by
Raasheduddin Ahmed
,
'.
1111111111111111111111111111111111
• #1072a7#
2009
ii
The thesis titled "Behavior of EndPlate Moment Connections with Bolts in the
Extended Portion" submitted by Raasheduddin Ahmed, Student No. 100704309P,
and Session: October 2007 has been accepted as satisfactory in partial fulfilment of
the requirement for the degree of M.Sc. Engg. (Civil and Structural) on 41h July,
2009.
BOARD OF EXAMINERS
~
Member
Professor
Department of Civil Engineering, SUET, Dhaka1000
" A~_~.v _
Dr. Anwarul Mustafa, P.Eng. Member
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, (External)
Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology,
141142 Love Road, Tejgaon IIA, Dhaka120B
iii
DECLARATION
It is hereby declared that this thesis or any part of it has not been submitted
elsewhere for the award of any degree or diploma.
Raasheduddin Ahmed
iv
Dedicated
to
Ma & Saba
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
No.
Declaration iv
Dedication v
Acknowledgement ix
Abstract x
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 General 1
1.2 Background and Research Significance 1
1.3 Objectives of the Present Study 2
1.4 Methodology of the Study 2
1.5 Organization of the Thesis 3
2.1 Introduction 4
2.2 Typical Extended EndPlate Moment Connections 5
2.2.1 Typical Configurations 5
Advantages and Disadvantages of EndPlate
2.2.2 8
Connections
2.2.3 Connection Classification 8
2.3 Previous Works 9
2.3.1 Introduction 9
vi
Chapter 3 FINITE ELEMENT MODELING AND VALIDATION
3.1 Introduction 21
3.2 MomentRotation Relationship 21
3.3 Finite Element Model 23
3.3.1 Modeling Methodology 23
3.3.2 Material Properties 27
3.3.3 Bolt Diameter 28
3.3.4 Loading and Boundary Conditions 30
3.3.5 Meshing 31
3.3.6 Solution Method 31
3.4 Typical Analysis Results 32
3.4.1 Typical MomentRotation Behavior 32
3.4.2 Deflected Shapes 34
3.5 Mesh Sensitivity Analysis 36
3.6 Validation of Finite Element Model 38
3.6.1 Modeling Methodology 38
3.6.2 Typical Deflected Shapes 39
3.6.3 Stress Contours 41
3.6.4 Comparison with Test Data 42
4.1 Introduction 44
vii
Chapter 5 ANALYTICAL FORMULATION
5.1 Introduction 61
5.2 Proposed Analytical Formulation 61
5.4 Remarks 73
Chapter 6 CONCLUSIONS
6.1 General 74
6.2 Findings 74
6.3 Design Rationale 75
6.4 Scope for Future Investigation 76
REFERENCES 77
viii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I would like to express my wholehearted gratitude to the Almighty for each and every
achievement of my life.
I would like to convey my gratefulness and thanks to all my friends and colleagues
for their assistance and encouragement. Finally, I would like to thank my wife, Rupa,
my parents and my sister, for their undying love, encouragement and support at all
stages of my life. The achievement of this goal would have been impossible without
their blessings.
ix
ABSTRACT
An investigation using analytical and finite element analysis techniques has been
conducted to study the behavior of extended endplate moment connections having
bolts exclusively in the extended portions of the endplate. The objective of the study
is the determination of the appropriate endplate thickness and bolt diameter for a
particular design moment.
Finite element method has been employed to study the behavior of endplate
connections of several universal beam sections. The momentrotation relationship of
the connection has been singled out as the best characterization of connection
behavior. The finite element analysis techniques used have been validated against
previous fullscale experimental results of conventional endplate connections
having both inner and outer bolts. In absence of any available experimental data on
endplate connections with only outer bolts, the finite element analysis has been
considered as a substitute to fullscale experiments. The contribution of the end
plate and the bolts to the overall connection behavior has been investigated over the
full range of loading. An analytical formulation to determine the required endplate
thickness for the extended endplate connection for a particular design moment has
been developed from plastic theories of structure. The results from the analytical
formulation have been compared against those from the finite element analysis.
Excellent agreement has been observed at design moments near the plastic
moment capacity of the connecting beam. In view of the deviation of results at lower
moment values the analytical formulation has been modified with a multiplication
factor. The modified analytical formulation gives excellent agreement over a wide
range of design moments.
x
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL
Bolted endplate type moment connections are used extensively in steel structures.
However, despite the wide application of this connection and the great amount of
research in this field, it appears that no research has been carried out on the
specific configuration of an extended endplate connection having bolts exclusively
in the extended portions and no inner bolts. Formal design guidelines are required to
assist designers in choosing the appropriate endplate thickness and in determining
the corresponding bolt diameters for such a configuration. The selection of the
appropriate endpiate thickness and bolt diameter is of utmost importance to ensure
the safety and economy of the connection, and hence the steel structure. The
present study aims to provide the design engineer some definite guidelines on this
matter.
in the beam to column connections of several buildings in the San Fernando Valley
immediately following the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake (Hamburger,
2006).
The search continues, therefore, for a particular connection configuration which will
exhibit ductile seismic response through plastic deformation consistent with the high
ductility and moment resisting requirements of seismic resistant connections. In
order to enhance the ductility of conventional endplate connections, the present
study proposes the omission of the inner row of bolts. The possible advantages of
omitting the inside row of bolts is the increase in flexibility as the endplate has
greater scope of bending and possible increase in ductility due to plastic
deformation of endplate. This is in line with the findings of Salazar and Haldar
(2001) who concluded that partially restrained connections reduce the overall
stiffness of frames, but add a major source of energy dissipation. Thus, the resulting
semirigid joint behavior is more desirable from an earthquake resistance point of
view.
The problem has been approached from two sides. A theoretical analytical
formulation has been developed, and a finite element analysis of the problem has
been carried out. The analytical formulation is based on the fundamental plastic
Introduction 3
theories of structure. The finite element analysis uses shell element for the modeling
of beam and endplate. Nonlinear spring has been used to model the bolts and
contact surface. The finite element problem is inherently nonlinear due to the
plasticity of the material and changes in the contact area between endplate and
column flange. Therefore, this requires that, in addition to multiple iterations per load
step for convergence, the loads be applied in small increments, to characterize the
actual load history. Arclength method has been applied to solve the concerned
nonlinear problem. Lastly, the two approaches have been compared with one
another, and the suggested analytical approach modified.
2.1 INTRODUCTION
The use of endplate moment connections in multistory, moment resistant frame
construction is becoming more common because of advancements in design
methods and fabrication techniques, both of which have resulted in decreased
costs. Bolted endplate type moment connections are used extensively in steel
structures, e.g., buildings, bridges, water tanks and transmission towers. They have
the advantages of requiring less supervision and a shorter assembly time than
welded joints. They also have a geometry that is easy to comprehend and can
accommodate minor discrepancies in the dimensions of beams and columns. Also,
bolted joints can be disassembled, if necessary, and are not permanent like welded
joints. Furthermore, as a result of the poor performance of flangewelded moment
connections in comparison to that of bolted and riveted moment connections in the
1995 Kobe earthquake and the 1994 Northridge earthquake (Sumner, 2003), end
plate moment connections are under serious consideration as an alternative to
welding in seismic regions. The selection of the appropriate endplate thickness and
bolt diameter to transfer a particular joint moment is of utmost importance to ensure
the safety and economy of the connection, and hence the steel structure.
