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LAWS OF MOTION & GRAVITATION (Liquid hydrogen / Liquid helium)

b. ………… is used for MRI
01 MARK QUESTIONS (Liquid hydrogen / Liquid helium) scan
Ans. : a. Liquid hydrogen is used as fuel for rocket
01. The acceleration in a body is due to ………….. b. Liquid helium is used for MRI scan
(balanced force, unbalanced force, electrostatic force, 06. The important use of cryogenic is cryogenic fuels.
magnetic force) What do you mean by cryogenic fuel?
02. The weight of 50kg person at the surface of earth is Ans. : Cryogenic fuels are fuels that requires a
(50N, 35N, 380N, 490N) very low temperature in order to maintain them in
03. The freezing of biotechnology products like vaccines liquid state.
require………… freezing systems) Cryogenic fuel mainly liquid hydrogen has been used
(Helium, Nitrogen, Ammonia, Chlorine) as rocket fuel.
04 . Light year is the unit of …………. 07. Match A with B
(time, light intensity, distance, mass) A B
05. Mass of an object in 10kg. What is its weight on the 01. Force a. ms-1
earth…………………..(w=mg, g = 9.8m/s2) 02. Momentum b. kgm2s-1
(49N, 25N, 98N, 100N) 03. Velocity c. kgms-1
06. The physical quantity which is equal to the rate of 04. Moment of a couple d. kgms-2
change of momentum is ………….
(displacement, acceleration, force, impulse) Ans. A B
07. The momentum of a massive object at rest is …… 01. Force a. kgms-2
(very large, very small, zero, infinity) 02. Momentum b. kgms-1
03. Velocity c. ms-1
02 MARKS QUESTIONS 04. Moment of a couple d. kgm2s-1
01. Observe the figure and write the answer : 08. A body of mass 50kg has a momentum 250kgms-1.
5N < > 5N What is the velocity?
a. The resultant of these force is ……………. Ans. : mass(m) = 50kg, momentum (p) = 250 kgms-1
b. Does the ball move? Velocity(v) = ?
Ans. : a. The resultant of those forces is balanced forces Momentum(p) = m x v ; v = ; ; v = 5ms-1
b. The ball does not move.
02. When a gun is fired, it exerts forward forces on the 09. Calculate the magnitude of the force which when
bullet. applied to a body of mass 0.5kg produces an
Why does the gun recoil backwards? acceleration of 10ms-2
Ans. : When a gun is fired it exerts forward force on the Ans. : Mass of a body (m) = 0.5kg
bullet. The bullet exerts an equal and opposite reaction Acceleration (a) = 10ms-2
force on the gun. This results in the recoil of the gun. Force(ma) = ?
This is based on Newton’s third law of motion. Force = 0.5kg x 10ms-2 ;
03. Correct the mistakes if any in the following statements. = 5N;
a. One newton is the force that produces an The magnitude force = 5N
acceleration of 1ms-2 in an object of 1 gram mass. 10. Correct the mistakes, if any in the following
b. Action and reaction is always on the same body. statements.
Ans. : Correction of statements: a. The momentum is the sum of the mass of an
a. One newton is the force that produces an acceleration object and its velocity.
of 1ms-2 in an object of 1 kilogram mass. b. When a motor car makes a sharp turn at a high
b. Action and reaction is always on the different bodies. speed, we tend to get thrown to one side due to
04. Fill in the blanks: Newton’s third law
a. Force = ……… x acceleration (mass / specific gravity) Ans. :
b. Momentum = mass x …………velocity / acceleration) a. The momentum is the product of the mass of an
Ans. : object and its velocity.
a. Force = mass x acceleration b. When a motor car makes a sharp turn at a high
b. Momentum = mass x velocity speed, we tend to get thrown to one side due to
05. Fill in the blanks law of inertia
a. ………… is used as fuel for rocket



