, ,'... •. ,I I
, , 1.4db

00 Bolt
pitch

Column
Stiffener
d
Column
Flange
End-Plate

Bolt

00 -'-f ---,-,----,-,-
pitch
.--
1.4db

(a) Half X-Section (b) Elevation

Figure 3.4 Typical configuration of 3-D finite element model

The effective area of the bolt has been split equally among the spring elements. The
actual support conditions at the back of the end plate are a critical and complex
aspect in bolted connection analysis. The plate should pull away from the adjacent
column flange around the beam tensions flange to a varying extent depending upon
the beam and end plate dimensions, bolt size and position, material properties and,
especially the load level. At the same time, when the end plate tends to bear against
the column flange around the beam compression flange, it should not move freely
through the adjacent component. The boundary at the back of the end plate is thus
a variable boundary-value problem that can be solved only by an iterative approach.
The element chosen in ANSYS to simulate this contact surface between the back of
the end-plate and the column flange is the 3D nonlinear spring element COMBIN 39.
An example of the typical finite element mesh of the problem is shown in Figure 3.5.
A close-up of the bolt modeling and the contact elements of the mesh is shown in
Figure 3.6.
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 26

Figure 3.5 Typical finile elemenl mesh

Figure 3.6 Close-up of mesh showing bolt modeling and conlact elemenls
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 27

3.3.2 Material Properties


The material for the elements of the end plate, beam web and flanges is taken as
multilinear kinematic hardening and thus the stress-strain relationship is multilinear
as shown in Figure 3.7b. The tangential stiffness after the yield point of 250 MPa is
such that the ultimate stress is reached at a strain of 0.23 in/in. After the ultimate
stress is reached there is no further increase in stress with increase in strain. The
Poisson's ratio is taken as 0.3. The column has been assumed to be rigid in order to
fully understand the behavior of the connection. The modulus of elasticity of the
column web and flanges material has thus been set to a high value. The bolt head
and nut are assumed to be rigid. For the bolt shank, a trilinear stress-strain curve is
used [Figure 3.7a] in which the initial work hardening is considered to be 10% of the
initial modulus of elasticity; after 3€y, the stiffness decreases to 5% of the initial
value. The stress-strain relationship for the contact elements is described so that it
can resist compression but is very weak in tension. The element develops
compression normai to the plane of the end-plate. Figure 3.8 shows the force-
deflection behavior of contact springs. The value of Kc is large while that of Kt is very
small. The value of Kc has been taken as a very large number (1.0 x 10'2) while Kt
has been assigned a value of 0.0001.

800

600
CiI
a..
~
III

-~ 400
tJ)

200

o
o 5 10 15 20 25
Strain (0.001mm/mm)

Figure 3.7 a) Stress-Strain Curve for Boll Shank (Sherbourne and Bahaari, 1994)
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 28

500

400

~ 300
~
lZ
~ 200
Ul

100

0+-----..-----_..- .--- --, --,


o 5 10 15 20 25
Strain (0.001mm/mm)

Figure 3.7 b) Stress-Strain Curve for Beam and End.Plate Materials (Prabha et. aI., 2007)

i
Ql Tension
~
o
LL

Slope K,

Deflection -->

Compression

Slope K,

Figure 3.8 Force-Deflection behavior of the contact springs

3.3.3 Bolt Diameter


The bolt diameters for the finite element model have been determined based on the
AISC allowable bolt stresses as shown in Table 3.1.
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 29

Table 3.1 Allowable stresses for bolts

Allowable Stress
Bolt Designation Yield Stress (MPa)
(MPa)
A325 630 303
A490 897 372

l
d'
T

d+d'
d

III
Mp C

Figure 3.9 Free body diagram

In the present study A325 bolts have been considered. The bolt diameters have
been determined rationally based on the free body diagram of Figure 3.9. The
centroid of the tensile force, T, occurs at the top bolt centerline, while the centroid of
the compressive force, C, occurs at the bottom flange. For a particular end-plate
connection, the bolts should be strong enough so that they can withstand the high
tensile force which will result if the beam transfers its full plastic moment capacity to
the connection. In that event and neglecting prying effects the total tensile force per
bolt, Fb, for a total n number of bolts in a single row will be

F M_"_ (3.4)
h ned + d')

Once the individual bolt force is determined, the corresponding bolt diameter can be
easily determined by making use of the following formulae,

(3.5)
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 30

4x Fh
/1.//1

4xMp
:. dh = (3.6)
Jr x fall X ned + d')

The bolt pitch, d', in Equation 3.6 has been taken as the minimum pitch dimension of
bolt diameter plus 12.5mm as recommended by AISC (2002). The above formula
then becomes,

4xMp
(3.7)
Jr x fall X ned + dh + 12.5)

In equation 3.7 it can be seen that db is on both sides of the equation. For this
reason an iterative method was adopted to determine the required bolt diameter. In
the present study a bolt diameter of 25-30mm had first been assumed and then the
formula applied till the solution converged. The solution generally converged after
just two steps.

3.3.4 Loading and Boundary Conditions


Nonlinearity in the behavior of end-plate bolted connections is ascribed to plasticity
of the material and changes in the contact area between end-plate and column
flange. Therefore, this requires that, in addition to multiple iterations per load step for
convergence, the loads be applied slowly, in increments, to characterize the actual
load history. Bending is considered by applying a distributed pressure which is
uniform along the thickness of the beam flange as shown in Figure 3.10. The
directions of the applied pressure at the top and bottom flange are opposite to each
other. The topmost and bottommost nodes of the column segment have been
restrained in all directions. The length of the column flange is not particularly critical
as the column has been modeled to be stiff. The length of the column has been set
at twice the depth of the end-plate. A cantilever with span equal to 1.75 times depth
of the beam section is considered exact enough to idealize the behavior. In order to
make the beam laterally stable certain nodes at the end of the free cantilever end of
the beam have been restrained laterally.
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 31

Figure 3.10 Application of loading

3.3.5 Meshing
Fine meshing will lead to better results at the expense of greater solution time.
Coarse meshing will result in lesser solution times but result accuracy may be
compromised. The balance is therefore to apply the mesh density for which the
solution accuracy is not lost but the computation time is also not that great. An
optimal solution is to use a fine mesh in areas of high stress gradient and a coarser
mesh in the remaining areas. Thus, in the finite element model of the present study
denser meshing has been used in the end-plate and in the beam and column
regions adjacent to the end-plate, This is evident in Figure 3.10.

3.3.6 Solution Method


A number of solution tools are available for the solution of nonlinear structural
problems. For the present problem Arc-Length Method has been used. The arc-
length method (Crisfield, 1997) is suitable for nonlinear static equilibrium solutions of
unstable problems. Applications of the arc-length method involve the tracing of a
complex path in the load-displacement response into the buckling/post buckling
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 32

regimes. The arc-length method uses the explicit spherical iterations to maintain the
orthogonality between the arc-length radius and orthogonal directions. It is assumed
that all load magnitudes are controlled by a single scalar parameter (Le., the total
load factor). As the displacement vectors and the scalar load factor are treated as
unknowns, the arc-length method itself is an automatic load step method. For
problems with sharp turns in the load-displacement curve or path dependent
materials, it is necessary to limit the arc-length radius using the initial arc-length
radius. During the solution, the arc-length method will vary the arc-length radius at
each arc-length substep according to the degree of nonlinearities that is involved.
The convergence of the arc-length method at a particular substep is shown in Figure
3.11.