) )
(a) Unstiffened (4 Bolts) (b) Stiffened (4 Bolts)
) )
(c) 4 Bolts Wide (d) Stiffened (8 Bolts)
o
) o
)
Figure 2.2 Typical flush endplate configurations (Murray and Shoemaker, 2002)
beam moment connection is shown. The moment connections transfer the moment
carried by the flanges of the supported beam to the supporting member.
,. ,
. " .. ~
Figure 2.3 (b) Extended endplate beamtobeam moment connection, Desh Bandhu
Sugar Mills, Ghorashaal, Bangladesh
Literature Review 7
Further examples of endplate moment connections are shown in Figure 2.4 and
Figure 2.5. Figure 2.4 shows a column base plate connection which is essentially
the same as an endplate connection. In Figure 2.5 the application of the endplate
moment connection in a gable frame is shown.
Figure 2.4 Column base plate connection, Desh Bandhu Sugar Mills, Ghorashaal
Figure 2.5 Endplate connection used in gable frame, Desh Bandhu Sugar Mills, Ghorashaal
Literature Review 8
A number of designers and fabricators in the United States have successfully used
moment endplate connections for building frames up to 30 stories in height. It is
believed that, in spite of the several disadvantages, moment endplate connections
can provide economic solutions for rigid frame construction. However, in the
knowledge of the author there is no previous study and hence, no formal design
procedure for endplate connections having bolts exclusively in the extended
portions of the endplate.
connections are idealized as having full fixity between members. This study
recognizes the importance of considering the actual joint rotation that occurs in a
particular connection. Neglecting the joint rotation and wrongly assuming the joint to
be rigid leads to an erroneous estimation of joint behavior and hence, overall
structural behavior.
The earlier design methods of endplate connections were based on statics and
. simple assumptions concerning prying forces. These methods resulted in thick end
plates and large diameter bolts. Other studies have been based on yieldline theory.
The more recent studies have used the finite element method and regression
analysis to develop design equations. Most of the early study was concerned with
flush endplate connections.
Mann and Morris (1979) considered the results of several research programs and
proposed a design procedure for the extended endplate connection. The procedure
considered both strength and stiffness criteria. Yield line analysis was used to
determine the strength of the endplate and column flange. Prying forces were
considered in the design of the bolts.
Morrison et al. (1985) conducted an analytical study to develop a design method for
multiple row extended endplates. The results were verified by fullscale testing. The
testing program involved the monotonic testing of six beamtobeam specimens,
ranging from 30 in. to 62 in. in depth. The design methods derived and verified by
this testing include endplate thickness requirements based on straight yieldline
analysis, as well as bolt force predictions. The method consists of finding a
thickness of the end plate based on strength. The thickness is then determined to
Literature Review 12
act as a thick, thin, or intermediate plate under a given load. The bolt forces,
including prying action, if present, are then determined using the modified Kennedy
method.
Aggarwal and Coates (1987) conducted fifteen experimental tests on four bolt
extended unstiffened endplate moment connections. The specimens were tested
under static and dynamic loads. It was shown that the Australian and British
standards produced conservative endplate and bolt strength predictions for the test
loading. Morris (1988) reviewed the connection design philosophies adopted in the
United Kingdom and made practical recommendations and observations that are
important for designers. The importance of proper design and detailing of extended
and flush endplate moment connections was emphasized. Murray (1988) presented
an overview of the past literature and design methods for both flush and extended
endplate configurations, including column side limit states. Design procedures,
based on analytical and experimental research in the United States, were
presented.
Tarpy and Cardinal (1981) used finite element analysis to develop equations for the
design of unstiffened beamtocolumn flange endplate connections. The adequacy
of the analytical model was shown through comparisons with experimental results.
Srouji et al. (1983a, 1983b) developed design methods for different endplate
moment connection configurations. The endplate thickness was determined using
yield line analysis. The bolt force predictions include the effects of prying, and were
based on the teestub analogy design method developed by Kennedy et al. (1981)
with a few modifications. Finite element analysis was used to establish stiffness
criteria. The analytical procedure was verified with experimental testing and good
correlation was observed. It was concluded that yield line analysis and the modified
Kennedy method accurately predict the endplate strength and bolt forces.
Abolmaali et al. (1984) used finite element analysis to develop a design
methodology for the two bolt flush endplate moment connection configuration. Both
2D and 3D analyses were conducted to generate correlation coefficients. Finite
element 2D analysis was used to generate regression equations for the design of
the connections. The results were adjusted by the correlation coefficients to more
closely match the experimental results.
Kukreti et al. (1990) used finite element modeling to conduct parametric studies to
predict the bolt forces and the endplate stiffness of the eight bolt extended stiffened
endplate moment connection. Regression analysis of the parametric study data
resulted in equations for predicting the endplate strength, endplate stiffness, and
bolt forces. The predictions were compared to experimental results with reasonable
correlation. Murray (1990) presented design procedures for the four bolt unstiffened,
four bolt wide unstiffened and the eight bolt extended stiffened endplate moment
connections. The endplate design procedures were based on works of
Krishnamurthy (1978), Ghassemieh et al. (1983), and Murray and Kukreti (1988).
The column side procedures were based on works by Curtis and Murray (1989), and
Hendrick and Murray (1984).
Gebbeken et al. (1994) investigated the behavior of the four bolt unstiffened end
plate connection using finite element analysis. The study emphasized modeling of
the nonlinear material behavior and the contact between the endplate and the
column flange or the adjacent endplate. Comparisons between the finite element
Literature Review 14
analysis and experimental test results were made. Borgsmiller (1995) presented a
simplified method for the design of four flush and five extended endplate moment
connection configurations. The bolt design procedure was a simplified version of the
modified Kennedy method to predict the bolt strength including the effects of prying.
The endplate strength was determined using yield line analysis. Fiftytwo endplate
connection tests were analyzed and it was concluded that the prying forces in the
bolts become significant when ninety percent of the endplate strength is achieved.
This established a threshold for the point at which prying forces in the bolts can be
neglected. If the applied load is less man ninety percent of the plate strength, the
endplate is considered to be 'thick' and no prying forces are considered; when the
applied load is greater than ninety percent of the end plate strength, the endplate is
considered to be 'thin' and the prying forces are assumed to be at a maximum. This
distinct threshold between 'thick' and 'thin' plate behavior greatly simplified the bolt
force determination because only the case of no prying and maximum prying must
be determined. Good correlation with past test results was obtained using the
simplified design procedure.
Choi and Chung (1996) established a finite element model by the use of 3D
nonconfirming elements. Momentrotation relationships, contact phenomenon and
effective stress distribution of each component were investigated in detail. The
comparison of the momentrotation relationships obtained by the proposed scheme
Literature Review 15
with the experimental results revealed that the proposed modeling can properly
simulate the actual behavior of endplate connections.
Troup et al. (1998) presented a paper describing finite element modeling of bolted
steel connections. ANSYS was used for this study, which included an extended
moment endplate model as well as a teestub model. The model utilized a bilinear
stressstrain relationship for the bolts. Also, special contact elements were used
between the endplate and the column flange for the extended endplate model, and
between the tees for the tee model. By using the contact elements between the
contact surfaces of the models, the geometric nonIinearities that are present
between the surfaces as separation occurs due to increased load can be realistically
modeled. Both models were calibrated with experimental test data to show excellent
correlation between analytical and experimental stiffness. Bolt forces were also
analyzed. It was found that for the simple fourbolt arrangement about the tension
flange, the tee design prediction is accurate. However, for more complex bolt
Literature Review 16
patterns, the distribution of prying forces is not as clear. Troup, et al. (1998)
concluded the following:
1. Teestub analogy is a useful benchmark problem providing an indication of
the performance of analysis techniques.
