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HaruardTechnoCogy %!

iddCeEast

April 3-14,2004
Dubai, U.A.E.

Mr. Oran Lewis


f

PO. Box: 26608. Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, Tel: +971-2-6277881. Fax: +971-2-6277883 info@harvard.tc http://www.harvard.,
To The Participant
The Course notes are intended as an aid in following lectures and for review in
conjunction with your own notes; however they are not intended to be a complete
textbook. If you spot any inaccuracy, kindly report it by completing this form and
dispatching it to the following address, so that we can take the necessary action
to rectify the matter.

P. 0.Box 26608
Abu Dhabi, U.A.E.

Tel: +97126277881
Fax: +9712 627 7883
Email: info@haward.tc

Name:

Address:

Email:

Course Title:

Course Date:

Course Location:

Description of
Inaccuracy:
Disclaimer
The information contained in these course notes has been complied
from various sources and is believed to be reliable and to represent
the best current knowledge and opinion relative to the subject.

Harvard Technology offers no warranty, guarantee, or representation


as to it's absolute correctness or sufficiency.

Harvard Technology has no responsibility in connection therewith; nor


should it be assumed that all acceptable safety and regulatory
measures are contained herein, or that other or additional information
may be required under particular or exceptional circumstances.
Table of Contents

Section 1 API 510 Code, RP7S576 & Chapter I1

Section 2 ASME Section VIII Div. 1

Section 3 ASME Section M

Section 4 Advanced Material

Section 5 Practice Exams

Section 6 API 510 Pre - Course Studies


HaiarvardTechnoCogy NiddGe East

COURSE OVERVIEW IEl00


API 510: Pressure Vessel Inspection Code
Pressure Vessel Maintenance, Inspection, Ratinq, Repair & Alteration
@PI Exam Preparation Training)

Course Title
API 510: Pressure Vessel lnspection Code: Pressure Vessel Maintenance,
Inspection, Rating, Repair and Alteration (API Exam Preparation)
Course Date1Venue
April 03-14, 2004 / Palm 9 , Fairmont Hotel, Dubai, UAE.

Course Reference
IE100
Course Duration
10 days (80 hours as per API recommendations)
Course Obiectives
This course is designed to train individuals who are interested in obtaining the API
510 Pressure Vessel Inspector Certification, as well as those who are seeking a
better understanding of ASME Section Vlll and IX code requirements. Included with
the course is a pre-study guide and student classroom workbook. The student
receives instruction regarding how to take the test, as well as insight into the
intricacies of "real world" situations. Daily tests are designed to gauge students'
proficiency and understanding of the material.
Topics include:
Head and Shell Calculations
Hydrostatic Test Pressure Calculations
Reinforcement Calculations
= Shell External Pressure Calculations
Impact Test Requirements and Determination
Development and Review of Welding Documentation
NDE Requirements

Who Should Attend


The course is intended for lnspection Engineers who are seeking API-510
certification. Other engineers, managers or technical staffs who are dealing with
Pressure Vessel will also benefit.
Course Certificate
Harvard Technology certificate will be issued to all attendees.
Course Fee
US $ 3,750 per Delegate. This rate includes Participant's Pack (Folder, Manual,
Hand-outs, etc.), buffet lunch, coffeeltea on arrival, morning & afternoon of each day.

1 /El00 - Page 1 of 7 1

PO. Box: 26608, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, Tel: +971-2-6277881, Fax: +971-2-6277883 info@harvard.tc http://www.harvard.tc
Accommodation
Accommodation is not included in course fees. However, any accommodation
required can be arranged b y Harvard Technology at the time of booking.

Required Codes & Standards


Listed below are the effective editions of the publications required for the current
Vessel lnspector Certification Examination. Each student must have these
documents available for use during the class.

= API Standard 510, Pressure Vessel lnspection Code: Maintenance lnspection,


Rating, Repair and Alteration, Eighth Edition, June, 1997; including Addendum 1
(December, 1998), Addendum 2 (December, 2000) and Addendum 3 (December,
2001). Global Engineering Product Code API CERT 510

API Recommended Practlce 432,lnspection of Pressure Vessels, Second Edition,


February, 2001. Global Engineering Product Code API CERT 572

APL Recommended PracUce 576, lnspection of Pressure-Relieving Devices,, Second


Edition (December 2000). Global Engineering Product Code API CERT 576
r Guide for Inspection of Refinery Equipment, Chapter 8 Global Engineering
Product Code API CERT GUIDE IRE CH2 *NOTE: This publication is a reference
document intended only for lnspector Certification applicants. To obtain a copy please
inform the person taking your order that you require this publication for the API 510
lnspector Certification exam.

Amerkan Soclety of Mechantcat Engineers (ASME), Boiler and Pressure Vessel


Code, 2001 edition.
i. ASME Section IID, External Pressure Graphs only.
ii. ASME Section V, Nondestructive Examination, Articles 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7
iii. ASME Sectlen VILI. Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels, Division 1, UG, UW,
UCS, UHT, Appendices 1-4,6, 8 and 12.
iv. ASME Sectlan L#, Welding and Brazing Qualifications
Global Engineering Product Code for the ASME package is API CERT ASME 510.
Package includes only the above excerpts necessary for the exam. Future addenda
will not be provided.

API and ASME publications may be ordered through Global Engineering Documents at 303-
792-2181 or 800-854-7179. Product codes are listed above. API members are eligible for a
50% discount on all API documents, other exam candidates are eligible for a 20% discount
on all API documents. No discounts will be made for ASME documents. When calling to
order please identify yourself as an exam candidate.
For complete sets of ASME documents including future addenda please contact ASME's
publications department at 1-800-843-2763. In Canada, ASME publications are available
through Power Engineering Books, Ltd. at 1-800-667-3155 or 780-458-3155.
Note: API and ASME publications are copvriqhted material. Photocopies of publications
are not permitted at the exam. CD-ROM versions of the API documents are issued quarterly
bv Information Handlinq Services. Be sure to check vour CD-ROM aqainst the editions noted
on this sheet.

IIEIOD - Page 2 0f 7 1
Course Faculty
Mr. Oran T. Lewis, P.E. (Texas, USA) is an Adjunct Instructor with over twenty
years experience in the design, erection, maintenance, inspection, fabrication,
modification and repair of pressure equipment, as well as presenting educational
courses for piping inspection, welding, weld inspection, and pressure equipment
inspection
Mr. Lewis has a Bsc degree and he is a qualified American National Board
Trainer and an NDE Trainer. Further, he is a AWS Certified Welding Inspector,
API Certified Pressure Vessel Inspector, API Certified Piping Inspector, a
member of the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors
Commission and a Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspector - State of Texas.

Course Proqram
.
Dav 1 : Saturdav 3'' of Aaril2004
0730 - 0800 Registration & Coffee
0800 - 0810 Welcome &Introduction
0810 - 1000
-
Joint Efficiencies
UW-3 Weld Categories
UW-51 RT Examination of Welded Joints
UW-52 Spot Examination of Welded Joints
1000 - 1015 Break
1015 - 1230 Joint Efficiencies (continued)
= UW-11 RT and UT Examinations
UW-12 Maximum Allowable Joint Efficiencies
= Exercises UW 3,11 and 12
1230 - 1330 Lunch
1330 - 1515 Postweld Heat Treatment
= UW-40 Procedures for Postweld Heat Treaiment
1515 - 1530 Break
1530 - 1700 Postweld Heat Treatment (continued)
UCS56 ~ e ~ u i r e m e &
for Poskeld Heat Treatment
1700 I End of Day One
Dav
z 2 -: ~Sundav
- -~ s 4" of Anril2004
~ ,
0730 - 0830 1 Review of Day1
0830 - 1000 1 Vessels Under Internal Pressure
I I = UG-27 Thickness of Shells Under Internal Pressure I
UG-32 Formulas and Rules for Using Formed Heads
1000 - 1015 Break
1015 - 1230 Vessels Under Internal Pressure (continued)
I I UG-34 Unstayed Flat ~ e a d and
s covers (Circular) I
Exercises UGS-27-32-34
1230 - 1330 Lunch
1330 - 1515 Cylinder under External Pressure
UG-28 Thickness of Shells and Tubes (External Pressure)
1515 - 1530 Break
1530 - 1700 Cylinder under External Pressure (continued)
= Exercise UG-28103
1700 End of Day Two

lay 3 : Monday 5L"of April 2004


0730 - 0930 Review of Day 1 & 2
0930 - 0945 Break
0945- 1230 Pressure Testing
UG-20 Design Temperatme
UG-22 Loading
UG-25 Corrosion
UG-98 Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
UG-99 Hydrostatic Test Pressure and Procedure

Lunch
- UG-100 Pneumatic Test Pressure and Procedure
UG-102 Test Gages

Pressure Testing (continued)


= Exercises UG s 99-100-102
Break
Minimum Requirements for Attachment Welds at Openings
UW-16 Weld Size Determination
Exercise UW-16
End of Day Three

- . ~1 .
Dav 4 : Tuesdav 6* of A ~ r i l 2 0 0 4
0730 - 0830 Review of Day 3
0830 - 1000 1 Reinforcement for Openings in Shells and Heads
UG-36 openings in vessels
UG-37 Reinforcement of Openings
1000 - 1015 Break
1015 - 1230 Reinforcement for Openings in Shells and Heads (continued)
UG-40 Limits of Reinforcement
UG-41 Requirements for Skength of Reinforcement
UG-42 Reinforcement of Multiple Openings
1230 - 1330 Lunch
1330 - 1515 Reinforcement for Openings in Shells and Heads (continued)
Exercises UG s 40-41-42-45
1515 - 1530 Break
1530 - 1700 Reinforcement for Openings in Shells and Heads (continued)
Exercise Reinforcementfor Openings in Shells and Heads
1700 End of Day Four
Dav 5 : Wednesday 7Lhof April 2004
0730 - 0830 ( Review of Day 4
0830 - 1000 I Minimum Design Metal Temperature & Exemptions From Impact
-

Testing
* UG-84 Charpy Impact Test Requirements
* Exercise UG-84
UCS-66 Materials
Break
Minimum Design Metal Temperature & Exemptions From Impact
Testing (continued)
* UCS-67 Impact Testing of Welding Procedures
a UCS-68 Desim
* Exercises ~ 6 2 -UCS0 66 - 67
1230 - 1330 Lunch
1330 - 1515 Practical Knowledze
UG-77 ater rial Identification
* UG-93 Inspection of Materials
UG-116 Name Plate Markings
1515 - 1530 Break
1530 - 1700 Practical Knowledge (continued)
UG-119 Name Plates
UG-120 Data Reports
1700 1End of Day Five

Dav 6 : Saturdav ldh of April 2004


Review of Day 5
Welding on Pressure Vessels (Section D( OveMew)
= Article I General Requirements
Article I1Welding Procedure Qualifications
Break
Welding on Pressure Vessels (Section DL OveMew) ... (continued)
Article Welding Performance Qualifications
Article IV Welding Data
Lunch

-
Welding Documentation Review

=
Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)
Procedure Qualification Record (PQR)
Break
Welding Documentation Review (continued)
Practice WPS/PQR reviews
End of Day Six

1 IEIOO - Page 5 of 7 I
Day 7 : Sun y 1I" of April 2004
Review of Day 5 & 6
Break

-
Advanced Material Example Problems
Static Head of Water
Corrosion Calculations
Cylinders under Internal Pressure
Heads under Internal Pressure
Charpy Impact Test Evaluation WPS/PQR
Quiz Static Head Pressure
Lunch
Advanced Exercise Problems
9 Internal Pressure Shell Calculations
Internal Pressure Head Calculations
Break
Advanced Exercise Problems (continued)
= Solutions for Advanced Exercises
End of Day Seven

Day 8 : Monj 3y 12* of April 2004


0730 - 0830 Review of Day 7
0830 - 1000 MI 510 Corrosion Rates and Inspection Intervals
Scope
M A W Determination
= Inspection Interval
= Corrosion Rate and Remaining Life
Long and Short Term Corrosion Rates
- = Quiz#l
-
Break
API 576 Pressure Relieving Devices

-=

=
Scope
Types of pressure relieving devices
Quiz#2
Quiz#3
API 572 Inspection of Pressure Vessels

-
= Scope

=
Reasons for Inspection
Causes of Deterioration
= Methods of Repairs
- Inspection Records and Reports
-
Lunch

I IEIOO - Page 6 of 7 1
API 572 Inspection of Pressure Vessels (continued)
Quiz#4
Quiz#5
Quiz # 6
Quiz#7
Quiz#8
IRE Chapter 2
Break
IRE Chapter 2 (continued)
Coverage from the API 510 Body of Knowledge
-
~uiz#9
End of Day Eight

Day 9 : Tuesday 13" of April 2004


0730 - 0930 Review of all course materials
0730 - 1000 Administer first half of 150 question API 510 practice examination A.
1000 - 1015 Break
1015 - 1230 Administer first half of 150 question API 510 practice examination A
(continued)
1230 - 1330 Lunch
1330 - 1515 -
Administer first half of 150 question API 510 -practice examination A
(continued)
1515 - 1530 Break
1530 - 1730 Administer first half of 150 question API 510 practice examination A

Dav 10 : Wednesdav 14'* ofAaril2004

I Closing comments
I Presentation of Certificates
1730 I End of course

IIEIOO - Page 7 of 7 1
INTRODUCTION
API 510 STUDY MATERIAL

TEXTBOOK

The textbook table of contents follows the API 510 Body of Knowledge that was in effect at the
time of its writing. Each area can be studied as a stand alone Modules for those who do not intend to set for
the MI 510 exam, but want to obtain a better understanding on a given Code subject.

The process found to most effective for general use is to study each subject of interest and
complete the quizzes at the end of those Modules. As regards calculations, after mastering the given
material, refer to the Advanced Material section to increase the depth of understanding. The Advanced
Material covers the calculations required for some actual circumstances that might be encountered in the
field.

Effective Publications for this Revision: Intended for the June 2004 Exam

API 510 Eighth Ed. June, 1997 with Addendums.1 (Dec. 98) & 2 (Dec. 2000)
& 3 (Dec.2001)
API RP 572 Second Edition Feb. 2001
API RP 576 Second Edition (Dec. 2000)
API Guide to Inspection of Refinery Equipment Chapter 2
ASME Section Vlll Div.1 2000 Edition with 02 addenda
ASME Section IX 2000 Edition with 02 addenda
ASME Section V 2000 Edition with 02 addenda
API 5 10 MODULES
Table of Contents

-
SECTION 1 API CODES AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES

API 510 Corrosion Rates and Inspection Intervals

Scope
MAWP Determination
Inspection Interval
Corrosion Rate and Remaining Life
Long and Short Term Corrosion Rates
Quiz# 1

API 576 Pressure Relieving Devices

Scope
Types of pressure relieving devices
Quiz#2
Quiz#3 -.

API 572 Inspection of Pressure Vessels

Scope
Reasons for Inspection
Causes of Deterioration
Methods of Repairs
Inspection Records and Reports
Quizt:4
Quiz t: 5
Quiz#6
Quiz#7
Quiz # 8

IRE Chapter 2

Coverage fiom the API 510 Body OF Knowledge


Quiz#9

2 11103 REV 12
-
SECTION 2 ASME Section VIII Div. 1

Joint Efficiencies

UW-3 Weld Categories


UW-51 RT Examination of Welded Joints
UW-52 Spot Examination of Welded Joints
UW-I I RT and UT Examinations
UW-12 Maximum Allowable Joint Efficiencies
Exercises UW s-3-11-12
Postweld Heat Treatment

UW-40 Procedures for Poshveld Heat Treatment


UCS-56 Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment

Vessels under Internal Pressure

UG-27 Thickness of Shells Under Internal Pressure


UG-32 Formulas and Rules for Using Formed Heads
UG-34 Unstayed Flat Heads and Covers (Circular)

Exercises UG s-27-32-34
Cylinder under External Pressure

UG-28 Thickness of Shells and Tubes (External Pressure)


Exercise UG-28
Pressure Testing

UG-20 Design Temperature


UG-22 Loading
UG-25 Corrosion
UG-98 Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
UG-99 Hydrostatic Test Pressure and Procedure
UG-100 Pneumatic Test Pressure and Procedure
UG-102 Test Gages
Exercises UG s 99-100-102
Minimum Requirements for Attachment Welds at Openings
UW-16 Weld Size Determination
Exercise UW-16
Reinforcement for Openings in Shells and Heads

UG-36 Openings in Vessels 121


UG-37 Reinforcement of Openings 122
UG-40 Limits of Reinforcement 122
UG-4 1 Requirements for Strength of Reinforcement 122
UG-42 Reinforcement of Multiple Openings 123
Exercises UG s 40-41-42-45 125
Exercise Reinforcement for Openings in Shells and Heads 132

1 1/03 REV 12
Minimum Design Metal Temperature and Exemptions
From Impact Testing

UG-84 Charpy Impact Test Requirements


Exercise UG-84
UCS-66 Materials
UCS-67 Impact Testing of Welding Procedures
UCS-68 Design
Exercises UG 20 -UCS 66 - 67

Practical Knowledge

UG-77 hfatcrial Identification


UG-93 Inspection of Mawrials
UG-116 ~ k Plate e Markings
UG-119 Name Plates
UG-120 Data Reports

SECTION 3 - ASME Section M


Welding on Pressure Vessels (Section M Overview)

Article I General Requirements


Article 11Welding Procedure Qualifications
Article lIIWelding Performance Qualifications
Article N Welding Data

Welding Documentation Review

Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)


Procedure Qualification Record (PQR)
Practice WPSIPQR reviews

SECTION 4 -Advanced Material Example Problems

Static Head of Water 168


Corrosion 181
Cylinders under Internal Pressure 187
Heads under Internal Pressure 189
Charpy Impact Test Evaluation W S P Q R 193
Quiz Static Head Pressure 179
Advanced Exercise Problems

Internal Pressure Shell Calculations


Internal Pressure Head Calculations
Solutions for Advanced Exercises

Appendix

Solutions to Text Modules Exercises 203

4 11103 REV 12
Section 1

API 510 Code, RP'S 576 & Chapter I1


API 510 MODULES
PRESSURE VESSEL INSPECTION CODE

Overview
Section 1
General

Scope:

The API 510 applies to pressure vessels in the petrochemical and refining industries after they have entered
service. The ASME Code applies to the new construction of vessels. While it applies only to new
construction it is often the Code to which a vessel is repaired. There are other construction Codes to which
a vessel can be constructed, for instance the Department of Transportation (DOT) provides ~ulesfor the
construction of and shipping of compressed gas cylinders. The Code for the construction of storage tanks is
A P I 653 and so forth.
The API 510 exempts certain vessels such as:

a. Vessels on moveable structures tank cars, etc.


b. All vessels exempted by Section VIII D m . 1 of the ASME Code
c. Vessels that do not exceed a given volume or pressure.
d. Section 8 Alternative Rules for Natural Resource Vessels.

Section 2
References:

A listing of the standards, codes, and specifications cited in API 510.

Section 3

Definitions:

In this section the terms used in the API 510 Code are d e h e d such as Alteration, ASME Code, API
Authorized Inspector, Construction Code, Maximum Allowable Working Pressure, Minimum Allowable
Shell Thickness and On-Stream Inspections just to mention a few. Study this section carefully as many
questions on the Exam often come £rom here.

Section 4

Owner-User Inspection Organization

This section lists in detail the responsibilities of the owner-user as regards the following:

1. Responsible for control of the pressure vessel inspection p r o g m


2. Responsible for the fhction of an authorized inspection agency, in accordance with API 510
3. Responsible for activities relating to the maintenance, inspection, rating, repair, and alteration of these
pressure vessels.

Also listed are the educational and experience requirements for Authorized Pressure Vessel Inspectors and
the detailed listing of a required quality assurance inspection manual.

API Authorized Pressure Vessel Inspector Responsibilities are listed in 4.4.

Multiple questions over areas of responsibility are frequently included on the examination. A fair mount of
study on these issues is highly recommended.

1 1103 REV 12
Section 5
Inspection Practices
Preparato~yWork:

Often questions are asked about what must be done before enhy into a vessel. This will include isolation,
draining, cleaning, purging and gas testing also the warning of personnel in the area, both inside and outside
the vessel, checking of safety equipment is necessary as well as inspection tools.

Modes of Deterioration and Failure:

Some of the listed modes of deterioration are fatigue, creep, brittle fracture, general corrosion, stress
corrosion cracking, hydrogen attack, carburization, graphitization, and erosion. A general question may be
asked such as; list six modes of deterioration or a more specific question such as; what is creep dependent
upon.

Corrosion-Rate Determination:

One important aspect of vessel maintenance and operation is the determination of how frequently a vessel
needs to be inspected. This can be largely driven by the rate at which a vessel is corrodmg. There are three
methods recognized by API 510 for this determination.

a. A corrosion rate may be calculated from data collected by the ownerluser on vessel providing
the same or similar senice.
b. Corrosion rate may be estimated from published data or fiom the owner user's experience.
c. After 1,000 hours of service using corrosion tabs or, on-skeamNDE measurements.

If the estimated rates are in error they must be adjusted to determine the next inspection date.

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure Determination:

The continued use of a pressure vessel must be based on calculations using the current edition of the ASME
Code or the edition the vessel was constructed to. A vessel's MAWP may not be raised unless a full
rerating has been performed in accordance with section 5.3.

I n corrosive service the waU thickness used in the calculations must be the actual thickness as determined
by the inspection, but must not be thicker than original thickness on the vessel's original material test report
or Manufacturer's Data Report ntinus twice the estimated corrosion loss before the next inspection.

Example: Determine the MAWP of a vessel's top sheU course that has thinned to a remaining thickness of
0.256" and has a corroded radius of 24.123". The materials strength is 15,000 psi and the joint efficiency to
be used in the calculation is 1.0. The corrosion rate has been calculated to be 0.0019" or 1.9 mils per year.
The next inspection is planned for three years fiom today's date.

Givens:
t = 0.256 "- 0.0114" (minus twice the estimated corrosion loss) = 0.2446"
P= ?
S = 15,000 psi
E = 1.0
R = 24.123"
Corrosion rate = 0.0019"1)1 x 2 x 3 years = 0.0114"
Defect Inspection:

Careful visual examination is the most important and most universally accepted method of inspection.
Other methods that may be used to supplement visual inspection are magnetic particle, ultrasonic, eddy
current, radiographic, penetrant and hammer testing (when the vessel is not under pressure). Vessels shall
be checked visually for distortion. Internal surfaces should be prepared by an acceptable method of
cleaning, there is no hard and fast rule for cleaning. External surfaces may require the removal of parts of
the insulation in an area of suspected problems or to check the effectiveness of the insulating system.
Sometimes deposits inside a vessel act to protect its metal from attack. It can be necessary to clean selected
areas down to bare metal to inspect those areas if problems are suspected from past experience or if some
indication of a problem is present.

1 1103 REV 12
h. When measuring an ellipsoidal or torispherical head the governing thickness may be as follows:

1. The thickness of the knuckle region with the head rating calculated using the
appropriate head formula.

2. The thickness of the central portion of the dished regioq in which case the dished
region may be considered a spherical segment whose allowable pressure is calculated
using the Code formula for spherical shells.

The spherical segment of both ellipsoidal and torispherical heads shall be considered to be in an area
located entirely in with a circle whose center coincides with the center of the head and whose diameter is
equal to 80 percent of the shell diameter. The radius of the dish of torispherical heads is to be used as the
radius of the spherical segment. The radius of the spherical segment of ellipsoidal heads shall be considered
to be the equivalent spherical radius KID,where D is the shell diameter (equal to the major axis) and KI is
as given in Table 1.

Section 6
Inspection and Testing of Pressure Vessels
And Pressure-Relieving Devices

General:

Section 6 requires that pressure vessels be inspected at the time of installation unless a Manufacturer's Data
Report is available. Further all pressure vessels must he inspected at fkquencies provided in Section 4.
These inspections may be internal or external and may require any number of nondestructive techniques.

The inspection may be made while the vessel is in operation as long as all the necessary information can be
provided using that method.

Risk-Based Inspection:

Risk based inspection includes the assessment of the likelihood of failure along with consequences of
failure. When chosen, RBI must be assessed using a systematic evaluation of all forms of degradation that
could be reasonably be expected to affect a vessel in any particular service. After a complete and well-
documented assessment the results can he used to formulate an appropriate vessel inspection plan.

External Inspection:

The frequency for the external inspection of above the ground vessels shall be every 5 years or at the same
interval as the internal or on-stream inspection, whichever is less. This inspection should be performed
when the vessel is in service ifpossible.

Tnings to he checked shall include but are not l i e d to the following:

a. Exterior insulation
b. Supports
c. Allowance for expansion
d. General alignment
e. S i p s of leakage

Buried vessels shall be monitored to determine their surrounding environmental condition. The frequency
of inspection must he based on corrosion rate information obtained on surrounding piping or vessels in
similar service.

Vessels laown to have a remaining life in excess of 10 years or have a very tight insulation systems against
extemal corrosion do not need to have the insulation removed for inspection however the insulation should
be inspected for its condition at least every 5 years.

1 1103 REV 12 9
Internal and On-Stream Inspection Intervals:

The period between internal or on-stream inspections shall not exceed 10 years or one-halfthe estimated
remaining corrosion-rate life whichever is less. In cases where the remaining safe operating life is estimated
at less than 4 years the inspection may be the full remaining safe operating life up to a maximum of 2 years.
Internal inspection is the prefened method On Stream may be substituted if all of the following are true.

When the corrosion rate is known to be less than 0.005 inch per year and the estimated remaining life is
greater than 10 years internal inspection of the vessel is unnecessary as long as the vessel remains in the
same service, complete external inspections are performed and all of the following are true:

The non-corrosive character of the contents has been proven over a five-year period. Nothing serious is
found during the externals. The operating temperature of tl~evessel does not exceed the lower temperature
limits for the creep-rupture range of the vessel metal. The vessel cannot he subject to accidental exposure
to corrosives. Size and configuration make internal inspection impossible. The vessel is not subject to
cracking or hydrogen damage. The vessel is not plate-lined or ship-lined.

