You are on page 1of 68

Shielded Twisted-Pair Cabling Systems

November 8, 2018

Presented by:

Mike Boisseau, Siemon


Jim Davis, Fluke Networks

www.cablinginstall.com
Siemon’s Bundling Recommendations

 Based on our testing in all pathway types so they are more conservative for non-conduit installations
 When in doubt, a conservative (and easy) practice is to limit maximum bundle size to 24

www.siemon.com
08 November 2018

Shielded Twisted-Pair Media


Constructions and Applications
Mike Boisseau
Siemon’s Copper Systems Business Unit Leader

www.siemon.com
Shielded Cabling Overview

 Shielded cable has been around for decades and remains a


mainstay in many markets around the world – IBM Type 1 cable
used for the first Token Ring networks was a shielded cable with two IBM Type 1
loosely twisted pairs each surrounded by a foil shield.
 Primary designs of today’s twisted-pair shielded cables include:
– F/UTP: Outer foil surrounding unshielded twisted pairs
– S/FTP: Outer braid surrounding individually foil shielded pairs –
referred to as “fully shielded”
S/FTP F/UTP
– F/FTP: Outer foil surrounding individually foil shielded pairs –
referred to as “fully shielded”
– U/FTP: No outer shield with individually foil twisted pairs

 Category 5e, 6 and 6A shielded cables are typically F/UTP.


 Category 7A and Category 8 cables are typically S/FTP.
U/FTP F/FTP
 Beware of cable specs referring to just “STP” as this does not
indicate what type of shielded cables are required

www.siemon.com
Shielded Cabling Myths Have Been Disproven

Myth #1 -- Ground Loops Will Be Present


 Occurs when differences in ground potential between two connections to ground generate
common mode noise, but this is rarely high enough to cause ground loops.
 It is a misconception that this noise appears only on screens and shields – it can appear on the twisted-pairs as well.
Myth #2 – Shielding Creates an Antenna Effect
 It is a misconception that screens and shields can behave as antennas and attract signals.
 Noise coupled onto screens and shields is actually100 to 1000 times smaller that noise coupled onto unshielded pairs in
the same environment.
Myth #3 – Shielded Cabling Requires Special Grounding
 The only extra step is to bond the shielded patch panel to the rack in the same way that other equipment is bonded. The
bonding of the cable shield occurs automatically via the installation process.
Myth #4 – Shielded Cabling Installation is Time Consuming and Difficult
 Today’s shielded cabling is fast and easy to terminate, and really only involves a little extra time to pull back the shield
– Siemon’s Z-MAX cabling system can be terminated in less than a minute.

 It’s important to consider that shielded systems do not typically need to be tested for alien crosstalk

www.siemon.com
Fast and Simple Grounding

 Cable shields are automatically terminated by 1 2


the outlet during termination.

 Most shielded outlets like Siemon’s 3


Z-MAX and TERA outlets make contact with a
patch panel's grounding strip as outlets are
snapped into place.

 Patch panels are grounded to equipment


racks or adjacent metal pathways via a 6
AWG wire attached to the panel’s ground lug
– just like other equipment.

 6 AWG ground wire connects racks


to the TGB – required for all racks/cabinets 4
regardless of cabling system

www.siemon.com
Advantage #1 – Alien Crosstalk Resistance

 Alien crosstalk is cable-to-cable noise coupling that occurs at higher


frequencies and degrades performance in 10GBASE-T UTP installations.
 Testing and troubleshooting alien crosstalk can be onerous and time
consuming, which is why sample testing only is done with UTP.
 Alien crosstalk may be introduced into UTP cables as a result of poor installation practices (e.g.
cable deformation, kinking).
 Bundling category 6 UTP with other category UTP cables can exceed alien crosstalk levels, which
is why industry standards do not allow mixing.
 Shielded cables are virtually immune to alien crosstalk, eliminating the need for alien crosstalk
testing. Fully shielded cables also offer better pair-to-pair crosstalk performance for more
headroom.
 Shielded cables can be bundled and/or share pathways with other categories of cabling.