2. Shell elements are more accurate for modeling beam and column
sections. Thick end plate design provides additional rotational stiffness and
moment capacity but may result in bolt fracture.
3. Thin end plates provide enough deformation capacity to allow semirigid
connection design, but may result in excessive deflection.
4. The moment capacity prediction of Eurocode 3 has been shown to be
reasonable, but conservative, for simple endplate bolt configurations. The
code is inaccurate when analyzing more complicated bolt arrangements. If
these inaccuracies do not lead to bolt failure, they are acceptable.
Mays (2000) used finite element analysis to develop a design procedure for an
unstiffened column flange and for the sixteen bolt extended stiffened endplate
moment connection. In addition, finite element models were developed and
comparisons with experimental results for the four bolt extended unstiffened, eight
bolt extended stiffened, and the four bolt wide unstiffened endplate moment
connections were made. Good correlation with experimental results was obtained.
6. It is assumed that the width of the end plate which is effective in resisting the
applied beam moment is not greater than the beam flange width plus 1 in. This
assumption is based on engineering judgment and is not part of any of the
referenced endplate design procedures.
Literature Review 18
7. The gage of the tension bolts (horizontal distance between vertical bolt lines)
should not exceed the beam tension flange width, again based on engineering
judgment.
8. Beam web to endplate welds in the vicinity of the tension bolts are designed to
develop 0.6fy of the beam web. This weld strength is recommended even if the full
moment capacity of the beam is not required for frame strength.
9. Only the web to endplate weld between the middepth of the beam and the inside
side face of the beam compression flange or between the inner row of tension bolts
plus two bolt diameters and the inside face of the beam compression flange,
whichever is smaller, may be used to resist the beam shear.
Column web stiffeners are expensive to fabricate and can interfere with weak axis
column framing. Therefore, it is recommended that they be avoided whenever
possible. If the need for a stiffener is marginal, it may be more economical to
increase the column size rather than install stiffeners. If column web stiffeners are
required because of inadequate column flange bending strength or stiffness,
increasing the effective length of the column fiange may eliminate the need for
stiffening. This can be accomplished by increasing the tension bolt pitch or by
switching from a two row configuration, Figs, 2.1 (a), (b) or (c), to a four row
configuration, Fig. 2.1 (d). Alternately, column flange washer plates (loose plates with
holes, placed on the column flange opposite the endplate and connected with the
endplate connection tension bolts) may be used. This approach is widely used in
Europe (Mann and Morris, 1979; Zoetemeijer, 1981; Moore and Sims, 1986) and
has been studied in the United States (Curtis, 1985).
3. Bolt rupture due to direct load and prying force effects. This limit state is obviously
a brittle failure mode and is the most critical limit state in an endplate connection.
4. Failure of bolt, or slip of bolt in slip critical connections, due to shear at the
interface between the end plate and column flange.
5. Plate bearing failure of endplate or column flange at bolts.
6. Rupture of beam tension flange to endplate welds or beam web tension region to
endplate welds.
7. Shear yielding of beam web to endplate weld or of beam web base metal.
8. Column web yielding opposite either the tension or compression flanges of the
connected beam.
9. Column web buckling opposite the compression flange of the connected beam.
10. Column flange yielding in the vicinity of the tension bolts. As with flexural
yielding of the end plate, this state in itself is not limiting but results in rapid
increases in tension bolt forces and excessive rotation.
11. Column web stiffener failure due to yielding, local buckling or weld failure.
12. Column flange stiffener failure due to yielding or weld failure.
13. Excessive rotation (flexibility) at the connection due to endplate and/or flange
bending.
14. Column panel zone failure due to yielding or web plate buckling.
2.7 REMARKS
From the above mentioned works in Section 2.3 it can be seen that the studies
revolve around mostly 4bolt and 8bolt connections having both inner and outer
bolts. Other possible configurations are connections with bolts only in the extended
portions. The possible advantage of omitting the inside row of bolts is the increase in
flexibility as the endplate has greater scope of bending and possible increase in
ductility due to plastic deformation of endplate. The resulting semirigid joint
behavior is also more desirable from an earthquake resistance point of view. There
is a dearth of a specific guideline for determining the endplate thickness and
corresponding bolt tension for extended endplate moment connections having bolts
only in the extended portions. The proposed study is expected to provide the design
engineer some definite guidelines on these areas.
CHAPTER 3
FINITE ELEMENT MODELING AND VALIDATION
3.1 INTRODUCTION
Finite element analysis is rapidly replacing analytical methods, especially for
problems that have to be solved which are adjusted to specific tasks. According to
Mays (2000) finite element modeling can be used to accurately predict the behavior
of endplate moment connections. In the present study a finite element model has
been developed to describe the behavior of the joint in a beamtocolumn extended
endplate moment connection. Apart from an exact geometry modeling, the
description of the material behavior of all components is of essence for the quality of
the performed analysis. This applies to finite element analytical models as well as to
numerical methods. This enables the accurate simulation of the elastoplastic
behavior of steel. The actual work regarding the finite element modeling of the
beamtocolumn extended endplate moment connection and the various parametric
studies carried out has been described in detail in this chapter.
(3.1 )
e, = U,
d (3.2)
U 'J1
e'.r = em  e, = d t
(3.3)
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 22
\~
,
\ ;.........
II I Ut
,
, I
,, ..
,
r Uep ,,
,,
\J
';:'"
,,
,,
,,
,,
,,
~
d ,,
,,
Momenl
 J' 
Figure 3.1 Definitions of Endplale rolalions
which is similar to that defined and implemented by Zandonini and Zanon (1987).
Where V, = horizontal deflection of the node at the juncture of tension flange and
end plate; Vb = horizontal extension of the nearer bolt shank located above tension
flange; and d = centertocenter distance between beam flanges. Since, the column
has been assumed to be rigid, the contribution of the column flange to the total
flexibility is nil in the present study.
,
Elastic
••
I Plastic Zone
Zone I M
if ~ y __ 
I~ __ 
r
I
I
I
I
I
Rotation
Column
Stiffener
Bolts 0 00
Endplate
The finite element modeling techniques used in the present study has been used by
previous researchers such as Sherbourne and Bahaari (1994). Plastic fournode
finite strain shell elements, so called SHELL 181 in ANSYS, have been used to
model the beam web and flange, endplate, column web and flange, stiffeners and
bolt head and nut. The bolt head and nut should stay in close contact with their
connection plates through all load steps. For this reason certain nodes of the bolt
head and nut have been coupled in their degrees of freedom with the corresponding
endplate and column flange nodes. Coupling degrees of freedom into a set causes
the displacement results calculated for one member of the set to be the same for all
members of the set. The bolt shank has been modeled using eight 3D nonlinear
spring elements (COMBIN 39) connecting the nodes of head and nut to each other.
Though these elements overlap the plate hole elements, mathematically there is no
connection between them. Using eight spring elements to model the bolt shank has
allowed the author to find both the magnitude and distribution of the bolt force within
the section. This is especially important for thin end plates in which the bolts in
tension undergo considerable biaxial bending (Sherbourne and Bahaari, 1994).
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 25
00 Bolt
pitch
Column
Stiffener
d
Column
Flange
EndPlate
Bolt
00 'f ,,,,
pitch
.