Pressure Test:

Whenever a pressure test becomes necessary they are to be conducted in a manner in accordance with the
vessel's construction Code. The following concems should be addressed when pressure testing a vessel.

a. The test temperature should be at least 30 OF, above the minimum design metal temperature for
vessels greater than 2 inches thick and 10 OF for vessels 2 inches in thickness or less, but not
greater than 120°F.

h. Pneumatic tests are permitted when hydrostatic testing is not possible.


The safety precautions of the ASME Code shall be used.

c. When the test pressure will exceed the set pressure of the lowest relief device, these devices
shall be protected by blinding, removal, or clamping (gags).

Pressure-Relieving Devices:

One of the major concems for pressure relief devices is their repair. Pressure relief devices must he
repaired by qualified organizations having a fully documented written qunlity control system and repair
training program for repair personnel. No hard and fast rule is given for the testing of relief devices the
interval between tests is dependent on the senrice conditions of the device. There are minimum of 15 items
that should be addressed in the written quality control documentation. Such as a Title page, Revision log,
Contents Page, Statement of Authority, Organizational Chart,etc.

Records:

Pressure vessel owners and users must maintain permanent and progressive records on their pressure
vessels. Items that should he included are Manufacturer's Data Repor&, vessel identification numbers, RV
information, results of inspection and any repairs or alterations performed.

10 1 1103 REV 12
Section 7
Repairs, Alterations and Rerating of Pressure Vessels

General:

Section 5 covers repairs and alterations to pressure vessels by welding and the requirements that must be
met when performing such work These repairs and alterations must be performed to the edition of the
ASME Code that the vessel was built to.

Authorization:

Prior to starting any repairs or alterations the approval of the API 510 Inspector and in some cases an
engineer experienced in pressure vessels must be obtained. The API 510 Inspector may give prior general
approval to any routine repairs if the Inspector has satisfied himself that the repairs will not require pressure
tests.

The API Inspector must approve all repairs after inspection and after witnessing any required pressure tests.

Defect Repairs:

No crack may be repaired without prior approval of the API Inspector. If such repairs are required in a
weld or plate they may be performed using a U- or V-shaped grove to the fulldepth and length of the crack.
The U or V is then filled with weld metal. If the repair will be to an area that is subject to serious stress
concentrations an engineer experienced in pressure vessel must be consulted. Corroded areas may be built
up after proper removal of surface irregularities. All welding for repairs must comply with Section 5.2 of
this Code. The amount of NDE and inspection shall be included in the repair procedure.

Welding:

All repair and alteration welding must be in accordance with the applicable requirements of the ASME
Code, except as permitted in 7.2.11.

Procedure and Qualifications:

The repair organizations must use qualified welders and welding procedures in accordance with applicable
requirements of Section iX of the ASME Code.

Qualification Records:

Qualification Records must be maintained for all welding operations and must be available for review by
the API Inspector prior to all welding operations.

Preheat or controlled deposition welding methods as alternatives to PWHT.

Preheat and controlled deposition welding, as described in 7.2.3.1 and 7.2.3.2 may be used in lieu of PWHT
where PWHT is inadvisable or mechanically unnecessary. Prior to using any alternative method, a
metallurgical review conducted by a pressure vessel engineer shall be performed to assess whether the
proposed altemative is suitable for the application. The review should consider factors such as the reason
for the original PWHT of the equipmenf susceptibility of the service to promote stress corrosion cracking,
stresses in the location of the weld, susceptibility to high temperature hydrogen attack, to creep etc.
Selection of the welding method used shall be based on the rules of the construction code applicable to the
work planed. Vessels constructed of steels other than those listed 7.2.3.1 and 7.2.3.2 shall that initially
required PWHT shall be post weld heat treated if alterations or repairs involving pressure boundary welds
are performed. When on of the following methods is used as an alternative to PWHT, the PWHT joint
efficiency factor may be continued if the factor has been used in the currently rated design

1 1103 REV 12
7.2.3.1 Controlled method (Notch toughness not required)

This is a brief overview, please refer to the API 510 Code for a complete listing of requirements.

a. Notch toughness testing is not required when this welding method is used.

b. The materials shall be limited to P-No. 1, Group 1,2, and 3, and to P-No. 3, Group 1 and 2 (excluding
Mn-Mo steels in Group 2).

c. The welding shall be limited to the shielded-metal-arc welding (SMAW), gas-metal-arc welding
(GMAW), and gas tungsten-arc welding (GTAW) processes.

d. The weld area shall be preheated and maintained at a minimum temperature of 300DF(150°C) during
welding. The 300°F (15OoC)temperature should be checked to assure that 4 in. (10 mm) of the material or
four times the material thickness (whichever is greater) on each side of the groove is maintained at the
minimum temperature during welding. The maximum interpass temperature shall not exceed 600°F (3
15°C). When the weld does not penebte through the full thickness of the material, the minimum preheat
and maximum interpass temperatures need only he maintained at a distance of 4 in. (10 mm) or four times
the depth of the repair wela whichever is greater on each side of the joint

7.2.3.2 Controlled method (Notch toughness required)

This is a brief overview, please Refer to API 510 Code for a complete listing of requirements.

a. Notch toughness testing, such as that established by ASME Code Section VIl 1 Division 1, parts UG-84
and UCS-66, is necessary when impact tests are required by the original code of construction or the
construction code applicable to the work planned.

b. The materials shall be limited to P-No. 1, P-No. 3, and P-No. 4 steels.

c. The welding shall be limited to the shielded-metal-arc welding (SMAW), gas-metal-arc welding
(GMAW), and gas tungsten-arc welding (GTAW) processes.

d. A weld procedure specification shall be developed and qualified for each application. The welding
procedureshall define the preheat temperature and interpass temperature and include the post heating
requirement of f(1) below. The qualification thickness for the test plates and repair grooves shall be in
aciordance with Table 7-1.

12 1 1/03 REV 12
Local Poshveld Heat Treatment:

The API 510 Code permits poshveld heat treatment to be applied locally; this means that the entire vessel
circumference may not be required to be included in the heat treatment. Just as in the alternative to
postweld heat treatment above, consideration to applying this local treatment must be made with regards to
service. It does not apply to all situations the following four steps must be applied prior to using this type
of heat treatment.

a. A qualified engineer must review the application.

b. Suitability of this type of procedure is reviewed and consideration is given to such things as base
metal thickness, hardness, and t h e m d gradients.

c. A preheat of 300 OF or higher is maintained during welding.

d The distance included in postweld heat treatment temperature on each side of the welded area
shall be not less than two times the base metal thickness as measured from the weld. At least two
thermocouples must be used. The shape and size of the area will determine the size of the thermocouples
required. Heat must be applied to any nozzle or any attachment within the local post weld heat treatment
area.

Repairs to Stainless Steel Weld Overlay and Cladding:

Prior to the repair or replacement of corroded or missing clad material a repair procedure and must ~ t t e n ,
some of the concerns that must be addressed are as follows; out gassing of the base metals, hardening of the
base metal during repairs, preheating and interpass temperatures and postweld heat treatment.

Design:

The design of welded joints included in the API 510 is in compliance with those of the appropriate code.
All butt joints shall be full penetration and must have complete fusion. Fillet weld patches may be allowed
as temporary repairs and can be applied to the inside or outside of vessels but require special
considerations. The jurisdiction where the vessel is operating may for instance prohibit their use. Patches to
the overlay in vessels must have rounded comers; this also true of flush (insert) patches.

Material:

All materials for repairs must conform to the ASME Code. Carbon or alloy steels with a carbon content
which exceeds 0.35 percent may not be used in welded construction.

Inspection:

The acceptance of welded repairs or alterations should include NDE that is in agreement with the ASME
Codes that apply. If the ASME Code methods are not possible or practical, alternative NDE may be used.

Testing:

After repairs a pressure test must be applied if the AF'I Inspector believes one is needed. Normally pressure
tests are required after an alteration. Ifjurisdictional approval is required and it bas been obtainedNDE
may be substituted for a pressure test. If an alteration has been performed a pressure vessel engineer must
be consulted prior to using NDE in place of pressure test.

1 1/03 REV 12
Filler Metal

In general the filler metal used in repairs must have a specified minimum tensile strength equal to or
exceeding that of the base material. The following shall also be met.

a. The repair thickness shall not be more t h a ~


50~percent of the required base metal thickness, excluding
corrosion allowance.

b. The thickness of the repair weld shall be increased by a ratio of minimum specified tensile strength of
the base metal and minimum specified tensile of the filler metal used for the repair.

c. The increased thickness of the repair shall have rounded comers and shall be blended into the base metal
using a 340-1 taper.
d. The repair shall be made with a minimum of two passes

Rerating:

Rerating a pressure vessel by changing its temperature ratings or its maximum allowable working pressure
may be done only after meeting the requirements ofAPI 510 given in this section. Calculations,
compliance to the current construction code, current inspection records indicating fitness, pressure testing at
some time for the proposed rerating and approval by the API Inspector are required. The rerating is only
complete when the Inspector has overseen the attachment of an additional nameplate with the required
information given in this section.

14 1 1103 REV 12
API 5 10 MODULES

API 510 Corrosion Rate And Remaining Life Determination 6.4

The long term (L.T.) corrosion rate shall be calculated from the following formula:
t inital-t actual
Corrosion rate (LT.) =
time (years)behveen t inital
and t actual

The short term (S.T.) corrosion rate shall be calculated from the following formula:

t previous-t actual
Corrosion rate (S.T.) =
time (years) between t previous
and t actual

t initial = the thickness, in inches(millimeters), at the same location as t actual measured at the initial
installation or at the commencement of a new corrosion rate environment.

t previous =the thickness, , in inches(millimeters), at the same location as tactual measured during a
previous inspection.

Long-term and short-term corrosion rates should be compared to as part of the data assessment. The
authorized inspector, in consultation with a corrosion specialist, shall select the corrosion rate that best
reflects the current process.

Example: A vessel shell had a second set of ultrasonic thickness measurements after 1 year of service, the
original baseline wall thickness was 0.500", and the second set revealed that the shell was now at 0.489".
~ i v years
e later a third set of wall readings were taken and the shell was measured to be 0.459".

What value should be used in the Remaining Life calculations? Comparing short term to long term
corrosion we find the following values. Normally the most aggessive will be used and in this case it will he
the Long Term Corrosion Rate.

L.T. = 0'500-0'459 =0.0068')/a year


6 years

1 1/03 REV 12
The remaining life of the vessel shall be calculated from the following formula:

tactual- t required
Remaining life (years) = (6.4)
corrosion rate
pnches (millimeters) per year]

ll?1cre:
t actual = the actual minimum thickness, in inches determined at the time of inspection for a given location
or component.

t required = the required thickness in inches at the same location or component as the tactual measurement
computed by the desigu formulas (e.g. , pressure and structural) before corrosion allowance and
manufacturer's tolerance are added.

Example: Determine the Remaining life of the vessel shell course in the example above. The t required
thickness of the shell course is 0.388" (also lmown as t minimum). We compare the S.T. and L.T. corrosion
rates as follows:

S.T. rate = 0.0060" a year


L.T. rate = 0.0068" a year

Therefore we will use the most aggressive corrosion rate found to be the Long Term Rate.

0.459"-0.338" = 17.79years
Remaining life (years) =
0.0068"a year

What would be the maximum length of time before the next inspection?

ANS: % the Remaining Life or 10 years whichever is less.

Therefore: 17.7912 = 8.895 years

16 1 1/03 REV 12
API 510 Modules
SECTIONS 1,2, AND 3
Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 510 paragraph at the end of the question.

Quiz #1

1. What code covers maintenance inspection of petrochemical industry vessels?(l .I)

2. Define MAWP according to the API 510 Code.(3.9)

3. Define rerating.(3.17)

4. Which pressure vessels are exempt from API 510? (1.2.2)

5. Under what circumstances must an API 510 inspector re-certify?


(App. B Paragraph B.5)

6. In terms of creep, what must he considered? (5.2)

7. What is the most valuable method of vessel inspection? (5.5)

8. Describe the correct way to clean a vessel for inspection. (5.5)

9. What metals might be subject to brittle fiacture even at ambient temperatures? (5.2)

10. Name five methods other than visual that might be used to inspect a vessel.(5.5)
11. When a new Code vessel is installed, must a first internal inspection he performed? (6.1)

12. A vessel was last inspected internally in July of 1983. During that inspection it was determined to have
a remaining life of 16 years. What is the latest date of the next internal inspection? (6.4)

1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
RP 576 INSPECTION OF PRESSURE RELIEVING DEVICES
Overview

Scope:

This recommended practice covers automatic pressure relieving devices commonly used in the
penochemical and oil refining industries. The recommendations found in RP 576 are not intended to
replace and regulations that may exist in a jurisdiction.

Types of Pressure Relief Valses:

The three major types of pressure relief valves are the safety valve, relief valve and the safety relief valve.
Pressure relief valves are classed based on their construction, operation and applications.

Safety Valves

A safety valve is a spring-loaded device containing a seat and disk arrangement. It also has a part just
above the disk referred to as a huddling chamber. When the static pressure beneath the disk has risen to a
point where the force exerted on the disk begins to overcome the springs downward force the disk slowly
opens. As this happens the pressure beneath the disk is exposed to the huddling chamber. The huddling
chamber adds a much greater area exposed to pressure than the disk alone. This results in a sudden rapid
opening to the venting systems releasing the pressure to safe point at which time the valve will close. Safety
valves have an open spring and usually have a lifting lever.

Safety valves are used for steamboiler drums and superheaters. They may also be used for general air and
steam services. The discharge piping may contain vented drip pan elbow or a short piping stack vented to
the atmosphere.

Safety valves are not fit for service in corrosive service, where vent-piping runs are long, in any back
pressure service or any service where loss of the fluid cannot be tolerated They should not be used as a
pressure control or bypass valve and are not suited for liquid service.

Relief Valve

A relief valve is a spring-loaded device that is intended for liquid service. This type of valve begins
opening when the pressure beneath its seat and disk reaches the set pressure of the valve. The valve
continues to open as the liquid pressure increases until it is fully open. The relief valve closes at a pressure
lower than its set pressure for opening. Relief valves capacities are rated for an overpressure from 10% to
25% depending on their use. For instance a relief valve set at 100 psi might allow the system it is protecting
to rise to an ultimate pressure ofbetween 110 psi to 125 psi. This should be considered when choosing the
relief valve set pressure. These types of valves have closed bonnets and may or may not have lifting levers.

Relief valves are normally used for incompressible fluids. Relief valves are not intended for use with
steam, air, gas or vapor service. They should not be used in services piped to a closed header unless the
effects of any constant or variable back pressure have been accounted for. They are also not fit for use as a
pressure control or bypass valve.
Safety Relief Valves

A safety relief valve is a direct spring-loaded pressure relief valve that may be used as either safety or relief
valve depending on the application. A safety relief valve is normally full open at 10% over pressure when in
gas or vapor service. When installed in liquid service, full lift will be achieved at approldmately 10% or
25% overpressure, depending on trim type used in the valve.

18 1 1103 REV 1 2
Conventional Safety Relief Valve

A conventional SRV is a direct spring loaded pressure relief valve whose operational characteristics (
opening pressure, closing pressure , and relieving capacity) are directly affected by changes in the back
pressure. A conventional has a bonnet that encloses the spring and forms a pressure-tight cavity. The
bonnet is cavity is vented to the discharge side of the valve.

Conventional SRVs should not be used in services where any built up back pressure exceeds the allowable
overpressure or where the CDTF' cannot be reduced to account for the effects of variable back pressure. On
ASME Section I steam boilers drums or ASME Section I superheaters. They should also not be used as
pressure control or bypass valves.

Balanced Safety Relief Valves

A balanced SRV is a direct spring-loaded pressure relief valve that incorporates a bellows or other means
for minimizing the effect of hack pressure on the operating characteristics of the valve. Whether it is
pressure tight on its downstream depends on its design.

Balanced SRVs are used in flammable, hot and/or toxic services where high back pressures are present at
the valve discharge. Balanced SRVs are found in service for gas, vapor, steam, air or liquids. Balanced
SRVs are also utilized in corrosive senice to isolate and protect the spring, bonnet cavity and discharge
side of the valve from process material. They are also used when the discharge must he piped to remote
locations. They should not be used on ASME Section I steam boiler drums or superheaters or as pressure
controybypass valves.

Pilot-Operated Safety Relief Valves

A pilot operated safety relief valve (POSRV) is a pressure relief valve whose main relieving valve is
controlled by a small spring loaded (self-actuated) pressure relief valve (pilot valve). It is a control for the
larger valve and may be mounted with the main valve or remote fiom the main valve. The ASME Code
requires that the main valve be capable of operating at the set pressure and capacity even if the smaller fails.

Pilot operated relief valves are used under conditions where any of the following are true; a large relief
valve is required, low Merentid exists between the noma1 operating pressure and the set pressure of the
valve, very short blown down (time between opening and closing) is required, back pressures on the outlet
of the valve are very high, process service where their use is economical, process conditions require sensing
at a remote location.

POSRVs are not suited for senice with dirty, viscous (thick) fluids or fluids that might polymerize (harden)
in the valve. Any of these conditions might plug the small openings of the pilot system. If the operating
temperatures might exceed the safe limit of the diaphragms or seals or if the operating fluids might
chemically attack these soft parts of the valve.

Pressure andlor Vacuum Vent Valves

A pressure and/or vacuum vent valve (also known as a pressure andlor vacuum relief valve) is an automatic
pressure or vacuum-relieving device actuated by pressure or vacuum in the protected equipment. These
valves fall into three basic categories, weight loaded pallet vent, pilot operated vent valve, and spring
weight loaded vent valve.

Pressure a d o r vacuum vent valves are normally used to protect atmospheric and low-pressure storage
tanks against large enough pressure to damage the tank Single units composed of both pressure vent valves
and vacuum vent valves are also known as conservation vent valves, and are normally used on atmospheric
storage tanks containing materials with a flash point below 100 OF. However, they may also be used on
tanks storing heavier oils. They are not normally used in applications requiring a set pressure greater than
15 lbfiin2.

1 1/03 REV 12 19
Rupture Disk Device

The combination of a rupture disk holder and rupture disk is known as a rupture disk device. A rupture disk
device is a non re-closing pressure relief device actuated by the static pressure differential pressure between
the inlet and outlet of the device and designed to function by the bursting of a rupture disk.

Rupture disks fall into the following basic design categories, Conventional (uses a pre-bulged solid metal
disk designed to rupture when over pressured on its concave side), Scored Tension-Loaded (designed to
open along pre-scored lines), Composite Rupture Disk ( is flat or domed metallic or nonmetallic multi-piece
construction) Reverse-Acting (opposite of the conventional as it is designed to rupture on its convex side)
and last the Graphite Rupture Disk (manufactured from graphite impregnated with a binder material and
designed to burst by bending or shearing).

Rupture disks devices are used to;

Protect the upstream side of pressure relief valves against corrosion.


Protect RVs from plugging or clogging by thick fluids or polymerization products.
Instead of RVs when the protected system can tolerate process interruptions.
In place of RVs when extremely fast response is required.
As a secondary pressure-relieving device when differential pressure between the operating pressure and
the rupture pressure is large, depending on the type of rupture disk selected.
To protect the downstream sides of pressure relief valves against downstream corrosion from header or
atmospheric corrosion.

Rupture disk devices are limited to;

Use where pre-bulged disks are placed in systems that operate at 65 to 85% of the disk's predetermined
rupture pressure, depending on the type of rupture disk.
Where the usual service life of one year for a pre-bulged can be tolerated

This has been a brief summary of pressure relieving devices.

20 1 1/03 REV 12
M I 5 I0 MODULES
RP 576 SECTIONS 1 AND 2
Find the answers to these questions by wing the stated AF'I 5101576 paragraphs at the end of the question.

Quiz #2

1. How often should a safety relief valve be tested? ( M I 510 6.6)

2. Welding is used to repair a vessel made of P No. 1 material one inch thick The vessel was originally
postweld heat-treated. Describe the method used to avoid PWHT of the repair? (API 510 7.2.3.1)

3. What does the term 'Accumulation' mean when referring to pressure relief devices? (RP 576 3.3.1)

4. Describe the types of pressure relief valves. (RP 576 4.1 to 4.8 and Section Vm UG-126)

5. You notice that a pressure relief device has a closed bonnet without a vent hole. What type of valve is it?
(RP 576 4.3)

6. While reviewing maintenance records you notice that bulged rupture disks in a unit are three years old.
Is this O.K.? (RP 576 4.9.3)

7. A pilot-operated safety valve has been installed in heavy crude senice is this 0.K (RP576 4.7.2)

1 1/03 REV 12 Fast Track Technical Training


281-482-2253 - wrw.apiexams.org
API 510 MODULES
W 576 SECTIONS 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , and 8

Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 576 paragraph at the end of the question.

Quiz #3

1. Describe a shop inspection of a relief device. (6.2)

2. Name thee causes of improper performance of a pressure-relieving device. (RP 576 5.1 to 5.10)

3. The spring of a relief valve broke. What probably caused it to break? (RP 576 5.3)

4. The valve shop is setting safety relief valves using water is this acceptable? (RP 576 5.4)

5. You are asked to set a schedule for the inspection of relief devices; what will determine the time between
the settings ofvalves? (RP 576 6.4)

6. What should the operating history of a pressure relief device include? (RP 576 7.2)

7. You are asked to visually inspect an RV before it is taken to the shop. What should this inspection
cover? (6.2.9)

8. What are the applications of a pressure/vacuum vent valve on an atmospheric tank'?(4.8.1)

22 11103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
API RP 572 INSPECTIONS OF PRESSURE VESSELS

Overview
Section 1 Scope of RP 572

This recommended practice addresses the following items; description of types of vessels, construction,
maintenance, reason for and method of inspection, causes of deterioration, repair methods and
recordslreports.

Section 2 References
Here the latest editions of standards, codes and recommended practices are specified.

Section 3 Definitions
Complete definitions of the terms used in RP 572 are found here.

Section 4
Types of Pressure Vessels

The definition of a pressure vessel per API 572 is a container that falls within the scope of the ASME Code
Section Vm Division 1 and is subjected to an external or internal design pressure greater than 15 psi.
Section Vm Division 1 should be consulted for the exact definition and exemptions. The definition of a
pressure vessel is found in the ASME Code Section Vm Division 1, page 1 &the first paragraph

Pressure vessels can have many different shapes; they may be spheres (balls), a cylinder with various heads
attached such as flat or hemispherical and may consist of inner and outer shells (jacketed). Many methods
of construction are used. The most common is the cylindrical shell made of rolled plate and welded with
heads that are attached by welding. Riveting was used prior to the development of welding. Vessels are no
longer made using riveting, but some riveted vessels are still in service today. Vessels are also made of the
hot forging and multi-layer (cylinders inside of cylinders) techniques. Multi-layer vessels are found
primarily in high pressure service.

The vast majority of vessels are made of carbon steels. For special services the carbon steel may be lined,
clad or weld metal surfaced with corrosion resistant materials such as stainless steels. Some vessels are
constructed entirely of various metals such as monel nickel, titanium, or stainless steel. The material
chosen will be determined by the required service conditions. Temperature, pressure and the fluids to be
contained are the primary concerns in material selection For reasons of economy different parts of a vessel
may be made of different materials using only the most expensive where needed Many pressure vessels are
simply containers and do not have internal equipment; others have intemals such as catalyst bed supports,
ttays, baffles, or pipe coils.

Section 5
Construction Standards

The first untired pressure vessels were constructed to the design of the user or manufacturer. This was true
until about 1930 after that time the APYASME Code or the American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Code (ASME) was used. In 1956 the APIIASME Code was discontinued and the ASME Code was adopted
as the standard for the construction pressure vessels within its scope. Section VIII Divisions 1 and 2 of the
ASME Code are the e e d pressure vessel Codes. Section Vm Division 1 is the Code the vast majority of
vessels are built to; Section Vm Division 2 used for vessels in high-pressure service or where lower factors
of safety is desired. Division 2 has more restrictions on construction, materials, inspection and
nondestructive examination than Division 1. These restrictions usually result in a vessel that would be
thinner than that required by Division 1 and the resulting cost savings could be significant is some instances.
Heat exchangers are built using both the ASME Code and the Standards of Tubular Exchanger
Manufacturers Association (TEMA).

1 1103 REV 12
Section 6

Maintenance Inspection

The basic rule for t11e maintenance of a vessel in service is to maintain it to the original design and the
edition of the Code it was constructed under. If the vessel is re-rated this is may done using the original or
latest edition of the Code. This implies that persons responsible should be familiar with the ori-+a1
construction edition of the Code and the latest edition of the Code if a vessel has been re-rated. In addition
personnel responsible for these vessels must be familiar with any national, state, county or city regulations.
The ASME has minimum requirements for construction, inspection and testing of pressure vessels that will
be stamped with the Code Symbol however jurisdictions may have more restrictive requirements.
Compliance with ASME Code may not be enough to satisfy a jurisdiction's requirement.

Section 7
Reasons for Inspection

The main reason for inspection is to determine the physical condition of a vessel. With this information the
causes and rate of deterioration can be established and safe operations between shutdows can be
determined. Correcting conditions causing deterioration andplanning for repairs and replacement of
equipment can also be done using the inspection information Scheduled s b u t d o w and internal
inspections can prevent emergency shutdowns and vessel failures. Periodic inspection allows the for the
forming of a well-planned maintenance program by using data such as corrosion rates to determine
replacement and repair needs. External visual inspections along with the thorough use of various
nondestructive examination techniques can reveal leaks, cracks, local thinning and unusual conditions.