I
I
I ~ spherical arc at
substep n
I
I
AU'---1
U
un(converged solution at substep n)

Figure 3.11 Arc-Length Approach wilh Full Newlon-Raphson Melhod (ANSYS 10,0)

3.4 TYPICAL ANALYSIS RESULTS


3.4.1 Typical Moment-Rotation Behavior
The moment-rotation relationship has been singled out as the best characterization
of connection behavior. A typical moment-rotation curve obtained from the nonlinear
finite element analysis of the present problem is shown in Figure 3.12. The moment-
rotation curve is for an extended end-plale connection for 457 x 191 x 74 US
(Mp=392kN-M) and end-plate thickness of 25mm.
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 33

500
450
400
_350
::;;
Z 300
~
1: 250
Q)
E 200
0
::;; 150
100
50
0
0 2 3 4 5 6 7
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Figure 3.12 Typical Moment-Rotation Curve

Figure 3.13 Typical Detlected Shape


Finite Element Modeling and Validation 34

3.4.2 Deflected Shapes


A typical deflected shape of the model is shown in Figure 3.13. The deflected shape
has been exaggerated for illustration purposes. Figures 3.14, 3.15 and 3.16 illustrate
the deflected shapes of the model at various stages of loading. For all the deflected
shapes the same display scale factor has been employed. Figure 3.14 shows the
deflected shape at the end of the elastic zone of loading. Figure 3.15 shows the
deflected shape in the mid range of the plastic zone of loading and Figure 3.16
shows the deflected shape for the last loading point (extreme end of the plastic
zone). Figure 3.17 shows a close-up of the deflected shape in the region of the top
row of bolts for the deflected shape of Figure 3.16.

Figure 3.14 Deflected Shape at End of Elastic Zone of Loading


Finite Element Modeling and Validation 35

Figure 3.15 Deflected Shape at Mid Range of Plastic Zone of Loading

Figure 3.16 Deflected Shape at End of Plastic Zone of Loading


Finite Element Modeling and Validation 36

Figure 3.17 Close-up of Deflected Shape at End of Plastic Zone of Loading

3.5 MESH SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS


In order to determine the optimum meshing with respect to solution accuracy and
solution time, a mesh sensitivity analysis of the finite element validation model has
been conducted. The analysis has been done for an end-plate thickness of 15mm.
The various mesh element sizes used is shown in Table 3.2. Since, the element size
is not always a correct indicator of the actual mesh density, the total elements per
half flange width have been noted. This is of greater relevance because an element
size of say, 20 in a small beam may result in coarse meshing while the same
element size in a large beam may result in dense meshing. The total elements and
nodes for each element size is also shown in the table. The solution time for a
particular finite element model is directly related to the number of nodes, as the
number of nodes is directly related to the number of degrees of freedom for a
particular model.

The moment-rotation plots for the various elements per half flange width (EPHF) are
shown in Figure 3.18. From the plots it can be seen that for the mesh densities
selected the curves are fairly in close agreement with one another. However using 4
EPHF causes slight deviation from the rest of the curves. 4 EPHF is also the
minimum from practical constraints. Using fewer EPHF causes meshing problems,
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 37

such as undesirable aspect ratios of elements. It can also be seen that it is


practically the same using 5 EPHF and 8 EPHF but the computation time is much
less for the former as can be understood from the number of total nodes. It can thus
be concluded that for the optimum solution the finite element model should have at
least five elements per half flange width. This minimum was maintained throughout
the present study in other models as well.

Table 3.2 Total elements and nodes for various mesh densities
Elements per half
Element Size Total Elements Total Nodes
flange width (EPHF)
31 4 2528 2006
20 5 3526 2836
15 7 4577 3774
12 8 6091 5070
9 11 9825 8318

200

150

~
z
:.
-
c: 100
Ql

E
0 --EPHF 5
:;: __ EPHF7

--EPHF 11
--.-EPHF 8
50
- - - . EPHF4

o
o 5 10 15 20 25
Rotation (0.001 rad)

Figure 3.18 Moment-rotation curves for various mesh densities


Finite Element Modeling and Validation 38

3.6 VALIDATION OF FINITE ELEMENT MODEL


3.6.1 Modeling Methodology
In the present study it has been assumed that finite element modeling can
reasonably simulate the behavior of end-plate connections. In order to validate the
finite element analysis methods adopted in the present study, the author has used
the same finite element methods described earlier to recreate the tests carried out
by Jenkins et al. (1986). The difference between the present end-plate connection
configuration with that of Jenkins et al. (1986) is that in the latter there are bolts also
in the inner portions as in conventional end-plate connections. An example of a
typical finite element mesh of the model is shown in Figure 3.19.

Figure 3.19 Typical finite element mesh of the validation model

The beam and column used in the connection was a 305 x 164 x 54 US (equivalent
to W31 0 x 52 kg/m) and 254 x 254 x 132 UC (equivalent to W250 x 131 kg/m). The
bolts used were M20 grade 8.8, which are comparable to A325 20-mm bolts. End-
plate thickness is a parameter that varied from 12 to 25 mm. Only non-prestressed
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 39

bolt tests are compared. Column web stiffeners were used at the beam flange
locations for which the same thickness and width of beam flange was assumed. In
the connections analyzed the end plate rotates about the compression flange of the
beam. For a thin end plate, some of the nodes around the tension bolt positions stay
in contact with the column flange. The end plate, at its line of attachment to the
beam web, separates along the depth of the beam and clearly rotates about the
compression flange of the beam. Therefore, the rotation corresponding to every load
step is calculated by dividing the maximum separation of end plate at the beam
flange by beam flange center-to-center depth. This definition coincides with the
method followed by Jenkins et al. (1986) in their experimental study.

3.6.2 Typical Deflected Shapes


The deflected shapes of the model for end-plate thickness of 15mm at different
stages of loading is illustrated in Figures 3.20, 3.21 and 3.22. Figure 3.20 shows the
deflected shape at the end of the elastic zone of loading. Figure 3.21 shows the
deflected shape in the mid range of the plastic zone of loading and Figure 3.22
shows the deflected shape for the last loading point (extreme end of the plastic
zone).

Figure 3.20 Deflected Shape at End ot Elastic Zone of Loading


Finite Element Modeling and Validation 40

Figure 3.21 Deflected Shape at Mid Range of Plastic Zone of Loading

Figure 3.22 Deflected Shape at End of Plastic Zone of Loading


Finite Element Modeling and Validation 41

3.6.3 Stress Contours


The flexural stress contours for the connection end-plate thickness of 15mm is
shown in the following figures. The loading stage is in the plastic zone. For the end-
plates the flexural stress of concern is the global ay stress for which the direction of
stress is parallel to the axis normal to the plane containing the beam flanges. For the
beam flanges and web the flexural stress of concern is the global az stress for which
the direction of stress is parallel to the axis normal to the plane containing the end-
plate. The stress contours for the end-plate is shown in Figure 3.23. It can be clearly
seen that yield lines form at the top bolt row line and at the top flange of the beam.
The stress contours for the beam is shown in Figure 3.24.