1.4db
The effective area of the bolt has been split equally among the spring elements. The
actual support conditions at the back of the end plate are a critical and complex
aspect in bolted connection analysis. The plate should pull away from the adjacent
column flange around the beam tensions flange to a varying extent depending upon
the beam and end plate dimensions, bolt size and position, material properties and,
especially the load level. At the same time, when the end plate tends to bear against
the column flange around the beam compression flange, it should not move freely
through the adjacent component. The boundary at the back of the end plate is thus
a variable boundaryvalue problem that can be solved only by an iterative approach.
The element chosen in ANSYS to simulate this contact surface between the back of
the endplate and the column flange is the 3D nonlinear spring element COMBIN 39.
An example of the typical finite element mesh of the problem is shown in Figure 3.5.
A closeup of the bolt modeling and the contact elements of the mesh is shown in
Figure 3.6.
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 26
Figure 3.6 Closeup of mesh showing bolt modeling and conlact elemenls
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 27
800
600
CiI
a..
~
III
~ 400
tJ)
200
o
o 5 10 15 20 25
Strain (0.001mm/mm)
Figure 3.7 a) StressStrain Curve for Boll Shank (Sherbourne and Bahaari, 1994)
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 28
500
400
~ 300
~
lZ
~ 200
Ul
100
Figure 3.7 b) StressStrain Curve for Beam and End.Plate Materials (Prabha et. aI., 2007)
i
Ql Tension
~
o
LL
Slope K,
Deflection >
Compression
Slope K,
Allowable Stress
Bolt Designation Yield Stress (MPa)
(MPa)
A325 630 303
A490 897 372
l
d'
T
•
d+d'
d
III
Mp C
In the present study A325 bolts have been considered. The bolt diameters have
been determined rationally based on the free body diagram of Figure 3.9. The
centroid of the tensile force, T, occurs at the top bolt centerline, while the centroid of
the compressive force, C, occurs at the bottom flange. For a particular endplate
connection, the bolts should be strong enough so that they can withstand the high
tensile force which will result if the beam transfers its full plastic moment capacity to
the connection. In that event and neglecting prying effects the total tensile force per
bolt, Fb, for a total n number of bolts in a single row will be
F M_"_ (3.4)
h ned + d')
Once the individual bolt force is determined, the corresponding bolt diameter can be
easily determined by making use of the following formulae,
(3.5)
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 30
4x Fh
/1.//1
4xMp
:. dh = (3.6)
Jr x fall X ned + d')
The bolt pitch, d', in Equation 3.6 has been taken as the minimum pitch dimension of
bolt diameter plus 12.5mm as recommended by AISC (2002). The above formula
then becomes,
4xMp
(3.7)
Jr x fall X ned + dh + 12.5)
In equation 3.7 it can be seen that db is on both sides of the equation. For this
reason an iterative method was adopted to determine the required bolt diameter. In
the present study a bolt diameter of 2530mm had first been assumed and then the
formula applied till the solution converged. The solution generally converged after
just two steps.
3.3.5 Meshing
Fine meshing will lead to better results at the expense of greater solution time.
Coarse meshing will result in lesser solution times but result accuracy may be
compromised. The balance is therefore to apply the mesh density for which the
solution accuracy is not lost but the computation time is also not that great. An
optimal solution is to use a fine mesh in areas of high stress gradient and a coarser
mesh in the remaining areas. Thus, in the finite element model of the present study
denser meshing has been used in the endplate and in the beam and column
regions adjacent to the endplate, This is evident in Figure 3.10.
regimes. The arclength method uses the explicit spherical iterations to maintain the
orthogonality between the arclength radius and orthogonal directions. It is assumed
that all load magnitudes are controlled by a single scalar parameter (Le., the total
load factor). As the displacement vectors and the scalar load factor are treated as
unknowns, the arclength method itself is an automatic load step method. For
problems with sharp turns in the loaddisplacement curve or path dependent
materials, it is necessary to limit the arclength radius using the initial arclength
radius. During the solution, the arclength method will vary the arclength radius at
each arclength substep according to the degree of nonlinearities that is involved.
The convergence of the arclength method at a particular substep is shown in Figure
3.11.
I
I
I ~ spherical arc at
substep n
I
I
AU'1
U
un(converged solution at substep n)
Figure 3.11 ArcLength Approach wilh Full NewlonRaphson Melhod (ANSYS 10,0)
500
450
400
_350
::;;
Z 300
~
1: 250
Q)
E 200
0
::;; 150
100
50
0
0 2 3 4 5 6 7
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
The momentrotation plots for the various elements per half flange width (EPHF) are
shown in Figure 3.18. From the plots it can be seen that for the mesh densities
selected the curves are fairly in close agreement with one another. However using 4
EPHF causes slight deviation from the rest of the curves. 4 EPHF is also the
minimum from practical constraints. Using fewer EPHF causes meshing problems,
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 37
Table 3.2 Total elements and nodes for various mesh densities
Elements per half
Element Size Total Elements Total Nodes
flange width (EPHF)
31 4 2528 2006
20 5 3526 2836
15 7 4577 3774
12 8 6091 5070
9 11 9825 8318
200
150
~
z
:.

c: 100
Ql
E
0 EPHF 5
:;: __ EPHF7
EPHF 11
.EPHF 8
50
   . EPHF4
o
o 5 10 15 20 25
Rotation (0.001 rad)
The beam and column used in the connection was a 305 x 164 x 54 US (equivalent
to W31 0 x 52 kg/m) and 254 x 254 x 132 UC (equivalent to W250 x 131 kg/m). The
bolts used were M20 grade 8.8, which are comparable to A325 20mm bolts. End
plate thickness is a parameter that varied from 12 to 25 mm. Only nonprestressed
Finite Element Modeling and Validation 39
bolt tests are compared. Column web stiffeners were used at the beam flange
locations for which the same thickness and width of beam flange was assumed. In
the connections analyzed the end plate rotates about the compression flange of the
beam. For a thin end plate, some of the nodes around the tension bolt positions stay
in contact with the column flange. The end plate, at its line of attachment to the
beam web, separates along the depth of the beam and clearly rotates about the
compression flange of the beam. Therefore, the rotation corresponding to every load
step is calculated by dividing the maximum separation of end plate at the beam
flange by beam flange centertocenter depth. This definition coincides with the
method followed by Jenkins et al. (1986) in their experimental study.
NODAL SOLUTION
3TEP=1.
::lUB =32
TIME=.388S6
3Y (AVG)
RSY::'P=O
D"'X =7.51.8
SKU =542.113
8MX =540.543
250
• t= 15mm
200
c:
Ql
E 100
0 • 1=12mm Test Dala
:;;
• 1=15mm Test Dala
o
o 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Rotation (0.001 rad)
Figure 3.25 Comparison of 3D Model and Test for Thin End Plales (Bahaari and
Sherbourne, 1994)
300
t = 25mm
250 •
•
••
200 t = 20mm
:E
:Z
=.c: 150

Ql
E
•• •• 1=20mm Tesl Data
0
:;; 100 • 1=25mm Tesl Data
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Rotation (0.001 rad)
Figure 3.26 Comparison of 3D Model and Test for Relalively Thick End Plales (Bahaari and
Sherbourne, 1994)
CHAPTER 4
RESULTS OF THE FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
4.1 INTRODUCTION
The validation of the finite element model for an extended endplate moment
connection having both inner and outer bolt rows have been shown in Article 3.6.