Section 8
Causes of Deterioration
The causes of deterioration are many but faU into several general categories as follows: inorganic and
organic compounds, steam or contaminated water, atmospheric corrosion. These types of corrosive agents
fall into the class of chemical and electrochemical attack Attack is also possible fiom erosion and, or
impingement. The attack could come from any combination of the above examples.
Corrosiorr is the prime cause of wear in pressure vessels. The most common internal corrodents are sulfur
and chloride compounds. Caustic, inorganic acids, organic acids and low pH water can also cause corrosive
attack in vessels.
Erosion is the wearing away of a surface that is being hit by solid particles or drops of liquid. It is similar to
sandblasting and is usually found where changes in direction or high-speed flow are present It occurs in
such places as inlet nozzles and the vessel waU opposite the nozzle. Outlet nozzles are likely spots when fast
flowing products are in use. In some instances corrosion and erosion are found together.

Metall~rrgicaland physical changes can occur when a vessel material is exposed to fluids the vessel
contains. Elevated operating temperatures also contribute to these problems. The changes that take place
may be severe enough to result in cracking, graphitization, hydrogen attack, carbide precipitation,
intergranular corrosion, embrittlement and other changes.
Mechanical forces such as thermal shock, cyclic temperature changes (higher to lower temperatures on a
fiequent basis), vibrations, pressure surges, and external loads can cause sudden failures. Cracks, bulges and
tom internal components are often a result of mechanical forces.
Farrlty materials can build in failure into a pressure vessel or one of its components. Bad materials can
result in leakage, blockage, cracks and even speed up corrosion in some cases. The selection of an improper
material for new construction of or for a repair to a vessel will often result in the same type of failures as
will proper materials that have manufacturing or fabrication defects.

Fanlt~rfabrication includes poor welding, improper or lack of heat treatment, tolerances outside those
permitted by Codes and improper instauation of internal equipment such as trays and the like. Any of these
types of faulty fabrications may result in failures due to cracks or high stress concentrations, etc., in vessels.
24 1 1103 REV 12
2.
Section 9

Frequency and Time of Inspection

Many things determine the frequency of inspection for pressure vessels. Chief among the reasons is
corrosion rates that are determined by the service environment. Unless there are insurance or legal reasons,
the frequency of inspection should be based on information from the first inspectionperformed, using either
on stream or internal methods. Normally inspection planning will allow for the next inspection to occur
when at least half the original corrosion allowance remains. Other factors such as a need for fiequent
cleaning may provide an opportunity to shorten the inspection frequency. If the process fluids or operating
conditions change, shorter inspection frequencies may be needed to determine what effects the new
conditions may have had

Opportunities for inspections will require the input of all groups involved; process, mechanical, and
inspection personnel. The opporhmityrnay have to be made if any laws require a frequency or the insurance
company has a requirement for it in the policy written on the equipment. A convenient time for inspections,
of course, is any time equipment is removed fiom senice for cleaning. Also ifa vessel or exchanger was
removed for operational reasons, an inspection might then become needed to insure the integrity of the
equipment before returning it to service.

Another consideration for the inspection of vessels is the review of the in senice operational records to
look for pressure drops and out of the ordinary conditions that might indicate a problem

Section 10
Methods of Inspection and Limits

To perform a proper inspection it is important to h o w the history of the vessels to be inspected Knowing
what repairs have been required in the past and inspecting the repair after it has been in service may help to
develop better repair methods. It may also help to locate similar problems. In every case, careful visual
inspection is a requirement. Knowing the service conditions of a vessel allows the concentration of efforts
in areas known to have problems in a particular senice.

Safefy precautions before entering a vessel are of the utmost importance. Vessels bave small openings and
often many internal obstructions that make getting out of one quickly nearly impossible. The bottom line is:
make sure it is safe to enter a vessel. Such things as isolation of lines by blinding, purging and cleaning
along with gas testing prior to entry cannot be overlooked In some cases protective clothing and air supply
systems are called for if entry is desired before cleaning to look at the vessel's existing conditions for
indications of problems. Always inform personnel inside and outside a vessel that inspection personnel are
entering the vessel. Loud noises made by inspection or maintenance might scare others, causing injury.
Preparatory work needed for vessel inspection should include checking in advance to make sure all
equipment ls present and is in usable co&ition.

Exterrral irrspectiorrs should start with ladders, stairways, platforms and walkways connected to the vessel.
Loose nuts, broken parts and corroded materials may be searched for by visual inspection and hammer
testing for tightness. Since corrosion is most likely to occur where water can collect, these areas should be
inspected carefully, using a pick or similar object. Slipping hazards such as slick treads should be looked
for and noted on the inspection report. Foundations and supports must be inspected for the condition of the
fireproofing. The settling of foundations, Spalling (flaking) and cracking of the &eproofing are always a
concern In cases where equipment is supported by cradles, moisture between the cradle support and the
vessel may cause corrosion. If the area where a vessel and a cradle join has been sealed with a mastic
compound, the mastic seal should be checked gently with a pick to check its water tightness. Some settling
of any foundation is to be expected. However, ifthe settling is noticeable, the extent must be determined for
future reference.

Alrchor bolts can be examined by scraping away and looldng for corrosion. The soundness can be
determined with blow of a hammer to the side of the bolt or its nut Checking the nuts for tightness and the
bolts with ultrasonics for breaks is sometimes appropriate. Any distortion of the bolts may indicate serious
foundation settlement
1 1/03REV 12 25
Corrcmte supports are inspected with same concerns as concrete foundations. Close attention to any seals
and the possibility of trapping moisture because of faulty seals should be investigated.

Steel supports should be examined for corrosion, distortion, and cracking. If corrosion is severe, actual
measurements of the remaining thickness should be performed and a corrosion rate established just as in a
vessel. Wire brushing, picking and tapping with a hammer is a frequently used inspection technique. Most
of the h e corrosion can be slowed or prevented by proper painting alone. Sometimes protective barriers
such as galvanizing are required. As part of steel support inspection, vessel lugs should be examined using
the same methods of wire brushing, etc., described above. Welds used to attach lugs can develop cracks and
some cracks can then run into the vessel's walls. If a vessel's steel supports are insulated and an indication
of leakage is present, the insulation must be removed to determine if corrosion under insulation has
occurred.

GMJ? wires are cables that stretch from different points of a vessel to the ground where they are anchored to
underground concrete piers (dead men). 1nspection.ofthese guy wires must include checking the
connections for tightness and the cables for the correct tensions. The connections consist of turnbuckles
used for tightening and U bolt clips for securing. All connectors must be checked for proper installation and
the presence of corrosion. The cable must be checked for corrosion and for broken strands.

Nozzles and adjacent areas are subject to distortion if the vessel foundation has moved due to settling.
Excessive thermal expansion, internal explosions, earthquakes, and fires can cause damage to piping
connections. Flange faces should be checked for squareness to reveal any distortion. If evidence of
distortion is found cracks should be inspected for, using non-destructive examination. All inspections
should be external and intemal whenever possible. Visible gasket seating surfaces must be inspected for
distortion and cuts in the metal seating surfaces. Wall thickness readings must also be taken on nozzles and
intemal or external corrosion monitored.

Grorrrrdirrg connections must be inspected for proper electrical contact. The cable connections should he
tight and properly connected to the equipment and the grounding system. All grounding system should be
checked for continuity (no breaks) and resistance to electrical flow. Continuity checks are usually made
using electrical test equipment such as an Ohm meter. The resistance readings are recommended to be
between 5 and 25 Ohms.

Auxiliaqr equipment such as gauge connections, sight glasses, and safety valves may be visually inspected
while the vessel is still in senice. Inspection while a vessel is in service allows the presence of excessive
vibrations to be detected and noted. If excessive vibrations exisf engineering can determine if any
additional measures are required to prevent fatigue failures.

Protective coatings and insulation should be inspected for their condition. Rust spots or blistering are
common problems associated with paint and are easily found by visual inspection. Scraping away a loose
coating fh will often reveal corrosion pits. These pits should be measured for depth and appropriate action
taken. Insulation can usually be effectively visually inspected. Ifan area of insulation is suspected, samples
may cut out and examined for its condition. Insulation supporting clips, angles, bands, and wires should be
examined.

External surface corrosion appears in f o m other than rust. Caustic embrittlement, hydrogen blistering and
soil corrosion are also found on the external surfaces of equipment The area of a vessel that needs special
attention often depends on its contents. When caustic is stored or used in a vessel, the areas around
connections for intemal heaters should be checked for caustic embrittlement. In caustic senice, deposits of
white salts often are indications of leaks through a crack. Hydrogen blistering is normally found on the
inside of vessels, but can appear on the outside ifa void in the vessel's material is close to the outer surface.
Unless readily visible, leaks in avessel are best detected by pressure testing. Cracks invessel are normally
associated with welding and can be found using close visual inspection In some services nondestmctive
testing to checks for cracks is justified and should be performed Other concerns when performing external
inspection are bulges, gouges, and blistering. Hot spots when found in senice should be monitored and
thoroughly evaluated by an engineer experienced in pressure vessels.
Internal inspectiorrs should he prepared for by assembling all necessary inspection equipment such as tools,
ladders, and lights.

Surface preparation will depend on the type of problems that a vessel may have in a given service.
Ordinarily the cleanliness required by operations is all that is needed for many inspections. Ifbetter
cleaning is required, the inspector can scrape or wire brush a small area. If serious conditions are suspected,
water washing and solvent cleaning may not be enough to reveal problems. In these instances, power wire
brushing, abrasive grit blasting, etc., may be required.

Prelinrinary visual inspection should he preceded by a review of reports of previous inspections.


Preliminary inspection usually involves seeking out known problem areas based on inspection experience
and service. Many vessels are subject to a specific type of attack such as cracking in areas such as upper
shell and heads. Preliminary inspection may reveal a need for additional cleaning for a proper detailed
inspection.

Detailed irrteriral inspections should staa at one end of a vessel and progress to the other end. A systematic
approach such as an item checklist will help to prevent overlooking hidden hut important areas. AU parts of
vessel should be inspected for corrosion, hydrogen blistering, deformation, and cracldng. In areas where
metal loss is serious, detailed thickness readings should he taken and recorded. If only general metal loss is
present, one thickness reading on each head and shell may he enough. Larger vessels require more
measurements.

Pitling corrosion will require local examination by first scraping the surface and then and measuring the pit
depth. Pit gauges allow for measuring pit depth if an un-corroded area adjacent to the pit is available to
gauge &om In the case of large pits or grooves, a straight edge and steel rule often will allow measurement
by spanning the large area and lowering the steel rule into the pit and measuring the depth.

Hammer testing is often a good method of finding thin areas. Experience is needed to interpret the sounds
made by hammering. Usually a dull thud will indicate a loss of metal or thick deposits. Hammer testing
must never be used for inspecting vessels or componenh under pressure. If cracks are suspected or found
their exTent may be determined by cleaning and nondesimctive testing.

Welded seams deserve close attention when in services where amine, wet hydrogen sulfide, caustic,
ammonia, cyclic, high temperature and other senices. Welds in high strength steel (above 70,000 psi
tensile) and coarse grain steels, and low chrome alloys should always he checked carefully for cracking. All
of the above conditions promote cracking in welds and adjacent base metals. Nozzles should he checked for
corrosion and their welds for cracking at the time of the vessels internal inspection. Normally ultrasonic
thickness readings will reveal any loss of metal in nozzles and other openings in a vessel. Internal
equipment such as trays and their supports are visually inspected acco&pa&d by light tapping with a
hammer to expose thin areas or loose attachments. Conditions of hays must be determined to check for
excessive leakage caused by poor gasket surfaces or holes ffom corrosion. Excessive leakage can cause
operational problems and may lead to poor perfomance of a vessel or unscheduled shut downs.

Inspectiorr of rnetallic liirings must determine if the lining has been subjected to service corrosive attack,
that linings are properly installed, and that no cracks or holes are present in the lining. Most problems with
linings are found by carell visual inspections. Tapping the lining lightly with a hammer can reveal loose
lining or corrosion Welds around nozzles deserve special attention due to cracks or holes that are often
found in these areas. Ifthe surfaces of the lining are smooth, thickness measurements using ultrasonic
techniques may he performed. If required, small sections of lining can be cut out and measured for
thickness. A very useful method of tracking the corrosion rate of linings is by the welding of small tabs at
right angles to the lining when the lining is first installed. These tabs are made of the same material and
thickness as the lining and can be easily measured at the time of installation and at the next inspection to
determine the rate of corrosion taking place in the vessel. Remember that both sides of the tab are exposed
to the corrosion and the lining's loss must he determined by dividing the tab's loss by two. A bulge in a
liner can he caused by a leak in the liner permitting a pressure or a product build-up between the liner and
the protected base metal.

1 1103 REV 12 27
Norrnretnllic lirrers are made of many different materials such as glass, plastic, rubber, ceramic, concrete,
refractory, and carbon block or brick liners. The primary purpose when inspecting these types of linings is
to insure that no breaks in the 1,iningare present. These breaks are referred to as holidays. Bulging,
breaking, and cbipping are all signs that a break is present in the lining. The spark tester method ifvery
effective in finding breaks in such nonmetallic linings as plastic, rubber, glass, and paint. The device uses a
bigh voltage with a low cument to find openings in linings. The electrical circuit is grounded to the shell and
the positive lead is attached to a brush. As the brush is swept over the lining, if a break is present,
electricity is conducted and an alarm is sounded. A little warning: this is obviously not a device to he used
in a flammable or explosive atmosphere nor should the device have such a high voltage value that it can
penetrate though a sound lining. The spark tester is not useful for brick, concrete, tile, or refractory
linings. Remember linings can be damaged during a careless inspection; often just by dropping a tool.

Concrete and refractory l i i g s often spa11(flake away) or crack This damage is readily detected during a
visual inspection Minor cracks may take some gentle scraping to find If bulging is obvious cracks may
also be present. If any break is present, fluid bas probably leaked in between the lining and the outer shell
and may have caused corrosion. Light tapping with a hammer can reveal looseness that is normally
associated with leakage of linings.

Tlfickrressrireasrlrirrg techniques such as ultrasonic, limited radiographic techniques, corrosion buttons, and
the drilling oftest holes; are used to determine ifany wall loss has occurred. The most common technique is
ultrasonic. Ultrasonic can detect flaws and determine thickness also. Its principle of operation involves the
sending of sound waves into the material and measuring the time it takes the sound to return to the sending
unit, referred to as a transducer. Sound travels through a given material at a known speed, and when
properly calibrated, the UT equipment uses the known speed and time of travel to determine the thickness in
the area being tested.

In thickness measurements using radiographs, the placement of a device such as step gage (a device of a
known material and thickness) in the radiographic image is compared to the image of the piping or vessel
wall and the thickness determined by measurement.

Corrosion buttons are made of a material that are not expected to cotrode in a given senice and then
installed in pairs at specific locations in the vessel. Measurements are taken by placing a straight edge
across the two buttons and then gauging the depth with a steel rule or some other measuring device. When
corroded surfaces are very rough, t i t holes through the vessel may be used to measure the wall thickness.
A variation on test holes is depth drilling. In this technique, small holes are drilled to a known depth (not
all the way through) in the new vessel wall, then plugged with corrosion resistant plugs to protect the
bottom of the hole from corrosion. During internal inspections the plugs are removed and depth readings are
taken. Any wall loss that has occurred is detected by the hole depth becoming more shallow than the
original reading.

Metnllurgical clrarige tests can be made using many of the same techniques descnied in mechanical
changes. Additional tests include hardness chemical spot, and magnetic tests. Portable hamess testers such
as the Brine11 will detect poor heat treahnenf carburization and other problems that involve a change in
hardness. Chemical tests to a small portion of a metal will reveal the type of metal to determine ifthe
wrong metal has been installed possibly during a pervious repair. Magnetic tests are used to determine i f a
material such as austenitic stainless steel; normally not magnetic, have become carhurized, which will allow
the austenitic stainless to become attracted to a magnet.

Testing
Hn~irrtrertestirrg used during visual inspection will reveal conditions such as; thin sectious, tightness of
bolts and rivets, cracks in linings, lack of bond in refractory and concrete linings. The hammer is also used
to remove scale for spot inspection. Hammer testing is an art leamed from experience and caution is
warranted whenever using this method. It is not smart to hammer on anything under pressure and
hammering on some piping systems can dislodge scale or debris and plug up a portion of the system such as
a catalyst bed.

28 1 1103 REV 12
Pressrrre andlor vacuum tests are performed when a vessel is first built and then applied after entering
service Zany serious problem has been disclosed, which brings into question the integrity of the vessel.
After major repair work, a pressure test is normally required. Some jurisdictions and company's policies
require tests on a time basis even if no repair work has been done. These types of tests offen involve raising
the internal pressure above normal operating pressure and the possibility of damage to the vessel &om the
test exists. Pressure tests should applied carefully by qualified personnel using calibrated gages with
positive control of the test equipment. The object is to reveal any problems, not to create one. Most of the
time these tests use water or some other fluid (hydrostatic) permitted by the Codes. During hydrostatic
testing of a vessel, pressure drop, leaks and deformation (bulging) in the vessel may be revealed. If the
vessel's supports can not hold the weight of the fluid or the vessel cannot tolerate contamination by the
testing fluid, a gas test (pneumatic) may be used. Pneumatic testing, by its nature, can be more dangerous
than hydrostatic testing. Caution is always advisable during a pneumatic tesf and it is normally the last
choice.

Vac~rrrr,rtests are conducted by creating a vacuum inside the vessel and obsening the vacuum gage for any
loss of vacuum that might occur. If the vacuum remains unchanged the assumption is made that no leak
exists.

Testing ternperatrrre can be very important with some pressure vessel materials due to the brittle
characteristics of these metals at low temperatures. The ASME recommends that the test temperature be at
least 30 OF above the minimum designmetal temperature to prevent the risk of brittle eacture. A brittle
fracture can be compared to glass breaking and shattering. For that reason every effort must be made to
prevent it. In combination with a pneumatic test and its stored energy; a brittle failure would be a
devastating bomb. For all materials, the general recommendation for test temperature is 70 OF minimum
and 120 OF maximum. For safely when conducting a pressure tesf no unnecessary personnel should be
allowed in the area until the test is complete. Pneumatic tests must follow a procedure described in the
ASME Code that raises the pressure in small steps with short stops at each step.

Pressrrre testing of erclrarrgers can be performed when they are first shut down and before bundle removal
in order detect any leaks that might have been present during recent service. If leaks are detected during the
initial tesf partial disassembly can be performed and the test pressure reapplied to locate the source of the
leaks. Heat exchangers may also be disassembled and cleaned, inspected, repaired ifneeded, then
reassembled and tested. If a leak is detected in the exchanger after re-assembly, disassembly will again be
required to repair the leak The method of testing an exchanger will depend on its design. Some can be
tested with their channel covers removed if of the fixed tube sheet design with the pressure applied to the
shell side. If a tube in the bundle is discovered to be leaking at other than the tube sheet roll, it may be
plugged with a tapered plug, which effectively removes that tube &om service. Ifthe leak is located where
the tube is rolled (expanded) into the tube sheef an attempt to re-roll the tube is usually made and the test
pressure reapplied. Often tube bundles are tested out of their shells if of the floating head desigu Leaks are
easily detected, but this approach requires a separate shell test. During pressure tests leaks in shells, tubes,
gasketed areas, and distortion are looked for in the exchanger parts.

Limits of tlrickness must be determined prior to inspection and must be known in order to perform an
effective inspection. The retiring thickness and the rate of deterioration are needed to determine the
appropriate action should a problem be uncovered during an inspection. The importance of inspection
records becomes obvious when it is required to make a decision whether to repair, replace, or just to
continue the operation of a vessel. If the retiring thickness is known prior to the inspection, a plan of action
in the event of excessive wall loss can be prearranged. Almost all vessels, when new, will contain excess
thicknesses above what are required by the Codes.