NODAL SOLUTION

3TEP=1.
::lUB =32
TIME=.388S6
3Y (AVG)
RSY::'P=O
D"'-X =7.51.8
SKU =-542.113
8MX =540.543

-54.2.713 -301.989 -61.266 179.458 420.182


-422.351 -181.629 59.096 299.82 540.543

Figure 3.23 Stress Contour for End-Plate


Finite Element Modeling and Validation 42

-493.327 -266.56 -39.793 186.974 413.742


-379,943 -153.176 73.591 300.358 527.1Z5

Figure 3.24 Stress Contour for Beam

3.6.4 Comparison with Test Data


The M-() curves for the experimental (Jenkins et aI., 1986) and finite-element results
are shown in Figures 3.25 and 3.26. For thin end-plates, namely end-plate
thickness, t = 12 and 15 mm, the results agree very well over the entire load history.
For the 12-mm end-plate, the model nearly coincides with the test data, but is a little
less flexible. For the 15-mm end-plate, the model is stiffer than the test data for the
initial part of the slope but has excellent agreement after yield point and up to
ultimate load. The greater flexibility of the test data in the initial stages suggests that
there may have been bolt slip or end-plate slide, etc. during the test. The curves for
the 20mm thick end-plate follow the same trend. For the thick end plate, t = 25 mm,
there is some deviation of the model data from the test data. However, the overall
M-() curve can be said to be acceptable.
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 43

250

• t= 15mm
200

:E• 150 t = 12mm



=.
Z

-c:
Ql
E 100
0 • 1=12mm Test Dala
:;;
• 1=15mm Test Dala

50 --t=12mm Present Study

--t=15mm Present Study

o
o 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Rotation (0.001 rad)

Figure 3.25 Comparison of 3D Model and Test for Thin End Plales (Bahaari and
Sherbourne, 1994)

300

t = 25mm
250 •

••
200 t = 20mm
:E
:Z
=.c: 150
-
Ql
E
•• •• 1=20mm Tesl Data
0
:;; 100 • 1=25mm Tesl Data

--1=20mm Presenl Sludy


50 --t=25mm Present Study

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Rotation (0.001 rad)

Figure 3.26 Comparison of 3D Model and Test for Relalively Thick End Plales (Bahaari and
Sherbourne, 1994)
CHAPTER 4
RESULTS OF THE FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

4.1 INTRODUCTION
The validation of the finite element model for an extended end-plate moment
connection having both inner and outer bolt rows have been shown in Article 3.6.
The results were compared against the test results of Jenkins et al. (1986). The very
good agreement between the finite element model results and the test data prove
the reliability and accuracy of the finite element modeling techniques used in the
present study. The present study deals with extended end-plate connections with
bolts rows only on the extended portions. Since, the author is not aware of any
previous testing or finite element study specifically on this particular configuration,
and further, since the author does not have access to specialized testing setups
required'to investigate the same, finite element analysis has been used as the
substitute to testing. The modeling and solution techniques applied in the validation
model have been applied to the finite element models of the present study.

For the purpose of carrying out the analysis, the following have been chosen-
• The yield stress of steel is 250 N/mm2 (Prabha et. aI., 2007).
• A325 bolts have been used. Bolt diameters have been determined rationally
as per Equation 3.7.
• The bolt pitch has been taken as the minimum pitch dimension of bolt
diameter plus 12.5mm as recommended by AISC (2002).
• The bolts are only in the extended portions of the end-plate connection.
There are a total of eight bolts. Four bolts are in a single row above the top
beam flange. Four bolts are in a single row below the bottom beam flange.
• The spacing between the bolts is 2.5 times the diameter of the bolts. The
distance from the center of the edge bolt to the edge of the end-plate is 1.4
times the bolt diameter (AISC, 2002).
Results of the Finite Element Analysis 45

• The column has been assumed to be rigid keeping in mind that the column
flange is generally thicker than the end-plate and beam member thicknesses.

The finite element analysis has been carried out with the objective of studying the
behavior of joint connections for the specific configuration of the present study. The
moment-rotation relationship and the required end-plate thickness for a particular
design moment are of particular interest.

4.2 CONTRIBUTION OF COMPONENTS TO MOMENT-ROTATION


RELATIONSHIP
The methodology for determining the contribution of various components to overall
connection behavior is discussed in Article 3.2. The study of the contribution of
various components to the overall behavior is important as it can help the designer
recognize which components should be adjusted to achieve the desired flexibility.

In the finite element study conducted by Sherbourne and Bahaari (1994) of an


extended end-plate connection, the contribution to the total flexibility by the column
flange was determined to be 2-5%. This justifies the modeling of the column as rigid
in the present study. The contribution of each component for an end-plate
connection for a beam 686x254x152UB has been presented in Figures 4.1 to 4.4.
For end-plate thickness = 25 mm, about 88-89% of the total rotation is caused by
bending of the end-plate while 11-12% is due to bolt elongation (Figure 4.1). For
end-plate thickness = 30 mm, the general pattern of component contributions is
more or less the same, with 82-83% from the end-plate and 17-18% due to bolts
(Figure 4.2). With an increase of end plate thickness, the contribution of the bolts
becomes more significant. For end-plate thickness = 35 mm the bolt contribution
reaches to 22-23% and end-plate contribution becomes 77-78% (Figure 4.3). For
end-plate thickness = 40 mm, the end-plate becomes even stiffer and the bolt
contribution to the rotation becomes greater, up to 29-30% of the total rotation, while
that of the end plate is around 70-71% (Figure 4.4). These findings correlate well
with the experimental studies by Zandonini and Zanon (1987), which assumed a
rigid column flange but had bolts also in the inner potion of the flange. In their study
the contributions of the bolts did not exceed that of the end plate as in the present
study.
Results of the Finite Element Analysis 46

1200
End.Plate
Bolt
1000 Connection

_ 800
:;;
Z
e.
"E 600
••E
o
:;; 400

200

a
a 2 468 10 12
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Figure 4.1 Contribution of each component to rotation for 25mm end-plate thickness and
686 x 254 x 152 US (Mp = 1184.9kN-M)

1400

End.Plate
1200
Connection

1000
:;;
Z 800
e.
-"••
E 600
0
:;;
400

200

a
a 2 4 6 8 10
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Figure 4.2 Contribution of each component to rotation for 30mm end-plate thickness and
686 x 254 x 152 US (Mp = 1184.9kN-M)
Results of the Finite Element Analysis 47

1400
End-Plate

1200 Connection

1000
:E,
=.-
Z

E::
800

Q)
E 600
a
:;;
400

200

0
0 2 3 4 5 6 7
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Figure 4.3 Contribution of each component to rotation for 35mm end-plate thickness and
686 x 254 x 152 US (Mp =
1184.9kN-M)

1600

1400 End-Plate
Bolt
Connection
1200

:;;0 1000

=.-
Z

E:: 800
Q)
E
a 600
:;;

400

200

a
a 0.5 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Figure 4.4 Contribution of each component to rotation for 40mm end-plate thickness and
686 x 254 x 152 US (Mp =
1184.9kN-M)
Results of the Finite Element Analysis 48

4.3 COMPARISON BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL END-PLATE CONFIGURATION


AND CONFIGURATION OF PRESENT STUDY
In conventional end-plate connections there are bolts both in the interior and exterior
portions of the end-plate. In the configuration of the present study there are bolts
exclusively in the outer portions of the end-plate connection. In order to compare
between the two a connection of the beam 305x164x54UB has been investigated for
both types of connection. Both connections have a total of eight bolts with four bolts
in the tension side and four in the compression side. The four bolts of the present
study configuration are all above the top flange of the beam in a single row as in
Figure 3.3. The four bolts of the chosen conventional configuration are arranged as
shown in Figure 3.19 with two bolts above and two below the top beam flange. All
other parameters have been kept constant in the two analyses. The resulting
moment-rotation behavior of the two connection types for end-plate thickness of
20mm is shown in Figure 4.5.