The results were compared against the test results of Jenkins et al. (1986). The very
good agreement between the finite element model results and the test data prove
the reliability and accuracy of the finite element modeling techniques used in the
present study. The present study deals with extended endplate connections with
bolts rows only on the extended portions. Since, the author is not aware of any
previous testing or finite element study specifically on this particular configuration,
and further, since the author does not have access to specialized testing setups
required'to investigate the same, finite element analysis has been used as the
substitute to testing. The modeling and solution techniques applied in the validation
model have been applied to the finite element models of the present study.
For the purpose of carrying out the analysis, the following have been chosen
• The yield stress of steel is 250 N/mm2 (Prabha et. aI., 2007).
• A325 bolts have been used. Bolt diameters have been determined rationally
as per Equation 3.7.
• The bolt pitch has been taken as the minimum pitch dimension of bolt
diameter plus 12.5mm as recommended by AISC (2002).
• The bolts are only in the extended portions of the endplate connection.
There are a total of eight bolts. Four bolts are in a single row above the top
beam flange. Four bolts are in a single row below the bottom beam flange.
• The spacing between the bolts is 2.5 times the diameter of the bolts. The
distance from the center of the edge bolt to the edge of the endplate is 1.4
times the bolt diameter (AISC, 2002).
Results of the Finite Element Analysis 45
• The column has been assumed to be rigid keeping in mind that the column
flange is generally thicker than the endplate and beam member thicknesses.
The finite element analysis has been carried out with the objective of studying the
behavior of joint connections for the specific configuration of the present study. The
momentrotation relationship and the required endplate thickness for a particular
design moment are of particular interest.
1200
End.Plate
Bolt
1000 Connection
_ 800
:;;
Z
e.
"E 600
••E
o
:;; 400
200
a
a 2 468 10 12
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
Figure 4.1 Contribution of each component to rotation for 25mm endplate thickness and
686 x 254 x 152 US (Mp = 1184.9kNM)
1400
End.Plate
1200
Connection
1000
:;;
Z 800
e.
"••
E 600
0
:;;
400
200
a
a 2 4 6 8 10
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
Figure 4.2 Contribution of each component to rotation for 30mm endplate thickness and
686 x 254 x 152 US (Mp = 1184.9kNM)
Results of the Finite Element Analysis 47
1400
EndPlate
1200 Connection
1000
:E,
=.
Z
E::
800
Q)
E 600
a
:;;
400
200
0
0 2 3 4 5 6 7
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
Figure 4.3 Contribution of each component to rotation for 35mm endplate thickness and
686 x 254 x 152 US (Mp =
1184.9kNM)
1600
1400 EndPlate
Bolt
Connection
1200
:;;0 1000
=.
Z
E:: 800
Q)
E
a 600
:;;
400
200
a
a 0.5 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
Figure 4.4 Contribution of each component to rotation for 40mm endplate thickness and
686 x 254 x 152 US (Mp =
1184.9kNM)
Results of the Finite Element Analysis 48
250

ConlAentional
200 ..'
 Configuration
Present Study
Configuration
~ 150
Z
:.
"••
E
o 100
:;;
50
a
a 2 4 6 B 10 12
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
Figure 4.5 MomentRotation relationships for present study and conventional configurations
From Figure 4.5 it is evident that the configuration of the present study results in
momentrotation behavior which is more flexible than conventional connections. This
increased flexibility is desirable from a seismic resistance point of view, where stiff
connections may lead to catastrophic sudden failure. Flexible connections provide
for better energy absorbing and dissipating capabilities.
Results of the Finite Element Analysis 49
The bolt diameters determined by using Equation 3.7 lead to satisfactory tensile
stress levels over the entire loading history for all the connections of the finite
element study. The following figures illustrate this. Since the endplate connection is
symmetric about the beam web line, only two of the four tension bolts have been
Results of the Finite Element Analysis 50
studied for tensile stresses. The inner bolt is the bolt nearer to the centerline of the
endplate (i.e. the beam web line). The outer bolt is the bolt farther away to the edge
of the endplate.
900
800
"'
D. 700
~
 600
m
g
rJ)
500
Q) 400
>< Inner, t=25mm
'iii >< Ouler, t=25mm
c:

~
(;
m 200
300 

Inner, 1=20mm
Outer, 1=20mm
__ Inner, t=30mm
100 __ Outer, 1=30mm
o
o 100 200 300 400 500 600
Moment (kNM)
Figure 4.6 Boll slress levels over loading hislory for connection of 457x191x74 UB
(Mp=392kNM)
900
800
"'
D.
700
~ 600
_~ 500
rJ) ..Inner, t=25mm
.!!! 400 .. Ouler, t=25mm
'iii
c:
Q)
.Inner, 1=30mm

I
(;
m
300
200
~ Ouler, t=30mm
><Inner, 1=35mm
>< Ouler, 1=35mm
100 +Inner, 1=40mm
+ Ouler, 1=40mm
o
o 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
Moment (kNM)
Figure 4,7 Boll slress levels over loading history for connection of 686 X 254 x 152 UB
(Mp = 1184.9kNM)
Results of the Finite Element Analysis 51
From Figures 4.6 and 4.7 it is evident that the inner bolts are subject to higher levels
of stress for all the connections. The maximum bolt stresses, however, remain lower
than the ultimate tensile strength of 850MPa over the entire loading history.
stress for which the direction of stress is parallel to the axis normal to the plane
containing the endplate. The stress contours for the endplate at the two stages of
loading are shown in Figures 4.8 and 4.9. It can be clearly seen that yield lines form
at the top bolt row line and below the top flange of the beam. The stress contours for
the beam at the two stages of loading are shown in Figures 4.10 and 4.11. The
progressive yielding of the beam is evident.
i!
!
1
;
Beam
)
Web Line
x
 Beam
),
Web Line
(a) (b)
Figure 4.12 Deformation of (a) Thin; (b) Thick EndPlate near ultimate load
Results of the Finite Element Analysis 55
Deformation
along Beam
Web Line x
f
!
(a) (b)
Figure 4.13 Deformation of (a) Thin; (b) Thick EndPlate near ultimate load
600
500 Mp of
457x191x74UB t = 30mm
_ 400
::;;
L
__ _ t = 25mm
Z 1= 20mm
~
"E 300
 ~ _
ell
E ..... __ .... 1= 15mm
o , ~ ~~
::;; 200 " 
o
o 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Rolalion (xO.001 rad)
1600
Mpof
1400 686x254x152UB 1= 40mm
1200
_L _ 1= 35mm
1= 30mm
~
z
1000 _
.•.•......... "' .• .•.• ..  _ .... 1= 25mm

~
l: 800
/' "
......• . ",
•........
ell
E
0 600 /'
::;; !
~
400
200
o
o 2 4 6 8 10 12
Rolalion (xO.001 rad)
increases as the center to center distance between the top and bottom bolt rows
increase. In conducting any parametric study it is necessary to have only one
variable while all other parameters remain constant. With this in mind, while the
depth of the beam has been varied, the flange thickness has been adjusted in such
a way that the plastic moment capacity of the beam section remains unaltered. The
study has been conducted for several beam sections. In the particular case of 457 x
191 x 74 UB, the beam depth has been varied from 300mm to 600mm as is
illustrated in Table 4.1.
400
350
300
   .. ..  
i' 250
. .
Z
e.