1 1103 REV 12
Section 11 Methods of Repair
Methods of repair to vessels should be reviewed to insure that they comply with any Codes or standards that
may apply. Several jurisdictions recognize the minimum repair techniques of the M I . Other jurisdictions
require that the repairs be made to the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors (NBBPVI),
National Board Inspection Code-23 (NBIC) and that the repair concern holds a valid R (Repair) Stamp
from the NBBPVI. In addition to using a concern holding the R Stamp an NBBPVI Repair form R-l may
also be required. In some instances, Insurance Carriers will require that the NBIC be followed and that an
NBIC Authorized Inspector in their employ approves the repair. Repairs made to vessels by welding will
require visual inspection as a minimum and may also involve various nondestructive examinations (NDE)
methods based on the severity of the repair and the original NDE used in the construction Code. Unless the
Inspector can accept a sound technical argument against requiring a pressure test after a major repair, one
should be applied. If the repair to a vessel involves cracks special preparation of repair area is required.
The major concern in crack repairs is the complete removal of the crack. Cracks may be removed by
chipping. flame, arc, or mechanical gouging. Any crack removal technique that uses high heat input to the
affected area can cause the crack to -mow.. so caution must be used with those techniaues. In cases where
~~~

many cracks are preseut ir is normally bener to replace the entire section of the material. Shallow cracks
may be removed by grinding using a blending melhod if the final thickness does not fall below the minimum
required.
Section 12 Records and Reports
Inspection records and reports are important and are required by most Codes and jurisdictions such as the
State, M I , and the NBBPVI NB-23. These reports are of three types: Basic Data, Field Notes, and
Continuous File. The basic data includes original manufacturer's drawings and data reports as well as
design information. Field notes are notes about and measurements of the equipment and may be written or
entered into a computer database. Usually field notes are in the form of rough records inspections and
repairs required. Continuous files include all information about a vessel's operating history, previous
inspection reports, corrosion rate tables (if any) and records of repairs and replacements. Copies of repom
containing the location, extent, and reasons for any repaiss should be sent to all management groups such as
Engineering, Operations, and Maintenance departments.
Appendix A Exchangers
Heat Exchangers are used to transfer heat from one gas or liquid to another gas or liquid without the two
fluids mixing. Heat exchangers fall into classes: condensers and coolers. A condenser has the effect of
changing a gas fluid to a liquid or partial liquid fluid and ordinarily uses water as the coolant. Coolers lower
the temperature of a fluid and may use water or another process fluid of a lower temperature as the coolant.
Sometimes air is used to lower the temperature of a fluid. The equipment is then referred to as an air cooler.
Shell and Tube-Bundle exchangers are made in several types. The tubes are installed into a tube sheet by
rolling (expanding) them into the tube sheet holes. In heat exchangers, a e r rolling tubes, the ends are
sometimes welded to the tube sheet for sealing purposes. In some cases the tubes are inserted into the tube
sheet and packing rings are installed to seal the area around the tube ends. The method of construction used
is dependent on the senice intended for the exchanger. There are four basic design types of shell and tube
heat exchangers. They are: One Fixed Tube Sheet with a Floating Head (the most common), Two Fixed
Tube Sheets, One Fixed Tube Sheet with U-Tubes, and Double Tube Sheet (used when even the slightest
leak cannot be allowed).
Re-boilers and Evaporators perform the opposite function of the condenser or cooler. They do what their
names imply boil and evaporate. In general they use steam, or a hotter fluid from a process to boil or
evaporate another fluid. The Re-boiler is normally used to boost heat back up to a desired level at some
intermediate step of a process stream.
Some Other types of heat exchangers include Exposed Bundle, Storage Tank Heaters, Pipe Coils (either
single or double pipe), Box-Type Heater Coils, and Plate-Type.

30 1 1/03 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
API RP 572 SECTIONS 1,2,3,4,5, and 6
Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 572 paragraph at the end of the question.

Quiz #4

1. Name three shapes ofpressure vessels. (572 4.1)

2. Describe multi-layer construction of a pressure vessel. (572 4.2)

3. When carbon steel will not resist corrosive fluids, what method of const~ctionis normally wed for such
a vessel7 (572 4.3)

4. Name four types of internal equipment found in pressure vessels. (572 4.4)

5. Prior to 1930, to what specifications was unfired pressure vessels built to in refineries? (572 5)

6. Why is it important to have access to previous editions ofthe ASME Codes7 (572 5)

7. A refinery inspector should be familiar with the latest editions of codes. What other items should he be
familiar with?. (572 6)

8. List the basic forms of deterioration. Name the effects these basic forms have. (572 8.1, through 8.2.10)

9. What is the most important factor in determining the inspection fiequency of a pressure vessel7 (572 9.1)

10. Why are occasional checks of operating pressures while equipment is in operation important? (572 9.2)

1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
API RP 572 SECTIONS 8.1 to 8.4.4
Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 572 paragraph at the end of the question.

Quiz #5

1. What should an inspector be aware ofbefore starting the inspection of a pressure vessel? (572 10.1)

2. Careful visual is important to determine what other types of inspections might be required. Name three
other types of inspection. (572 10.1)

3. Just before an inspection starts in a vessel, who else besides the safety man should be informed? (572
10.2.1)

4. Name five tools an inspector should have to perform an inspection. (572 10.2.2)

5. List at least six items that should be inspected on the external of a pressure vessel. (572 10.3 through
10.3.13)

6. Abrasive grit blasting, power wire brushing etc., are usually required under what conditions? (572
10.4.2)

7. If a vessel has had previous internal inspections, what should be done prior to your inspection? (572
10.4.3)

8. Where will most of cracks found in a pressure vessel be found? (572 10.4.3)

9. Why is a systematic procedure important when inspecting a pressure vessel? (572 10.4.4)

10. Under what operating conditions should weld seams in a pressure vessel be given special attention?
(572 10.4.4)

32 1 1/03 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
API Rl' 572 SECTIONS 8.4.5 to 8.5.2
Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 572 paragraph at the end of the question

Quiz 86

1. When examining linings, name the three most important conditions to check. (572 10.4.5)

2. Describe the spark tester method of inspecting nonmetallic linings. (572 10.4.6)

3. How may loose nonmetallic linings be found using a hammer? (572 10.4.6)

4. Where a corroded surface is very rough, what may be done to measure thickness? (572 10.4.7)

5. How may cracks he made to stand out from the surrounding areas being iospected? (572 10.4.8)

6. Who should make the decision to trepan metal from a vessel for metallurgical evaluation? (572 10.4.8)

7. How may carburized austenetic stainless steel sometimes he detected? (572 10.4.9)

8. What functions may an inspector's hammer serve? (572 10.5.1)

9. When testing a vessel pneumatically what should be on hand to aid in the visual exmination? (572
10.5.2)

10. If it is possible to use internal pressure to test a vacuum vessel, what advantage does that method offer?
(572 10.5.2)
API 5 10 MODULES
A P I R P 572 SECTIONS 8.5.3 to 10.2
Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 572 paragraph at the end ofthe question.

Quiz #7

1. Why is it desirable to leak test an exchanger before disassembly? (572 10.5.3)

2. If a given exchanger begins l e a h g for the first time in its senice life, what should be done? (572
10.5.3)

3. Before retiring a vessel, what should be consulted? (572 10.6)

4. Before taking credit for excess thickness found in a vessel when doing calculations for retirement or
rerating, what must also he considered? (572 10.6)

5. What documents should be consulted prior to any repair? (572 11

6. When shaU a pressure test be applied? (572 11)

7. Why should care be taken when arc gouging a crack before a welded repair? (572 11)

8. What must an inspector consider when recommending the filling of pits with an epoxy? (572 11)

9. What does the continuous file contain? (572 12.1)

10. Who should receive copies of all inspection reports? (572 12.2)

34 1 1103 REV 12
API 5 10 MODULES
API RP 572 APPENDIX A
Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 572 paragraph at the end of the question.

Quiz #8

1. Explain the difference between condensers, coolers and air coolers. (572 A.l)

2. Show by sketch what is meant by One Fired Tube Sheet with a Floating Head, Two Fired Tube
Slleels, One Fired Tube Sheet with U Tubes. (572 A.2.2,2.3,2.4)

3. When are Double Tube Sheet Exchangers used? (572 A.2.5)

4. Name two types ofwater heaters. (572 A.2.7)

5. What principle of cooling is used with exposed tube bundles?(A.3.2,3.3)

6. Name two types of Air-Cooled Exchangers. (572 A.5)

7. Describe the conshction of Double-Pipe coils. (572 A.6.2)

8. Where are Flat-Type Heater Coils found? (572 A.6.3.4)

9. Why is it important to inspect exchanger bundles when they are &st pulled from a shell? (572 A.9.1)

10. Name the likely locations for corrosion in exchangers. (572 A.9.2)

1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
API CHAPTER n
CONDITIONS CAUSING DETERIORATION OR FAILURES

Introduction

Cltapter IT Of the information contained in Chapter II,only knowledge that pertains to pressure vessels is
to be included in the examination. The coverage of Chapter I1will be limited to the required information in
the current Body of Knowledge.

Corrosion is a major source of expense in refinery and chemical plants. Many times a piece of equipment
will corrode its way into retirement as opposed to simply wearing out The three major groups of corrosion
are corrosive products in crude oils, corrosion from chemicals used or processed, and environmental
corrosion.

Corrosive cor~rporrerrtsfound in crude oil that cause the most metal loss in pressure vessels are thought to
be one or more of the following: Hydrogen chlorides and inorganic and organic chlorides, Hydrogen
sulfide, mercaptans, and organic sulfur compounds, Carbon Dioxide, Organic acids, and Nitrogen
compounds. Most of the above mentioned components attack the front end of a process system.

Crude oils contairr salt which can never be totally removed. The salt will generate various chemical
compounds when broken down in processing systems. Some of the compounds are: Hydrogen chloride and
Organic and Inorganic chlorides. Such things as Magnesium and Calcium chloride, when dissolved in
water and heated, attack the metal in the form of Hydrochloric acid which is very corrosive. This process is
called hydrolysis.

Hj~drogelrsulfide is believed to be the most active of the sulfur compounds in causing corrosion. Some
hydrogen sulfide is present in the crude oil, and more may be generated during the refining process.
Outside of corrosion, the most serious problems caused by Hydrogen Sulfide are blistering and
embrittlement
Carbon Dioxide, when combined with water, is corrosive. The water and carbon dioxide combine to form
carbonic acid. The water will usually be introduced fromtwo sources: the decomposition of bicarbonates
in or added to crude oil or fiom steam used to aid in distillation of crude oil.
Orgmic Acids, while not very corrosive at low temperatures, can be very corrosive at their boiling
temperatures. When organic acids have corroded carbon steel, a very smooth surface is left and metal loss
is not readily apparent during visual inspection.
Nitrogen Cor~~porrnds in crude oil alone will not cause corrosion; however, in catalytic cracking,
decomposition occurs and by-products of this decomposition form Ammonia and Cyanide. These two
chemicals, while not causing corrosion directly, contribute to it by breaking down a protective layer of scale
which has formed on the metal leaving the metal subject to Hydrogen Blistering and other problems
discussed in the above para~aphs.The Ammonia and Cyanide will directly cause pitting and worm-holing
type attack in copper and brasses.
Corrosive Materials added to tlrepracess add significantly to metal loss caused by corrodents already
present in the crude oil that is being refined. Chemicals commonly added in refining processes are Sulfuric
Acid and Hydrogen Fluoride, Phenol, Phosphoric Acid, Caustic (sodium hydroxide), Mercury, Ammonia,
Chlorine, and Aluminum.
AlQlotiorr Units utilize either Sulfuric Acid or Hydrofluoric Acid as a catalyst. Sulfuric Acid is the least
corrosive of the two chemicals and corrosion occurring in equipment using Sulfuric Acid may be very
erratic attacking particular points in the process stream. Sulfuric acid is generally l e s ~
corrosive at high
concentrations of 85 % or more. Hydrofluoric Acid is very corrosive to steel unless it is kept at
concentrations above 65% Hydrogen Fluoride.

36 1 1/03REV 12
Plterrol (carbolic acid) is used in the manufacture of lubricating oils and aromatic hydrocarbons. At
temperatures below 400 OF and without water present, carbon steel is usually not severely corroded by
Phenol. Above 400 OF, carbon steel may corrode rapidly in Phenol senice.

Pltospltoric Acid is used as a catalyst in polymerization units either in liquid or deposited as pentoxide on
clay pellets. Unless water concentrations are above a certain level, corrosion is rare fiom Phosphoric Acid.
When water is present in the required concentrations, Phosphoric Acid will attack carbon steel very
aggressively. Penetration of 114 in. carbon steel in 8 hours can occur.

Caustic is used primarily for neutralization of acids and grease manufacture. Caustic can be used and
stored in carbon steel vessels and is generally not corrosive as long as the vessel has been stress relieved
and temperatures are kept at a safe level. At temperatures above 200 OF, it uiu cause general corrosion in
carbon steel.

Mercury is found in instrumentation and can enter vessel by mishap. Ifthe mercury enters it will cause
stress corrosion attack in copper and monel.

Ammonia is used for refrigeration and neutralizing acids in plants. IfAmmonia is allowed to contact
copper-based alloys in pH ranges of 8.0 and above, severe corrosion as general metal loss occurs, and stress
corrosion cracking then occurs. Blue salt deposits on equipment are a clear indication of general corrosion
by Ammonia.

Clrlorirre is used to treat water for cooling towers and to manufacture Sodium Hypochlorite for treating oils.
If water is not present, Chlorine corrosion of carbon steel is minor.

Alurr~irrurrtCldoride, a catalyst, will not conkibute to corrosion as long as water is not present. It will
hydrolyze in water and form Hydrochloric Acid and cause severe pitting corrosion in carbon steel.
Austenitic stainless steel under the above conditions will be subject to intergmmular corrosion and stress
corrosion cracking.

Envirorrmerrtal Corrosion in refineries most commonly affects carbon steel. The water and oxygen present
in the amosphere will cause severe corrosion onunprotected carbon steel. This type of corrosion is usually
Galvanic and can be severe if water is allowed to penetrate insulation

Important Corrosiorr types include Intergranular, Graphitic corrosion of cast iron, Stress Corrosion
Cracking, Polythionic Acid, Dezincification, Galvanic, Contact Corrosion, and Biological Corrosion The
following paragraphs give a general definition to the various types of corrosion.

Intergranular Corrosion can occur in austenitic stainless steels when they are heated up to a range &om
750 OF to 1650 OF and cooled down. In the temperature range mentioned above, complex carbides are
formed of chrome and other elements which then migrate to grain boundaries leaving those areas lacking
the chrome which is intended to help resist corrosion. This loss of chrome is followed by corrosive attack
around grain boundaries, and Intergranular Corrosion occurs.

Graplritic Corrosion is the low-temperature corrosion of gray cast iron in which metallic iron is converted
into corrosion products, leaving the graphite intact.

Stress Corrosion Cracking is the spontaneous cracking of metals under the combined action of stress and
corrosion.

Polytltionic Corrosion is a result of iron sulfide scale reacting with oxygen and water. This normally
occurs at the time of shutdowns of vessels.

D e z i ~ r c ~ ~ c aist iaocorrosion
~~ that occurs when copper-zinc alloys containing less than 85% copper are
used in water service. It occurs in thee forms: plug, layer, and intercrystalline.

1 1103 REV 12
Galvarric Cormsiorr occurs between metals in contact with each other having different electrical potentials.
It is the same type chemical exchange found in a common wet or dry cell battery. An electrolyte must be
present for this b e of corrosion tobccur, and normally the electrolyte is water or acids.

Biological Corrosiorr is related to the presence of organisms (bugs) in a contact with a metal. They can be
fairly large (macro) or very small (micro) organisms. An example of a microorganism is a barnacle.
Examples of microorganisms are bacteria, slime, and fungi. One of the primary places that microorganism
biological corrosion is found is on underground piping in contact with soil. These organisms either produce
a corrosive, such as sulfuric acid £rom sulfur compounds, or they conkibute to the formation of an
electrolyte solution which speeds up contact or crevice corrosion.

Erosion of rrretals is found frequently in vessels and piping of refineries and chemical plants. It amounts to
a wearing away by the abrasive action of a moving stream of a liquid or gas. If solids are contained in the
gas or liquid, the erosion will be accelerated and could be compared to blasting with a water and sand
mixture.

The Effects of High Teorperatrrre orr Stre~igfhof a metal can result in the failure of the metal suddenly
(stress rupture) or slowly (creep).

Creep happens to metal held at high temperatures for long periods of time and is defined as the flow or
plastic deformation at stresses that would not cause metal flow at a lower temperature. It is based on time at
an elevated temperature and stress level.

Stress Rrrptwe is a brittle failure that gives very little warning, with little if any deformation, and is related
to stress at high temperature. It can be considered the end result of creep in some metals.

38 1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
API CHAPTER 11
Find the answers to these questions by using the stated Chapter II paragraph at the end of the question.

Quiz #9

1. Name the three major groups of corrosion types. (Chapter II 202)

2. Name six corrosive components of crude oil. (Chapter II 202.021)

3. What component do all crude oils contain? (Chapter Ll 202.022)

4. Where does Hydrogen Chloride evolve kom in a process stream? (Chapter II 202.022)

5. What is the definition of pH? (Chapter I1 202.022)

6. May Hydrogen Sulfide cause corrosion even at low temperature? If so, where can it be found? (202
Chapter II .023)

7. Where can Carbon Dioxide come &om in process streams? (Chapter II 202.024)

8. Name the corrosive materials added to processes. (Chapter II 202.023)

9. Above what concentration is Sulfiuic Acidnot very corrosive? (Chapter II 202.032)

10. Describe the following t p e s of corrosion: Intergranular, Polythionic Acid, Dezincilication, Galvanic,
Crevice Corrosion and Biological.( Chapter II 202.06)

1 1/03REV 12
API 510 MODULES
ASME Section VIII Div.1
PART UW -WELDING

Objectives

Student should understand and be capable of applying the following concepts:

A. Joint restrictions based on Service.

B. Joint Categories.

C. Joint Types.

D. Butt Joint Radiography Requirements.

E. Butt Joint Efficiencies.

F. Requirements for Post Weld Heat Treatment.

G. Application of Welded Repah.

40 1 1103 REV 12
Section 2

ASME Section V I I I Div. 1


API 510 MODULES
PART UW - WELDING

Introduction

Section Vm Division 1 has a system of identification for welds in vessels and vessel parts. This system
assigns Types to welds; the form of weld (double welded) determine its Type. The locations of welds in a
vessel or vessel part determine their Category. In some instances the Type will be mandatory based on
Category and Service. In other cases it will be optional; the designer makes a choice fiom the acceptable
Types. Radiography requirements also depend on Type, Service and Category.

The Code also assigns a way of measuring the quality of a butt joint, which is based on the Type, and extent
of radiography used.

Definitions

The following are definitions for use in Part UW. Doing calculatiom on shells, heads, nozzles and the like
will depend on knowing these d e ~ t i o n s .

Welded Joirrts
I
1. Comer Welded Joint (called a fillet weld in Section JX)

2. Butt Welded Joint

3. Type is the description of a welded joint. For example, a single-welded butt joint with backing that
remains in place.

Weld Catepories

4. Determination of Category for a joint depends on the location of the joint in a vessel or vessel part As
an example the circumferential seam j ' ' egory of weld.

I 1/03 REV 12
API 5 10 MODULESS
-
PART UW WELDING

UW-2 Service Restrictions

Service restrictions apply to four classes of vessels.

* Lethal Service
Service Below Certain Temperatures Given in UCS-68

Unfired Steam Boilers Exceeding 50 psi

Vessels or Parts Subject to Direct Firing

For determination of a Brrltjoird's service restrictions by Types (how made) and Categories (locations)
permitted in a vessel read UW-2.

Vessels used to contain lethal substances require that all major butt welded joints be fully radiographed
(with some exceptions for heat exchangers).

If they are Category A joints they must be of Type No. (1) of Table UW-12. If they are Category B joints
they nrrrst be of either Type No. (1) or Type No. (2). Similar restrictions apply to the other classes listed
above.

UW-3 Welded Joint Category

A quick reference system for specifying joint requirements is the assigning of categories by location; to
welds in a vessel. For instance for a vessel in lethal senice the Code requires that bunjoirrts be of a
speciEc Type based on their physical location in the vessel and that the butt welds be fully radiographed.

A statement like "All category A joints shall be Type No. (I)." is a short hand way of saying the following:

" All longitudinal welds within main shells, communicating chambers, transitions in diameter, or nozzles;
any welded joint within a sphere, within a formed head, or within the side plates of a flat sided vessel;
circumferential welded joints connecting hemispherical heads to main shells, to transitions in diameter, to
nozzles, or to communicating chambers shall be Type No. (I).".

As you read through the Code paragraphs think of how difficult it would be to restate a complete
description every time you fmd a speciiied requirement based on joint Category.

The best way to understand and thereby learn joint category is by the w e of graphics. Fig. UW-3 of
Paragraph UW-3 provides a brief graphical representation. An expanded use of graphics for each Category
follows.

42 1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULESS
-
PART UW WELDING

API 510 MODULESS


PART UW - WELDING

UW -3 Welded Joint Category


Case Study 1

The term "Category" as used here in d e h e s the location of a joint in a vessel, but not the type ofjoint.

UW-3(a)(l) Category A. Longitudinal welded join& witltirr the main shell, Communicating chambers,
transitions in diameter, or nozzles; any welded joint ~vitlrirra sphere, witbin a formed or flat head, or wifltirr
the side plates of a flat-sided vessel; circumferential welded joints connecting hemispherical heads to
main shells, to transitions in diameter, to nozzles, or to communicating chambers.

1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UW - WELDING

UW -3 Welded Joint Category


Case Study 2

Tile term "Category" as used here in defmes the location of a joint in a vessel, but not the fype ofjoirrt.

UW-3(a)(2) Cntegory B. Circumferential welded joints ivithirr the main shell, communicating chambers,
nozzles, or transitions in diameter including joints between the transition and a cylinder at either the large or
small end; circumferential welded joints connecting formed heads other than hemispherical to main shell,
to transitions in diameter, to nozzles or to communicating chambers.

44 1 1103 REV 12
AF'I 510 MODULESS
PART UW - WELDING

UW -3 Welded Joint Category


Case Study 3

The term "Category" as used here in defines the location of a joint in a vessel, brrt rrot the Qpe ofjoirrt.

UW-3(a)(3) Category C. Welded joints corrnectirrg flanges, Van Stone laps, tubesheets, or flat heads to
main shell, to formed heads, to hansitions in diameter, to nozzles, or communicating chambers; any welded
joint corrrrectirrg one side plate to another side plate of a flat sided vessel.

1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
-
PART UW WELDIh'G

UW -3 Welded Joint Category


Case Study 4

The term "Category" as used here in deiines the location of a joint in a vessel, but rrot the ope ofjoirrt.

UW-3(a)(3) Category D. Welded join* corrrrectirrg communicating chambers or nozzles, to main shell, to
spheres, to transitions in diameter, to heads, or to flat sided vessels, and those joints cortrrectirrgnozzles to
communicating chambers (for nozzles at the small end of a transition in diameter, see Category B).

Comm~nisalingCltambcr Communlcallng Chombcr

46 1 1103 REV 12
M I 510 MODULES
-
PART UW WELDING

UW -3 Welded Joint Category


Exercises

1. The category of a joint depends on:

a. What kind of weld was made: fillet or butt.


b. The process used to make the weld.
c. Whether it is vertical or horizontal in the vessel
d. None of the above.

2. A circumferential weld to attach a flange is what Category?

1 1/03 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UW -WELDING

UW-51 Radiographic and Radioscopic Examination of Welded Joints


Overview

In UW-51 the requirements for radiographic examination are detailed.


When perfoming radiography to Section VIII Div. 1 of the Code your are directed to Article 2 of Section V
for the techniques to be used. The following are highlights of the requirements:

1. A complete set of radiographs shall be kept on file until the final acceptance of the inspector.

2. Personnel performing and evaluating radiographs shall be qualified using SNT-TC-1A as a guideline for
written practices used in their qualification.

3. That paragraph T-285 of Article 2 is a guide only and that final acceptance of radiographs is based on
the ability to see the correct penetrameter's image and the specified hole or wire size as applies.

4. How repairs of defects shall be made in accordance with UW-35 and the techniques forre-inspecting the
weld after repair. The repair need not be radiographed if prior to the repair it has been demonstrated to
the inspector's satisfaction that Ultrasonic Testing can disclose the defect. In which case ullmsonics can
be use to examine the repair for acceptance.

5. That any indication on a radiographed cbaracterized as a crack or zone of incomplete fusion or


penetration is unacceptable.

6. That the limits of elongated indications are based on the materials thickness.

7. Those unacceptable aligned indications are based on total length of a group and the material's thickness.

UW-5 1 contains the unacceptable indications for Full Radiography. Also definitions of nominal
thicknesses for welded joints and weld repairs. Details of Spot Radiography are covered in UW-52.

48 11103 REV 12
API 5 I0 MODULES
-
PART UW WELDING

UW-52 Spot Examination of Welded Joints


Overview

Spot radiographs use the same techniques as those in UW-51, but of course are not for the full length of the
weld. The basis for selecting Spot radiography is the desire to use a joint efficiencythat will come from
Column B of table UW-12. The small print note above the subparagraphs explains the Code's intent for the
use of spot radiography. The following are higldights of the requirements for Spot Radiography.

1. One spot radiograph for every 50 ft of weld or fraction thereof for a joint efficiency from column b of
Table UVf-12.

2. A sufficient number of spots shall be radiographed to examine each welder or welding operator in the
5 0 4 increment. In the case where welders weld on opposite sides of the same weld one shot will serve
to examine both.

3. The inspector chooses the location of the spot radiography. If the inspector approves and cannot be
present the fabricator can then choose the location of the spot radiography. Notice that there is no
specific location; the welders should never be able to predict the inspector's choice of location.

4. The spot radiography used to pick a joint efficiency from column b of Table UW-12 will not satisfy the
requirements of other paragraph such as UW-11 (a)(5)@); a spot radiograph required for the choosing of
a joint efficiency from column A of Table 12.

5. Spot radiographs must follow the same rules as full radiographs for techniques. The minimum length of
the spot examined must be 6 inches.

6. Indications descnied as cracks or zones of incomplete fusion or lack ofpenetration are unacceptable.

7. Slag inclusion or cavity evaluation is based on the thickness of the weld excluding any weld
reinforcement (cap). The thickness is based on thinner member if two different thichess that have been
joined by a butt weld. Ifa fillet is welded over a full penekation weld its throat must included in the
thickness (t). Indications in a line are descnied with acceptance standards.