www.siemon.com
It’s Why Category 8 is Shielded

 To support 10 gigabit transmission


(i.e., 10GBASE-T) to 100 meters,
Category 6A operates to 500 MHz.
 Alien crosstalk becomes a concern at
frequencies above 300 MHz .
 To support 25 and 40 gigabit transmission
(i.e., 25/40GBASE-T) in
2-connector switch-to-server links,
Category 8 operates at 2000 MHz.
 All Category 8 cables are shielded.

www.siemon.com
Advantage #2 – Protects Against Noise and Emissions

 Twisted-pair balance performance starts to de-grade Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Performance


above 30 MHz. 0

 Foil shields prevent penetration of signals 30 MHz and -20


above to achieve EMI/RFI noise immunity.
 EMI/RFI can prevent receives from successfully detecting -40

S21 (dB)
data packets, resulting in increased bit errors and
-60 40 dB GAIN
retransmissions.
 Shielded systems minimize interference from high -80

frequency RF transmitters and wireless devices


commonly found in premise environments – even -100

improperly terminated F/UTP cabling is 10 times less


-120
susceptible to interference than UTP. 1 10 100

 Shielding also keeps signals IN the cable, which is why it Frequency (MHz)

is often required for any high security environments. A UTP Cabling Immunity
fully-shielded Category 7A system is TEMPEST rated. Shielded Cabling Immunity

www.siemon.com
It’s Why Shielded is Used in Noisy/High Security Environments

 Signal interference can come from noise caused by AC motors, induction heating,
fluorescent lights, generators, 2-way radios, transformers and other equipment.
 Common noisy and higher security environments where the use of shielded cabling
is typically specified includes:
– Hospitals
– Financial/Trading Institutions
– Manufacturing facilities
– Airports and other transportation facilities
– Military bases

www.siemon.com
Advantage #3 – Heat Dissipation

 Shielded cables offer greater thermal stability, dissipating


almost 50% more heat.
 Many shielded cables are rated for higher operating
temperatures, above the typical 60C rating used for
commercial premise cables.
 Higher ambient temperatures and/or remote power
such as PoE cause heat build-up.
 Insertion loss increases at temperatures above 20C/68F.
 Exceeding a cables operating temperature can
also cause premature aging of dielectric materials.
 Industry standards recommend:
– Reducing maximum operating temperature (unrealistic)
– Reducing channel length (i.e., derating) to offset increased
insertion loss
– Reducing cable bundle sizes for remote powering applications
www.siemon.com
It’s Why Shielded Cabling is Better for Remote Powering
Temperature Rise vs. Current
 With the ratification of IEEE 802.3bt Type in 100-Cable Bundle
Type 4
3 (60W) and Type 4 (90W), more devices

Temperature Rise (degrees C)


than ever will be powered via PoE. Type 2/3
– LED lights, Wi-Fi 5/6 WAPs, laptops, 20
18
digital displays, etc. 16
14
12
 More current per pair means more 10
8
6
temperature rise in bundles. 4
2
0
 Shielded cables offer superior support of 200 400 600 800 1000
PoE due to better heat dissipation.
Applied Current per Pair (mA)
– Fewer bundling restrictions
Category 5e Category 6A UTP
– Less insertion loss derating Category 6 Category 6A F/UTP
Category 6A UTP, slim profile Category 7A S/FTP

www.siemon.com
Fewer Bundling Restrictions

 Cables with higher operating temperatures, have fewer bundling restrictions.


 Gauge size is also a consideration.
 23 AWG Category 6A cables rated to 75C can support Type 4 PoE in bundles of up to 192.