250

----
ConlAentional

200 ..'
--- Configuration

Present Study
Configuration
~ 150
Z
:.
-"••
E
o 100
:;;

50

a
a 2 4 6 B 10 12
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Figure 4.5 Moment-Rotation relationships for present study and conventional configurations

From Figure 4.5 it is evident that the configuration of the present study results in
moment-rotation behavior which is more flexible than conventional connections. This
increased flexibility is desirable from a seismic resistance point of view, where stiff
connections may lead to catastrophic sudden failure. Flexible connections provide
for better energy absorbing and dissipating capabilities.
Results of the Finite Element Analysis 49

Comparison between the individual contribution of components to connection


behavior for conventional and present study configurations also speak favorably for
the present study configuration. It has been shown earlier that for a typical
connection of the present study the connection behavior is dominated by the
bending of the end-plate. The contribution to the total rotation by the end-plate for
thinner end-plates is as much as 90%. This figure decreases to about 70% for
thicker end-plates. This means that the contribution of bolts to the total rotation is
only 10% for thinner end-plates and 30% for thicker end-plates. In case of
conventional end-plate configurations the scenario is a bit different. For a typical
conventional end-plate configuration studied by Sherbourne and Bahaari (1994) the
contribution to total rotation by thinner end-plates is about 75%, while that for thicker
end-plates decreases below the contribution of bolts to around 40%. This shows the
great dependence on bolts in conventional configurations. In the present study the
behavior is mostly dependent on that of end-plates. This shows that in conventional
connections there is a greater chance of failure by bolt rupture, which is a brittle
failure mode and is the most critical limit state in an endplate connection (AISC,
2002). However, in the connection configuration of the present study, due to the
greater contribution of the end-plate to overall connection behavior, there is a
greater scope for ductile connection behavior through flexural yielding of the end-
plate material near the tension flange bolts.

4.4 BOLT STRESSES OVER LOADING HISTORY


The diameter of the bolts of the finite element model for a particular end-plate
connection has been determined by using Equation 3.7. It is of utmost importance
that bolts of adequate diameter are provided in a connection. Inadequate bolts may
result in overstressing of the bolts at low loading levels and will possibly lead to
brittle failure by fracture of the bolts. It is thus imperative that bolts are not stressed
to their ultimate stress levels even at the ultimate load capacity of the connection.
Bolt fracture should be avoided at all cost. At the same time from the economic point
of view, the bolt diameters should be such that the bolts are effectively used and not
over designed to the extent to be considered uneconomic.

The bolt diameters determined by using Equation 3.7 lead to satisfactory tensile
stress levels over the entire loading history for all the connections of the finite
element study. The following figures illustrate this. Since the end-plate connection is
symmetric about the beam web line, only two of the four tension bolts have been
Results of the Finite Element Analysis 50

studied for tensile stresses. The inner bolt is the bolt nearer to the centerline of the
end-plate (i.e. the beam web line). The outer bolt is the bolt farther away to the edge
of the end-plate.

900

800

"'
D. 700
~
- 600
m
g
rJ)
500

Q) 400
--><- Inner, t=25mm
'iii --><- Ouler, t=25mm
c:

-
~
(;
m 200
300 --
--
Inner, 1=20mm
Outer, 1=20mm
__ Inner, t=30mm
100 __ Outer, 1=30mm
o
o 100 200 300 400 500 600

Moment (kN-M)

Figure 4.6 Boll slress levels over loading hislory for connection of 457x191x74 UB
(Mp=392kN-M)

900

800

"'
D.
700
~ 600

_~ 500
rJ) -..-Inner, t=25mm
.!!! 400 -..- Ouler, t=25mm
'iii
c:
Q)
-.-Inner, 1=30mm

-
I-
(;
m
300

200
~ Ouler, t=30mm
--><-Inner, 1=35mm
--><- Ouler, 1=35mm
100 --+-Inner, 1=40mm
--+- Ouler, 1=40mm
o
o 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600

Moment (kN-M)

Figure 4,7 Boll slress levels over loading history for connection of 686 X 254 x 152 UB
(Mp = 1184.9kN-M)
Results of the Finite Element Analysis 51

From Figures 4.6 and 4.7 it is evident that the inner bolts are subject to higher levels
of stress for all the connections. The maximum bolt stresses, however, remain lower
than the ultimate tensile strength of 850MPa over the entire loading history.

4.5 STRESS CONTOURS


The formation of yield lines and modes of failure can be understood from the
progressive stress contours at different stages of loading. The flexural stress
contours for a connection of 457 x 191 x 74 US having end-plate thickness of 30mm
is shown in the following figures. Two loading stages are considered: 1) End of
elastic zone of loading; 2) Final stage of loading (extreme end of plastic zone). For
the end-plates the flexural stress of concern is the global 0y stress for which the
direction of stress is parallel to the axis normal to the plane containing the beam
flanges. For the beam flanges and web the flexural stress of concern is the global Oz

stress for which the direction of stress is parallel to the axis normal to the plane
containing the end-plate. The stress contours for the end-plate at the two stages of
loading are shown in Figures 4.8 and 4.9. It can be clearly seen that yield lines form
at the top bolt row line and below the top flange of the beam. The stress contours for
the beam at the two stages of loading are shown in Figures 4.10 and 4.11. The
progressive yielding of the beam is evident.

-271.-43 -151.915 -32.'1 87.116 206.631


-211.672 -92,157 27.358 146.873 266.388

Figure 4.8 Stress Contour of End-Plate at End of Elastic Stage of Loading


Results of the Finite Element Analysis 52

-292.561 -162.529 -32.498 97.533 227.565


-227.545 -97.514 32.518 162.549 292.58

Figure 4.9 Stress Contour of End-Plate at End of Plastic Stage of Loading

-267.25 -144.815 -22.39 100.055 222.49


-206.032 -83.597 38.838 161.273 283.708

Figure 4.10 Stress Contour of Beam at End of Elastic Stage of Loading


Results of the Finite Element Analysis 53

-327.278 -118.739 -30,2 118.339 266.877


-253.009 -104.47 44,069 192.608 341.147

Figure 4.11 Stress Contour of Beam at End of Plastic Stage of Loading

4.6 END-PLATE BENDING


The deformation patterns of thin and thick end plates are shown in Figures 4.12 and
4.13. The end-plate connection is for the beam 686x254x152UB. The thicknesses of
the thin and the thick end-plates, are 25mm and 40mm respectively. The end-plate
deformation is symmetric about the beam web line, and thus, only one half of the
end-plate has been shown. As can be seen, thin end-plate connections carry most
of the load by biaxial bending about its lines of attachment to the beam tension
flange and web plane. The maximum deformation occurs at the beam tension flange
region. Thick end-plates deform as a rigid body with no significant bending about the
plane of the web. For thick end-plates with increasing load, the plate deforms more
or less unidirectionally.
Results of the Finite Element Analysis 54

i!
!
1
;

Beam
)
Web Line
x
- Beam
),
Web Line

(a) (b)

Figure 4.12 Deformation of (a) Thin; (b) Thick End-Plate near ultimate load
Results of the Finite Element Analysis 55

Deformation
along Beam
Web Line x
f
!