.,
c: 200
E ,,
,
457x191x74 UB Seclion
0 150
::;; • ••     Beam Deplh = 300mm
•
100 • •• ~ Beam Depth = 600mm
•
50
•• •
•
••
0 •
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
600
500
.,E
'E 300
,. .'.'     Beam Depth = 300mm
o
/
::;; 200 ~ Beam Deplh = 600mm
100
o
// 457x191x74 UB Seclion
o 2 345 6 7 8 9
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
9000
8000
..   .
7000
.  
me
6000
~
~ 5000
cL
~ 4000 •
•••
457x191x74 UB Section
3000 •
•
    Beam Depth = 300mm
•
2000 • _ Beam Depth = SOOmm
••
•
1000 ••
o
o 2 4 6 8 10 12
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
12000
......  
10000 ..... ........
'
8000
~
~
.• ,,

cL
:;:
6000
••
••
•     Beam Depth = 300mm
5.1 INTRODUCTION
Detailed modeling and solution procedure of the extended endplate moment
connection using finite element methods is described in Chapter 3. In this chapter,
an analytical formulation of the extended endplate connection having bolts
exclusively in the extended portions of the endplate is proposed. This is followed by
a comparison of the proposed formulation with the results of the finite element
analysis with supporting graphs and tables. Finally, the analytical formulation is
modified to match the finite element results. The finite element modeling techniques
had earlier been validated against past experimental data. The finite element
analysis has thus been considered to be a substitute to testing in the present study.
Lastly, the modified analytical formulation is put to test for a wide range of
connections of arbitrary standard beam sections and design moments.
The objective of the analytical formulation is to determine the thickness of the end
plate, t, at which plastic hinges will just form in the endplate for a particular design
moment.
Analytical Formulation 62
endplate
" A
c0
E ~
I
beam/""
I
;,. ,..t
IE
L
A
.I
column
A
c£ II,')' :::::~
.:~~~~~~~~====::==:==:
Figure 5.2 Deflected shape due to deformation Ll at the end of the beam portion
Analytical Formulation 63
It can be seen that plastic hinges form in the endplate  at the top bolt line, just
above the top flange of the beam and just below the bottom flange of the beam. The
formation of plastic hinges and thus, yield lines are illustrated more clearly in Figure
5.3.
b "'I
j :eBe
,ioldIi,o,f!
\ o 0 0 0
Section AA
Let us consider the free body diagram of the portion of the endplate between the
top bolt centerline and the top portion of the top flange of the beam, as shown in
Figure 5.4. The height of this portion is 'e'. Since, the top and bottom boundaries of
the segment coincides with two yield lines, the moments acting on both the top and
IX;. bottom is the plastic moment capacity of the endplate, Mpe. Thus, the force, F can
\()
<:II easily be calculated as 2Mpe/c.
No.
~ Mpe~
• F
~}
Figure 5.4 Free body diagram of the portion of the endplate between the top bolt centerline
Let us now consider the free body of the endplate without the extended portions, as
shown in Figure 5.5. It can be seen that the entire beam portion has been replaced
by the moment that the beam transfers to the connection, M. As plastic hinges form
in the endplate just above the top flange and just below the bottom flange of the
beam, the moments at these points are Mpe.
Figure 5.5 Free body of the portion of the endplate without the extended portions
In order to determine the value of Mpe, the summation of moments about A, is taken,
L.MA =0
=>Fxhb 2Mpe +M =0
2Mpe
=> x hb 2M pe +M =0
c
M
:. M pe = h (5.1 )
2( .1. + 1)
c
Another approach in determining Mpe involves considering the stress distribution
across the endplate thickness due to the plastic moment, as shown in Figure 5.6.
The plastic moment capacity of the endplate, Mpe can now be expressed in terms of
the yield stress, fy, the endplate thickness, t and the width of the endplate, b.
/ /
Mpe =f X x x 2xb
". 2 4
fy/2b
=> M pe = 4 (52)
Analytical Formulation 65
Mpe~
~fy
fy lJJll
.+:.
,
i
!,
L
Combining equations 5.1 and 5.2, a general expression for the endplate thickness
is determined,
M !/2b
='
2(~b + 1) 4
c
2M (5.3)
:. t =
hb
bly (+1)
c
The term M is the design moment of the connection. The beam will transfer this
moment to the endplate. Theoretically, an endplate thickness greater than t,
ensures that the endplate is thick enough to be safe from the development of any
yield stress in the endplate. A thickness less than t, means that the endplate will
start yielding at moments less than the design moment of the beam.
enough. The validity of the finite element analysis was established in Article 3.6 of
Chapter 3.
In the finite element analysis of endplate connections in the present study, different
universal beam sections connected to columns via endplates of varying thickness
have been investigated. For a particular beamcolumn connection, the endplate
thickness has been varied keeping all other parameters constant. From the resulting
momentrotation relationships the yield moment of the connection has been
determined. The yield moment has been taken as the design moment or beam
moment of the connection. This moment value has been substituted in Equation 5.3,
to give the required endplate thickness of the connection as per the analytical
formulation.
The method of determining the yield moment from the momentrotation relationship
has been used by other researchers as well such as Sumner (2003). In order to
determine the connection yield moment a graph of the applied moment versus the
connection rotation has first been plotted. A biIinear curve fit has then been utilized
to determine the experimental yield moment, My. Figure 5.7 illustrates this concept.
The first line has been fit to the initial potion of the finite element analysis response
curve and represents the elastic response of the endplate connection. The second
line has been fit to the inelastic portion of the curve and represents the inelastic
response of the connection. The ordinate of the intersection of the two lines is the
connection yield moment, My.
Yield point
,",
•
c •
OJ
E
o
My / .'.'
:2:
••' ~ Finite element analysis
data points
•
Rotation
The determination of the yield moment for a connection in the present study is
shown in Figure 5.8. The yield moments for all the connections have been
determined in the same manner. The yield moment thus determined has been taken
as the design moment for that particular connection. The endplate thicknesses from
the design moments have been determined from the analytical formulation
(Equation 5.3). The comparison of the endplate thicknesses used in the finite
element analysis and that determined from the analytical formulation is shown in
Table 5.1. This is graphically shown in Figure 5.9. The same trend exists in case of
other beamcolumn connections.
Figure 5.8 Determining connection yield moment for a connection of 457 x 191 x 74 UB
(Mp=392kNM) and endplate thickness = 25mm
Analytical
Finite Element Analysis
Formulation
Beam Moment
End Plate End Plate
from Graph
Thickness (mm) Thickness (mm)
(kNM)
30 390 28.4
25 360 27.3
20 300 24.9
Analytical Formulation 68
From Table 5.1 and Figure 5.9 it is clear that at beam or design moments
approaching the plastic moment capacity of the connecting beam, the endplate
thicknesses from both the finite element analysis and analytical formulation are in
agreement with each other. However, at design moments much less that the plastic
moment capacity of the connecting beam there is a deviation between the two.
35
30
.5.
E
25
AF
'"
~
.!ii 20 FEA
.!:!
.J::
•..• 15
~ •...•...•Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
III
ll.
,; 10
c __ Analytical Formulation (AF)
w
5
o
250 280 310 340 370 400
Moment (kNM)
Figure 5.9 Comparison of endplate thickness from finite element analysis and analytical
formulation for connection of 457x191x74UB (Mp=392kNM)
The analytical formulation has, thus, been arbitrarily multiplied with a factor to bring
the results from finite element analysis and analytical formulation into closer
agreement. From the trends of the curve it can be predicted that the factor should
contain the terms design moment, M, and plastic moment capacity of the connecting
beam, Mp. After trial with different combinations of these terms and their raised
powers, the multiplication factor, a, has been established as,
I
a=(~Y (5.4)
.J2M
f=a (5.5)
bfy(~b + 1)
c
Analytical Formulation 69
Analytical
Finite Element Analysis Formulation Modified AF
(AF)
Beam Moment
End Plate End Plate End Plate
from Graph
Thickness (mm) Thickness (mm) Thickness (mm)
(kNM)
35
30
E AF
.s 25 ...