NEC Ampacity Table 725.144

Note: Type 3 (60W): 0.30A per Conductor, Type 4 (90W): 0.43A per Conductor

www.siemon.com
Siemon’s Bundling Recommendations

 Based on our testing in all pathway types so they are more conservative for non-conduit installations
 When in doubt, a conservative (and easy) practice is to limit maximum bundle size to 24

www.siemon.com
Less Channel Insertion Loss De-Rating

Subtract 18m
at 60º C
Shielded cables, and those with
higher operating temperatures, offer
less channel insertion loss de-rating

Subtract 7m
at 60º C
(60C)
Subtract 3m at
(60C) 60º C
(75C) No De-rating
(75C) up to 70º C

www.siemon.com
Current Wi-Fi 5 and Future Wi-Fi 6 Benefit from Category 6A Shielded

 Wi-Fi 5 (802.11ac) and Wi-Fi 6 (802.11ax) should


have TWO category 6A shielded connections at a
minimum
– Category 6A or higher is recommended by industry
standards.
– Two category 6A channels is the only way to achieve >5
Gb/s Wi-Fi throughput.
– Only category 6A or higher performing shielded cabling
exhibits the heat dissipation and thermal stability needed to
adequately support PoE, which is how most 802.11 Wi-Fi
access points are powered.

www.siemon.com
Today’s AV Systems Benefit from Category 6A Shielded

 HDBaseT and SDVoE both transmit high-def video


(4K and 8K) and recommend category 6A at a minimum
– Category 6A is needed for the bandwidth and distance
requirements.
– Alien crosstalk is a big concern with AV applications wherever
multiple cables are bundled together. Category 6A shielded offers
resistance to alien crosstalk.
– Power over HDBaseT (POH) runs at 100W, and only category 6A
or higher performing shielded cabling exhibits the heat dissipation
and thermal stability needed to adequately support POH.
– Cables with low delay skew such as category 7A S/FTP are better
for video applications and preventing a jittery picture on video
displays. Many AV equipment vendors require category 7A cabling.

www.siemon.com
25/40 Gig Data Center Applications REQUIRE Shielded

 Emerging 25GBASE-T and 40GBASE-T data center


applications require Category 8 cable, which is
shielded.
 Category 8 (TIA) and Category 8.1/Class I (ISO/IEC) are
F/UTP type cables while Category 8.2/Class II (ISO/IEC) is
an S/FTP cable.
– Because Category 8.2/Class II such as Siemon’s
TERA 8.2 system requires each pair to be fully shielded, it
provides enhanced crosstalk performance.
– Category 8.2/Class II meets more stringent
performance parameters compared to
RJ45-based Category 8/8.1 systems.

www.siemon.com
Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) Benefit from Category 6A Shielded

 Many distributed antenna systems that support


balanced twisted-pair cabling require category 6A, with
shielded cabling recommended
– DAS communication is highly sensitive to alien crosstalk
and has high bandwidth and greater distance
requirements
– TIA specifically recommends category 6A for DAS
– Emergence of 5G cell service will require even higher
bandwidth for DAS and small cells that can only be
supported by category 6A and higher cabling
– More and more, copper-based DAS systems are being
remotely powered

www.siemon.com
Summary

 Shielded cabling is seeing increased market adoption – with good reason!


– Better alien crosstalk performance – it wouldn’t be required for Category 8 if
this wasn’t the case
– Better EMI/RFI protection and security – which is why hospitals, financial
institutions and others specify shielded
– Better thermal stability and heat dissipation – critical to reduce derating
requirements and bundling restrictions in higher power Type 3 and Type 4 PoE
applications

 A few examples of applications calling for shielded cables include Wi-Fi 5/6
(802.11ac/ax), HDBase-T, 25/40GBASE-T and Copper-Based DAS.

www.siemon.com
Field Testing of Shielded Twisted-Pair
Cabling Systems

Jim Davis
Regional Marketing Engineer
Fluke Networks
November 8, 2018
Agenda

 What Can Shielded Cabling do for you?


–Improved noise immunity
 Shield test requirements
–Shall Follow the path of the Cable
 How to Configure your Cable Tester
 Sample Test Results
www.siemon.com
Who We Are

Fluke Networks is the worldwide leader in certification, troubleshooting, and


installation tools for professionals who install and maintain critical network cabling
infrastructure.