11. The mass of an object is 30kg. What is the weight on 02. a) Newton’s first law of motion gives a qualitative
the earth? definition of force. Justify.
Ans. : Mass of an object(m) = 30kg b)1 0 m / s 5 m / s F1 F2 12 m / s 4m/s
Acceleration due to gravity (g) = 9.8ms-2
Weight (w) = mg ; = 30 x 9.8 ; w = 294N 10kg 20kg 10kg 20kg 10kg 20kg
12. In a solar system, there is an existence of force
between sun and planets. Put forth questions to The figure represents two bodies of masses 10 kg and
determine the force. 20 kg and moving with an initial velocity of 10ms-1 and
a. ……………………………. 5ms-1 respectively.
b. …………………………….. They are colliding with each other after collision they are
Ans. : a. Which law holds good for the force of attraction moving with velocities 12 ms-1 and 4 ms-1 respectively.
between the planets? The time of collision be 2sec. Then calculate F1 and F2.
b. State the importance of that law. Ans. : a. Newton’s first law of motion
An object remains in a state of rest of uniform motion in
05 MARKS QUESTIONS a straight line unless compelled to change that state by an
applied unbalanced force.
01. a. Place the following objects in the correct order from This law gives a qualitative definition of force.
the lowest to the highest momentum. Assume that all Justification:
of the objects are The tendency of undisturbed object to stay or keep
moving at their maximum velocity. moving with the same velocity is called Inertia. That means, if
Freight train, Bus, Car, Cycle there is no force, there is no change in the state of rest or of
{Hint : Momentum = mass x , velocity; p=mv} uniform motion.
b. Which objects has more momentum; a car travelling at b. Body A Body B
10km/hr or a baseball pitched at 150km/hr? Explain mass m1 = 10kg mass m2 = 20kg
your answer. Initial velocity u1 = 10ms-1 u2 = 5ms-2
c. Newton’s third law of motion. For every action there is Final velocity v1 = 12ms-1 v2 = 4ms-1
an equal and opposite reaction. Explain this law, using t = 2S
one illustration. ×
(Action) F1 = ;= ; ;
Ans. : a. Momentum (p) = mass x velocity ; p = mv
The correct order of increasing value of momentum F1 = ; - 10N
is Cycle , Bus, Car, Freight train F1 = - 10 (Force acting on B)
b. Speed of a car = 10km / hr (less acceleration) ×
Speed of a base ball = 150 km / hr (Reaction) F2 = ;= ; ;
(more acceleration)
F2 = ; 10N
The ball has more momentum than the car. Since the speed
of the car is less, the product of mass and velocity of the car F2= 10N (Force acting on A)
(momentum of car) is very less and rate of change of 03. a) Space stations are used to study the effects of
momentum is also less due to less acceleration. But the base long – space flight on the human body. Justify.
ball has a very high speed so the product of mass and its b) Which would require a greater force for
velocity is high. The momentum of base ball is greater than accelerating a 2kg of mass at 4 ms-2 or a3kg
that of car. Base ball has more rate of change of momentum mass at 2ms-2
due to more acceleration. Ans. : a. A space station is an artificial structure designed for
c. Newton’s third law of motion: humans to live and work in outer space for a period of time.
“For every action there is an equal and opposite Space stations are used to study the effects of long
reaction” space flight on the human body.
Illustration: Space stations have various issues such as very low
When a gun is fired, it exerts forward force on the bullet. recycling rates, high radiation and lack of gravity. Some of
The bullet exerts an equal and opposite reaction force on the these problems cause discomfort and long term health
gun. This results in the recoil of the gun. So it must be effects.
remembered that the action and reaction always act on two Effected vacuum on human body, cabin fever muscle
different objects. atrophy and loss of muscle mass and bone mass are a few
problems astronauts could face.