8. Rounded indications are not a factor in the acceptability of welds and are not required to be fully
radiographed.

9. When a spot radiograph is acceptable the entire weld increment represented is accepted For example if
a longitudinal weld has 65 feet of weld metal only the first 50 feet could be accepted by a single 6 inch
spot radiograph. The remaining 15 feet is represented in the next declared 50 feet increment.

10. If the first spot radiograph reveals welding that does not comply then two additional spots in the same
weld increment away from the first spot shall be radiographed (tracers). The choosing of the two spots
follows the same rule as the first spot radiograph.

11. Ifthe tracers pass then repair and radiography is allowed for the area that was rejected in the fist spot
radiograph.

12. If either of the tracers fail there are two options. Cut out the entire increment, re-weld then apply spot
radiography again or apply full radiography and repair all defects found

1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
-
PART UW WELDING

The spot radiography described above is not applied to any specific Categoly of weld. In a given 50 feet of
weld increment there may be Category A, B, C, and D butt welds. The inspector will choose the exact
location of the spot radiograph. In cases wbere spot radiography is a specsc requirement of another
paragraph of the Code the location for the spot radiograph is stated within that paragraph. The spot
radiography of UW-52 cannot serve double duty; it will not satisfy the spot radiography requirements of
any other paragraph. It allows the use of a joint efficiency fiom column B of Table UW-12 for all
categories of butt joints in that 50 feet increment. If the 50 feet increment were to stop in the middle of a
joint the efficiencyof that joint could not come £rom column B until the next 50 feet increment was spot
radiographed.

50 1 1/03 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UW - WELDING

UW-I I Radiographic and Ultrasonic Examination

The Code demands 100 % Quality Assurance for some butt-welds (Butt-Welds in Lethal Service are one
example). In other services, choices for level of Quality Assurance for buff-~ucldedjoints
canrange from
100 % down to 60 %.

The Quality of a buff-~veldedjoirrt determines its JointEfficieencj~in the Code. Joird Effieieng depends
on the Type ofbuttjoint and the amount of radiography applied. There are other Types ofjoints besides
butt-welded allowed in the Code. However they cannot produce Code acceptable radiographs. The term
"Joint Efficiency" is a hold over from the days of riveted vessels. More will be said about this in the
coverage of UW-12.

There are three levels of radiography per Code. Full, Spot and None. The Code demands Full RT in some
cases and allows Full RT, Spot RT or None in others.

UW-ll(a) Full Radiography specifies whenFull Radiography must be performed. There are five
instances sited.

1. Butt welds in the shell and heads of vessels used to contain a lethal substance.

2. When the least rro~rrinnltlrickrressat a butt weld exceeds a limiting thickness, which is based on the
type of material used in the vessel's welded construction.

3. Butt welds in the shells and heads of &ed steam boilers having an operating pressure greater than 50
psi.

4. Butt welds in nozzles, communicating chambers, etc. in (1) or (3) above affaclredto vessels sections or
lreads that exceed certain limits on thickness or diameter.

5. Categories A&D butt joints. Where full radiography is not mandatory; but desired to obtain a joint
efficiency from column A of Table UW-12. Spot radiography must also be applied to Category B and C
butt joints.

1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UW -WELDING

UW-I 1 Radiographic and LIhasonic Examination

UW-ll(b) Spot Radiography. The next option, i f f i r N radiogJ'aplrjris not rrinrihtoiy under 1 through 5
above, is spot radiography. This spot radiography can be applied to Category A, B, C, or D butt joints and
will allow a joint efficiency from Column B of Table UW-12.

UW-ll(c) No Radiography. If radiography is not mandatory under any Code requirements it may be
omitted for butt-welded joints. If this is the case the joint efficiency must come from Column C of Table
UW-12.

UW-11 contains the when and where for radiography and ultrasonic examinations. The effect of the degree
of radiography is reflected in paragraph UW-12 with a resulting Joint Efficiency " E . The "E"will be used
in the thickness required or pressure allowed calculations for shells, heads etc. The following pages contain
graphical representations of the UW-11.

UW-I 1 Radiographic and Ulnasonic Examination

The following welded joints shall be examined for their full length in a manner
(a) F~rNRadiog~'apIry.
prescribed in UW-51:

UW-I I (a)(l) All butt welds in the shells and heads of vessels used to contain lethal substances [see UW-
2(a)l;

pJW-2(a) S i t s Category A butt welds to Type 1 and Category B to Type 1 or 2 of Table lJW-121.

52 1 1/03 REV 12 Fast Track Technical Training


281-482-2253 - mnv.apiexnms.org
API 5 10 MODULES
PART UW - WELDING

UW-I 1 Radiographic and Ultrasonic Examination

(a) EirllRadiographj~.The following welded joints shall be examined for their full length in a manne~
prescnkd in UW-51:

UW -1 l(a)(2) All butt welds in which the least rrorrtinal thickrtess at the weldedjoirrt exceeds 1 112 in. or
exceeds the lesser thickness prescribed in UCS-57. Category B and C butt welds in nozzles and
communicating chambers that neither exceedNPS 10 nor 1 118 in. wall thickness do not require any
radiographic examination;

RT will change based on the P No. of the material used in construction.


See UCS-57, UNF-57 etc. for mandatory Full RT based on thickness.

1 1/03 REV 12
MI 510 MODULES
PART UW- WELDING

UW-1 I Radiographic and Ultrasonic Examination

(a) FUNRndiographj~.The following welded joints shall be examined for their 111length in a manner
prescribed inUW-51:

UW-1 l(a)(3) All butt welds in the shells and heads of unfired steam boilers having a design pressure
exceeding 50 psi. [see UW-2(c)];

p - 2 ( c ) limits Category A Butt Welds to Type 1 and Category B to Type 1 or 2 of Table UW-121.

UNFIRED STEAM BOILER PRESSURE MCEEDS 50 PSI

MUST HAVE NU RT

54 1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
-
PART UW WELDWG

UW-11 Radiographic and Ultrasonic Examination

(a) FUNRadiogrnplry. Tbe following welded joints shall be examined for their full length in a manner
prescribed in UW-51:

UW-11 (a)(4) All butt welds in nozzles and communicating chambers, etc., anaclred lo vessel sectio~rsor
Ireads that are required to be fully radiogaphed under (1) or(3) above; however, except as required by
UHT-57(a), Categories B and C butt welds in nozzles and communicating that neither exceedNPS 10 nor 1
118 in wall thickness do not require any radiographic examination;

1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UW -WELDING

UW-11 Radiographic and Ultrasonic Examination

(a) F~rNRadiograpl~j~The following welded joints shall be examined for their full length in a mame1
prescribed in UW-51:

UW-1 l(a)(5) All Category A and D butt welds in vessel sections and heads where the d e s i p of the joint or
part is based on joint efficiency by UW-12(a), in which case:

(a) Category A and B butt welds connecting the vessel sections or heads shall be of Type No. 1 or
Type No. 2 of Table UW-12;

@) Category B or C butt welds [but not including those in nozzles or communicating chambers
except as required in (2) above] which intersect the Category A butt welds in vessel sections or heads or
connect seamless vessel sections or heads shall, as a minimum, meet the requirements for spot radiography
in accordance with UW-52. Spot radiograph required by this paragraph shall not be used to satisfy the
spot radiogaphy mles as applied to any other weld increment.
n

spit RT
Typcl o r 2

Scamlcrs ElllpUel
hcnd scr UW-12 id1
M Twc 2 E = .90

56 1 1/03 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UW - WELDING

UW-I 1
Exercises

1. For a vessel in lethal service what butt joints must be radiographed in addition to all bun joints in the
shell and beads?

2. A joint efficiency from Column A of Table UW-12 is desired for a Category A butt joint in a shell, what
extent of radiography must be applied to this Category A butt joint? What additional requirement must be
met?

3. If the least nominal thickness of a bun joint in a vessel exceeds a certain thiclmess based on the material
used in its construction what amount of radiography must be applied?

4. Full radiography is required by UW-1 l(a)(2) may it be assumed that aN buttjoiuts have been fully
radiographed? Why or why not?

5. A vessel shell contains a Category A butt welded longitudinal joint and a Category D bun welded joint.
Must both of these be fully radiographed to use a joint efficiency from ColumnA of Table UW-127

1 1/03 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UW -WELDING

Allowable Stresses and Efficiencies


Overview

There is a relationship between efficiencies and stresses in the Code; that when understood, will allow
making calculations with more confidence. What is joint efficiency? What is stress?

STRESS

Stress as it relates to internal pressure on a vessel is a load in the vessel's material. Stress is measured in
pounds per square inch. Our examples use a material that will fail at 60,000 pounds per square inch.

Ultimate Stcess is the

58 1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UW - WELDING

Allowable Stresses and Efficiencies

The Code allows the working stress in a material to be only a fiaction of its Ultimate Stress. The term used
is Marimm~AllowableSlress. The Maximum Allowable Stress is about 28.5% of the Ultimate Stress for a
given material. In the first example above the material is loaded to only 28.5 % of the second example,
which failed at 60,000 pounds per square inch. The limiting of stress in the Code gives a safety factor of
about 3.5 to 1. This is under ideal conditions with no known flaws in the vessel's material. This of course
would be seamless material properly inspected or a welded material joined by a Code approved method and
N l y radiographed as required in the Code. Most vessels are constructed using welding and welding will
introduce flaws into the vessel material. How many and how bad are the flaws7 This is answered by the
use ofnondestructive examination, primarily visual and radiographic.

1 1103 REV 12
API 5 10 MODULES
PART UW - WELDING

Allowable Stresses and Efficiencies

The previous examples showed heavy weights causing a stress in tension in one square inch ofbar material.
In a pressure vessel the internal pressure causes the stress in tension. There will be a given amount of
pounds per square inch over an area that has the same total effect as the heavy weights and a resulting stress
is set up in the vessel's wall. This force wants to tear the vessel apart and must be resisted by the cross
sectional area of the vessel's wall.
The Code limits the amount of stress that can be applied to a vessel's material and this will limit the pressure
allowed or increase the thickness required. The stress in the material caused by the internal pressure is
given special concern when there is a welded joint present in the vessel's wall. The expected strength of the
material is known, but how sure can we be if there is a potential flaw contained in a weld or its heat affected
zone. Often the weld joint itself causes a change in the shape of what would otherwise be a uniform
cylinder; this will cause what is referred to as a stress raiser. It is safe to say any weld will cause a stress
riser to some extent.
The Code deals with these stress raisers in two ways; by limiting the stress allowed in the material and by
assigning joint efficiencies to welded joints and seamless components. The basis for the efficiency of a
welded joint is its Type and the amount of radiography it has received. The basis for a seamless component
is the amount of radiography any intersecting welds have received.
The assigning ofjoint efficiencies bas a definite effect on the thickness of a vessel or component. The
higher the efficiency allowed the thinner the material is required to be.
How Efficiency Affects the Construction of a Vessel
If a vessel material has an allowable stress of 15,000 pounds per square inch and bas a joint that allows an E
of .85 ( Type No. 1 Spot RT) the resulting thickness required will be more than that of seamless material;
so the E of .85 is a stress multiplier and causes the allowable stress on the material to be lowered which will
then drive up the required thicLess. More of the material is required because we are only 85% sure that the
welded material is as strong as seamless material or a Fully Radiographed Type No. 1 butt-welded joint.
S-ESS

SE = 15,000 psi x .85 = 12,750 psi. The stress allowed in the calculation for thickness is now 12,750 psi
and will result in the need for a thicker material in the vessel's construction.
Welding is costly and the thicker the material the more costly both become. Radiography bas a cost and a
benefit. The direct cost is the cost of performing radiography.
- . The~ indirect cost is the cost of repairing the
rejectable conditions revealed by radibgraphy. The benefit is the use of thinner material resulting in lower
material and weldimg cost. Under certain conditions Full Radiography is required and the costs will be
unavoidable.
TEE RT AFFECTS THE E WHICH IN TURN AFFECTS THE t.

60 1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UW - WELDING

UW-12 Joint Efficiencies

The term joint efficiency as used in the Code is a really a way of stating how close too in strength; after
joining; the joint is to an equivalent seamless piece. The best available weldjoint obtained by the arc or
gas-welding process is a Type No. 1 that has been fully radiographed. A Type No. 1 fully radiographed
butt-welded joint results in a part with a joint efficiency of 1.0. It may be considered as being as strong as a
solid piece of the same material. Welded tension tests coupons normally fail in the base metal.

UW-12 states that the joint efficiency depends only on the type ofjoint and the degree of examination of the
joint The resulting joint efficiency shall be as given in Table UW-12.

The term Joint Efficiency as used today is really a measure of the quality of a joint. The term dates back to
the days of riveted vessels and was a measure of how closely a particular riveted joint approached the
strength of a seamless piece. Some believe that the term Joint Efficiency should be replaced with the term
Quality Factor because it would be more reflective of what is really being determined by the modern Codes.
After debate the Code Committee decided to leave things, as they were in order not to create confusion in
industry. The following graphics will help in understanding the concept

In the case of a riveted shell a hue circle could never be accomplished due to the natural offset in alignment
Still the term joint efficiency has hung on. Riveted construction was eliminated fiom the Code after 1971.
As before we will utilize graphics to help in understanding joint efficiencies. Modified Table UW-12 which
follows with its graphics will explain joint types and the limitr of radiography.

1 1/03 REV 12
MODIFIED TABLE UW-12
Type l-Cat. A,B,C,&D [ButtJoints as attained by
or by other
le Full RT Spot RT
!.
acking strip if used must be E = 1.0 E = .85

--
Single-welded butt joint with
backing strip which remains in
place after welding is completed.
Limitations apply see table UW-
-em--"
12.

--
rype 3. Cat. A,B,&C Single-welded butt joint withou~
t
the use of a backing strip.
Limitations apply see table UW- RT RT
12. Not Not
Applicable Applicable

--
F.imitations apply see table UW- RT
Not
Applicable
RT
Not
Applicable

--
'ype 5. Cat. B&C Single-full fillet lap joint with
plug welds. RT RT
Limitations apply see table UR7- Not Not
12. 4pplicable Applicable

-
ype 6. Cat. A&B Single full fillet lap joint
without plug welds. Limitations RT RT
apply see table UW-12. Not Not
I%pplicable Applicable

62 1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
-
PART UW WELDING

UW-12 Joint Efficiencies

Table LJW-12 lists the joint efficiencies E to be used in the formulas when calculating the required thiclmess
or allowed pressure on vessel components such as heads or shells. ParagraphUW-12 must he nnderstood
to correctly apply Table UW-12.

UW-12(a): A value of E not greater than that given in column (a) of Table UW-12 shall be used in the
design calculations for fully radiographed butt joints, except that when the requirements of UW-ll(a)(5) are
not met the a value of E not greater than in column @) of table UW- 12 shall be used.

Translation: Category A, B, C and D buttjoints in shells or heads; must be fully radiographed in order to
take an E of 1.0 for Type 1 or .90 for Type 2 joints when doing calculations. For Category A&D in shells;
the additional Spot RT described in UW-1 I (a)(5)@) must be applied to irrtersecting category B and C
butt joints. This means; if a longitudinal butt joint (Category A) in a shell has had Full RT you cannot take
a joint E 6om Column A until you perform Spot RT on the Category A (Hemi beads only), B or C girth
joints (as applies) following the d e s of UW-52.

UW-52 states that at least one 6" shot will be performed every 50' of weld metal and will inspect the work
of every welder in that increment More than one 6" shot will be required if all welders are not checked in
the one radiograph.

If the SpotRT were notperfor~nedthe long joint's E would come from Column B (35 for a Type 1 or
.80 for a Type 2). The E used in calculations for the seamless elliptical head above is addressed in UW-
12(d).

1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UW - WELDING

UW-12 Joint Efficiencies

UW-12(b): A value of E not greater than that given in column @) of Table UW-12 shall be used in the
design calculations for spot radiographed butt welded joints [see UW-1 I@)].

Translation: Ifa joint efficiency fiom column b can be lived with and the Code does not require Full
radiography, Spot RT can be used. Spot RT can be specified for the entire vessel per UW-1 I@), if it is,
the rules of UW-52 must be followed This means one 6 inch radiograph every 50 feet of weld metal;
which must show the work of every welder or welding operator who has welded in the 50 foot increment. If'
two welders weld for instance; on opposite sides of a 50 foot weld one shot will do to prove both welders.

Notice this Spot RT differs fiom that of UW-1 l(a)(j)@). UW-l l(a)(S)@) is applied to circumferential
joints only (B, C or an A that joins a Hemi hd). This RT may be applied to either longitudinal or
circumferential joints or their intersections if so chosen by the inspector per UW-52@)(3).

The above example has 100 feet of weld total. All the welders are in the radiographs. Everybody got their
picture taken This vessel would be marked RT 3. Individual joints can be chosen for Spot RT and a joint
efficiency from column b used for that component or joint. If that is done the marking becomes RT 4. All
of this assumes Full RT is not mandatory.

64 11/03 REV 12
API 5 I0 MODULES
PART UW - WELDING

UW-12 Joint Efficiencies

UW-12(c): A value of E not greater than that given in column (c) of Table UW-12 shall be used in design
calculations for welded joints that are neither fully radiographed nor spot radiographed [see UW-1 l(c) 1.

Translation: If no radiography is performed all joint efficiencies come straight &om Table UW-12 column
(c) based on the t)?le ofjoint used.
Of course this is not an option if Full RT is required by Code.

The seamless elliptical head calculations in the above example would require an E of 3 5 . This is per UW-
12(d). As you will see in UW-12(d) seamless components are special cases.

UW-12(d): Seamless vessel sections and heads shall be considered equivalent to welded parts of the same
geomehy in which all Category A welds are Type No. 1. For calculations involving circumferential stress
in seamless vessel sections or for thickness of seamless heads E = 1.0 when the spot radiography
requirements of UW-ll(a)(5)@) are met. E = .85 when the spot radiogaphy requirements are not met, or
when the Category A or B welds connecting seamless vessel sections or heads are Type No. 3,4,5, or 6 of
Table UW-12.

Type No. 3 , 4 , 5 and 6 joints will not produce inte~pretableradiographs per the ASME Code. Therefore the
E used to calculate a seamless component using one of these Types must be taken as .85 by default.

1 1103 REV 12
API 5 10 MODULES
PART UW -WELDING

UW-12 Joint Efficiencies

Translation: UW-12 (d) requires the same action as UW-12(a) except that the shell or head does not have
Category A joints. The exception is a seamless hemispherical head without a flange. When welded on a
shell it will have a Category A joint and therefore can never be seamless. In the part of UW-12(d) that says
"shall be considered equivalent to welded parts of the same geometry in which dl Category A welds are
Type No. 1" what it is implied but not directly stated, is that full radiography of the Category A Type 1
welds is required to make the two equals.
Scsmcd Elllpllvl Hd Sm.mb@rEllipllcsl Hd
Type Nm. 1 Full RT

= E 3
Scarncd S h c l l T n e Wo.1 Isamlc.. Shcll
Full RT

When any of the above examples is joined to another component by a Type 1 or 2 joint then the Spot RT of
UW-1 l(a)(5)(b) must be performed to allow an E of 1.0 in their calculations. Examples: Categories, A
(Hemi head) or B (head with skirt) or When any of the above examples is joined to another component by a
C (weld neck ).

66 1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UW - WELDING

Determination Of Joint Efficiencies

The most confusing part of doing Code calculation is the picking of a joint efficiency. The temptation to go
straight to Table UW-12 and use one of the efficiencies listed there is automatic. That is a hit and miss
proposition and will only on occasion yield the proper Joint E. First of all, the E has a double meaning that
is not readily apparent. E in one sense applies to the welded joints and in the second it applies to a seamless
component such as a seamless head or shell. There are three main types of stresses acting on a pressure
vessel that are of concern.

1. The Circumferential Stress on shells (also called Hoop Stress).

2. The Longitudinal Stress on shells.

3. Stress In heads.

Circumferential stress applies s ts to spht a shell along its


length and is often referred to as Hoop Si~ess.The shell may be seamless or may contain longtudinal
seams. In elther case failure in the circumference will usually occur similar to that shown in the drawing
above. A Code calculation is required to determine the thickness required or pressure allowed on the shell
for circumferential stress.

There are two possible cases for a vessel's circumferential stress calculation with a single shell come. The
shell is seamless or it has a longrgrhldinalseam. The UG-27 circumferential formulas are used for
calculation of thickness required or pressure allowed in both cases. The difference between the two
conditions is in how the E is picked for use in the calculation. We will examine the two separately.

1 1/03 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UW - WELDWG

Circumferential Stress / Seamless Shell

E = 1.0 when the spot radiography of UW-1 l(a)(j)(h) Iuzs been applied to the circumferential joint. This is
per UW-12(d).

E = .85 when the spot radiography of UW-1 l(a)(5)@) has not been applied to the circumferential joint.
This is per UW-12(d).

For a seamless shell course there are only nvo possibilities for the E when doing Hoop Stress Calculations.

The E used for the calculation of a vessel with a butt welded longitudinal joint (seam) depends on several
factors.

1. What type ofbutt joint has been used to make the long joint?
(Per Table UW-12 limitations only two are allowed)
a. Type No. 1
or
b. Type No. 2

2. What is the exTent of radiography on the long joint?


a. Full
b. Spot
c. None

3. Has the spot radiography of UW-1 l(a)(5)@) been applied to


any intersecting Category A, B or C welds?

There are many combinations which can be made fromthe factors above, all resulting in different joint
efficiencies. Examples of a few problems should help in the understanding of the other situations. In the
following examples all vessels have less than 50 linear feet of welds total and were made by the same
welder.

68 1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
-
PART UW WELDING

Shells

Example A: Shell course with a Type No. 1 longitudinal seam that has been fully radiographed The vessel
has ellipsoidal heads on both ends and the Spot RT of UW-1 l(a)(5)@) Itas been applied.

Fully radiographing the Type No. 1 Category A longitudinal seam artdperfor~rtirtgthe Spot RT of UW-
1l(a)(5)@) allows the use of an E from column A of Table UW-12. The E from Column A , for a Type
No. 1 is 1.0 This is in agreement with Paragraph UW-12(a).

Example B: Shell course with a Type No. 2 longitudinal seam that has been fully radiographed. The vessel
has ellipsoidal heads on both ends and the Spot RT of UW-1 l(a)(5)@) has been applied.

Fully radiographing the Type No. 2 Category A longitudinal seam andperfor~nirrgthe Spot RT of UW-
1l(a)(S)@) allows the use of an E from column A of Table UW-12. The E from Column A , for a T p e
No. 2 is .90. This is also in agreement with Paragraph UW-12(a).

1 1/03 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UW -WELDING

Shells

Example C: Shell course with a Type No. 1 longitudinal seam that has been fully radiographed. The vessel
has ellipsoidal beads on both ends and the Spot RT of UW-I l(a)(5)@) has not been applied.

Fully radiographing the Type No. 1 Category A longitudinal seambuf rtotperforrrrirrg the Spot RT off -
1l(a)(5)(b) requires the use of an E from column B of Table UW-12. The E from Column B , for a Type
No. 1 is .85. This is in agreement with Paragraph UW-12(a).
Example D: Shell course with a Type No. 2 longitudinal seam that has been fully radiographed. The vessel
has ellipsoidal heads on both ends and the Spot RT of UW-I I(a)(S)@) has not been applied.

Fully radiographing the Type No. 2 Category A longitudinal seam but notperforrri~~gthe Spot RT of UW-
l l(a)(5)(b) requires the use of an E from column B of Table UW-12. The E from Column B , for a Type
No. 2 is 30.This is also in agreement withParagraphUW-12(a).
The conclusion drawn from examples C and D above is that applying 111radiography to the longitudinal
joint offers no benefit unless accompanied by the Spot RT of UW-1 l(a)(5)@). The Type No.1 joint E of
example C is the same as if it was only Spot Radiographed since it's E must come from Column B of Table
UW-12. This is also the case for the Type No. 2 of example D. These joints would have the same joint E if
they had been spot radiographed. Full Radiography was a waste. The Code does this to discourage more
than one level of radiography between butt welded joints. It is unlikely you will ever see actual cases like
examples C and D.
LONGITUDINAL STRESS / CIRCUMFERENTL4L JOINTS

At this point we will begin discussing the Longitudinal Stress that causes stress around vessel walls and in
Circumferential Joints. Commonly referred to as the girth.

a
L
Dl
Longitudinal stresses tend to tear the vessel into two pieces, separate shell courses or pop off the head. This
is the second calculation required for a shell.
For our examples we will use a vessel with two shell courses and ellipsoidal heads on both ends. Keep in
mind that we are calculating the stresses on Circurtrfere~~tial Joints (Girth Joints) ; those which are affected
by longitudinal stress. Longitudinal stress rarely determines the required thickness or allowed pressure on a
shell. The reason is ; the stress created by internal pressure in the longitudinal direction is only half that of
in the circumferential direction. Normally circumferentialstress govern and determines the required
thickness or pressure allowed for a shell. The Joint Efficiency for these Categories of butt welds may be
taken directly from Table UW-12 based on their Type. Radiography applies when they are of Type No. 1
or Type No. 2. RT does not apply to Types 3, 4,5 and 6.
70 1 1/03 REV 12
g -
API 510 MODULES
-
PART UW WELDING

Shells

Example A: Two seamless shell courses closed uith ellipsoidal heads without radiography applied to
circumferential Type No.1 butt joints. The E used for Iorrgitudirral stress calculations of both shell courses
is .70.

Example B: Two seamless shell courses closed with ellipsoidal heads with spot radiography applied to
circumferential Type No.1 butt joints. The E used for the calculations of both the shell courses is .85.

Example C: Two seamless shell courses closed with ellipsoidal heads with full radiography applied to
circumferential Type No.1 butt joints. The E used for the calculations ofboth the shell courses is 1.O .

If the above vessels had been made using Type No. 2 joints the joint efficiencies would be .65,.80 and .90
respectively based on the same radiography.

1 1103 REV 12
API 5 10 MODULES
PART UW - WELDING

Stress InHeads

The last E to consider is the one used to calculate thickness required or pressure allowed for formed and
forged heads. Internal pressure creates stress that acts to rupture the waUs of heads.

Each kind ofhead bas a Code formula for its calculations. Two classes of heads are joined to vessels by
circumferential joints. One class is joined to the shell with a Category B or C circumferential butt joint;
these are heads that have a flange. Some examples are Torispherical, Ellipsoidal and forged Flat heads.
Forged Flat heads are joined by Category C circumferential joints and are treated the ssam for deterruining
their E as the other two. The other class is joined to the shell with a Category A butt joint; it is a
Hemispherical head with out a flange.
The fust examples have ellipsoidal heads that may be joined to the shell using a Type No. 1 or Type No. 2
ioint. It is also representative of a torispherical head since both have a flange
- (skirt).
. . The ellipsoidal head
forms a ~ a t e ~ ojointry~ with the shelland is seamless.

The second examples have formed hemispherical heads without a flange. The joint formed by the
attachment of the hemispherical head to the shell is a circumferential Category A. Hemispherical heads