(a) (b)

Figure 4.13 Deformation of (a) Thin; (b) Thick End-Plate near ultimate load

4.7 EFFECT OF END-PLATE THICKNESS ON CONNECTION BEHAVIOR


The effect of end-plate thickness on the moment-rotation relationship is shown in
Figures 4.14 and 4.15. It is evident from the graphs that with an increase in end-
plate thickness the moment-rotation curves shift upward. Apart from higher ultimate
moment capacities, thicker end-plates contribute to greater initial connection
stiffness. The ultimate moment capacity of the end-plate connection should be in
agreement with the plastic moment capacity of the beam for higher end-plate
thicknesses. A very thick end-plate would lead to a very high connection moment
capacity which may be useless if the beam connected has a low plastic moment
capacity. The end-plate thicknesses in the present study has been chosen with both
the connection moment and beam plastic moment in mind, as can be seen from the
graphs of Figures 4.14 and 4.15.
Results of the Finite Element Analysis 56

600

500 Mp of
457x191x74UB t = 30mm

_ 400
::;;
L
__ _ t = 25mm

Z 1= 20mm
~
"E 300

- ~ -_
ell
E ..... __ .... 1= 15mm
o , ~ ~~
::;; 200 " -

o
o 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Rolalion (xO.001 rad)

Figure 4.14 Moment vs Rotation Curves for 457x191x74 US (Mp=392kN-M)


for different end-plate thicknesses

1600
Mpof
1400 686x254x152UB 1= 40mm

1200
_L _ 1= 35mm
1= 30mm

~
z
1000 _
.•.•......... "'- .•- .•.•-------- .. ---- ---_ .... 1= 25mm

-
~
l: 800
/' "
......•- .-- ",
•........

ell
E
0 600 /'
::;; !
~
400

200

o
o 2 4 6 8 10 12
Rolalion (xO.001 rad)

Figure 4.15 Moment vs Rotation Curves for 686x254x152 UB (Mp=1185kN-M)


for different end-plate thicknesses

4.8 EFFECT OF BEAM DEPTH ON CONNECTION BEHAVIOR


There are certain factors which influence the behavior of end-plate connections.
Among these factors, the depth of the connecting beam has been singled out in the
present study. With an increase in the depth of a beam the total moment arm
Results of the Finite Element Analysis 57

increases as the center to center distance between the top and bottom bolt rows
increase. In conducting any parametric study it is necessary to have only one
variable while all other parameters remain constant. With this in mind, while the
depth of the beam has been varied, the flange thickness has been adjusted in such
a way that the plastic moment capacity of the beam section remains unaltered. The
study has been conducted for several beam sections. In the particular case of 457 x
191 x 74 UB, the beam depth has been varied from 300mm to 600mm as is
illustrated in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1 Beam dimensions for parametric study

Flange Thickness Plastic Moment


Section Beam Depth (mm)
(mm) Capacity (kN-M)
457x191 x74UB 457 14.5
0300 300 29.13 392
0600 600 7.67

The moment-rotation relationships for end-plate thicknesses of 20mm and 30mm


are shown in Figures 4.16 and 4.17. In both cases it can be seen that the curves for
the standard section of depth 457mm and 0600 section of depth 600mm are very
close to each other. In the case of 0300 section the curve is much flatter and also
the initial stiffness is much lesser. In the normalization attempt to obtain a single
moment-rotation curve for a particular beam Mp and particular end-plate thickness,
regardless of beam geometry, the values of moment plotted on the y-axis has been
divided by the radius of gyration of the beam section raised to the power of 0.75 (i.e.
,.075). The radii of gyration for the 457x191 x74UB, 0300 and 0600 sections are
187mm, 127mm and 222mm respectively. The parameter ,.075 has been chosen
after several parameters such as the radius of gyration (r), the beam moment of
inertia (/) and the beam cross-sectional area (/A,e.) were experimented with. Trials
were also made with the radius of gyration raised to different powers other than
0.75. Among all the normalization attempts, the parameter ,.075 yielded the best
results over the range of beam plastic moment capacities covered in the present
study (201 kN-M to 1185kN-M). The resulting curves are shown in Figures 4.18 and
4.19. The curves of MIl' 75 vs. Rotation for both end-plate thicknesses 20mm and
30mm can be seen to lie in a narrow band for the range of beam depths from
300mm to 600mm.
Results of the Finite Element Analysis 58

400

350

300
- - - .. .. - -
i' 250
.- .
Z
e.
-.,
c: 200
E ,,
,
---457x191x74 UB Seclion
0 150
::;; • •• - - - - Beam Deplh = 300mm

100 • •• ~ Beam Depth = 600mm

50
•• •

••
0 •
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Figure 4.16 Momenl vs Rolalion Curves for t = 20mm and Mp = 392kN-M

600

500

_400 ............•...... -•..- ... -


::;; .. •. .•. .. .. ...........
Z
e. .......
.'
'

.,E
'E 300
,.- .'.' - - - - Beam Depth = 300mm
o
/
::;; 200 ~ Beam Deplh = 600mm

100

o
// --457x191x74 UB Seclion

o 2 345 6 7 8 9
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Figure 4.17 Moment vs Rotation Curves for t = 30mm and Mp = 392kN-M


Results of the Finite Element Analysis 59

9000

8000
.. - - .
7000
.- - -
me
6000

~
~ 5000
cL
~ 4000 •
•••
--457x191x74 UB Section

3000 •

- - - - Beam Depth = 300mm

2000 • _ Beam Depth = SOOmm
••

1000 ••
o
o 2 4 6 8 10 12
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Figure 4.18 MIl''' vs Rotation Curves for t = 20mm and Mp = 392kN-M

12000

...... - ----
10000 ..... ........
'

8000

~
~
.• ,,
-
cL
:;:
6000

••
••
• - - - - Beam Depth = 300mm

4000 • _ Beam Depth = SOOmm


••
•• --457x191x74 UB Section
•••
2000 ••
•• •

o "
o 23456789
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Figure 4.19 MIl''' vs Rotation Curves for t = 30mm and Mp = 392kN-M

Though the normalized moment-rotation relationship lies in a narrow band over a


range of beam depths, the normalization of the relationship by division of moment
values by 1'75, a beam property, does not seem to be rational. The connection
behavior is mostly dependent on the properties of the end-plate, thus, any
Results of the Finite Element Analysis 60

normalization should be performed by including the end-plate parameters to be valid


and useful in the context of the current connection configuration.
CHAPTER 5
ANALYTICAL FORMULATION

5.1 INTRODUCTION
Detailed modeling and solution procedure of the extended end-plate moment
connection using finite element methods is described in Chapter 3. In this chapter,
an analytical formulation of the extended end-plate connection having bolts
exclusively in the extended portions of the end-plate is proposed. This is followed by
a comparison of the proposed formulation with the results of the finite element
analysis with supporting graphs and tables. Finally, the analytical formulation is
modified to match the finite element results. The finite element modeling techniques
had earlier been validated against past experimental data. The finite element
analysis has thus been considered to be a substitute to testing in the present study.
Lastly, the modified analytical formulation is put to test for a wide range of
connections of arbitrary standard beam sections and design moments.

5.2 PROPOSED ANALYTICAL FORMULATION


5.2.1 Description of Problem and Objective of Formulation
A 3-D sketch of a typical situation where end-plate beam-to-column connection is
used was shown in Figure 3.3. A general sketch of an extended end-plate
connection having bolts only on the outer portions of the end-plate is shown in
Figure 5.1. It consists of a bolted extended end-plate moment connection along with
the portion of a beam and the column to which it is attached.