We help network professionals ensure the performance and reliability of our


connected world.

Datacom Datacenter / Communications


Contractors Network Managers Service Technicians

www.siemon.com

Why Certify?
Be sure that the installed cabling meets the performance you are paying for. An untested cable
is a source of doubt.
➢ Cat 6a Jack + Cat 6a Cable + Cat 6a Installer ≠ Cat 6a
❖ To get paid for the job
❖ Experience has shown that Certified networks run faster and support future applications
❖ CRC/FCS errors lead to re-transmissions
❖ How long will that cable be in the wall?
❖ Less expensive components can be considered – if they meet your performance requirements
❖ Beware of those who offer to save $ on the installation by not certifying

www.siemon.com
What Performance Benefits does Shielded Cabling Offer?

 For many parameters, the cable shield offers no difference to unshielded


cabling
– Insertion Loss and Return Loss have very little impact from the addition of a
shield
 Cross Talk can be significantly improved by the use of shielded cable
– An overall shield will reduce the impact of external noise
– Many industrial installations use shielded cable
– A PIMF (shielding on the individual pairs) is required to minimize cross talk under
the jacket from one pair to adjacent pairs
– Alien Cross Talk benefits from the use of shield cabling

www.siemon.com
6

Return Loss – Shielding does not impact


• A measure of reflected energy
• Often caused by an impedance mismatch
• Return Loss:
– In dB, the reflected signal on the same pair

www.siemon.com
7

NEXT (Near-end Xtalk) – Shielding can have


a big impact

• NEXT or Pair to Pair interference


– In dB, the disturbed signal on an adjacent pair

www.siemon.com
Special Results Comparison Software

www.siemon.com
UTP vs S/FTP – with
RJ-45 connectors

www.siemon.com
USP vs STP vs Cat
7/7a/8.2 (Tera)

www.siemon.com
USP vs STP vs Cat 7 (Tera) in the Time Domain

www.siemon.com
12

Shielded cabling systems – Alien Crosstalk

 Shielded cabling systems should perform better than unshielded cabling


systems – if installed correctly

Shield terminated correctly

www.siemon.com
12

Shielded cabling systems – Alien Crosstalk

 Shielded cabling systems should perform better than unshielded cabling


systems – if installed correctly

Shield terminated correctly Shield terminated incorrectly

www.siemon.com
12

Shielded cabling systems – Alien Crosstalk

 Shielded cabling systems should perform better than unshielded cabling


systems – if installed correctly

Shield terminated correctly Shield terminated incorrectly

www.siemon.com Both links pass the TIA Cat 6A Permanent Link requirements with good margin
TIA-1152-A Requirements for Screen continuity

 The applicable standards, TIA-568 and TIA-1152 have


not detailed the requirements for shield testing
 In the “-A” revision of TIA-1152, we find wording that
provides tighter requirements
–“…It is understood that the screen continuity is tested
along the path of the cabling.”
 This resolves a problem that has been identified in the
field where an alternate conductive path can “trick” the
www.siemon.com

field tester
Shield integrity – alternate paths
• ALL wire mappers and older cable testers would think the shield was
connected
• Grounding of two racks or a conductive path through the cable ladder makes
this happen

www.siemon.com
Shield integrity
• Older Wire Maps testers will show this connected

www.siemon.com
Shield integrity
• If the shield does not follow the path of the cable an open should be reported
• Even when the two connectors are touching

www.siemon.com
Which Test Limits to Select
TIA-568 and ISO 11801, a comparison

 The values (test limits) are not necessarily the same


 The methodology is the same however

TIA ISO & EN RJ45 Shielding MHz


Category 3 Class C ✓ Optional 16 MHz
Category 5e Class D:2002 ✓ Optional 100 MHz
Category 6 Class E ✓ Optional 250 MHz
Category 6A Class EA ✓ Optional 500 MHz
N/A Class F Required 600 MHz
N/A Class FA Required 1000 MHz
Category 8 Class I (Cat.8.1 Compon.) ✓ Required 2000 MHz
N/A Class II (Cat.8.2 Required 2000 MHz
Compon.)
www.siemon.com
ISO 11801 Test Limits