may b e joined using either a Type No. 1 or a Type No. 2 joint provided no service resbiction i?ornUW-2
applies. If a service restriction applies the Category A butt joint must be of Type No. 1. The shell used in
all examples is over 24 inches in O.D. and over 518 inch thick. Per Table UW-12 only Type No.1 or Type
No. 2 joints are allowed for these conditions. When seamless heads, that have a flange (skirt), are attacbed
to shells a Catego~yB joint is created. This Category B joint will have a joint efficiency based on its Type
and the amount of radiogaphy that was applied

Stress In Heads
This joint efficiency will not be rised in the calculation of the head's required thickness or its pressure
allowed. This E is used in the longitudinal stress calculations for the slrell. The Category B joint may be
thought of as belonging to the shell. For a seamless head which is joined bj?a Category B butt joint there
are only two possibilities for the E used in the head calculations. The E used will either be 1.0 or 35. The
E is determined based on the requirements of UW-12(d). The question then becomes has Spot RT been
applied to the Category B butt joint. If it has the E is 1.0. If it has not the E is .85.
Example A: Category B butt joint of Type No. 1 or Type No. 2 has rrot received Spot RT. E = .8S for the
head's thickness or pressure calculation. The shell's longitudinal stress calculation E will be .70 or .65
depending on which Type of joint was used.

Example B: Category B butt joint of Type No. 1 or Type No. 2 has received Spot RT. E = 1.0 for the
head's thickness or pressure calculation. The shell's longitudinal stress calculation E will be.85 or .80
depending on which Type of joint was used.

w-om" -;
"S&nE.U C

72 I 1/03REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UW - WELDING

Heads

The last case to consider for seamless heads that form a Category B or C joint with a shell is when the joint
is of Type No.3, 4, 5 or 6 of Table UW-12. Since these types are not considered radiographicable by the
Code the Spot RT cannot be applied. UW-12(d) states that the head under this condition shall always be
calculated using E = .85. The shell's longitudinal calculations would use an E based on the Type No. of the
joint and this E would then come directly *om Table UW-12.

The most common mistake in the calculation of seamless heads attached by Category B joints is the
use of the E found in table UW-12 based on the ope ofjoint.

That E belongs in Longitudinal shell calculations. The E used for the seamless head is based only on the
application of Spot RT. If Spot RT has not or cannot be performed ( as is the case for Types 3,4,5, or 6)
an E of .85 shall be used. If it can and has E = 1.0. END OF STORY. Until they change the Code again!

The last formed head of concern is the Hemispherical. A hemispherical head formed &om a solid piece of
plate without a flange is only seamless as long as it is lying on the shop floor; when welded to another
component such a s a shell it now has a Category A joint. Read UW-3(a)(l) again to cob this statement.
The Category A joint formed after welding to a shell belongs to the hemispherical head. The rules
regarding seamless shells and heads in UW-12(d) specify that the spot radiography of UW-ll(a)(5)@) must
be applied to use an E of 1.0 for a seamless head's thiclmess or a shell's circumferential stress calculation.
Since our hemispherical head will always have a Category A joint (seam) the conditions of UW-12(d) do
not apply. The bottom line is; that a formed hemispherical head without a flange can never he seamless.
Spot radiography on the Category A joint does have a use ifthe hemispherical head is welded to a seamless
shell or to a shell in which all Category AgrD butt joints have been fully radiographed.. The shell's
circumferential stress could then be calculated using an E of 1.0 .

AlTENT1ON - ATENTION I
HEMISPHERICAL HEADS ONLY CONTAIN CATEGORY A JOINTS.

1 1103 REV 1 2
API 510 MODULES
PART UW -WELDING

Heads

The following examples will use a formed hemispherical head and a seamless shell.

Example A: Seamless shell course with a hem'spherical head. Spot RT has not beet) applied. The
Category A joint may he a Type No.] or a Type No. 2 of Table UW-12. E = .65 or .70 .

Example B: Seamless shell course with a hemispherical head. Spot RT 11asbeen applied. The Category A
joint may be a Type No.] or a Type No. 2 of Table UW-12. E = 2.0 or .85 .

Example C: Seamless shell course with a hemispherical head. Full RT has been applied. The Category A
joint may be a Type No.] or a Type No. 2 of Table UW-12. E =.90 or 1.0.

74 1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
-
PART UW WELDING

Summary Of Part UW

The main points of Part UW for the MI Exam are the following:

1. Service Restrictions apply only to certain vess'els.

2. Joim category is based on where in a vessel a joint is located.

3. Tfle ofjoint is based on how the joint was fabricated.

4. There are three different applications for Efficiency

A. Longitrrdinal Joint E, the only Joint E used for calcnlations


in the Exam.

B. Circrimfererrtial JoirrtE, not used for calculations in the


Exam but often mistakenly used with seamless components.

C. Searrrless Con~ponerrtE(Heads, Shells and Nozzles).


or their equivalent components which have had full RT applied
to a l l of their Category A and D Type No. 1 butt joints.

The Spot RT descnied in UW-ll(a)(S)(b) is used for Seamless or equivalent components. This spot
radiography is different than applying spot radiography to the entire vessel. Typically Exam problems will
be stated in this manner 'A seamless torispherical head is being replaced due to corrosion. The head has an
O.D. of 60 inches and is joined by a Type No. 1 joint. UW-1 l(a)(5)@) has been applied '. The statement
that UFV-ll(a)(S)(b) has been applied will be the only thing you need to determine the E to use in the
head's calculation. This can also be stared as the vessel's Data plate is stamped RT 2. RT markings and
their meanings will be ehplained in the coverage of P a r a p p h UG-I 16 REQUIRED MARKING. Thls \\ill
also serve as~areview of &agmPhs UW-I 1 i d UW-12.

1 1/03 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UW - WELDING

Exercises UW-12 #1

Determine the efficiencies for calculation of the following vessel parts.

1. Seamless Shell Circ. Stress Calculations E =


2. Seamless Shell Long. Stress Calculations E =
3. Hemispherical Head Calculations E =
4. Seamless Ellipsoidal Head Calculations E =
5. Seamless Torispherical Head Calculations E =
6. Seamless Communicating Chamber Circ. Stress Calculations E =
7. Seamless Communicating Chamber Long. Stress Calculations E =

76 1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UW -WELDING

Exercises UW-12 #2

1. Seamed Shell Circ. Stress Calculations E =


2. Seamed Shell Long. Stress Calculations E =
3. Hemispherical Head Calculations E =
4. Seamless Ellipsoidal Head Calculations E =
5. Seamless Torispherical Head Calculations E =
6. Seamless Communicating Chamber Circ. Stcess Calculations E =
7. Seamless Communicating Chamber Long. Stress Calculations E =

11/03 REV 12
API 5 10 MODULES
-
PART UW WELDING

UW -40 Procedures for Postweld Heat Treatment

Paragraph UW-40 gives the particulars of postweld heat treatment required in the applicable part in Sub-
section C. This paragraph lists the methods that are acceptable to the Code. For instance, UW-40 (a)(l)
says that heating the vessel as a whole in an enclosed fumace is preferable and should be used ifpractical.

Heating the vessel in more than one heat in a furnace can be done, but an overlap of the heated sections
shall be at least five (5) feet. Also, the portion outside the furnace shall be shielded. Vessels can be heat
treated as sections, joined then locally heat treated at the circderential joints.

Heat can be applied internally and the vessel externally insulated as long as the given considerations are
met. The minimum temperatures for post-weld heat treatments are given in Table UCS-56.

It must be remembered that this paragraph applies to the vessel in a shop new construction setting. The
banding described here must be applied all the way around the vessel and include any nozzle's welds and
the like.

The API 510 allows the use of Local Post Weld Heat Treatment that does not require the entire
circumference of the vessel be included in the heat treatment. This of course is aimed at field repairs. In I

the API 510 Code the procedure is required to be reviewed by a q M e d engineer. There should be
preheat applied in accordance with the material of construction. A distance of not less than two times the
base metal thickness on each side of a welded repair is required to be locally post weld heat treated; it must
include any nozzles or attachment welds in the local postweld heat treatment area. A suitable number of
thermocouples (at least two) shall be nsed to monitor the temperature during treatment.

UCS-56 Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment

In the beginning of this paragraph it is stipulated that before applying the content of the paragraph
satisfactory weld procedure qualifications of the procedures to be nsed shall be performed in accordance
with Section IX.included a& the requirements f i r the condition of postweld heat treaiment or lack there of,
in the weld procedure.

The exemption given in tables UCS-56 and UCS-56.1 are not permitted under some circumstances. If post
weld heat treatment is a service requirement as set forth in UCS-68 or welding is being done on femtic
materials greater than 118" thick by the electron beam process are two examples.

Maximum fumace temperature at the time vessel or part is placed in it shall not exceed 800 OF. The rate at
which the heating shall be increased is specified. Variation in the part temperature shall be held at or above
the specified temperature for the period of time given in Table UCS-56 or UCS-56.1. The furnace design
cannot allow the flames to touch the part or vessel. The fumace must be cooled at a given rate.

The next important aspect is welded repairs. Here repairs performed on P-NO 1 Groups Nos., 1,2, and 3
materials and P-No 3 Groups Nos., 1, 2, and 3 materials and weld memls used to join these materials may
be made after final PWHT, but prior to final hydrostatic test, without additional PWHT, provided PWHT is
not a service requirement.

The depth of the repair based on the material P-number is restricted, non-destructive testing after removal of
the defect is required. An approved welding procedure is required and the repair must be made using the
shielded metal arc process with low hydrogen electrodes. The electrodes must be properly handled and the
weave head used is restricted to four electrode core diameters. There are two repair techniques described.
One method for P-1 materials. The second method can be used for P-No 1 or P-No 3 materials restricted to
the stated group Nos. P-No 3 materials can only be repaired using the Half Bead weld repair and Weld
Temper Bead reinforcement technique. The description of this procedure is alnrost identical to the one in
the API 510 Code. Preheats temperatures and preheat maintenance times are some what different
78 1 1/03 REV 12
PART UG
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Objectives

Student should understand and be capable of applying the followhg concepts.

A. Calculate the required thichess or pressure allowed on cylindrical shells using formulas based on inside
or outside radius (Part MAIW).

B. Calculate the thichess required or pressure allowed for 2 to 1 Ellipsoidal, Standard Torispherical and
Hemispherical heads (Part MAIW).

C. Calculate the thichess required for Circular Unstayed Flat heads (Part AL4 N T ) .

D. Calculate the Thickness of Shells and Tubes Under External Pressure.

E. Detelmine Maximum Allowable Working Pressure for a Vessel.

F. Calculate Hydrostatic and Pneumatic Test pressures. Describe Procedures for Tests

G. Size Fillet Welds at Openings,

H. Determine if Reinforcement of an Openings is required.

I. Requirements for Name Plates and their markings.

3. Requirements for Material Identification and Inspection.

K. Types of Data Reports. Information contained in Data Reports.

80 1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells

PROOF OF THE FORMULAS BEING EQUIVALENT

Example 1. Given a cylindrical vessel shell with the following variables, solve for pressure allowed in the
cylinder using both formulas.

P=?
t = 0.500"
S = 15,000 psi
E=1.0
R = 18.0"
% = 18.Y4

SEt 15,000xl.O~0.500 7500


AppI(1-1) P=-= = -= 409.8 psi
R.-0.4t 18.5-(0.4x0.500) 18.3

If calculations for a thickness required are being made the same approach may be taken. The next step in
this instruction will he to apply cases where this is an appropriate option. Our next example will deal with
corrosion.

Example 2. A cylindrical vessel shell has been found to have a minimum thickness of ,353". Its original
thiclness was ,375". May this vessel remain in service given the following variables?

P = 300 psi
t = 0.353"
S = 13,800 psi
E= 35
R = 12.0" + (.375-,353) = 12.022 This adjusts is for the corroded inside radius
%=12.0" + 0.375 (orig, t) =12.375" Tlfisfitdsthe origir~aloutside radius

1 1103 REV 12
API 5 I0 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-27 Intemal Pressure Cylindrical Shells

Case 1. Inside Radius for pressure allowed using UG-27(c)(l).

Case 2. Outside Radius for pressure allowed using App: 1 (1-1)

SEt - 13,800x.85 x.353 4140.69 -338,46psi


Appl(1-1) P=-- =--
R.- 0.4t 12.375-(0.4x.353) 12.2338

ANSWER: YES
338.46 psi > 300 psi

Important adjustments must be made for both approaches. The case of inside radius requires an increase of
the inside radius due to corrosion. If the outside radius is not given, the original thickness must be added to
the original inside radius to determine the outside radius; but the thickness used in the pressure allowed
calculation of App:l (1-1) must be the existing thickness given in the stated problem As can be seen from
the above examples either method yields the same results as long as the rules are followed properly. The
method you use is a matter of personal preference. These adjustments, along with others such as static
head, add to the difficulty of otherwise simple arithmetic. In every case, carell work is a requirement for
successful calculations.

As a check on the calculations for pressure allowed, calculations for tbiclmess required can be performed.
Our next examples are used to determine if the vessel may operate at the 300 psi desired and be in
compliance with the Code.

82 1 1/03 REV 12
AP1510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-27 Intemal Pressure Cylindrical Shells

Example 3. Using the same variables as Example 2. above, calculate the thickness required for the shell
using 300 psi.

Case 1. Inside Radius for thickness required using UG-27(c)(l).

Case 2. Outside Radius for thickness using App: 1 (1-1)

ANSWER:

The slight Merence in the thickness' required has to do with the inside radius increasing to 12.022 inches
fiom the original 12.0 inches due to corrosion. Both of the above answers are correct using 300 psi. By
increasing the pressure used in the thickness calculations to 338.46, the thickness' required are identical for
both formulas.

For the next part of our instruction we will begin doing some simple shell calculations using UG-27
Thickness of Shells under Internal Pressure.

In this parapaph, formulas are given for the calculation of minimum thickness and maximum pressure for
cylindrical and spherical shells. Special attentionmust be paid to circumferential stress within the
cylindrical shell. This stress category normally will detemhe the minimum thickness or maximum working
pressure of the vessel.

1 1/03 REV 12
Let's do a simple shell calculation now. We will use a shell, which is seamless. You may find the following
approach helpful in keeping track of the data. As the problems become more difficult, it becomes harder to
track the variables if you are not organized.

1. Make a simple drawing of the vessel or head you are calculating values for. This helps to identify the
variables in the next step.

2. List what is required to h o w . We will call these givens. These will come from the stated problem.

3. State all the code paragraphs that apply, i.e., UG-27, UG-22, etc.

Drawing:

Givens:
t=
P=
R=
s=
E=
etc.

Code Paragraph UG-27 (c) (1)


P= Etc.
R+0.6t

84 1 1/03 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells

Problem # 1

Find the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAW) of a 12 inch inside diameter shell. This vessel
will be subjected to an internal pressure and will operate at a temperature of 700 degrees F. This shell is
seamless carbon steel and has an allowable stress value of 16,600 psi. Its wall thickness is ,406 . No
corrosion is expected. Circumferential welds are not considered in this problem. This is a demonstration of
formula UG-27(c)(l) and does not reflect the choosing of a joint efficiency.

Drawing:

Givens:
P=?
t = .4O6 *
R = 6.0 Remember this formula uses Radius not Diameter.
S = 16,600 psi
E = 1.0

From UG-27 (c) .(1)


. Circurt~fererftial
Stress
SEt
P=
R + 0.6 t

Mill Under tolerance must be considered when designing a vessel shell using pipe. For most pipe, it is
&12.5 % of the nominal thickness. This will usually require ordering the next schedule up to meet a
required thickness. The example above could anive with a thickness of as little as ,355".

1 1/03 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells

Find the minimum required thichess of a cylindrical shell designed for a working pressure of 100 psi at
350 degrees F. The shell's inside radius is 2'-0". The longitudimal joint is category A (UW-3), type 1 (table
UW-12) - no radiography was performed. The shell is made of SA-515 grade 60 carbon steel rolled plate
with an allowable stress of 15,000 psi. The vessel is in water senice. Again, circumferential welds are not
considered for the sake of simpliciy.

Drawing:

Givens:

t= ?
P= 100 psi
R= 24"
S= 15000
E= .70 (Table UW-12)
From UG-27 (c) (1) Circrrnrfere~rtialStress
API 510 Modules
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells

We bave now calculated the pressure allowed on a seamless shell in Problem # 1. We bave also found the
thicbess required of a seamed, rolled plate shell in Problem #2. To this point we have not considered a
circumferential weld joint. The next problem will consider joining together two courses of seamed and
rolled plate to make one shell.

Problem # 3

Determine the minimum required thickness of a cylindrical shell designed for an internal pressure of 50 psi
at a design temperature of 100 degrees F. No corrosion is expected. The shell is made of two courses butt
welded circumferentially using Type 1 welds which bave been spot radiographed per UW- 11 (a)(5)@). The
shell long joints are butt welded also and are Type 1, Category A fully radiographed. The material is SA-
515 grade 70, stress allowable is 17,500 psi. The inside diameter is 10'-0". Both heads will later be joined
to the shell and will have Spot RT in accordance with UW-12(a) and UW-I l(a)(5)

This problem will require us to consider two different cases in order to come to the solution. First we will
work the problem to solve for the thickness required to resist longitudinal stresses. Second to resist
circumferential stresses. Are you clear on the difference between the two? It's easy to be confused. The
Longitudinal Stress is the stress that acts to pull apart two shell courses or pop a bead off of the end of a
vessel. It creates stress in the shell and welds around a vessel. Circurrrfere~~ttiaStress can be thought of as
trying to split a shell along its length. It creates stress in the shell and welds along the length of the vessel.
Circurnfererrtiol Stress is normally the controlling stress for thickness or pressure calculations.
UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells

1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells


Case Study 1

Circ Joint (Loirgit~rdiitnlStress)

Drawing:

Givens:
t= ?
P= 50 psi
D= 10'-0"
R= 5'4)" = 60 "
S= 17500
E = .85 fromtable UW-I2

UG-27 (C) (2)


A P I 5 10 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells


Case Study 2

Long Joint (Circnrtrfererrtial Stress)

Drawing:

Givens:
l= ?
P= 50
R= 60"
S= 17500
E= 1.0 ( UW-12 (a) and UW-1 l(a)(5))

From UG-27 (c) ( 1 )

1 1/03 REV 12
API 5 I0 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-27 Intemal Pressure Cylindrical Shells


Exercises

Use the Overview portion of UG-27 starting on page 7 to determine formulas and use the Part UW section
to detemhe joint efficiencies.

1. Calculate the thickness required for a seamless shell made of SA-106 gr. B pipe. The O.D. is 12.75
inches. UW-1 l(a)(5)(b) has been applied.
The shell will operate at 500 psi. The stress allowedon the shell material is 15,000 psi.

Givens: Drawing:
t=
P=
S=
E=
Or Routside'

State Code Paragraph(s) and Forrnula(s):

2. What is the maximum allowed working pressure on a shell made of SA-515 gr.607 The shells inside
radius is 52 inches, and the shell's thickness is ,850 inches. The allowable stress for the shell's material is
15,000 psi at 500 OF. The joint efficiency of the shell's Category A joints is 1.0 .

Givens: Drawing:
t=
P=
S=
E=
Or %utsideC
State Code Paragraph(s) and Forrnula(s):

90 1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-32 Internal Pressure On Formed Heads


Oveniew

There are three lypcs of calculations for formed heads listed in the API 510 Body of Knowledge:
Ellipsoidal, Torispherical and Henispherical. The candidate is responsible for performing calculauons for
thickness required and p'ressure allowed in all cases. The formulas that will used will aU come from
para-mphUG-32. The variables change somewhat from type to type.

A sketch and the formulas for thickness of each kind are below.

1 1103 REV 12
API 5 I0 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure On The Concave Side

There are five geometry's listed in UG-32. You will be responsible for the ci dations of three:
Hemispherical, Ellipsoidal and Torispherical.

Givens: The same pressure and stress values will be used for all heads.

P= 100 psi
S= 17500 SA-515 Gr70 plate 650 degrees F.
E= .85 for spot RT of Hemispherical head joint to shell
E= 1.O for seamless heads ( Ellipsoidal and Torispherical )
L= 48" for the inside spherical radius for the hemispherical head
L= 96" for the inside crown radius of the torispherical head
O.D. = 96" for the torispherical head
D= 96" inside diameter of the ellipsoidal and hemispherical heads
t- Required wall thickness, inches

Problem # 1

Given the above data find the required thickness of a seamless ellipsoidal head.

Drawing:

From UG-32 (d)

92 1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
-
PART UG GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure On The Concave Side

Problem f: 2

Using the same data, calculate the required thicltness of a hemispherical head that does not have a straight
flange.

Drawing:

From UG-32 (0

Solving fort:

1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure On The Concave Side

Problem # 3

Deternine the required "t "of this tonspherical head. (These are also called ASME flanged and dished
heads, by the way). This headhas an O.D. equal to its inside crown radius AND the knuckle radius is
equal to 6% of its inside crown radius.

Drawing:

FBD iTORlSPHERlCALl

I O.D. 96.0" I
From UG-32 (e)

Solving for t:
0 . 8 8 5 ~ 1 0 0 ~ 9 6 - 8496 -.4857"
t=
(17,500xl.O)-(0.1~100) 17490

94 1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
UG-32
Exercises

Use the overview portions of UG-32 to determine the formulas and use Part U W to determine the joint
efficiencies.

1. Calculate the required thickness of a 2 to 1 Ellipsoidal head with an inside diameter of 48 inches. The
vessels will have a MAWP of 350 psi and will be in Ietlrnl service. The joint used to join the head to shell
will be a Type No. 2 fiom Table UW-12. The stress allowed on the head's material will be 15,000 psi.

Givens: Drawing:
t=
P=
S=
E=
D=

State Code Paragmph(s) and FormuIa(s):

2. A Torispherical bead has corroded to a thiclmess of ,353 " ; its inside crown radius is 56 inches. The
head's material has a stress allowable of 13,800 psi at 500 OF. The shell is seamless and the spot
radiography of UW-ll(a)(5)@) has been applied to the vessel. Can this head remain in service at 100 psi
per Code?

Givens: Drawing:
t=
P=
S=
E=
L=
State Code Paragraph@) and Formuln(s):

3. A Hemispherical head is being considered as a replacement on a vessel with a MAWP of 200 psi. The
head's Inside diameter will be 64 inches. What would be its required thiclmess if the head's material has a
maximum allowable stress of 17,500 psi? The Categoty A type 1 joint that attaches the head will be spot
radiographed.

Givens: Drawing:
t=
P=
S=
E=
L=
State Code Paragraph@)and Formula(s):
4. What would the required thickness for an Ellipsoidal head be given the same variables as used in
Problem # 3 above? The Category B weld that will attach this head ~vorrldnot haire UW-1 l(a)(5)@)
applied.

Givens: Drawing:
t=
P=
S=
E=
D=
1 1103 REV 12
State Code Paragraph@)and Formula(s):

API 5 10 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
UG-34 Unstayed Flat Heads And Covers (Circular)
Overview
Circular flat heads are the only kind of flat heads that are included in the API 510 Exam. These types of
heads are shown in Fig. UG-34. Only those attached by welding will be on the test. Only thickness
calculations are presently required per the API 510 Body of Knowledge. Some flat heads are attached by
mlet welds and some have a flange and are attached by butt welds. All attachment welds are of Category C
per UW-3.
The figures below represent only two of several allowed configurations.

Those attached by fillet welds and those attached by other than Types Nos. 1 or 2 are not radiographical by
the Code rules. Seamless circular flat heads which are butt welded must follow the rules for circumferential
butt welds contained in UW-11 and UW-12(d) when choosing the Efficiency for their thickness
calculations. These heads are treated in the same way as formed heads for their E used in calculations. If a
flat head is attached using fillet welds, it cannot be radiographed, and if the flat head is seamless the E used
to calculate its thickness will ul~vuysbe1.0.
If the Circular Unstayed Flat Head were constructed of two half moon pieces using a butt weld, the head
would then contain a Category A joint per UW-3. The Type of butt weld and the amount of radiography
would determine the E; the resulting E would be the joint efficiency used in the head's thickness
calculation.

The only formula that will be used for the calculations on the test is the one of UG34 (c)(2) #l. Thickness
required will be the only type of problem asked according to the API 510 Body of Knowledge.

The definitions of the variables in the formula are shown in the figures of Fig. UG-34. The d is the inside
diameter of a head or shell as given in each figure; the C i s a factor that depends on the method of
attachment, shell dimensions and other factors listed in UG-34 (d). The E was discussed above; t and P are
thickness and pressure. The C can get a little tricky in figures (e),(f), (g)and @-2) of Fig. UG-34. In these
four figures there is a note that states: C = 0.33 x m; where in the other figures it is stated that C will equal
n specific value, 0.17 ete. also all figures list a minimum C value. Figures (e), (Q,(g) and @-2) require
an e x ~ calculation
a to determine the C before the head's thickness can be calculated using the formula
above. Again that calculation is C = 0.33 x m. The term m is defined in the nomenclahtre of UG-34 as
being the thiclmess required of the shell divided by the actual thickness of the shell.
API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMEN'S

UG-34 Unstayed Flat Heads And Covers (Circular)

Problem # 1

A Seamless Flat Unstayed Circular Head having a diameter of 10 inches is attached to a cylindrical shell
similar to Fig. UG-34 (e). The vessel will have a M A W of 100 psi at 400 degrees F., the head and shell
are made of SA-515 Gr. 70 carbon steel with an allowable stress of 17500 psi. The shell's thickness is
,375." Corrosion is not expected. Find the minimum thickness of this head.

Drawing:

Givens:
Shell t = ,375 "
Head t = ?
P = 100 psi
d = 10.0 in
S = 17500 @450 OF
E = 1.0 For any seamless head attached by fillet welding.
C=033xm
From: UG-34(c)(Z)

Step 1. Calculate the thickness required of the sheU using the UG-27(c)(l)
circumferential stress formula.

Steo 2. Calculate the value ofm.

Step 3. Calculate the value of C.

C = 0.33 x m

C = 0.33 s .076 = .025

Now sihce the ntinirttrrr~rC cart beperfigs. (e) O) and (g) is 0.20 use this in the calc~rlationof ifre head

1 1/03 REV 12
Step 4. Calculate the reauired ttliclness of the flat head using the formula of UG-34-(c) (2).

1 ANSWER: t = .338" minimum

98 11103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-34 Unstayed Flat Heads And Covers (Circular)

Problem # 2

A Forged Flat Circular Unstayed Head has been attached to a shell similar to fig. @-I) of Fig. UG-34. The
circumferential weld attaching the head to the shell is a single welded butt joint with a backing strip which
remains in place. The Data Report for the vessel indicates that no radiography has beenpexforrned. The
heads inside diameter is 26 inches. The vessel's name plate indicates a M A W of 150 psi. The allowable
s@essof the forged heads material is 15,000 psi per the Data Report. Uniform corrosion has occurred to
this head leaving the flat part with a minimum thickness of 1.252". Can this vessel reirrain in service

Drawing:

Givens:
t=?
P = 150 psi
d = 26"
S = 15,000 psi
E = .85 per UW-12(d).
C = 0.17 per fig. @-I)
From UG-34(c)(2):

1.252" > 1.16275" ANSWER: YES

1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
-
PART UG GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-34 Unstayed Flat Heads And Covers (Circular)


Exercises

Use UG-27, UG-34 and part UW to determine the formulas and efficiencies.

1. A flat head similar to the one in fig. (b-2) of Fig. UG-34 is attached to a shell using a double welded butt
joint. The entire vessel meets the requirements of UW-ll(a)(5)@). The center portion of the flat head has