Future space habits may attempt to address these Inertia is the tendency of undisturbed objects to stay at
issues and are intended for long term occupation. rest or to keep moving with the same velocity.
When a motor car makes a sharp turn at a high speed,
we tend to get thrown to one side. We tend to continue in
b. Force = ma straight line motion. When an unbalanced force is applied by
m1 = 2kg ; a1 = 4ms-2 the engine to change the direction of motion of the motor car,
m2 = 3kg ; a2 = 2ms-2 we move to one side of the seat due to the inertia of our
Thus F1 = m, a = 2kg x 4ms-2 = 8N body.
F2 = m2 a2 = 3kg x 2ms-2 = 6N
F1 > F2
Thus acceleration 2 kg mass at 4 ms-2 would require greater 06. a. State second law of motion.
force. b. Explain the second law of motion with suitable
04. a. What is moment of force? example.
b. Give one example of couple. c. Derive the value of force using the above law.
c. Draw it diagrammatically and explain. Ans. : a. Newton’s second law of motion:
Ans. : a. The magnitude of the moment of the force F about “The rate of change of momentum of an object is
a point is defined as the product of the magnitude of force proportional to the applied unbalanced force in the
and the perpendicular distance of the point from the line of direction of force”.
action of the force moment of force = F x d. b. Illustration of second law of motion:
b. Example of couple opening a bottle cap. Let us consider a car with a dead battery is to be pushed
along a straight road to give a speed of 1ms-1 which is
sufficient to start its engine. If one or two persons give a
sudden push (unbalance force) to it, it hardly starts. But
sometime it requires continuous push is required to
accelerate the speed of the car. It means that the change of
momentum of the car is not only determined by the
magnitude of the force but also by the time during which the
force is exerted. So the force necessary to change the
c. Couple : Two equal and opposite forces whose lines of momentum of the objects depends on the time rate at which
action do not coincide are said to constitute a couple in the momentum is changed.
mechanics. c. Derivation of the Force:
Explanation : Two strings are tied to a wheel at the points X Mass of the object = m (moving in straight line)
and Y and two equal and opposite rotate about O in an Initial velocity = u ; time = t ; Final velocity = v
anticlockwise direction. F = Force throughout the time t
05. a. Define the first law of motion. Initial momentum of the object = mu
b. A constant force acts on an object of mass 10kg Final momentum of the object = mv
for a duration of 4S. It increases the object’s The change in momentum = mv – mu ; = m(v – u) ………(1)
velocity from 2ms-1 to 8ms-1. Find the magnitude !" ! #$
Rate of change of momentum =
of applied force. #%
& $
c. Explain the first law of motion with a suitable example. = # ……………(2)
Ans. : a. Newton’s first law of motion: According to Newton’s Second law of motion, this is
“An object remains in the state of rest or of uniform
nothing but applied force.
motion in a straight line unless compelled to change that & $
state by an applied unbalanced force”. Applied force (f) = # ;
b. mass of an object(m) = 10 & $
Acceleration (a) = # Rate of change of velocity
Initial velocity (u) = 2ms-1
Final velocity (v) = 8ms-1 Applied force, F ∞ ma.
× F = ………………….(3)
Force (F) = ;F= ; ; = 15N
Where k = proportionality constant.
Applied Force = 15N The unit of force is so chosen the value of the constant, k = 1
c. Illustration of first law of motion: F = ma
First law of motion is also known as law of inertia. I Unit of force = 1kg x ms-2
= kgms-2 (or) newton (or) N



