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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Research papers in violin acoustics, 1975-1993 / editor, Carleen Maley
Hutchins [i.e. Hutchins]; associate editor, Virginia Benade.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 1-56396-609-3 (set)
ISBN 1-56396-604-2 (vol. 1)
ISBN l-56396-608-5 (vol. 2)
1. Violin--Construction--Bibliography. 2. Music--Acoustics and physics--
Bibliography. I. Hutchins, Carleen Maley. II. Benade, Virginia.
ML128.V4R47 1996 96-16826
016.7 8'7 2' 19'01534--dc20 CIP
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xI Contents

The Flattening Effect ............ 112


Noise .................. 113
Subharmonics ............... ....... 113
"Higher Types" of Bowed String Motion .................. 113
Recent Theory and Computer Simulation.............. .....114
Papen 10. Benade, A. H. (1975). The wolf tone on violin family instruments,
Catgut Acoust. Soc. Newsletter 24,21-23. ................ 111
PepEn 11. Cremer, L. (1982). Consideration of the duration of transients in bowed
instruments, Catgut Acoust. Soc. Newsletter 38,13-18. ............. 121
Pepcn 12. Gough, C. (1984). The nonlinear free vibration of a damped elastic
string, J. Acoust. Soc. Am.75 (6),1770-1776. ..........129
Prprn 13. Hancock, M. (1989). The dynamics of musical strings, lll J. Catgut
Acowst. Soc.2d ser., 1 (3),33-45. ........:........... ........137
P.rprn 14. Hancock, M. (1991). The dynamics of musical strings, l2l J. Catgut
Acoust. Soc. Zd ser., L (.8),23-35. .......... 151
P.rpen 15. Kubota, H. (1987). Kinematical study of the bowed string, J. Acoust. Soc
Jpn. (J) 43 (5), 301-310 (in Japanese). English translation prepared for
this book by the author. ...... i65
P.rpen 16. Lawergren, B. (1983). Harmonics of S motion on bowed strings, .I.
Acoust. Soc. Am. 73 (6),2174-2179. ...... 177
Prprn 17. Legge, K. A. and Fletcher, N. H. (1984). Nonlinear generation of
missing modes on a vibrating string, J. Acoust. Soc. Am.76 (l),5-12. ......... 183
P*Bn 18. Mclntyre, M. E. and Woodhouse , J. (.1919). On the fundamentals of
bowed-string dynamics, Acustica 43 (2),93-108. ... 191

PnpBn 19. Mclntyre, M. E., Schumacher, R.T., and Woodhouse, J. (1981).


Aperiodicity in bowed-string motion, Acusticct 49 (l), 13-32. (See also
corigendum in Mclntyre et al., 1982.) ................. ...207
Papen 20. Mclntyre, M. E., Schumacher, R. T., and Woodhouse, J. (1982).
Aperiodicity in bowed-string motion: On the differential slipping
mechanism, Acustica 50 (4), 294-295. ...221
Papsn 21. Pickering, N. C. (1985). Physical properties of violin strings, J. Catgut
Acoust. Soc. 44,6-8. ............ ..................229
Pr'psB22. Pickering, N. C. (1986a). Elasticity of violin strings, J. Catgut Acoust.
Soc. 46,2-3............. ............233
Pepsn 23. Pickering, N. C. (1989). Nonlinear behavior in overwound violin strings,
J. Catgut Acoust. Soc.2d ser., 1 (3), 46-50 ...............237
P.rprn 24. Schumacher, R. T. (1979). Self-sustained oscillations of the bowed string,
Acustica 43 (2),109-120. ...243
P.rprn 25. Schumacher, R. T. (1994). Measurements of some parameters of bowing,
J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96 (4), 1985-1998. .....................255
P.rpen 26. Weinreich, G. and Causs6, R. (i986). Electronic bows: Digital and analog,
Proceedings, l2th International Congress on Acoustics, Toronto, 1986,
Vol. III, paper K3-7 ...........269
P.rprn 27. Woodhouse, J. (1993a). On the playability of violins, Part I: Reflection
functions, Acustica 78, 125-136 ........... 271
Papr,n 28. Woodhouse, J. (1993b). On the playability of violins, Part II: Minimum
bow force and transients. Acwstica 78. 131-153 .......283
c. THE BOW ....... 301
Commentary ................ .........303
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xii I Contents