corroded down to an unacceptable thichess. What will be the head's thickness required after build up by
welding? Tbe shell has a thickness of 112". The shell and head skirt have an inside diameter of 42 inches.
The head's material has a maximum allowable stress of 13,800 psi and the shell's material has an allowed
maximum stress of 15,000 psi. The vessel's Nameplate is marked with a MAWP of 75 psi @ 350 OF.

Givens: Drawing:

State Code Paragraph@)and Pormula(s):

100 1 1/03 REV 1 2


API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-28 Thichness Of Shells And Tubes Under External Pressure


Oveniew gnifi

External calculations depart si cantly f?om internal calculations simply because under external pressure
the vessel is being crushed. Internal pressure wants to tear the vessel apart. Please remove the external
pressure charts for Factor A and Factor B located on pages 104 and 105 and place these along side the
textbook for the this lesson.

Because of the crushing or buckling load, the Length the Olltside Diameter and the Tlriclirress of the vessel
are important. External pressure problems are based on the thiclmess of the shell to the outside diameter
ratios. There are two types of external pressure calculations, the type we will use is when the 0.D to
(Do)thickness ratio (t) is greater than 10 and the other type, not on the test, is when it is less than 10.

In order to solve these types of problems two cbarts will be required. The first chart is used to find a value
called Factor A and then Factor A is used to find a Factor B in the second chart. The value of Factor B
found is the number needed to solve the problem using the formula given in paragraph UG-28 (c)(l) step 6.
The charts will be supplied with the test question as they are not found in Section Vm Division 1.

The following is the step by step solution to the Pressure Allowed on an existing vessel of a hnown
thickness with a Do to t ratio greater than 10.

Problem: A vessel is operating under an external pressure of 250 psi. The operating temperature is 500 OF.
The outside diameter of the vessel is 40 inches. Its length is 70 incbes. The vessel's wall is 1.25 inches
thick and is of SA-515-70 plate. Its specified minimum yield is 38,000 psi. Does this thickness meet Code
requirements?

Givens:

P = 250 psi
Temp = 500 OF
t = 1.25
L = 70 inches
Do = 40 inches

From UG-28 (c)QIir~dricalSltells and Tubes. The required minimum thichness of a shell or a tube under
external pressure, either seamless or with longitudinal butt joints, shall be determined by the following
procedure.

Do
(1) Cylinders having -values t 10
t
Testing to see if this paragraph applies:

1 1103 REV 12
Step 1. Our value of Do is 40 inches and L is 70 inches. We will use these to determine the ratio OE

Step 2. Enter the Factor A chart at the value of 1.75 determined above.

Step 3. Then move across horizontally to the curve Dolt = 32. Then down e o m this point to find the value
of Factor A which is .0045 .

Step 4. Using our value of Factor A calculated in Step 3, enter the Factor B (CS-2) chart on the bottom
Then vertically to the material temperature line given in the stated problem (in our case 500 OF).

Step 5. Then across to find the value of Factor B. We find that Factor B is approximately 13000.

Step. 6 Using this value of Factor B,calculate the value of the maximum allowable external pressure P,
using the following formula:

541.66 psi > 250 psi ANSWER: YES

102 1 1103 REV 12


API 510 MODULES
-
PART UG GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-28 Thickness Of Shells And Tubes Under External Pressure


Exercises

Use the previous instructions as a model to work these problems.

".
1. A vessel under external pressure has been found to a thickness of 1.123 The vessel is 8'-2" long and
operates at a temperature of 300 OF. The vessel's outside diameter is 54 inches. It is made of a material
with a minimum yield of 30,000 psi. Presently the external working pressure is 350 psi. May this vessel
continue to operate in accordance with the Code? Show all work and quote code paragraphs used.

Givens: Drnwing:

P=
Temp. =
t=
L=
Do=

1 1103 REV 12
F I G G GEOMETRIC CHART FOR COMPONENTS UNDER
EXTERNAL OR COUPRESSIVE LOADINGS (FOR ALL MATERIALS)

104 1 1/03REV 12
1 1/03 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-20 Design Temperature

(a) Maximum

The maximum temperature used in design shall be not less than the mean metal temperature (tbrougb the
thickness) expected under operating conditions for the part considered [see 3-l(g)]. Ifnecessary, the metal
temperature shall be determined by computation or by measurement fiom equipment in service under
equivalent operating conditions.

(b) Minimum

The minimum metal temperature used in design shall be the lowest expected in service except whenlower
temperatures are permitted by the mles of this Division (see UCS-66). The minimum mean metal
temperature shall he determined by the principles described in (a) above. Consideration shall include the
lowest operating temperature, operational upsets, auto refrigeration, atmospheric temperature, and any other
sources of cooling [except as permitted in (Q(3) below].

(c) Design temperatures listed in excess of the maximum temperatures listed in the tables of Subsection C
are not permitted. In addition, design temperatures for vessels under external pressure shall not exceed
the maximum temperatures given on the external pressure charts.

(d) The design of zones with different metal temperatures may be based on their determined temperatures.

(e) Suggested methods for obtaining the operating temperature of vessel walls in service are given in
Appendix C.

(Q Impact testing per UG-84 is not mandatory for pressure vessel materials which satisfy all of the
following.

(1) The material shall be limited to P-No. 1, GI. No. 1 or 2 and nominal thickness of:
(a) 112 inch for materials listeci in Curve A of Figure UCS-66
@) 1 inch for materials listed in Curve B, C, or D of Figure UCS-66

(2) The completed vessel shall he hydrostatically tested per UG-99@), (c), or (k).

(3) Design temperature is no wanner than 650 degrees F andno colder than -20 degrees F.
Occasional operating temperatures colder than -20 degrees F are acceptable when due to lower
seasonal atmospheric temperature.

(4) The thermal or mechanical shock loadings are not a controlling design requirement
(See UG-22)

(5) Cyclical loading is not a controlling design requirement.


(See UG-22)

106 1 1/03 REV 12


API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENE- REQUIREMENTS

UG- 22 Loadings

The loadings to be considered in desi-ping a vessel shall include those from:

(a) internal or external design pressure (as defined in UG-21);

@) weight of the vessel and normal contents under operating or test conditions (this includes
additional pressure due to static head of liquids);

(c) superimposed static reactions from weight of attached equipment, such as motors, machinery,
other vessels, piping, linings, and insulation;

(d) the attachment of:

(1) intemals (see Appendix D);


(2) vessel supports, such as lugs, rings, s b , saddles, and legs (see Appendix G);

(e) cyclic and dynamic reactions due to pressure or thermal variations, or from equipment mounted
on a vessel, and mechanical loadings;

(0 wind, snow, and seismic reactions, where required;


(g) impact reactions such as those due to fluid shock;

(h) temperature gradients and differential thermal expansion.

UG-25 Corrosion

The user or his designated agent (design engineering firm) shall specify allowances other than those allowed
by the rules of this division. Any vessel subject to corrosion must have a suitable drain opening at the
lowest practical point in the vessel.

1 1/03 REV 12
UG-98 Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
Overview

In the Code there are two types of Maximum Allowable Working Pressures (MAWP). One is for the vessel
itself; the one most think of and refer to all the time. The other is the one for each part of a vessel referred
to in UG-98 as the part M A W . Think of it in this way: a vessel has a shell, heads, chambers, nozzles, etc.,
and pressure allowed or thickness required calculations must be performed for each one to determine the
MAWP of the vessel. When doing these calculations, you cannot take credit for any extra thickness
designed into the vessel as a corrosion allowance. The weakest of the vessels parts, considering loadings
such as the static head of the contents, weigbt of insulation, wind, earthquakes, etc., will determine the
M A W of the entfre ivssel. I t is the weakest link in the chain. The pressure referred to here can be
internal or external.

The MAWP of a vessel is the pressure allowed in a vessel at its top in its normal operating position and at
its malrimum operating temperature. The M A W can be determined for more than one designated
operating temperature, using for each temperature the applicable allowable stress value.
VESSEL MAWP

Much More will be said about how to determine the vessel MAWP in the coverage of calculations for
Static Head in a vessel.

108 1 1/03 REV 12


API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-99 Standard Hydrostatic I UG-100 Pneumatic Test


Overview

The procedures for hydrostatic and pneumatic tests are contained in paragraphs UG-99 and UG-100. These
procedures have many similarities and some important differences. Both of these tests can be applied to
most vessels. The following are the highlights of each type of pressure test &om the approach of a welded
repair to a vessel that been in service. These highlights are not meant to replace reading the paragraphs.

Hvdrostatic

1. If the test is required it shall he conducted after welded repairs.


2. The test pressure must at least be 1.3 times the M A W
3. The test pressure shall be adjusted for lowest ratio of stresses.
4. Any non-hazardous fluid may be used if below its boiling point
5. It is reconrrnerrded that the metal temperature during hydro test be maintained at least 30 OF
above MDMT to minimize the risk ofbrittle fracture. Testing fluid not to exceed 120 O F
6. Following the application of hydro pressure a visual inspection shall
be perfomled at no less than tire testpressure divided by I.3.

Pneumatic
1. If the test is required it shall be conducted afler welded repairs.
2. The welded repairs shall be subjected to the tests required by UW-50.
3. The test pressure must at least be I.I tinres tlreMAAP
4 . The test pressure shall he adjusted for lowest ratio of stresses.
5. The metal nrust be mairrtained at least 30 O F above MDIvlT.
6. The test pressure shall be raised at a gradual rate to not more than 112 the test pressure and then
raised by 1110th of the test pressure until the test pressure is reached
7. A visual inspection must be made at the testpressure divided bjr I.I. The visual may be waived
if the requirements listed in UG-I00 are met.

The following written procedures will help to clarify the process. The ratio of stresses adjusts for the
different strengths of materials at different temperatures. This will be explained during classroom
instruction.

1 1/03 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UG -GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

API 510 4.4/UG-98iUG-99/UG-102

HYDROSTATIC TEST PROCEDURE

1. Calculate the test pressure using the rules of UG-98 and UG-99.

2. Any fluid in compliance with UG-99 may be used. The temperature of the testing fluid and the vessel
shell shall be as described in UG-99 and API 510.

3. Isolate openings as required by blinding.

4. Install a calibrated gage of the proper pressure range as descnied in UG-102 directly to the vessel. If
the gage is not readily visible to the operator controlling the applied pressure, an additional gage shall be
provided where it will be visible to the operator throughout the duration of the test.

5. If the test pressure will exceed the setting of lowest relief device, relief devices shall be removed,
blinded or have test clamps installed.

6. Vents shall be provided at all high points to purge air while the vessel is being filled.

7. Before applying pressure, inspect all test equipment to insure it is tight and that low pressure filling lines
and other appurtenances that should not be subjected to the test pressure have been disconnected.

8. Warn all personnel in the area.

9. Slowly raise the vessel to the test pressure. Hold for an appropriate time based on vessel size.

10. Lower the vessel to the test pressure divided by 1.3 and make a visual inspection of all joints and
connections.

110 1 1103 REV 12


UG-99 Calculating Hydrostatic Test Pressure

Essentially when calculating the ratio of sbesses you are determining the M A W of the vessel in its cold
condition where the stress allowable is higher for its material of constmction.

Problem: Calculate the required hydro test pressure for a vessel using the following conditions.

Material SA-516 Gr. 65


Design Temp. 700 OF
Test Temp 85 OF
M A W 350 psi

Step 1: Determine the ratio of stresses for


SA-516 gr. 65 for the test and design temperatures.

(a). From Table 1A Section I1 Part D.

Stress allowed at 700 OF = 15,500 psi


Stress allowed at 85 OF = 16,300 psi

(b) Per UG99 the ratio equals


Stress at Test Temu
Stress at Design Temp.

Step 2: Per UG99@) Test pressure equals

Stress at Test Temp.


1.3 x M A W x
Stress at Design Temp.

1.3 x 350 psi x 1.05 = 477.75 psi


API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

API 510 4.4/UG-98/UG-99KJG-102

PNEUMATIC TEST PROCEDURE

1. Prior to administering a pneumatic test, insure that the NDE of UW-50 for welded repairs has been
applied.

2. Calculate the test pressure using the rules ofUG-98 and UG-100.

3. Tbe metal temperature during pneumatic test shall be maintained at least 300F above the minimum
design metal temperature to nlinimize the risk of brittle-kichre.

4. Isolate openings as required by blinding,

5. Install a calibrated gage of the proper pressure range as described in UG-102 directly to the vessel. If
the gage is not readily visible to the operator controlliig the applied pressure, an additional gage shall be
provided where it will be visible to the operator throughout the duration of the test.

6. If the test pressure will exceed the setting of lowest relief device, relief devices shall be removed
,blinded or have test clamps installed.

7. Before applying pressure inspect all test equipment to insure it is tight and that low pressure filling lines
and other appurtenances that should not be subjected to the test pressure have been disconnected

8. Warn all personnel in the area.

9. The pressure in the vessel shall be gradually raised to not more than one-half the test pressure.
Thereafter, the test pressure shall be increased in steps of approximately one-tenth of the test pressure until
the test pressure has been reached.

10. Lower the vessel to the test pressure divided by 1.1 and hold for a sufficient time to make a visual
inspection of all joints and connections.

112 1 1103 REV 12


UG-100 Calculating Pneumatic Test Pressure

Problem: Calculate the required pneumatic test pressure for a vessel using the following conditions.

Material SA-516 Gr. 65


Design Temp. 700 OF
Test Temp 85 OF
MAW 350 psi

Step 1: Determine the ratio of stresses for


SA-516 gr. 65 for the test and design temperatures.

(a). From Table 1A Section I1 Part D.

Stress allowed at 700 O F = 15,500 psi


Stress allowed at 85 OF = 16,300 psi

(b) Per UG100 the ratio equals

Stress at Test Temp.


Stress at Design Temp.

Step 2: Per UG100(b) Test pressure equals

Stress at Test Temp.


1.1x MAWP x
Stress at Design Temp.

1.1 x 350 psi r 1.05 = 404.25 psi

Finally apply the procedure given UG 100 for performing a pneumatic test!

1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-100 Calculating Pneumatic Test Pressure

PROCEDURE FOR PNEUMATIC TEST

1. Slowly raise the pressure to approximately one-half40425 psi which equals 202.125

Next raise the pressure in steps of one-tenth of the test pressure.

2.202.125 + 40.425 = 242.55 psi

3.242.55 + 40.425= 282.975 psi


4.282.975 + 40.425 = 323.40 psi

5.323.40 + 40.425 = 363.825 psi


6. 363.825 + 40.425 =404.25 psi

Last lower to the inspection pressure of 404.25ll.l = 367.5 psi

UG-102 Test Gages


Overview

The Code has some deiinite requirements for the selection and uses of gages for the tests described in UG-
99 and UG-100. Directions for location, number of, range of and the calibration of the indicating gage(s) is
located in UG-102. The highpoink ofUG-102 are below.

1. An indicating gage shall he connected directly to the vessel. If it is not readily visible to the operator of
the test equipment an additional gage shall be used which is visible to operator for the duration of the
test.

2. When doing large vessel pressure tests it is recommended to have a recording gage in addition to the
indicating gage.

3. Dial type indicating gages shall have a range of about double the maximum test pressure, but in no case
shall the range of the gage he less than 1 112 times nor more than 4 times the maximum test pressure.

4. Digital gages having a wider range may be used as long as they provide the same or greater accuracy of
the dial type.

5. All gages shall be calibrated against a standard deadweight tester or a calibrated master gage.

6. Gages must be calibrated any time their accuracy is in doubt.

114 1 1/03 REV 12


API 5 10 MODULES
-
PART UG GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-99/1001102
Exercises

1. A vessel made of SA-240 304L plate is being hydrostatically tested after an alteration The vessel's
M A W is 225 psi at 400 OF. The allowable stress at operating is 14,700 psi and 16,700 psi at the test
temperature.

Answer the following:

A. What is the required test pressure?


B. What is the least pressure the vessel can be inspected at?
C. Inpsi, what is the minimum and maximum range of the test gage?

2. A pneumatic test of a vessel will be conducted to a pressure of 310 psi. Descnie the steps for raising
the vessel to the test pressure. At what pressure shall the visual examination take place?

1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UW-16 Fillet Weld Sizing For Attachments At Openings

The fillet weld sizing of LJW-16 can be solved in either of two ways. That is, you may deternine ifa fillet
weld leg size provides an adequate fillet weld throat s u e per Code or based on the thicknesses of the shell
and nozzle determine the minimum tluoat size required and convert that to leg size.

In the latter case, usually the leg size decimal value is rounded to the next fractional 1116th inch,

In these examples we will work it both ways using the same shell and nozzle tbiclmesses. The examples
will be restricted to only Fig LJW-16.1 (i).

Problenr: A nozzle is being attached to a shell as shown in Fig. UW-16.1 (i) using hvo equal
size tillet melds. The shell's thickness is 718 in. and the nozzle's thickness is 112 inch. The fillet welds
are 318 inch in leg size. Does this meet Code?
Case I.: Determine the minimum throat size

FromFig. UW-16.l(i) we are given that:

And
t~ort?notlessthan
the smaller of );:in.

From the nomenclature of UW-16 we are given the following definitions:

t min,
=the smaller of 314 in. or the thickness of the of the two parts joined by a fillet weld.

t 1 and t 2 are the throat sizes of the welds as depicted inFig. UW-16.l(i).

Steu I: Determine the throat size of a 318 in


legsize fillet weld.

Throat size equals ,707 times leg size.


0.707 x 0.375 in = ,265 in. = t 1 or t2

Step 2: Determine t

t-,= t h e ~ o f 1 / 2 i n o r 3 / 4 i nSot-,=1/2in.

1 1/03 REV 12
S30" is neither greater than or equal to ,625". Therefore the Grst test fails and the throat size ofthe 318" leg
f d e t weld is too small.
-
We could stop here and answer the question with a No! But let's
I
I
Gnish up with the second test of size required for an illustration of the
technique required. 1
Step 4: Test to see if:
t I or t 2 not less than
the smaller of % in.
or ,707 tmh.

Not less than the of ,250 in. or ,707 x 112 in.

So -than ,250". Both t 1 and t2 are .265".

,265 in. > .250 in. Fillet welds are adequate in the second test. However a fillet weld size must pass both
tests!

Case 2.: Based on material thicknesses determine the minimum leg size of equal sized fillet welds to
the next 1116th inch. In our problem thicknesses are 718 inch (shell) and 112 inch (nozzle). We have
already determined that 3/8iuch leg fillet welds are too small. So let's determine what size of equal
leg fillet welds are required rounded up to the neat 1116th inch.

118 1 1103 REV 12


This is a case where you are really coming in through the back door; that is to say, you are not checking to
see if an existing or proposed fillet weld leg sue is large enough. You are in fact; determining the minimum
size for a thickness con~bination.The approach is to set up the formulas given in Fig. UW-16.l(i) and
determine the minimumvalues so as to make the shoe fit.

Step I : Determine t min.

So t ,&, = 112 in.


Step 2.: Determine .707 t min.

Step 3.: Determine 1 114 t min.

From Fig. UW-16.l(i) we are given that:


tl+tl++

And
t I or t 2 not less than
the smaller of % in.
Let's stop and examine the formulas given above to make sure we understand what is being said First, this
business of throat 1 plus throat 2. being greater than or at least equal to 1.25 times t min. . If that's the case,
then to figure out the minimum throat s u e of one equal sized m e t weld, we need only calculate 1.25 x t
min. and divide it by two. Next, what is really is being said in "tI or t2 not less thau the smaller of I/4 in.
o r .707 t nrirr." is that the Code does not allow a fillet welds with a throat smaller than 1/4". This is to
prevent a very large fillet weld on one side and what amounts to a small seal weld on the other side. This
keeps the heat input balanced across the parts joined. A 1/4" throat requires a leg size of ,353" about 318
inch..

B : ,3125 > ,250 ( t l or t2 minimum sue is satisfied)

C : To convert throat to leg, divide the throat by ,707


.3125/.707 = .4420 (Round up to the next 1/16 th inch).
6/16 th. = ,375 or 7/16 th. = ,4375 or 8/16 = ,500
,4375 C ,4420 < ,500

Aaswer: minimum leg size is 112 inch.

1 1103 REV 12
API 5 10 MODULES
-
PART UG GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UW-16 Weld S u e Determination


Exercises

1. A fillet weld has a leg size of 1 118". What is its throat size?

2. A fillet weld has a throat s u e of .60OU. What is its leg size rounded up to the next fractional 1/16"?

120 1 1/03 REV 12


API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Reinforcement For Openings In Shells And Heads


Overview

UG-36 Openings in Pressure Vessels

The main things of interests in this paragraph to the API 510 inspector are the following:

All references to dimensions apply to the finished consmction after deduction for material added as
corrosion allowance.

Openings not subject to rapid fluctuations in pressure do not require reinforcement other than that
inherent in the constrnction under the following conditions:

The finished opening is not larger than:

3 112"diameterin vessel shells or heads 318 in. or less in


thickness.

2 318 in. diameter in vessel shells or heads over 318 in. in


thickness.

1 1/03 REV 12
UG-37 Reinforcement Required for Openings in Shells and Formed Heads

For a good start on this paragraph you must become familiar with UG-37 (a) nomenclature. Read each of
the given symbols. Then compare the symbols with the drawing of Fig. 37.1, Nomenclature and Formulas
for Reinforced Openings. Classroom instructions if used, and example problems will address this lengthy
subject.

UG-40 Limits of Reinforcement

This paragraph tells the distance in any direction that can be count as reinforcement in your calculations.
This means that ifa vessel wall has excess metal above that required by calculation, how far on each side of
the opening can you take credit for this extra metal as reinforcement? If a nozzle with excess thickness is
inserted into the hole, how much of the excess thickness in the inside projection can be counted as helping
add strength back to the vessel waU at the opening? Also considered is how much of the nozzle excess
thichess above the hole in the vessel can be counted as reinforcement for the opening.

UG-41 Strength of Reinforcement (This is informative only, you are not responsible for this on the exam)

Where the Code specifies that if you add reinforcemenf such as a pad, that the pad must have a strength that
is equal to or greater than the material of the head or shell. If such metal is not available and a lower
strength material is used, a stress reduction must be taken during the calculations for reinforcement.

Repadstress - Repad 15,000 psi = ,857


-Stress Reduction Example:
Vessel Stress Vessel 17,500 psi

After the above calculation, the stress reduction factor is multiplied times the actual area of the repad, and
the lesser area that is determined must be used in the calculations for reinforcement.

Example: Given: Reinforcement pad cross-sectional area equals 2 square inches and the stress reduction
factor equals ,857. Find the area that may be used in reinforcement calculations.

,857x 2 = 1.714 square inches

However, if the material used is stronger than the material being reinforced, no credit may be taken for the
Itiglrer strerrgtlt material used as reinforcement For the calculations you must use the strength of
reinforcement as being the same as the vessel or head being reinforced

122 1 1/03 REV 12


UG-42 Reinforcement of Multiple Openings

This paragraph addresses cases where the limits of reinforcement for more than one opening overlap each
other. Extra metal in a vessel above what is required to resist internal pressure can be counted toward
reinforcing an opening. The distance counted as reinforcement on each side of an opening (parallel to it) is
defined in UG-40. If two openings are close enough to each other that their limits overlap then special
consideration must be given to the reinforcement of both openings. If two openings are spaced closer than
two times their average diameters, it is not allowed to take doirble credit for ext-a wall thickness in the
overlapped area.

The extra wall thickness in the shaded area in the drawing above cannot be counted as helping reinforce
both the openings. It can be counted for one or the other but not both. The minimum spacing for the
.
openings above to avoid this situation is 4 in. It must be divided between the two in proportion to the ratio
of the two opening's diameters. In this case, 50/50.If the openings where different diameters the ratio of
their openings would be calculated and the shade area split up accordingly.

The next situation involves more tlran two openings spaced closely together. In that configuration, the
minimum distance between any two of these openings shall be 1 113 times their average diameters and the
area of reinforcement between any two openings must be at least equal to 50% of the total area required for
the two openings. This means you are not allowed to set the openings too closely to each other and take any
credit for the shaded areas.

1 1103 REV 12
UG-42 Reinforcement of Multiple Openings

If the openings are closer together than permitted by UG-42@),no credit is allowed for any of the metal
between the openings, and the reinforcement calculations must be performed as given in UG 42 (c) as
shown below. The nozzle wall thichesses of the individual openings cannot be figured in as available
reinforcement. The calculation becomes one for a single larger hole. Again no credit is allowed for metal
between the individual openings or any of the nozzle thicknesses. Its just one big hole containing aU the .
other openings and its reinforcement will be the one calculated.

124 1 1/03 REV 12


API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-40141142/45
Exercises

1. A vessel opening is being reinforced with a pad. The pad has an allowable stress of 15,000 psi. The
vessel's wall has an allowable stress of 14,800 psi. What is the resulting ratio of stress to be used in the
pads area calculation?

2. A 6 in. nozzle is being added in a vessel wall next to an existing 4 in nozzle. What is the closest they
may be placed together with out overlapping their areas of reinforcement7

3. Three nozzles are to be installed such that they clustered so closely together that they are less than 1 113
their average diameters apart. How will the area of reinforcement be calculated?

1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Reinforcement for Openings in Shells and Heads

Openings that do not require reinforcement calculations are outlined inUG-36 (c) (3). All other openings
must have the rules of reinforcement applied. The rules of reinforcement are taken from paragraphs UG-36
through UG-43. The limits where these rules apply are taken fromUG-36 @) (1).

The following is an outline for an approach to the understanding of reinforcement calculations. First, the
basic requirement is that around any opening in a vessel the vessel wall must be reinforced with an equal
amount of metal as was removed from the vessel wall required for pressure (thickness required).

This reinforcement may already exist in the form of excess wall thickness above that required to resist the
pressure. It may be found in the nozzle wall excess thickness or in the attachment welds. If it does not meet
the requirements considering the above mentioned excess thicknesses after corrosion allowance has been
removed then a reinforcementpad will be required.

At this point we are ready to begin applying all the ~ l e which


s were given in the preceding paragraphs.
The following graphics depict the various areas that must be considered when performing reinforcement
calculations. Through this type of breakdown the concept can be better understood, this is of course an
oversimplification.

A. You may not need to replace all of the metal removed.

GTVEN AS A: The dark cross hatched area is the diameter of the finished opening multiplied times the
minimum thickness that is the required by the calculations of UG-27 for a shell or UG -32 if the opening is
in a head, etc.

B. The vessel and the nozzle walls usually have excess thickness above that required to resist pressure.