Ans. :
ELECTRICITY & ENERGY A - Carbon rod B – Zinc
Zin rod
C – Porus pot D – Ammonium
Am chloride solution
02. Match the following:
01. Four cells each of emf “E” arte joined in pa
parallel to form Components Symbols
a battery. The equivalent emf of the battery
attery will be 01. Switch (Closed)
( 02. Battery
(4E, E, , E = 0)
) 03. Electric Bulb
02. The symbol LED is …… 04. Resistance
( , , ,
03. Kilowatt – hour is the unit of …………. Ans. : Components Symbols
(Potential difference, electric power, elec
electric energy, 01. Switch (Closed)
change of momentum) 02. Battery
04. Which one of the following representss ohm’
ohm’s law? 03. Electric Bulb
* +
( = constant, = constant, VI = constant,
nstant, 04. Resistance
+ * 03. Harmful radiations originate
ate from
fro a nuclear reactor.
= R) Precautions are taken to see that t they do not become a
05. The potential difference required to pass a current of threat to living beings. What
hat are
ar these precautions?
0.2A in a wire of resistance of 20 ohm is …… ………. Ans. : 01. Radioactive materials
rials are
ar kept in thick walled lead
(100V, 4V, 0.01V, 40V) container.
06. Which of the following is used in makinging fus
fuse wire? 02. Lead aprons and lead gloves
g are used while
(37%lead+63%tin,63%lead+37%tin, working in hazardous
ous area.
50%lead + 50%tin, 37%copper = 63%alumi aluminium) 04. Following group was plotted
tted between
be V and I values.
07. ……………. Surface absorbs more heat th than any other What would be the values of ratios when the potential
substances under identical conditions. *
difference is 0.8V and 12V.
(White, Black, Red, Yellow)
08. What is the potential difference between
tween the live wire
and neutral wire in our country?
(110V, 10V, 220V, 1000V)
09. Two electric bulbs have resistances in the rratio 1: 2,
If they are joined in series, the energyy cons
consume in these
are in the ratio……..
(1 : 2, 2 : 1, 4 : 1, 1 : 1)
10. At which temperature nuclear fusion ion rereaction takes
Ans. :
(10-7k, 107k, 10-2k, 10k) +
11. The atomic number of natural radioactive
ctive el
element is … 01. V = 0.5Volt ; I = 0.2 ampere ; R = * ; = ; R = 2.5-
(greater than 82, less than 82, not defined
efined, atleast 92) + ..
12. Which one of the following is the renewa
enewable source of 02. V = 1Volt ; I = 0.4 ampere ; R = ;= ; R = 2.5-
* .)
energy? + ..
03. V = 1.5Volt ; I = 0.6 ampere ; R = ; = ; R = 2.5-
(Hydropower, Fossil fuel, Solar energy, Pe Petrol) * ./
The above calculation clearlyy states
state that the resistance of the
02 MARKS QUESTIONS circuit is 2.5ohm. This electric
ectric circuit obeys ohm’s law.
01. Leclanche cell diagram is given
en bel
below table the Therefore the values of ratio tio is constant
c and it is 2.5ohm.
parts. 05. Draw the schematic diagram ram of an electric circuit
consisting of a battery of two cells
ce 1.5V each, three
resistance 5ohm, 10ohm
and 15ohm respectively and a plug key all connected in



They are electromagnetic

netic radiation.
They have high penetrating
etrating power
Ans. : They are electrons
They contain neutrons
Ans. :
4 - Rays 5 - Rays 3 - Rays
They contain They are They are electromagnetic
neutrons electrons radiation.
They have high penetrating
09. Fill in the blanks:
a. Potential difference: Voltme
oltmeter, then: Current …
06. Complete the table choosing the right terms from within b. Power Plant : Conventional
tional Sources of energy:
the brackets. Solar cells ………………
(Zinc, Copper, Carbon, Lead, Lead Oxide,
xide, A
+ve electrode Daniel Cell Ans. :
- ve electrode Leclanche Cell a. Potential difference: Voltme
oltmeter, then:
Ans. : Current : Ammeter
+ve electrode Daniel Cell Cop
Copper b. Power Plant : Conventional
tional Sources of energy:
- ve electrode Leclanche Cell Zinc Solar cells : Solar energy
nergy from
f Sun
07. Observe the circuit given below and find the 10. Draw the schematic diagramdiagra of an electric circuit
resistance across AB consisting of a battery off two cells
c of 2.5v
each, three resistancee and of 5 ohm, 2.5ohm and
10ohm respectively in parallel
arallel and plug key
and ammeter.
Ans. :

Ans. :
The resistance across AB = Sum of resistance
tance R1 + R2
Resistance in parallel(R1 ) = ;= 1 ;
(R1 ) = Ω 11. A current of 0.2A is drawnwn from
fro a filament of an electric
Another parallel combination resistance (R2) bulbs for 5 minutes. Findnd the amount of electric charge
that flows through the circuit.
;= 1 ; =2 Ans. : Current (I) = 0.2A ; time (t) = 5 minutes
0 0
= 5 x 60= 300 seconds
(R2 ) = Ω Charge(Q) = I x t
= 0.2 x 300; = 60coulomb
The amount of electric charge
harge = 60 coulomb
The resistance across AB i.e series Rs = R1 + R2 12. Fill in the blanks.
= 1 ; 1 Ω a. A fuse wire has ……... resistance
resist and ………..
melting point.
The resistance across AB = 1 Ω b. The cells from which the electric
ele energy derived
08. We know that 3 – rays are harmful radiatio
adiations emitted by by ………….. chemical al reactions
reac are called
natural radioactive substances. ……….. cells.
a) Which are other radiations from such su
substances? Ans. :
b) Tabulate the following statements as app
applicable a. A fuse wire has high resistance
resista and low
to each of the above radiations. melting point.