The objective of the analytical formulation is to determine the thickness of the end-
plate, t, at which plastic hinges will just form in the end-plate for a particular design
moment.
Analytical Formulation 62

end-plate

" A
c0
E ~
I
beam/""
I
-;,. ,..-t

IE
L
A
.I
column
A

Figure 5.1 2-D sketch of the model

5.2.2 Development of End-Plate Thickness Formula


Let us begin first by considering the deflected shape of the problem due to a
deformation 'Ll' at the end of the beam portion caused by a moment M as shown in
Figure 5.2. In the analytical formulation it is assumed that the bolts are strong
enough to resist the tensile forces they are subjected to and their elongation is much
smailer compared to the deformation of the end-plate. It is further assumed that the
column is stiff enough to be considered rigid. Only, the yielding of the end-plate is
considered. Thus, for a large enough Ll, plastic hinges will form in the end-plate. Ll is
the deflection at the tip of the cantilever beam portion due to bending of the beam.
Formation of plastic hinges implies the initiation of failure of the end-plate.

c£ II,')' :::::~
-.:-----~-----~-----~-----~----~-----~-----~-----~-----====-----::==-----:==:---

Figure 5.2 Deflected shape due to deformation Ll at the end of the beam portion
Analytical Formulation 63

It can be seen that plastic hinges form in the end-plate - at the top bolt line, just
above the top flange of the beam and just below the bottom flange of the beam. The
formation of plastic hinges and thus, yield lines are illustrated more clearly in Figure
5.3.

b "'I

j :e-B--e-

,ioldIi,o,f!

\ o 0 0 0
Section A-A

Figure 5.3 Formation of yield lines in the end-plate

Let us consider the free body diagram of the portion of the end-plate between the
top bolt centerline and the top portion of the top flange of the beam, as shown in
Figure 5.4. The height of this portion is 'e'. Since, the top and bottom boundaries of
the segment coincides with two yield lines, the moments acting on both the top and
IX;. bottom is the plastic moment capacity of the end-plate, Mpe. Thus, the force, F can
\()
<:II easily be calculated as 2Mpe/c.
No.
~ Mpe~

• F

~}
Figure 5.4 Free body diagram of the portion of the end-plate between the top bolt centerline

and the top portion of the top flange of the beam


Analytical Formulation 64

Let us now consider the free body of the end-plate without the extended portions, as
shown in Figure 5.5. It can be seen that the entire beam portion has been replaced
by the moment that the beam transfers to the connection, M. As plastic hinges form
in the end-plate just above the top flange and just below the bottom flange of the
beam, the moments at these points are Mpe.

Figure 5.5 Free body of the portion of the end-plate without the extended portions

In order to determine the value of Mpe, the summation of moments about A, is taken,
L.MA =0
=>-Fxhb -2Mpe +M =0
2Mpe
=> ---x hb -2M pe +M =0
c

M
:. M pe = h (5.1 )
2( -.1. + 1)
c
Another approach in determining Mpe involves considering the stress distribution
across the end-plate thickness due to the plastic moment, as shown in Figure 5.6.
The plastic moment capacity of the end-plate, Mpe can now be expressed in terms of
the yield stress, fy, the end-plate thickness, t and the width of the end-plate, b.

/ /
Mpe =f X -x -x 2xb
". 2 4
fy/2b
=> M pe = -4- (52)
Analytical Formulation 65

Mpe~

~fy

fy lJJll
.--+:----.
,
i
!,
L

Figure 5.6 Stress distribution on the end-plate due to Mpe

Combining equations 5.1 and 5.2, a general expression for the end-plate thickness
is determined,

M !/2b
=-'--
2(~b + 1) 4
c
2M (5.3)
:. t =
hb
bly (--+1)
c

The term M is the design moment of the connection. The beam will transfer this
moment to the end-plate. Theoretically, an end-plate thickness greater than t,
ensures that the end-plate is thick enough to be safe from the development of any
yield stress in the end-plate. A thickness less than t, means that the end-plate will
start yielding at moments less than the design moment of the beam.

5.3 COMPARISON WITH FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS RESULTS AND


MODIFICATION OF ANALYTICAL FORMULATION
5.3.1 Development of Modified Analytical Formulation
The end-plate thicknesses obtained from the suggested formula of Equation 5.3
should closely match the results from the finite element analysis in order to be
considered valid and reliable. In absence of any known test data on extended end-
plate moment connections having bolts only in the extended portions, finite element
analysis has been taken as a substitute to full-scale tests. The techniques of finite
element analysis used in the present study can be considered to be accurate
Analytical Formulation 66

enough. The validity of the finite element analysis was established in Article 3.6 of
Chapter 3.

In the finite element analysis of end-plate connections in the present study, different
universal beam sections connected to columns via end-plates of varying thickness
have been investigated. For a particular beam-column connection, the end-plate
thickness has been varied keeping all other parameters constant. From the resulting
moment-rotation relationships the yield moment of the connection has been
determined. The yield moment has been taken as the design moment or beam
moment of the connection. This moment value has been substituted in Equation 5.3,
to give the required end-plate thickness of the connection as per the analytical
formulation.

The method of determining the yield moment from the moment-rotation relationship
has been used by other researchers as well such as Sumner (2003). In order to
determine the connection yield moment a graph of the applied moment versus the
connection rotation has first been plotted. A bi-Iinear curve fit has then been utilized
to determine the experimental yield moment, My. Figure 5.7 illustrates this concept.
The first line has been fit to the initial potion of the finite element analysis response
curve and represents the elastic response of the end-plate connection. The second
line has been fit to the inelastic portion of the curve and represents the inelastic
response of the connection. The ordinate of the intersection of the two lines is the
connection yield moment, My.

Yield point

,",

c •
OJ
E
o
My / .'.'
:2:
••' ~ Finite element analysis
data points


Rotation

Figure 5.7 Connection yield moment


Analytical Formulation 67

The determination of the yield moment for a connection in the present study is
shown in Figure 5.8. The yield moments for all the connections have been
determined in the same manner. The yield moment thus determined has been taken
as the design moment for that particular connection. The end-plate thicknesses from
the design moments have been determined from the analytical formulation
(Equation 5.3). The comparison of the end-plate thicknesses used in the finite
element analysis and that determined from the analytical formulation is shown in
Table 5.1. This is graphically shown in Figure 5.9. The same trend exists in case of
other beam-column connections.

Figure 5.8 Determining connection yield moment for a connection of 457 x 191 x 74 UB
(Mp=392kN-M) and end-plate thickness = 25mm

Table 5.1 Comparison of end-plate thickness from finite


element analysis and analytical formulation for connection
of 457x191x74UB (Mp=392kN-M)

Analytical
Finite Element Analysis
Formulation

Beam Moment
End Plate End Plate
from Graph
Thickness (mm) Thickness (mm)
(kN-M)

30 390 28.4
25 360 27.3
20 300 24.9
Analytical Formulation 68

From Table 5.1 and Figure 5.9 it is clear that at beam or design moments
approaching the plastic moment capacity of the connecting beam, the end-plate
thicknesses from both the finite element analysis and analytical formulation are in
agreement with each other. However, at design moments much less that the plastic
moment capacity of the connecting beam there is a deviation between the two.

35

30
-.5.
E
25
AF

'"
~
.!ii 20 FEA
.!:!
.J::
•..• 15
~ •...•...•Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
III
ll.
,; 10
c __ Analytical Formulation (AF)
w
5

o
250 280 310 340 370 400
Moment (kN-M)

Figure 5.9 Comparison of end-plate thickness from finite element analysis and analytical
formulation for connection of 457x191x74UB (Mp=392kN-M)

The analytical formulation has, thus, been arbitrarily multiplied with a factor to bring
the results from finite element analysis and analytical formulation into closer
agreement. From the trends of the curve it can be predicted that the factor should
contain the terms design moment, M, and plastic moment capacity of the connecting
beam, Mp. After trial with different combinations of these terms and their raised
powers, the multiplication factor, a, has been established as,
I

a=(~Y (5.4)

Thus, the final form of the analytical formulation is,

.J2M
f=a (5.5)

bfy(~b + 1)
c
Analytical Formulation 69

Application of the modified analytical formulation of Equation 5.5 is shown in Table


5.2 and Figure 5.10. It is evident that the modification of the analytical formulation
causes the end-plate thickness results to come into close agreement at all ranges of
beam moment. Figures 5.11, 5.12 and 5.13 clearly show that the same trend exists
for beam-column connections of 254 x 146 x 37 US, 305 x 164 x 54 US and 686 x
254 x 152 US respectively.