This excess thickness is counted toward reinforcement. Corrosion allowance cannot he included in areas
A1 or A2 below.

GIVEN AS A1 and A2. The shaded areas are the ex- metal.

126 1 1103 REV 12


C. If the nozzle extends inside the shell, within certain limits this nozzle metal can be counted, less any
corrosion allowance. The API 510 exam body of knowledge has excluded inward projection from the test.

GIVEN AS A3

D. The welds used to attach the nozzle to the shell count as area available for reinforcement. Interior weld
area has been eliminated because the exam does not cover inward projections.

GIVEN AS A4 Out Side Fillet Only For Exam No Interior Projection on Exam!!!

E. The required cross-sectional area s h d be the area of the shell or head required to resist pressure which is
given as A. Ifthe sum of A1+A2+A4 is equal to or greater than A the opening is adequately reinforced If
not, more reinforcement must be added. Usually this will be in the form of a reinforcementpad. Its area is
found as follows.

A - (Al+AZ+A4) = Area required for the repad

This type of problem can get complicated very q&ckly because of the number of steps involved However
the API 510 Exam Body of Knowledge has simplified this type of problemby doing this:

a. There will be no inward projection for the nozzle.

b. The nozzle will enter at 90 degrees to the shell or head,

c. The opening will not pass through a Category A weld.

d. Nozzles and shell will be of the same strength.

e. The required thicknesses of shells and nozzles will be given.

In the following example, the problem will be worked using those guidelines. Remember this type of
problem is worth no more than the simplest calculation possible on the exam. Plan your study time with
this in mind. The problem may not even be on the exam. Also, unless you are really comfortable with these
problems, it is best to do them last. They eat up a lot of time and you could find yourself rushing through
the remaining problems.

1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
-
PART UG GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Reinforcement For Openings In Shells And Heads

The API 510 Body of Knowledge has placed tbe following limits on reinforcement problems.

The inspector should:

a. Understand the key concepts of reinforcement.


Replacement of strength removed
L i i t s of reinforcement
Credit can be taken for extra metal in the shell and nozzle

b. Be able to calculate the required size of a reinforcement pad or


to assure a designed pad is large enough. To simplify the
problem:

1. Allfr= 1.0
-.
7 AUF=1.0
3. AUE=l.O
4. All required thicknesses are given
5. There will be no nozzle projecting inside the shell

The inspector should he able to compensate for corrosion allowance.


Weld strength calculations are excluded.

Although it has not been listed under reinforcement, sizing of the fillet
welds will probably be required since it is elsewhere in the material.

The best approach is to work a problem typical of what can be


expected and explain each aspect above as it is required to solve the
problem.

Problem:

A vessel made of SA-515-gr 70 rolled and welded plate is having a


6 inchNPS schedule 80 seamless nozzle added similar to Fig. UW-
16.l(a) with a fillet weld of 112" in leg dimension. The shell's actual
thickness is 718 inch. The nozzle's actual thickness is 0.432", and it has
an O.D. of 6.625". A corrosion allowance of ,125'' is required.
The following information has been provided by planning.
Does this design require a repad 7 If so what is its required size?

Givens:
1. The required thickness of the shell is ,690"
2. The required thickness of the nozzle is ,033"
3. The nozzle will not pass through a vessel Cat A weld : E = 1.0
4. The nozzle will enter the vessel normal to the vessel wall : F = 1.0
5. The nozzle and shell are of the same strength or the nozzle has a greater strength: fr = 1.0
6. A corrosion allowance of ,125" is required.

128 1 1/03 REV 12


Drawing:

t = .875" leg =1/2"

M.Check the fillet weId throat size. The fillet weId throat in this
Figure of UW-16 is indicated as tc. In the nomenclature of
paragraph UW-16, tc is required to he not less than the smaller of 114"
or 0.707 t -. .
Our t -, is the nozzle, which is ,432".

,707 x .432" = .305" So t,can be no smaller than 1/4"(.250").

Since the throat size of a fillet weld is determined by multiplying


.707 times the leg s u e and our leg s u e is given as 112". We calculate
as follows.
.707 x .50OU= ,353". This is larger than .2501',and the throat of
the fillet weld is adequate.

Check to see ifa corrosion allowance is specified. If so


it must be deducted fiom the actual thickness of the shell and
nozzle prior to calculations. Also the I D of the nozzle must he
increase by two times the corrosion allowance. In our problem the
corrosion allowance is ,125".

Shell actual t .875"


Corrosion -.125"
Shell t to he used .750" Adirrsted for corrosion
Nozzle actual t ,432"
Corrosion -.125"
Nozzle t to be used 307" Adirrstedfor corrosion
Nozzle LD. = O.D.-2(wall t - c.a.)
Nozzle I.D. = 6.625-2(.432-,125)
Nozzle I.D. = 6.625-2(.307)
Nozzle I.D. = 6.625414 = 6.01" Adjusted for corrosion

Set up the formulas of UG-37 using Fig. UG-37.1

A = d t,F + 2 h t, F(l-el) Area required

= d(Elt-FtJ-2h(Elt-FtJ(1-frl)

4 OR Area available in shell; use !g.gg


= 2(t+t,J(Elt-Ft,)-2tn(El t-Ft&1-frl)

1 1103 REV 12
= 5(tn-tm)fr2t
A2 OR Area available in the nozzle outward; use srrrnllol:
= 5(tn-tm)f,tn

A41 = Outward nozzle weld = (legffr2 Area of outward fillet

If A1 + h+ A41 2 A Opening is adequately reinforced.

If the sun1of all the areas are not equal to or greater than A; the area
required for the repad is found by subtracting the sum from A.

-
A ( AI+ A2 + A41) =Asea of Repad

&&. Make A Drawing:

List Givens Adjusted for corrosiorr:

d = 6.01" diameter of the finished opening less corrosion


t = ,750" actual thickness of the shell less corrosion
tr = ,690" thickness required in the shell per UG-27(c)(1)
tn = ,307" actual thickness of the nozzle less corrosion
lm =.033" thickness required in the nozzle per UG-27(c)(l)
E = 1.0 nozzle does not pass through any weld seam
F = 1.0 nozzle enters shell at 90 degrees to the shell
£r = 1.0 nozzle and shell stress allowables the same
Leg size = S00"

Plug values into formulas and solve:

A = 6.01" x ,690" x 1.0 + 2 x ,307" x .690" x 1.0 x (1-1) Area required


A = 6.01" x ,690" x 1.0 + 2 x ,307" x .6901'x 1.0 x (0) Area required
A = 6.01" x .6901'x 1.0 + 0
A = 6.01" x ,690" x 1.0 = 4.1469 sauare inches Area required

A1 =6.01"~
(1.0 x ,750"-1.0 x .69O1')-2t&lt-F$.)(1-1) A1 =6.01"~
(1.0 x ,750"-1.0 x
,690")- 0
A1 = 6.01"~
(.7501'-,690") = .3606 square inches
OR
4 = 2(.750n+.307")(1.0 x ,750"-1.0 x ,690")-2t#Xt-FtJ(1-1)

*1 = 2(.750"+.307")(1.0 x .7501'-1.0 x ,690")-0

A1 = 2(1.057")(.06) =,12684"
A1=Area available in shell; use larger = .3606 sa. inches

130 1 1103 REV 12


= 5(.307"- ,033") 1.0 x ,750"
= 5(.274") x ,750" = 1.0275 square inches
A2= OR
= 5(.307"- .033") 1.0 x ,307"
= 5(.274") x ,307"= ,42059 square inches

A! =Area available in the nozzle wall usr the lesser = .42059

2
*41 = Outward nozzle welds =(SOD) x 1.0 = 0.250" Area of outward fillet.

Al+AZ+A41= .3606 + .42059 + .250 = 1.03119" c 4.1469" how large must the repad he?

4.1469 - 1.03119 =3.1157 square inches.

1 1103 REV 12
API 5 I 0 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Reinforcement For Openings In Shells And Heads


Exercises

1. When calculating reinforcement, fiom what parts n m t a corrosion allowance be deducted (where)?

2. As regards reinforcement how is the area A found? State the formula.

3. How many points are reinforcement calculations worth on the exam? How many points is hydrostatic
test calculation worth on the exam?

132 11103 REV 12


API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-84 Charpy Impact Tests

A major concern in vessel operations at low temperature is brittle failure of the material. This type of
failure is considered more serious than a ductile failure simply because it is sudden, giving little warning
(almost no bulging), and the material might shatter similar to broken glass. Impact testing is required to
determine if a material thickness at a given temperahre is likely to fail in that manner. Put more directly,
the goal of impact tests is to prove it is unlikely to occur in the thicknesslmaterial combination being used at
a design pressure and minimum design metal temperature (MDMT). The term Low Terr~peratrrrecan be
misleading. When welded material thickness' exceed 4 inches they are considered in low temperature
operation at a temperature below 120 OF. Again the fkst conclusion drawn fromUG-84 must be that the
tests are required

For the API-510 candidate, impact testing applies to Part UCS Carbon and Low Alloy Steels of Sub-Section
C . Tbese steels are suscephile to brittle fkacture even at fairly high temperatures. It should be concluded
that impact tests are required on this material and their weldment. The only exemptions are given in part
UG-84 of the General Requirements and UCS-66, 67,68 and inUG-20(Q. The search for exemptions for a
given problem start in UG-20 (Q and then continue through paragraphs UCS-66, 67, and 68. This process
will be covered in Part UCS of this course.
UG-84 states that impact test shall conform to the paragraphs of SA-370. This is a reference to a standard
listed at present on Table U-3 of Section VIII of Division I. Look up this table and read it; a question could
come from here. It outlines the test apparatus and procedures. The only kind of impact test recognized by
the Code is the Charpy V Notch type. The impact test specimens for a full size test are to be as shown in
Fig. UG-84.
The next consideration is that of the minimum absorbed energy for the impact test specimen. Figure UG-
84.1 is used to detelmine the value of absorbed energy required for a test specimen made of carbon and low
alloy steels. Notice it refers to those materials listed in Table UCS-23 and that the minimum specified yield
strength and thickness of material or weld in inches are crucial for determining impact absorbed energy.

The impact testing of the parts of a vessel falls into two general categories, materials and welds. A general
statement can be made about these impact tests. If the base material being welded is required to be impact
tested, the weld metal and its weld heat affected zone probably will be required to be tested also. The weld
metal and heat affected zones are impact tested usually during the welding procedure qualification tests but
can be performed using a production impact plate ( an extension of a welded joint on part of the vessel cut
off to make the impact specimens).
The impact test specimen test plates must be subjected to same heat treatments as the vessel. The location
for removal of specimens from test plates is descnied in UG-84 (g). The thickness of a test plate
determines the number of test specimens required and also the location of their removal from the test plate.

For test plates 1 112 inch or less two sets of three (3) specimens mnst be taken. One set from the weld with
the notch located in the weld as shown in Fig. UG-84 and one set fkom the heat afLected zone (HAZ) with
the notch located so that as much HAZ material as is possible is included in the resulting fracture.

For test plates over 1 112 inch three sets of t h e e (3) are required. One set fromthe weld metal and one set
from the HAZ. A third set must be taken fiom the weld metal halfway between the opposite side and the
center of the specimen. This places the second set of weld metal specimens about a quarter of the way in
from the oppo&e side of thedrst set. The acceptance details for these impact tests a& found in UG 84
(c)(5)(c)(6) and in the notes of Fig. UG-84.1. Fig. UG-84.1 is wed to determine the minimum acceptable
absorbed energy for a set of test specimens. To use Figure UG-84.1, the material thickness is found along
the bottom of the chart. From that point, move straight up to the line that represents the minimum yield of
the material under consideration, then left to the value of absorbed energy required to pass the test. This is
an average, notes at the bottom of the chart require that no one specimen shall have an absorbed energy
value less than 213 of the average required for all three.

1 1103 REV 12
API 5 I0 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-84 Charpy Impact Tests


Exercises

1. What specitication must impact testing procedures conform to?

2. What type of Impact Test does the Code recognize?

3. What are the dinlensions of a standard Charpy Impact specimen?

4. How many specimens comprise a single set?

5. How many sets of specimens are required for a weld procedure test coupon 1 314 inches thick?

6. When welding a procedure test plate for impact testing what must the P No. and Group No. be? What
type of heat treatment must be applied to the test plate?

7. Name the two types of test specimens required for all welding procedures. Hint: Where do they come
from?

134 11/03 REV 12


API 510 MODULES
-
PART UG GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UCS-66 Materials

Low temperature should always be a consideration when designing a vessel of carbon and low alloy steels
simply because low temperature is defined to be diflerent temperatures for different metals and their
respective thichesses. Example UCS-66 (3) states that if the governing thichess of a non-welded part
exceeds 6", and the minimum design metal temperature W M T ) is colder than 120 F, impact tested
materials shall be used. This example has been used to point out how relative the term low temperature is.
Turn your attention to figure UCS-66 Impact Test Exemption Curves. In this figure you will find a graph
and listing of carbon and low alloy steels. It is limited to 4 inches for welded construction. This is because
above 4 inches, welded construction must be impact tested. A good essay or multiple choice questions
could be taken fiom this material. Understanding figure UCS-66 is essential.

Figure UCS-66.1, titled Reduction ofMinimumDesign Metal Temperature (MDMT), without impact
testing allows for the reduction of the MDMT when a material in tension is being used below the maximum
allowable design stress of that material.

UCS-67 Impact Testing Of Welding Procedures

UCS-67 details three cases where impact tests shall be made on carbon and low alloy steel welds when
qualifying the a low temperature welding procedure. This is done if impact tests are required for the base
metal.

UCS-68 Design

Design rules for carbon and low alloy steels stipulate requirements as to how construction will be
performed. The main points are: mandatory joint types, required post weld heat treatments below -50 F
and their exemptions. Also notice a reduction of 30 F below that of Figure UCS-66 for P-1 materials ifpost
welded heat treatment is performed when it is not otherwise required

11103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Impact Testing Exemptions


Overview

The fust paragraph of UG-84 states that impact testing is required of all welds, materials, etc., that required
to be tested in Subsection C. From this point, the search begins to see if a material or weld is required to be
impact tested. The goal is to find an exemption. The search will begin in UG-20(0 and progress through
UCS 66,67 and 68. If no exemption is found impact tests are required. The best approach is to list these
by steps.

UG-20(0 lists an exemption from impact testing for materials that meet
ALL of the following requirements.

1. Material is limited to P No. 1 Gr. No. 1 or 2 and the thicknesses don't exceed the following:
(a) 112 in. for materials listed in Curve A of Fig. UCS-66;
(b) 1 in. for materials fiom Curve B, C or D of Fig. UCS-66

2. The completed vessel shall be hydrostatically tested


(P~terrmatictest is notpernlitted for this exer~rptioorr)

3. Design temperature is no warmer than 650 OF nor colder than


-20 OF

4. The thermal or mechanical shock loadings are not controlling design

5. Cyclical loading is not a controlling design requirement.

UCS-66 Materials
&&. UCS-66 (a)

Tum your attention to Fig. UCS-66 Impact Test Exemption Curves and Table UCS-66. The Graph
and Table are used to determine the minimum temperature a material thickness can be operated at ~vitlrorrt
atarrdatory irnpact testing. The graph has four curves: A, B, C and D. In Fig. UCS-66 along with the
graph is a listing of carbon and low alloy steels. This listing of materials is used to determine the curve on
the Graph or in the Table for a given material. Atier finding the curve for the material, there are two
choices. Use the graph of Fig. UCS 66 or the Table UCS 66 to determine the minimum temperature for a
given thickness. It is recommended to use the Table. The Table and the Graph are the same. The Table is
a lot easier to use with accuracy. USE THE TABLE. If the material thickness is operated at or above the
temperature listed in Table UCS-66, impact tests are not required. I f the material thickness is to operate
below the given minimum temperature, impact testing is reqrrired. The temperature found in the table is the
MDMT of that material thickness without Impact Testing being required.

When a material in tension is being used at some stress value below its allowable design stress at the
&tDMT,a reduction in tentperature is permitted. This reduction is srrbtracted from the given temperature
for the material in Table UCS 66. If after taking the reduction, the resulting temperature is colder than the
minimum design metal temperature desired for the vessel, impact testing is not required This is called the
coincident Ratio. When a material is operating at a relatively high temperature it has lower stress allowed
than at room temperature. Many vessels operate alternating between elevated and low temperatures. The
lower stress allowed at the elevated temperature will require thicker material than needed at the lowest
temperature.
136 1 1103 REV 12
The thicknesses required for the two temperatures can be different, and normally the thichess required for
the vessel is determined using the higher temperature stress allowed. So if at the lower temperature and
often lower pressure we have extra wall thickness we can take credit for. How much is determined by
calculating the coincident Ratio, then entering Fig. UCS-66.1 at the calculated Ratio? Normally on the API
510 Exam, the Ratio is stated, and then aU that is required is to apply the graph of Fig.UCS-66.1.

Ifthe vessel is in a fixed stationary position and its coincident Ratio is below 1.0, the reduction allowed by
UCS-66(b) and Fig. UCS-66.1 may be taken only when the following is true.

@)(I): The MDMT is - 50 OF or warmer.


Ifthe MDMT is colder than - 50 OF.
@)(2): Impact testing is required of all materials unless @)(3) applies.
-
If the MDMT is colder than 50 OF but no colder than - 155 OF and the coincident Ratio of stress
is equal to or less than 0.35.
(b)(3): Impact testing is not required.

UCS-68 Design
w.
UCS-68(a) Design rules for carbon and low alloy steels stipulate requirements about construction of the
vessel or part. The main points are: mandatory joint types, required post weld heat treatments below -55 F
unless the vessel is installed in a fixed (stationary) location, and tbe coincident Ratio of stress is 0.35 or
greater.

UCS-68@) Welded joints must be postweld heat treated when required buy other rules of this Division or
when the MDMT is colder than - 50 OF and for vessel installed in a fixed (stationary) location the
coincident Ratio is 0.4 or greater.

UCS-68(c) Notice a reduction of 30 O F below that of Figure UCS-66 for P-I materials ifpost welded heat
treatment is performed wlren it is not otl~enuiserequired in the Code. This means that 30 OF can be
subbacted fiom the temperature found in Table UCS-66. If the adjusted temperature is below that desire,
Impact Tests are not required. It is exempt. If a statement about heat treatment is made in a particular
problem the task becomes finding out if heat treatment was required or not. If it is not mentioned, it must
be concluded that it was not performed and therefore the exemption cannot be taken.
Givens:

Material SA-516-70 normalized PLATE


Thickness 2"
Min. Yield 38 KSI
MDMT -25°F
coincident Ratio = .85

Step 1 Check for the exemptions of UG-20(f).

Our material applies to Curve D of Figure UCS-66 and exceeds the 1" limit for exemption. It also exceeds
the upper and lower temperature limits of 650 OF and - 20 OF.

Step 2 Checking Table UCS-66 and entering at our thickness on the left and moving across to
Curve D column, we find the MDMT of this thickness to be - 4 OF. This erert~ptiondoes rrot apph.

1 1/03 REV 12
Step 3 Check reduction or MDMT for coiocident Ratio

Enter the Figure UCS-66.1 at 0.85 and across to the curve, then down to read a temperature reduction
pemitted of 15°F.

The reduction of MDMT is 15'F.

New MDMT allowed witJ~outimpact tests is - 19 OF. Our MDMT will need to be - 25'F so we are not
evcrirplcd.

Step 4 Checking UCS-68, we find that we cannot take a reduction because PWHT is a
requirement of UCS-56 for this material's thickness.

-
Answer: Impact tests are required for the values of the MDMT of 25°F.

138 11103 REV 12


API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-20IUCS-66/68
Exercises

1. Name four steps (paragraphs) when looldng for exemptions fiom impact testing.

2. When are impact tests always mandatory for welded joints7

3. When are impact tests always mandatory for non-welded parts7

4. What is the minimum design temperature allowed for a 1 112 in thick plate c 5 Gr. 707

5. If the coincident Ratio is 0.6 for the plate of question number 4 what is it new minimum temperature
with out impact tests?

1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GEmRAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-77 Material Identification


Overview

The material for pressure parts must be handled in a particular way per the Code. For instance, the Code
specifies that materials for parts of a vessel should be laid out and marked in such a way as to easily
maintain trace ability after the vessel is completed

Several techniques for identification markings are allowed and are described in this paragraph. Stamping is
the preferred method of marking vessel parts; however, as built drawings and tabulation sheets are also
acceptable. The manufacturer must maintain trace ability to the original markings. For instance, when
cutting parts for the vessel fiomplate the heat number stamped on the piece of plate should be transferred
prior to cutting the plate. They may be transferred immediately after cutting if a provision for control of
such transfers has been made in the Manufacturer's Quality Control System. If a particular material should
not be die stamped, plates must be made and attached with the required markings. A record of these
markings must be maintained which will allow positive identification of the vessel parts after construction.

If a Code vessel manufacturer buys parts that are formed, such as heads, from another, the manufacturer of
the head shall transfer the markings as applies to the material specification that the part is made from The
part manufacturer can use only materials allowed by the Code. In addition, the part Manufacturer must
supply a Partial Data Report. A Manufacturer's Partial Data Report is not required if the part was formed
or forged, etc., without the use of welding. The markings of the Pas Manufacturer must be present on the
Part.

140 1 1103 REV 12


API 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-93 Inspection of Materials


Overview

The highlights of this paragraph are as follows:

1. Plate is the only pressure vessel material that rmst ohvnys /rave a Mill Test Report (MTR)or Certificate
of Compliance (C of C) provided. The inspector shall examine these documents for compliance to the
material specification.

2. All other product forms must be marked in accordance with their material specification. For example,
pipe marked SA-106 gr. B.

3. A11 materials to be used in a vessel must be inspected before fabrication to find as best as is possible
defects, which would affect the safety of the vessel. The following describes the irrspectiorls required.

a. Cut edges of and parts made kom rolled plate for serious laminations, shearing cracks, etc.

b. Materials, which will be impact tested, must be examined for surface cracks.

c. When forming a Category C comer joint as shown in fig. UW 13.2 with flat plate thicker than
112 in., the flat plate must be examined before welding by magnetic particle or dye penetrant
nondestructive examination. Exceptions fromthis NDE are given for certain joints of fig. UW-
13.2.

d The inspector must assure himself that thickness and other dimensions of the material comply
with the requirements of this Division.

e. The inspector must verify welded repairs to defects.

f The inspector must verify that all required tests have been performed and are acceptable
(impact tests, NDE etc.).

g. The inspector must continrimaterial I.D!s have been properly transferred

h. The inspector must confirm that there are no dimensional or material defects, perform internal
and external inspections and witness pressure tests.

1 1103 REV 12
.@I 510 MODULES
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
UG-116 Required Marking
Overview

The marking applied to a vessel's nameplate or directly to its sbell are described in this paragraph. It is
impofiant information. Often a vessel's Data Report is lost and the only information that is available is that
found on the Name Plate or the shell itself. In some cases the Name Plate is missing or sand blasted and not
readable. The following is a listing of what is requited by the Code to be present on the Name Plate.

1. The official Code U or U M symbol. If inspected by the OwnerNser of the vessel the word USER shall
be marked on the vessel.
2. Name of the manufacturer preceded by the words "CerbTied by ".
3. Maximum allowable working pressure psi at OF.
4. Minimum design metal temperature -OF at psi.
5. Manufacturer's serial number.
6. Year built.
7. The type of construction used for the vessel must be marked directly under the Code symbol by the use
of the appropriate letter as listed in the Code.
Type of Construction Letter(s)
Arc or gas welded W
Pressure welded (except resistance) P
Brazed B
Resistance welded RES
8. I f a vessel is built using more than one type of conshction all shall be indicated.
9. If a vessel is in a special senice the lettering as shown below must be applied.
Lethal Senice L
Unfired Steam Boiler UB
Direct Firing DF
Non-stationary Pressure Vessel NPV
10. The M A W must be based on the most restrictive part of the vessel.
11. When a complete vessel or parts of a vessel of welded constructionhave been radiographed in
accordance with UW-11, the marking must be as follows:
"RT 1" when all pressure retaining butt welds, other than B and C associated with nozzles and
communicating chambers that neither exceed NPS 10 nor 1-118 inch thickness have been radiographically
examined for their full length in a manner prescribed in UW 51, full radiography of the above exempted
Category B and C butt welds if performed, may be recorded on the Manufacturer' Data Report.
"RT 2" Complete vessel satisfies UW-1 l(a)(5) and UW- ll(a)(5)@) applied.
"RT 3" Complete vessel satisfies spot radiograpby ofUW-1 I@).
"RT 4" When only part of the vessel satisfies any of the above.
12. The letters HT must be used when the entire vessel bas been postweld heat treated.
13. The letter PHT when only part of the vessel bas been postweld heat treated.
14. Code symbol must be applied after hydro or pneumatic test.
15. Parts of vessels for which Partial Data Report are required shall be marked by the parts manufacturer
with the following:
"PART"
Name of the Manufacturer
The manufacturer's serial number.

These requirements do not apply to items like manhole covers, etc.


142 1 1/03 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
-
PART UG GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
UG-119 Nameplates
Overview

In this paragraph are the details of nameplates, including such things as the size and methods of markings
allowed. The nameplate must be located within 30 in. ofthe vessel and must be thick enough to resist
distortion when sta&ng is applied. The types of acceptable attachment types include welding, brazing,
and tamper resistant mechanical fasteners of metal conshuction. Adhesive attachments may be used if the
provisions of Appendix 18 are met An additional nameplate may be used if it is marked with the words "
DUPLICATE " . On previous tests some essay or multiple choice questions have come from this
paragraph. As with all paragraphs UG-119 should be read entirely.

CODE SYMBOL Certified by


Johns Trailer and Vessel Welding
350 psi at 300 O F
MATW

-O F @
-20 200 psi
MDMT

I Year 1994
I
You could be asked for the definition of any of these starnpings.

1 1103 REV 12
API 510 MODULES
-
PART UG GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-120 Data Reports


Overview
Data Reports must prepared on formu-1 or U-1A for all vessels that the Code Symbol will be applied to.
The Manufacturer and the Inspector must sign them. A single Data Report may represent all vessel made in
the same day production run if they meet all of the requirements listed in UG-120.

A copy of the Manufacturer's Data Report must be furnished to the User and upon request the Inspector.
The Manufacturer must either keep a copy of the Data Report on file for 5 years or register the vessel and
file the Data Report with the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors.

A Manufacturers Certificate of Compliance must be completed on form U-3 for all UM (unhred miniature)
stamped vessels.
A Paaial Data Report formu-2 or U-2A must be completed for parts of a vessel that require one (parts
bought from other manufacturers such as formed heads made with welding). These fonns must be attached
to forms U-1 or U-1A as applies for the vessel to be marked with the Code Symbol..
A Partial Data Report form U-2 or U-2A must be completed for parts of a vessel that are ordered to repair a
User's vessel.
If a vessel has any special senice requirements (Lethal, Unfired Steam Boiler, etc.) compliance must be
indicated on the appropriate "U"Form.

144 11103 REV 12