Page 5

b. The cells from which the electric energy

nergy dderived A B
by irreversible chemical reactionss are ccalled 01. a. Resistance
primary cells. 02. b. LED
13. The phenomenon of radioactivity was ddiscovered by 03. c. Plug Key
Hendry Becquerel in 1986. Raise aise question on 04. d. Battery
radioactivity 18. A resistance of 10 ohmss has a current of 5 amperes
a. ……………………………………………… ………………… flowing in it. What is the potential
poten difference between its
b. ……………………………………………… ………………… ends.
c. ……………………………………………… ……………… Ans. : Resistance ( R) = 10Ω
d………………………………………………… ……………… Current(I) = 5 ampere ; Potential
Potent difference(v) = ?
Ans. : V = IR ; = 5 x 10 ; = 50V ; Potential
Pot Difference(v) = 50V
a. What is meant by radioactivity?
b. Name two radioactive elements.
c. Which ray has high Penetration power?
d. Is it affected by temperature and pressur

14. How much work is done in moving ing a charge of 4 01 MARK K QUESTIONS
coulomb across two points having a potenpotential difference 01. Electric power can be transmitted
trans over long distance
of 12 V? without much loss of energy
nergy is an important advantage
Ans. : Charge(Q) = 4 coulomb of …………….
Potential difference (v) = 12V (AC, DC, Both AC & DC,, None)Non
The amount of work done(w) = V x Q 02. The field of view is maximum
imum for f …………….
W = 4 x 12 ; = 48J (plane mirror, concave ave mirror, convex mirror,
Work done (w) = 48J spherical mirror)
15. Match A with B 03. Magnetic field is produced ced by b the flow of current in a
A B straight wire. This phenomenon
pheno was discovered
01. Potential Difference a. Coulomb
ulomb by............
02. Current b. Volt (Faraday, Coulomb, Oerstedrsted, Maxwell)
03. Charge c. Ohm 04. Which one of the following lowing enhances the power of
04. Resistance d. Ampere
pere electric motor?
Ans. : (Permanent magnet, Armature,
Armat Temporary magnet,
A B electromagnet)
01. Potential Difference a. Volt 05. Which one of the followinging is used
u in rear view mirrors?
02. Current b. Ampere
pere (concave mirror, convex nvex mirror,
m biconcave mirror,
03. Charge c. Coulomb
ulomb plane mirror)
04. Resistance d. Ohm 06. Which one of the following ing is employed
e to produce large
16. Correct the following statements: currents commercially?
a. The nuclear fission reactions are known
nown aas the (Magnetic field, Electromagne
omagnetic induction,
thermonuclear reactions. Solar energy, Heating effect)
b. The nuclear fission reactions are carried out at 07. An object is placed 25cm m from a convex lens whose
very low temperature. focal length is 10cm. The image
ima distance is ……….
Ans. : a. Nuclear fusion reactions are re kno
known as the (50cm, 16.66cm, 6.66cm, m, 10cm)
thermonuclear reactions. 08. The magnification produced uced by b a mirror is 1/3, then the
b. The nuclear fission reactions are carried out at type of mirror is ………….
very high temperature of 107k (concave, convex, plane, sph pherical)
17. Match A with B 09. An electric motor working ng on AC A does not require …
A B (shaft, iron core, commutator
utator, brushes)
01. a. Resistance 10. A device that reverse thee direction
dire of flow of current is
02. b. LED (armature, brushes, commuta
ommutator, electromagnet)
03. c. P
Plug Key 11. A …………….mirror or lens has ha a negative focal length.
04. d. Battery (concave, convex, plane, e, all)
Ans. :

Page 6

02 MARKS QUESTIONS Since myopia, hypermetrop

etropia, presbyopia are defects
of vision. Whereas scurvy is the th vitamin “C” deficiency
01. The ray diagram shown below is introduced duced to show how disease.
a concave mirror forms an image AIBI of an object AB b. Convex lens
place at F. All other mirrors with one sphericacal surface where as convex
a. Identify the mistakes and draw the correc
correct ray lens has two spherical surfaces.
diagram. 04. The ray diagram shown below is introduced to show how
b. Write the justification for your corrections
ctions. a concave mirror forms ann image
imag of an object.
a. Identity the mistake andd draw the correct ray