Table 5.2 Comparison of end-plate thickness from finite element analysis,


analytical formulation and modified analytical formulation for connection of
457x191x74UB (Mp=392kN-M)

Analytical
Finite Element Analysis Formulation Modified AF
(AF)

Beam Moment
End Plate End Plate End Plate
from Graph
Thickness (mm) Thickness (mm) Thickness (mm)
(kN-M)

30 390 28.4 28.4


25 360 27.3 26.2
20 300 24.9 21.8

35

30

E AF
.s 25 ...
Ul
Ul ...
~ 20
FEA
"".!:!
.<:
I- 15
• Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
~
a- • Analytical Formulation (AF)
-0 10
c
W • - - - ModifiedAF
5

o
250 280 310 340 370 400
Moment (kN-M)

Figure 5.10 Comparison of end-plate thickness from finite element analysis, analytical
formulation and modified analytical formulation for connection of
457x191x74UB (Mp=392kN-M)
Analytical Formulation 70

25

_20
E
.5-
'~" 15
c:
..>C
.~
J:
to-
~ 10
* Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
0;:
"0 • Analytical Formulation (AF)
c:
w 5
- - - - Modified AF

o
40 60 80 100 120
Moment (kN-M)

Figure 5.11 End-Plate Thickness vs Moment for connection of


254x146x37UB (Mp=115kN-M)

30

-E
E
25

AF
-;;;
20
'"
Ol
c:
..>C
.~
J: 15
to-

-Ol
III
ii: 10
* Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
.",c: • Analytical Formulation (AF)
W
5 - - - - Modified AF

0
100 125 150 175 200 225
Moment (kN-M)

Figure 5.12 End-Plate Thickness vs Moment for connection of


305x164x54UB (Mp=201kN-M)
Ana~ucalFormumuon 71

45

40

- 35
E AF
E
;; 30
III
Q)
c: 25
""
.!1
.<:
I- 20 • Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
2
III
c:,; 15 • Analytical Formulation (AF)
c:
w 10 - - - - ModifiedAF

o
600 750 900 1050 1200 1350
Moment (kN-M)

Figure 5.13 End-Plate Thickness vs Moment for connection of


686x254x152UB (Mp=1185kN-M)

5.3.2 Application of Modified Analytical Formulation and Comparison with


Finite Element Results
In order to fully test the reliability of the modified analytical formulation, some
universal standard sections have been chosen arbitrarily. For a range of design
moments from lesser values up to values approaching the plastic moment capacity
of the beam, the required end-plate thicknesses are determined using Equation 5.5.
Finite element analyses have been conducted using these values of end-plate
thickness. From the moment-rotation relationships of the finite element results, the
yield moments are found using the technique described earlier. The yield moments
are compared with the design moments and very good agreement between the two
has been observed. The following table, Table 5.3, shows the results for beam-
column connections of the beams 203 x 133 x 25 US, 356 x 171 x 51 US, 533 x 210
x 109 US and 838 x 292 x 194 US. The bar chart of Figure 5.14 further establishes
the close agreement between the analytical formulation and finite element results.
Analytical Formulation 72

Figure 5.14 Comparison of connection yield moment with respect to design moment for
connections of different beam sections of Table 5.3
Analytical Formula/ion 73

5.4 REMARKS
In view of the excellent agreement of the proposed analytical formulation and finite
element analysis results, the proposed formulas for determining end-plate thickness
and bolt diameters can be said to be satisfactory for application in design of the
particular connection configuration of the present study.
CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS

6.1 GENERAL
The thesis originated with the aim to develop a procedure for determining the
appropriate end-plate thickness and bolt diameter, for a bolted extended end-plate
moment connection having bolts exclusively in the extended portions of the end-
plate.

The study has been approached from two sides:


• A theoretical analytical formulation of the problem has been developed.
• A finite element analysis of the problem under certain parametric conditions
has been carried out.

Analytical formulation for determining end-plate thickness and bolt diameter has
been based on force and moment equilibrium of the joint utilizing yield line theory. At
the same time, a detailed finite element model has been developed where all the
components of the connection, e.g. end-plate, bolt, contact between end-plate and
column flange have been discretely modeled. The appropriateness of finite element
modeling approach has been verified by simulating past experiments on end-plate
connections. Therefore, a detailed parametric study has been carried out to study
the behavior of the end-plate connection of the suggested configuration. Based on
the study, the proposed analytical formulation has been appropriately tuned so that
it can reflect the connection characteristics with reasonable accuracy.

6.2 FINDINGS
The following conclusions may be drawn from the study:
• The particular connection configuration in the study, i.e. an end-plate
connection with bolts exclusively in the outer portions of the flange, is
Conclusion 75

capable of developing the full plastic moment capacity of the connecting


beam section provided an adequate end-plate thickness is provided.
• With increasing end-plate thickness the connection behavior becomes stiffer
and the strength of the connection increases towards and beyond the plastic
moment capacity of the connecting beam.
• The contribution of end-plates to the overall connection rotation increases
with the decrease in the thickness of end-plate. The contribution of the bolts
decrease with the same.
• In case of thin end-plate connections considerable biaxial bending occurs
about the lines of attachment of the end-plate to the beam tension flange
and web plane. Thick end plates deform more or less unidirectionally as a
rigid body with no significant bending about the plane of the web.
• The present study configuration has greater flexibility compared to
conventional configurations which is desirable from a seismic resistance
point of view as they provide for better energy absorbing and dissipating
capabilities.
• The greater dependence on end-plate bending for the present study
configuration compared to conventional configuration means there is greater
scope for ductile connection behavior through flexural yielding of the end-
plate material.

6.3 DESIGN RATIONALE


The proposed analytical formulation for determining the end-plate thickness of an
extended end-plate connection having only outer bolts for a particular design
moment, agrees very well with the finite element analysis results. The finite element
analysis techniques have been validated against previous full-scale experimental
results.

The bolt diameters chosen with the suggested method in the present study leads to
desirable bolt stress levels across the full range of loading. Stresses near the
ultimate axial capacity are reached only in the final stages of loading (in the flat
portion of the moment-rotation curve).

In view of the excellent agreement of the proposed analytical formulation and finite
element analysis results, the proposed formulas for determining end-plate thickness
Conclusion 76

and bolt diameters can be said to be satisfactory for application in design of the
particular connection configuration of the present study. However, it has to be kept
in mind that it is likely that the use of the proposed connection configuration in a
frame will lead to semi-rigid frame behavior, and thus the usual rigid frame analysis
will no longer hold true. Therefore, the analysis of the frame has to be carried out
keeping in mind the semi-rigid nature of the joint.