Ul
Ul ...
~ 20
FEA
"".!:!
.<:
I 15
• Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
~
a • Analytical Formulation (AF)
0 10
c
W •    ModifiedAF
5
o
250 280 310 340 370 400
Moment (kNM)
Figure 5.10 Comparison of endplate thickness from finite element analysis, analytical
formulation and modified analytical formulation for connection of
457x191x74UB (Mp=392kNM)
Analytical Formulation 70
25
_20
E
.5
'~" 15
c:
..>C
.~
J:
to
~ 10
* Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
0;:
"0 • Analytical Formulation (AF)
c:
w 5
    Modified AF
o
40 60 80 100 120
Moment (kNM)
30
E
E
25
AF
;;;
20
'"
Ol
c:
..>C
.~
J: 15
to
Ol
III
ii: 10
* Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
.",c: • Analytical Formulation (AF)
W
5     Modified AF
0
100 125 150 175 200 225
Moment (kNM)
45
40
 35
E AF
E
;; 30
III
Q)
c: 25
""
.!1
.<:
I 20 • Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
2
III
c:,; 15 • Analytical Formulation (AF)
c:
w 10     ModifiedAF
o
600 750 900 1050 1200 1350
Moment (kNM)
Figure 5.14 Comparison of connection yield moment with respect to design moment for
connections of different beam sections of Table 5.3
Analytical Formula/ion 73
5.4 REMARKS
In view of the excellent agreement of the proposed analytical formulation and finite
element analysis results, the proposed formulas for determining endplate thickness
and bolt diameters can be said to be satisfactory for application in design of the
particular connection configuration of the present study.
CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS
6.1 GENERAL
The thesis originated with the aim to develop a procedure for determining the
appropriate endplate thickness and bolt diameter, for a bolted extended endplate
moment connection having bolts exclusively in the extended portions of the end
plate.
Analytical formulation for determining endplate thickness and bolt diameter has
been based on force and moment equilibrium of the joint utilizing yield line theory. At
the same time, a detailed finite element model has been developed where all the
components of the connection, e.g. endplate, bolt, contact between endplate and
column flange have been discretely modeled. The appropriateness of finite element
modeling approach has been verified by simulating past experiments on endplate
connections. Therefore, a detailed parametric study has been carried out to study
the behavior of the endplate connection of the suggested configuration. Based on
the study, the proposed analytical formulation has been appropriately tuned so that
it can reflect the connection characteristics with reasonable accuracy.
6.2 FINDINGS
The following conclusions may be drawn from the study:
• The particular connection configuration in the study, i.e. an endplate
connection with bolts exclusively in the outer portions of the flange, is
Conclusion 75
The bolt diameters chosen with the suggested method in the present study leads to
desirable bolt stress levels across the full range of loading. Stresses near the
ultimate axial capacity are reached only in the final stages of loading (in the flat
portion of the momentrotation curve).
In view of the excellent agreement of the proposed analytical formulation and finite
element analysis results, the proposed formulas for determining endplate thickness
Conclusion 76
and bolt diameters can be said to be satisfactory for application in design of the
particular connection configuration of the present study. However, it has to be kept
in mind that it is likely that the use of the proposed connection configuration in a
frame will lead to semirigid frame behavior, and thus the usual rigid frame analysis
will no longer hold true. Therefore, the analysis of the frame has to be carried out
keeping in mind the semirigid nature of the joint.
Abolmaali, A., Kukreti, A.R and Murray, T.M. (1984). "Finite Element Analysis of
Two Tension Bolt Flush EndPlate Connections," Research Report No. FSEUMBMA
8401, Fears Structural Engineering Laboratory, School of Civil Engineering and
Environmental Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma.
Aggarwal, A.K. and Coates, R.C. (1987). "Strength criteria for bolted beamcolumn
connections," Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Elsevier Applied Science,
7(3),213227.
Bahia, C.S., Graham, J. and Martin, L.H. (1981). "Experiments on rigid beam to
column connections subject to shear and bending forces," Proceedings of the
International Conference: Joints in Structural Steelwork: The Design and
Performance of SemiRigid and Rigid Joints in Steel and Composite Structures and
Their Influence on Structural Behaviour, Teesside Polytechnic, Middlesbrough,
Cleveland, England, April 69, 1981, 6.376.56.
Choi, C, Chung, G. (1996) "Refined threedimensional finite element model for end
plate connection", Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 122, No. 11.
Curtis, L.E. and Murray, T.M. (1989). "Column flange strength at moment endplate
connections," Engineering Journal, AISC, 26(2), 4150.
Disque, RO. (1962). "End plate connections," Proceedings of the 1962 AISC
National Engineering Conference, Columbus, OH, April 1213, 1962, AISC, 3037.
Douty, RT. and McGuire, W. (1965). "High strength bolted moment connections,"
Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, 91 (2), 101128.
Gebbeken, N., Rothert, H. and Binder, B. (1994). "On the numerical analysis of
end plate connections," Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Elsevier Applied
Science, 30(1), 177196.
Ghassemieh, M., Kukreti, A.R. and Murray, T.M. (1983). "Inelastic Finite Element
Analysis of Stiffened EndPlate Moment Connections," Research Report No.
FSELIMBMA 8302, Fears Structural Engineering Laboratory, School of Civil
Engineering and Environmental Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman,
Oklahoma.
Hendrick, A and Murray, T.M. (1984). "Column web compression strength at end
plate connections," Engineering Journal, AISC. 21(3),161169.
Johnson, L.G., Cannon, J.C. and Spooner, L.A (1960). "High tensile preloaded
bolted jOints for development of full plastic moments," British Welding Journal, 7,
560569.
Kennedy, NA, Vinnakota, S. and Sherbourne, AN. (1981). "The splittee analogy in
bolted splices and beamcolumn connections," Proceedings of the International
Conference: Joints in Structural Steelwork: The Design and Performance of Semi
Rigid and Rigid Joints in Steel and Composite Structures and Their Infiuence on
Structural Behaviour, Teesside Polytechnic, Middlesbrough, Cleveland, England,
April 69, 1981, 2.1382.157.
Krishnamurthy, N. (1978). "A fresh look at bolted endplate behavior and design,"
Engineering Journal, AISC, 15(2), 3949.
Kukreti, AR., Ghassemieh, M. and Murray, T.M. (1990). "Behavior and design of
largecapacity moment end plates," Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE,
116(3), 809828.
Mann, AP. and Morris, L.J. (1979). "Limit design of extended endplate
connections," Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, 105(3), 511526.
Mays, T.W., (2000). "Application of the Finite Element Method to the Seismic Design
and Analysis of Large Moment EndPlate Connections", PhD. Dissertation, Virginia
Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia.
Mofid, M., Mohammadi, M.R.S., and McCabe S.L. (2005) "Analytical approach on
endplate connection: Ultimate and yielding moment", Journal of Structural
Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 131, NO.3.
Morris, L.J. (1988). "Design rules for connections in the United Kingdom," Journal of
Constructional Steel Research, Elsevier Applied Science, 10, 375413.