Ans. :

Ans. : Concave mirror forms an image AIBI of an object AB

placed at F.
a. The mistakes the image AIBI is as given in the
05. Correct the mistakes if any
ny in the
th following statements
a. Magnetic field id a quantity
ntity that
th has magnitude only
b. The magnetic field liness emerge
eme from the south pole
and merge at the northh pole.
Ans. : The statements are wrong.
rong. The
Th corrected statements
a. Magnetic field id a quantity
uantity that has both magnitude
When the object is placed at F, the pposition of the and direction
image is at infinity. The image is highly enlarged
nlarged and it is real b. The magnetic field liness emerge
eme from the north pole
and inverted. and merge at the south pole.
Because the ray parallel to princip
principal axis after 06. The focal length of a concave
cave llens is 2m. Calculate the
reflection will pass through principal focus
cus of the concave Power of the Lens
mirror. The ray passed through centre of cu curvature after Ans. : The focal length of concave
ncave lens (f) = 2m
reflection is reflected back along the same path. So the . .
Power (P) = ; ; = -0.5
0.5 ; P = -0.5dioptre
image will be at infinity. "
02. The speed of light in vacuum is 3x108m/s. C Calculate the 07. Myopia is common refractive
ractive defects of vision. Person
) with this defect can see ee only
on nearby objects clearly.
Speed of Light in medium of refractive inde
index ] Using concave lens off suitable
suita power this defect is
[Hint : 6 = ] correct
+ a. Mention other two types
pes of defects like this.
Ans. : C = Speed of light in vacuum = 3 x 108 m / s b. Explain how can we correct
correc it?
Refractive Index 6 = Ans. : a. i) Hypermetropia (or)
or) farsightness
fars ii) Presbyopia
Speed of light in medium (v) = ? b. Hypermetropia is corrected
correc by using convex lens.
7×. 9 ×7 :×. 9
Persbyopia is corrected by using
usi bifocal lenses.
6 = ; v = ; = ; = ; 08. To an astronaut sky appears
pears dark instead of blue. Give
+ 8 ) )
v= 2.25x108m/s
Ans. : The sky appears darkk instead
inste of blue to an astronaut
03. Odd one out: a. Myopia, hypermetropiaetropia, presbyopia
b. convex mirror, concave mirror, plane mirror,
irror, cconvex lens because there is no atmosph
mosphere containing air (colloid)
Ans. : Odd One: a. Scurvy in the outer space to scatter
catter (tyndall
( effect) sunlight. As
there is no scattering off blue light to reach eyes in the
outer space, the sky appears
pears dark.

Page 7

09. Draw ray diagram to show the formation

ation of images by b. AC generator works onn the principle of
concave mirror when an object is between
ween P and F. Electromagnetic induction
Ans. : When the object is placed between
tween P and F, the 13. Draw a magnetic field lines around
a a bar magnet and
image is formed behind the mirror. The ima
image is virtual, give any two characteristics
tics of lines of force.
erect and magnified. Ans. : a.