www.siemon.com
+PoE Test Limits Assure Support of PoE

 Devices attached to copper cable often rely on PoE

www.siemon.com
+PoE Test Limits Assure Support of PoE

 Devices attached to copper cable often rely on PoE


 Your standard Cat 5e, 6, or 6A field test is probably not good enough

www.siemon.com
+PoE Test Limits Assure Support of PoE

 Devices attached to copper cable often rely on PoE


 Your standard Cat 5e, 6, or 6A field test is probably not good enough
 Within ANSI/TIA-568-2.D and IEEE 802.3, you will find:

www.siemon.com
+PoE Test Limits Assure Support of PoE

 Devices attached to copper cable often rely on PoE


 Your standard Cat 5e, 6, or 6A field test is probably not good enough
 Within ANSI/TIA-568-2.D and IEEE 802.3, you will find:
– dc loop resistance

www.siemon.com
+PoE Test Limits Assure Support of PoE

 Devices attached to copper cable often rely on PoE


 Your standard Cat 5e, 6, or 6A field test is probably not good enough
 Within ANSI/TIA-568-2.D and IEEE 802.3, you will find:
– dc loop resistance
– dc resistance unbalance within a pair

www.siemon.com
+PoE Test Limits Assure Support of PoE

 Devices attached to copper cable often rely on PoE


 Your standard Cat 5e, 6, or 6A field test is probably not good enough
 Within ANSI/TIA-568-2.D and IEEE 802.3, you will find:
– dc loop resistance
– dc resistance unbalance within a pair

 The measurements are “optional” in TIA-1152-A

www.siemon.com
+PoE Test Limits Assure Support of PoE

 Devices attached to copper cable often rely on PoE


 Your standard Cat 5e, 6, or 6A field test is probably not good enough
 Within ANSI/TIA-568-2.D and IEEE 802.3, you will find:
– dc loop resistance
– dc resistance unbalance within a pair

 The measurements are “optional” in TIA-1152-A


– Run them if you are planning to use PoE
– Specifically, run the (+POE) tests

www.siemon.com
+PoE Test Limits Assure Support of PoE

 Devices attached to copper cable often rely on PoE


 Your standard Cat 5e, 6, or 6A field test is probably not good enough
 Within ANSI/TIA-568-2.D and IEEE 802.3, you will find:
– dc loop resistance
– dc resistance unbalance within a pair

 The measurements are “optional” in TIA-1152-A


– Run them if you are planning to use PoE
– Specifically, run the (+POE) tests

www.siemon.com
WAPs and IP Cameras

 Devices typically rely on PoE


 Your standard Cat 5e, 6, or 6A field test is probably not good enough
 Within ANSI/TIA-568-2.D and IEEE 802.3, you will find:
– dc loop resistance
– dc resistance unbalance within a pair

 The measurements are “optional” in TIA-1152-A


– Run them if you are planning to use PoE

www.siemon.com
WAPs and IP Cameras

 Devices typically rely on PoE


 Your standard Cat 5e, 6, or 6A field test is probably not good enough
 Within ANSI/TIA-568-2.D and IEEE 802.3, you will find:
– dc loop resistance
– dc resistance unbalance within a pair

 The measurements are “optional” in TIA-1152-A


– Run them if you are planning to use PoE

www.siemon.com
WAPs and IP Cameras

 Devices typically rely on PoE


 Your standard Cat 5e, 6, or 6A field test is probably not good enough
 Within ANSI/TIA-568-2.D and IEEE 802.3, you will find:
– dc loop resistance
– dc resistance unbalance within a pair

 The measurements are “optional” in TIA-1152-A


– Run them if you are planning to use PoE

www.siemon.com
WAPs and IP Cameras

 Devices typically rely on PoE


 Your standard Cat 5e, 6, or 6A field test is probably not good enough
 Within ANSI/TIA-568-2.D and IEEE 802.3, you will find:
– dc loop resistance
– dc resistance unbalance within a pair