6.4 SCOPE FOR FUTURE INVESTIGATION


The following recommendations for future research work may be suggested:
• In the present study single bolts rows in the extended portions have been
considered. Connection configurations with multiple bolt rows can be
studied.
• The present study considers steel with yield stress of 250 N/mm2 and A325
Bolts. Steel with higher yield stress and A490 Bolts and the various of
combination of different steel grades and bolt classes may be studied.
• Full-scale experimental tests of the connection configuration of the present
study should be carried out to further validate the findings. The true ductility
of the connection of the present study and its comparison with the ductility of
conventional configurations can only be ascertained from full-scale
experiments.
• The connection behavior under cyclic and fatigue loading should be
investigated thoroughly to ascertain the seismic performance of the
connection.
• A study on the effect of the change in beam flange thickness on the
connection behavior, keeping all other parameters constant, can be carried
out.
• The torsional capacity of the connection can also be studied along with the
moment capacity.
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78

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ApPENDIX A
Beam Sections Used in Finite Element Analysis

Dimensions and Properties of Steel Sections used in the Present Study


y
1
1fT

x----+:+----x D
82

ApPENDIX B
Contribution of Components to Rotation

Connection for Beam 254 x 146 x 37 UB


End-plate thicknesses: 10mm, 15mm and 20mm

70

Bolt
60

50
::;;
Z 40

-
=-c:
Q)

E 30
0
::;;
20

10

0
0 0.5 1.5 2 2~ 3 3.5
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Contribution of components to rolalion for t= 10mm and 254x146x37UB (Mp = 114.6kN-M)


83

100

90 End-Plate Connection

80

70
~
Z 60

-
:!£
I: 50
Q)

E 40
0
:;:
30

20

10

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Contribution of components to rotation for t= 15mm and 254x146x37UB (Mp = 114.6kN-M)

140
End.Plate
Bolt
120 Connection

100

80
~,
z
-
:!£ 60
I:
Q)

E
0 40
:;:
20

0
0 0.5 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Contribution of components to rotation for t= 20mm and 254x146x37UB (Mp = 114.6kN-M)


84

Connection for Beam 305 x 164 x 54 UB


End-plate thicknesses: 15mm, 20mm and 25mm

180

160 Bolt

140

_ 120
:;;
Z
e. 100
-""
E
80
0
:;; 60

40

20

0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Contribution of component to rotation for t= 15mm and 305 x 164 x 54 US (Mp = 200.8kN-M)

250

End-Plate Connection
Bolt
200

:iii 150
z
e.
-""
E 100
0
:;;

50

o
o 2 4 6 8 10
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Contribution of components to rotation for t = 20mm and 305x164x54US (Mp = 200.8kN-M)


85

300

250 End-Plate
Connection
~ 200
::!i'
z
i!S
C 150
'"
E
o
:;; 100

50

o
o 234 5 6
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Contribution of components to rotation for t= 25mm and 305x164x54UB (Mp = 200.8kN-M)

Connection for Beam 457 x 191 x 74 UB

End-plate thicknesses: 15mm, 20mm, 25mm and 30mm

300

250 Bolt

End-Plate
~ 200
:;;
Z
-
i!S
c 150
E'"
0
:;; 100

50

0
0 234 5 6
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Contribution of components to rotation for t = 15mm and 457x191x74UB (Mp = 392.1kN-M)


86

400
End-Plate
Bolt
350 Connection

300

=i' 250
z
:.
-r: 200
CI>
E
0 150
:;:
100

50

0
0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Contribution of components to rolalion for t = 20mm and 457x191x74UB (Mp = 392, 1kN-M)

500

450 End-Plate

400 Connection

350

~ 300
Z
:.
C 250
CI>
E 200
o
:;:
150

100

50

o
o 2 3 4 5 6 7
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Contribulion of components 10 rolation for t = 25mm and 457x191 x74UB (Mp = 392,1 kN-M)
87

600

500
End-PI
Connection
_ 400
~
Z
~
i: 300
••E
o
::;; 200

100

o
o 2 3 4 5
Rotation (xO.OOl rad)

Contribution of components to rotation for t = 30mm and 457x19lx74UB (Mp = 392.lkN-M)


88

ApPENDIX C
Effect of End-Plate Thickness
140

t = 20mm
120

100
i' t = 15mm
Z 80

-••
~
c:
t = 12mm

........ .... - - .... - .. -----_. t = 10mm


E
0
:;;
60

40
-
20

0
0 0.5 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Moment vs Rotation Curves for 254 x 146 x 37 US (Mp=114.6kN-M)

300

250
t = 25mm
t = 20mm
_ 200
:;;
Z t = 15mm
~
C 150

E
••
o
:;; 100

50

o
o 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Moment vs Rotation Curves for 305 x 164 x 54 US (Mp=201kN-M)


89

ApPENDIX D
Mil. 75 vs Rotation Curves

7000

6000 .. - .• .. . - ...-
.. .•. .•. .•. .•.

5000 ... ..

Ie 4000 ••
o~ •
••
~ 3000 • - - - • Beam Deplh = 200mm
•• •
• ~ Beam Depth = 400mm
2000 •• •
--305x164x54 UB Section
••
1000 ••

o
o 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Mlt75 vs Rotalion Curves for EP thickness=20mm and Mp=201 kN-M

9000

8000

..- - . .... - •....- •.-


7000 .. -
6000
...........

~ 5000
o~
••
~ 4000 •• ~ Beam Deplh = 400mm
••
••
••
3000 --305x164x54 UB Seclion
•••
• - - - - Beam Depth = 200mm
2000
••
••
1000 :
J'
o r
o 2 4 6 8 10 12
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Mit'S vs Rolation Curves for EP thickness=25mm and Mp=201 kN-M


90

12000

10000
-_ .. ...........
....- ------_ -._~_..
.•.
..
,
.........
........ ...........
8000 ..-.'

w
~
o~ 6000
:E ---457x191x74 UB Section

4000 - - - - Beam Depth = 300mm

-----0<---- Beam Depth = 600mm


2000


0.(
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
Rotation (xO.001rad)

MII.7' vs Rotation Curves for EP thickness=25mm and Mp=392kN-M

18000

16000
. ,"
14000

12000

~ 10000
w

9..
:E 8000 ---686x254x152 UB Section
• - - - - Beam Depth = 475mm
6000 •


• ~ Beam Depth = 900mm
4000 •


2000 •

;•
0
0 2 468 10 12
Rotation (xO.001rad)

MII.7' vs Rotation Curves for EP thickness=25mm and Mp=1185kN-M


91

25000

.... - .•.•.............. --
20000

",," ..
.. ..
' - .........
........ .................

15000 "
"

, --686x254x152 UB Section
"
••
10000
• • - - Beam Depth = 475mm
""
,•" ~ Beam Depth = 900mm
5000 ""
,••
j""

o
o 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

75
Mlt vs Rotation Curves for EP thickness=30mm and Mp=1185kN-M

30000

25000

20000

~
~
i: 15000
::;; ~
!

---686x254x152 UB Section
10000
I" - - - Beam Depth = 475mm
•"
I" " Beam Depth = 900mm
5000 I

o
o 5 10 15 20
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

Mit 75 vs Rotation Curves for EP thickness=35mm and Mp=1185kN-M


92

30000

25000

20000

~
0

-
<\.. 15000
::l; ---686x254x152 UB Section

10000 • Beam Depth = 475mm

" Beam Depth = 900mm


5000

0
0 2 468 10 12
Rotation (xO.001 rad)

MII.'5 vs Rotation Curves for EP thickness=40mm and Mp=1185kN-M


93

ApPENDIX E
Finite Element Modeling Data

Bolt Diameters Used in the Present Study


Connecting Beam
Bolt Diameter, mm
" Designation

203x133x25 16.9
254x146x37 20.8
305x164x54 25.1
356x171 x51 24.2
457x191x74 29.2
533x21 Ox109 35.2
686x254x152 41.5
838x292x194 46.5