The image is i) behind the mirror ii) virtual

iii) erect and iv) enlarged b. Characteristics of magnetic
agnetic lines
10. Redraw the given diagram and show ow the path of the Magnetic field lines are closed
clo curves
refracted ray. No two field lines aree found to cross each other.
14. We see rainbow in the sky ky after
afte raining. How and why?
Ans. : After raining, a large number of droplets are
suspend in the atmospherehere and
an if the sunlight falls over
them, each droplet acts cts like a prism and the seven
colours of light are dispers
spersed and a band of seven
colours VIBGYOR in formed rmed in the sky. So Rainbow is
due dispersion of sunlight by droplets.
15. The power of lens is 2.5D. D. What
Wh is its focal length?
Ans. : Power (P) = 2.5D
Focal length (f) = ?
. . .
P= ;f= ;= ; = 0.4m
0.4 ; = 40cm
Ans. : Refracted ray from convex lens: " < .
Focal length of lens = 40cm
16. State Fleming’s Left Hand nd Rule
Ans. : Fleming’s Left Hand and Rule:
The three directions ns of the current and that of
magnet field and force are expressed
exp as follows. Stretch
the thumb, fore finger andnd middle
mid finger of your left hand
A ray of light from the object parallel to thee principal
princ axis after such that they are mutuallyually perpendicular.
p If the finger
refraction from a convex lens passes through rough the principal points the direction of the magnetic
ma field, middle finger
focus on the other side of the lens. points in the direction off current
curren then the thumb will point
11. A lens has a focal length of -25cm. What hat is the power of in the direction of motion otion or force acting on the
the lens? It is convex or concave? conductor.
Ans. : Focal length(f) = - 25cm 17. Assertion (A) :Principle ple of AC generator and DC
. . ; . generator different
Power (P) = ; ; = ; - 4D Reason (R) :In AC generatorerator, slit rings are used where
" "
1 dioptre (D) is the power of a lens with focal as in DC generator split rings (or)
( commutator is used.
length 1m a. A and R are correct b. A is wrong R is correct
Power of the lens = - 4D. The ne negative sign c. R explain A d. A and R are wrong
Ans. : b) A is wrong R iss correct
indicates that the lens is concave
Reason : Principle of AC generator
ge and DC generator
12. Fill ups.
are same : In AC generator,ator, slit
s rings are used where as
a. A convex lens forma the image of the sun ………
in DC generator split ringsgs commutator
com are used.
(at F / beyond 2F)
ater is 2.25x108m/s. If the speed
18. The speed of light in water
b. AC generator works on the principle
le of …
of light in vacuum is 3x108m/s. m calculate the refractive
(Electromagnetic induction
ction /
index of water.
Electrostatic induction)
water(v = 2.25x108m/s
Ans. : Speed of light in water(v)
Ans. :
Speed of light in air(c) = 3x108m/s
a. A convex lens forma the image of the sun at F
Page 8

Refractive index(6) =
+ 01. Eclectic current through a metallic
meta conductor products a
7×. 9 magnetic field around it. If the current
c flows in one
6= ; = 1.33 (No Unit)
. ×. 9 direction (from X to Y) thee north pole of the compass
Refractive index of water 6 = 133(No unit) needle would move towards rds the east.
05 MARKS QUESTIONS 02. It the current flows in opposite
posite direction (from Y to X) .
We can see that the needle le moves
mo in opposite direction,
01. a. Observe the figure and write down the foll
following that is towards the west.
quantities using Cartesian Sign Conventio
vention. It means that the directionn of magnetic
m field produced by
01. The length of the object AB the electric current dependsds upon
upo the direction of flow of
02. The distance to the image current
03. The focal length of the sphericall mirror 02. a.

b. Observe the figure and answer the followingwing qquestions:

01. Why the magnetic needle is defected?cted? Copy the diagram and label the fol
following given below
02. If the direction of current is reversed,
sed, w
what will be i) Incident Ray ii) Refracted Ray
the direction of deflection of magnetic
netic nneedle. iii) Emergent Ray iv) Angle of refraction
v) Angle of deviation vi) Angle of emergence
b. The refractive index of diamon
iamond is 2.42. What is the
meaning of this statementt in relation
rel to speed of light?

Ans. : a.

01. The length of the object AB = +4cm

02. The distance to the image = +10cm
03. The focal length of the spherical mirror
rror = ++15cm

b. PE – Incident ray = A – Angle of incident

EF – Refracted ray = B – Angle of refraction
FS – Emergent ray = > – Angle of emergence
= ? – Angle of the Prism = @ – Angle of deviation
b. Speed of light = 3x108ms-1
Refractive index of diamond 6 = 2.42 (No unit)



Refractive index of the medium is given by

C D !" E% # % %F c. Ray diagram: Objectt at infinity
infi of a concave mirror
C D !" E% # % D%$ G% ! D
7×. 9
6= ; = 1.23 x 108ms-1
The speed of light in diamond = 1.23 x 108ms-11
The speed of light is lesser in medium thann air i.i.s V<C
03. a.

i) When the object is at infinity of a concave mirror, the

image is formed at focus
cus F2
ii) The size of the image is highly
high dimished, point sized.
The image is real and inverted.