 The measurements are “optional” in TIA-1152-A


– Run them if you are planning to use PoE

www.siemon.com
WAPs and IP Cameras

 Devices typically rely on PoE


 Your standard Cat 5e, 6, or 6A field test is probably not good enough
 Within ANSI/TIA-568-2.D and IEEE 802.3, you will find:
– dc loop resistance
– dc resistance unbalance within a pair

 The measurements are “optional” in TIA-1152-A


– Run them if you are planning to use PoE

www.siemon.com
WAPs and IP Cameras

 Devices typically rely on PoE


 Your standard Cat 5e, 6, or 6A field test is probably not good enough
 Within ANSI/TIA-568-2.D and IEEE 802.3, you will find:
– dc loop resistance
– dc resistance unbalance within a pair

 The measurements are “optional” in TIA-1152-A


– Run them if you are planning to use PoE

www.siemon.com
WAPs and IP Cameras

 Devices typically rely on PoE


 Your standard Cat 5e, 6, or 6A field test is probably not good enough
 Within ANSI/TIA-568-2.D and IEEE 802.3, you will find:
– dc loop resistance
– dc resistance unbalance within a pair

 The measurements are “optional” in TIA-1152-A


– Run them if you are planning to use PoE

www.siemon.com
WAPs and IP Cameras

 Devices typically rely on PoE


 Your standard Cat 5e, 6, or 6A field test is probably not good enough
 Within ANSI/TIA-568-2.D and IEEE 802.3, you will find:
– dc loop resistance
– dc resistance unbalance within a pair

 The measurements are “optional” in TIA-1152-A


– Run them if you are planning to use PoE

www.siemon.com
ANSI/TIA-568.2-D Test Limits

www.siemon.com
Which Cable to Select
Different Cable Constructions
U/UTP
- No overall shield
- Individual pairs are unshielded

U/FTP
- No overall shield
- Individual pairs are shielded

F/UTP
- Overall shield
- Individual pairs are unshielded

S/FTP
- Overall shield
- Individual pairs are shielded

www.siemon.com
24
Cable Testers will report a shield even if UTP selected
U/UTP
- No overall shield
- Individual pairs are unshielded

U/FTP
- No overall shield
- Individual pairs are shielded

F/UTP
- Overall shield
- Individual pairs are unshielded

S/FTP
- Overall shield
- Individual pairs are shielded

www.siemon.com
25
Cable Testers will only fail the shield test if enabled
U/UTP
- No overall shield
- Individual pairs are unshielded

U/FTP
- No overall shield
- Individual pairs are shielded

F/UTP
- Overall shield
- Individual pairs are unshielded

S/FTP
- Overall shield
- Individual pairs are shielded

www.siemon.com
26
Failure If the Shield Test is selected and the shield is open
U/UTP
- No overall shield
- Individual pairs are unshielded

U/FTP
- No overall shield
- Individual pairs are shielded

F/UTP
- Overall shield
- Individual pairs are unshielded

S/FTP
- Overall shield
- Individual pairs are shielded

www.siemon.com
27
TIA Category 6a Shielded Test Result

www.siemon.com
ISO Class Ea Shielded Test Result

www.siemon.com
ISO Class 8.2 / Category 8.2

www.siemon.com
Thank you, Gracias, Obrigado
Jim Davis
Fluke Networks
Jim.Davis2@flukenetworks.com
6920 Seaway Blvd
Everett, WA 98271

www.siemon.com
Questions?
Thanks to our Presenters
Mike Boisseau
Jim Davis

And to our Sponsors


Fluke Networks
Siemon

Within an hour you should receive an email from us that contains a link to your
attendance certificate.
If you do not receive our email, or if you cannot access your certificate, please email
us at: webcastmaterial@pennwell.com.
We will verify your attendance and provide your certificate to you.

Thank you for joining us today.


www.cablinginstall.com