Murray, T.M. (1988). "Recent developments for the design of moment endplate
connections," Steel BeamtoColumn Building Connections, W.F. Chen, ed.,
Elsevier Applied Science, New York, 133162.
Murray, TM., (2002). AISC Design Guide Series 4, Extended EndPlate Moment
Connections, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago.
Murray, T.M., Shoemaker, w.L. (2002). AISC Design Guide Series 16, Flush and
Extended MultipleRow Moment EndPlate Connections, American Institute of Steel
Construction, Chicago.
Murray, T.M. and Kukreti, AR. (1988). "Design of 8bolt stiffened moment end
plates," Engineering Journal, AISC, Second Quarter, 1988, 4552.
Packer, JA and Morris, L.J. (1977). "A limit state design method for the tension
region of bolted beamcolumn connections," The Structural Engineer, Institution of
Structural Engineers, 55(10), 446458.
Ray, S.S. (1998) "Structural Steelwork Analysis and Design", Blackweli Science
Limited, Oxford.
Sherbourne, AN. and Bahaari, M.R. (1994) "3D simulation of endplate bolted
connections", Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 120, No. 11.
Sherbourne, AN. and Bahaari, M.R. (1997). "Finite element predictions of end plate
bolted connection behavior I: Parametric study," Journal of Structural Engineering,
Vol. 123, No.2, pp. 157164.
Srouji, R., Kukreti, A.R. and Murray, TM. (1983a). "Strength of Two Tension Bolt
Flush EndPlate Connections," Research Report No. FSEUMBMA 8303, Fears
Structural Engineering Laboratory, School of Civil Engineering and Environmental
Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma.
Srouji, R., Kukreti, A.R. and Murray, TM. (1983b). "YieldLine Analysis of EndPlate
Connections with Bolt Force Predictions," Research Report No. FSELIMBMA 8305,
Fears Structural Engineering Laboratory, School of Civil Engineering and
Environmental Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma.
Surtees, J.O. and Mann, AP. (1970). "End plate connections in plasticaliy designed
structures," Conference on Joints in Structures, University of Sheffieid, Sheffield,
England, July 810,1970, Paper A5, A501A520.
80
Tarpy, Jr., T.S. and Cardinal, J.W. (1981). "Behavior of semirigid beamtocolumn
end plate connections," Proceedings of the International Conference: Joints in
Structural Steelwork: The Design and Performance of SemiRigid and Rigid Joints in
Steel and Composite Structures and Their Influence on Structural Behaviour,
Teesside Poly1echnic, Middlesbrough, Cleveland, England, April 69, 1981, 2.32.25.
Troup, S., Xiao, R.Y., and Moy, S.S.J. (1998). "Numerical modelling of bolted steel
connections", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 46, No. 13, Paper No.
362.
ApPENDIX A
Beam Sections Used in Finite Element Analysis
x+:+x D
82
ApPENDIX B
Contribution of Components to Rotation
70
Bolt
60
50
::;;
Z 40

=c:
Q)
E 30
0
::;;
20
10
0
0 0.5 1.5 2 2~ 3 3.5
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
100
90 EndPlate Connection
80
70
~
Z 60

:!£
I: 50
Q)
E 40
0
:;:
30
20
10
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
140
End.Plate
Bolt
120 Connection
100
80
~,
z

:!£ 60
I:
Q)
E
0 40
:;:
20
0
0 0.5 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
180
160 Bolt
140
_ 120
:;;
Z
e. 100
""
E
80
0
:;; 60
40
20
0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
Contribution of component to rotation for t= 15mm and 305 x 164 x 54 US (Mp = 200.8kNM)
250
EndPlate Connection
Bolt
200
:iii 150
z
e.
""
E 100
0
:;;
50
o
o 2 4 6 8 10
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
300
250 EndPlate
Connection
~ 200
::!i'
z
i!S
C 150
'"
E
o
:;; 100
50
o
o 234 5 6
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
300
250 Bolt
EndPlate
~ 200
:;;
Z

i!S
c 150
E'"
0
:;; 100
50
0
0 234 5 6
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
400
EndPlate
Bolt
350 Connection
300
=i' 250
z
:.
r: 200
CI>
E
0 150
:;:
100
50
0
0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
Contribution of components to rolalion for t = 20mm and 457x191x74UB (Mp = 392, 1kNM)
500
450 EndPlate
400 Connection
350
~ 300
Z
:.
C 250
CI>
E 200
o
:;:
150
100
50
o
o 2 3 4 5 6 7
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
Contribulion of components 10 rolation for t = 25mm and 457x191 x74UB (Mp = 392,1 kNM)
87
600
500
EndPI
Connection
_ 400
~
Z
~
i: 300
••E
o
::;; 200
100
o
o 2 3 4 5
Rotation (xO.OOl rad)
ApPENDIX C
Effect of EndPlate Thickness
140
t = 20mm
120
100
i' t = 15mm
Z 80
••
~
c:
t = 12mm
40

20
0
0 0.5 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
300
250
t = 25mm
t = 20mm
_ 200
:;;
Z t = 15mm
~
C 150
E
••
o
:;; 100
50
o
o 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
ApPENDIX D
Mil. 75 vs Rotation Curves
7000
6000 ..  .• .. .  ...
.. .•. .•. .•. .•.
5000 ... ..
•
Ie 4000 ••
o~ •
••
~ 3000 •    • Beam Deplh = 200mm
•• •
• ~ Beam Depth = 400mm
2000 •• •
305x164x54 UB Section
••
1000 ••
•
o
o 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
9000
8000
~ 5000
o~
••
~ 4000 •• ~ Beam Deplh = 400mm
••
••
••
3000 305x164x54 UB Seclion
•••
•     Beam Depth = 200mm
2000
••
••
1000 :
J'
o r
o 2 4 6 8 10 12
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
12000
10000
_ .. ...........
.... _ ._~_..
.•.
..
,
.........
........ ...........
8000 ...'
w
~
o~ 6000
:E 457x191x74 UB Section
•
0.(
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
Rotation (xO.001rad)
18000
16000
. ,"
14000
12000
~ 10000
w
9..
:E 8000 686x254x152 UB Section
•     Beam Depth = 475mm
6000 •
•
•
• ~ Beam Depth = 900mm
4000 •
•
•
2000 •
•
;•
0
0 2 468 10 12
Rotation (xO.001rad)
25000
....  .•.•.............. 
20000
",," ..
.. ..
'  .........
........ .................
15000 "
"
, 686x254x152 UB Section
"
••
10000
• •   Beam Depth = 475mm
""
,•" ~ Beam Depth = 900mm
5000 ""
,••
j""
o
o 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
75
Mlt vs Rotation Curves for EP thickness=30mm and Mp=1185kNM
30000
25000
20000
~
~
i: 15000
::;; ~
!
•
686x254x152 UB Section
10000
I"    Beam Depth = 475mm
•"
I" " Beam Depth = 900mm
5000 I
o
o 5 10 15 20
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
30000
25000
20000
~
0

<\.. 15000
::l; 686x254x152 UB Section
0
0 2 468 10 12
Rotation (xO.001 rad)
ApPENDIX E
Finite Element Modeling Data
203x133x25 16.9
254x146x37 20.8
305x164x54 25.1
356x171 x51 24.2
457x191x74 29.2
533x21 Ox109 35.2
686x254x152 41.5
838x292x194 46.5
Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.
Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.
Jederzeit kündbar.