i) What do those concentric circles represe

epresent? 04. a. i) Draw a ray diagram for an object placed
ii) How can we find the direction of the he mag
magnetic beyond 2F1
field? ii) What is the positionn of the image?
iii) Does the direction of the magnetic field llines gets iii) Mention the size andd nature
natu of the image.
reversed if the direction of current throug
through the b.
straight copper wire is reversed?
b. i) Draw a ray diagram for an objectt place
placed at
infinity before a concave mirror.
ii) What is the position of the image?
iii) Write about the size of the image and itits nature.
Ans. :

i) How would the magnetic etic field

fie lines look like
when current is passed
sed thr
through a circular loop?
ii) Near the centre of thee circular
circu loop how the
magnetic field lines appears?
iii) What will happen to the field
fi if the circular coil
having turns increases?
Ans. : i) Ray diagram
Object placed beyond 2F of a concave
conc mirror.
i) The concentric circles represents the
he mag
magnetic field
ii) place a compass at a point over a circle
circle. Observe the
direction of the needle . The direction of the north pole of
the compass needle would give thee dire direction of field
lines produced by the electric current urrent through the
straight wire. The direction is shown by an aarrow.
iii) Yes, the direction of current through
hrough the straight
copper wire is reversed, the directionn of m magnetic field
lines gets reversed.

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2. The size of the image

imag is highly dimished point
b. sized. The image is virtual
virtua and erect
i) At every point of a current
carrying circular loop, the 3. Uses of convex mirror:
concentric circles representing They are used as rear
ear view
vie mirrors in vehicles.
the magnetic field around it. They are used in shopping
opping mall to view a larger area.
ii) When we reach the centre of b.
the circular loop, the arcs of
these big circles would appear as
straight lines.
iii) Magnetic field produced by
a current carrying conductor at
a given point depends directly on the current ent pa
passing through
it. Therefore, if there is a circular coil having
aving ‘n’ turns, the
field produced is ‘n’ times as large as produce
roduced by a single
turn. This is because the current in each circula
circular turn has the
same direction and the field due to each turnurn the
then adds up.
05. a. i) Draw a ray diagram for an objectt place
placed at
infinity by a convex mirror
ii) What the position of the image?
iii) Write about the size and nature of the image. i) When a current is passed throughthrou the aluminium rod, it is
iv) Write any two uses of convex mirror.
irror. observed that the rod is displaced
placed towards the left. The rod
b. gets displaced.
ii) When the direction of currentcurren is reversed the rod is
displaced towards the right.
iii. Conclusion:
The displacement of the rodod in thet above activity suggests
that a force is exerted on thee current
curre carrying aluminium rod
when it is placed in a magnetic tic field.
It also suggested that the direction
d of force is also
reversed when the direction of current
cur through the conductor
is reversed.
It shows that the direction
tion of o force on the conductor
depends upon the direction of current cu and the direction of
magnetic field.
i) When a current is passed through ugh the aluminium It proves that the displacement
ement of the rod is largest when
rod, What do you observe? the direction of the current is att right
righ angles to the direction of
ii) After reversing the direction off curren
current flow, What magnetic field.
do you observe? 06. a
iii) State your conclusions.
Ans. : a. A ray diagram for ann obje object placed at
infinity of a convex mirror.

i) What is the position

on of the
th image?
ii) Write the size andd nature
natu of the image.
iii) Define the powerr of lens.
iv) Explain about thee construction
cons of Electric motor
1. When the object is at infinity,, the iimage formed
by the convex mirror is at focus F1

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Ans. :

i) When the object is placed before

ore the convex lens
2F, the image will be formed behind
ind the convex lens
at 2F.
ii) The size of the image is same and it is a real and
inverted image.
iii) The power of a lens is defined
ed as the reciprocal
of its focal length
The SI unit of Power of lens is dioptre
ioptre ((D)
b. Electric Motor
An electric motor is a rotating
tating device that
converts electrical energy
into mechanical energy.
An electric motor
consists of a rectangular coil
ABCD of insulated copper
wire. The coil is placed
between two poles of a
magnetic field such that the
arm AB and CD are
perpendicular to the
direction of magnetic field.
The ends of the coil are
connected to the two halves
S1 and S2 of the splitting.
The inner side of those
halves insulated and
attached to an axle. The
external conducting edges
of S1 and S2 touch two
conducting stationary
brushes B1 and B2
…………………………………………… ………………………

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