Papsn 45. Molin, N.-E. and Jansson, E. V. (1989). Transient wave propagation
in wooden plates for musical instruments, J. Acoust. Soc. Am.85 (5),
2t79-2184. ......435
PapEB 46. Molin, N.-8., Lindgren, L.-E., and Jansson, E. V. (1988). Parameters of
violin plates and their influence on the plate modes, J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
83 (1), 281-290. ...................44t
Papr,n 47. Moral, J. A. and Jansson, E. V. (1982). Eigenmodes, input admittance,
and the function of the violin, Acttstica 50 (5), 329-337; a shorter version
was publishedinCatgut Acoust. Soc. Newsletter34,29-32 (1980). ..............453
Peprn 48. Rodgers, O. E. (1988). The effect of the elements of wood stiffness on
violin plate vibration, J. Catgut Acoust. Soc.2d ser., 1 (1), 2-8. .................... 463
Papen 49. Rodgers, O. E. (1990a). Influence of local thickness changes on violin
plate frequencies, -I. Catgut Acoust. Soc.2d ser., L (5), 13-16. ...477
P.qprn 50. Rodgers, O. E. (1990b). Relative influence of plate arching and plate
thickness patterns on violin back free plate tuning, l. Catgut Acoust. Soc.
2d ser., I (6),29-33 .............. 475
Papen 51 . Rodgers, O. E. (1991b). Influence of local thickness changes on violin
top plate frequencies, J. Catgut Acoust. Soc.2d ser., 1 (7), 6-10................... 481
Peppn 52. Rodgers, O. E. (1993). Influence of local thickness changes on violin top
plate frequencies, Parl 2, J. Catgut Acoust. Soc.2d ser., 2 (3),74-16. ..........487
Peppn 53. Thompson, R. (1979). The effect of variations in relative humidity on
the frequency response of free violin plates, Catgut Acoust. Soc.
Newsletter 32,25-27 . ........ 491
G. MODES OF THE COMPLETED VIOLIN BODY ......,........,.495
Early Work ..........497
Hologram Interferometry.............. .......... 499
Modal Analysis ... 500
Finite-Element Analysis ................. ......... 501
PepBn 54. Knott, G. A. (1987). A modal analysis of the violin using MSC/
NASTRAN and PATRAN, M.Sc. thesis, Naval Postgraduate School,
Monterey, CA, March 1987. .......... ........507
Peppn 55. Marshall, K. D. (1985). Modal analysis of a violin, J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
77 (2),695-709. ................... 551
Pepnn 56. Molin, N.-E, Wehlin, A. O., and Jansson, E. V. (1990). Transient wave
response of the violin body (Letter to the Editor), J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
88 (5), 2479-248t. ...............567
Papen 57. Molin, N.-E., Wihlin, A. O., and Jansson, E. V. (1991). Transient wave
response of the violin body revisited (Letter to the Editor), J. Acoust. Soc.
Am. 90 (4),2192-2195............. ............... 571
Prptn 58. Robefis, G. W. (1986a). Finite element analysis of the violin, extract
from Vibrations of shells and their relevance to musical instruments.
section of a doctoral dissertation, University College, Cardiff, Wales,
uK. ............ .......515
Prpen 59. Rodgers, O. E. (1991a). Effect on plate frequencies of local wood
removal from violin plates supported at the edges, J. Catgut Acoust. Soc.
2d ser., 1(8),7-11. ............... ................591
H. \-IOLIN AIR CAVITY RBSONANCE MODES
Commentary ................ .......599
Prprn 60. Bissinger, G. (1992a). Effect of f-hole shape, area, and position on violin
cavity modes below 2kHz, J. Catgut Acoust. Soc.2d ser., 2 (2), 12-17. ...... 603
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xiv I Contents

J. WOOD .................76s
violin-Makirs P.";,;;;;............ ............ . ........ .......... 768
The Wood of the 17th- and 18th-Century Violins ................ ...........170
Wood Properties ... 771
Moisture in Wood .................775
Acoustical Properties ..............775
Effect of Wood Properties .....776
Graphite-Epoxy Sandwich for Soundboards ................. ...................777
New Analysis Techniques ............... ..........7'78
Papen 78. Bonamini, G., Chiesa, V., and Uzielli, L. (1991). Anatomical features
and anisotropy in spruce wood with indented rings, -I. Catgut Acoust. Soc.
2d ser., I (8),12-16 .............. 781
Prprn 79. Bucur, V. (1987). Varieties of resonance wood and their elastic
constants, J. Catgut Acoust. Soc. 47, 4248. ............ 787
Peppn 80. Bucur, V. (1988). Wood structural anisotropy estimated by acoustic
invariants, IAWA Bull. n.s.,g (l),61-74 ...................195
PepBn 81. Bucur, V., Saied, A., and Attal, J. (1992).Identification of wood
anatomical elements by acoustic microscopy, J. Catgut Acoust. Soc. 2d
ser.,2 (I), 41. ... 803
P,rpen 82. Caldersmith, G. W. (1988). Vibration theory and wood properties II,
J. Catgut Acoust. Soc. 2d ser., I (2),7-10. ................ 805
Pepsn 83. Dunlop, J. I. (1978). Damping loss in wood at mid kiloherlz frequencies,
Wood Science and Technology 12,49-62. ................ 809
Peppn 84. Dunlop, J. I. (1989). The acoustic properties of wood in relation to
stringed musical instruments, Acoustics Australia 17 (2),3740. ..................823
PepBn 85. Dunlop, J. I. and Shaw, M. (1991). Acoustical properties of some
Australian woods, J. Catgut Acoust. Soc. 2d ser., I (7),17-20 ...827
Papsn 86. Fryxell, R. (1990). Further studies of "moisture breathing" by wood,
J. Catgut Acoust. Soc.2d ser., 1 (5), 37-38 ............... 831
Papsn 87. Fulton, W. (1992). The bent violin top and back plate, J. Catgut Acoust.
Soc. 2d ser., 2 (1),24-21 . .... 833
Papen 88. Haines, D. W. (1919). On musical instrument wood. Catgut Acousl. .Soc.
Newsletter 31,23-32. .......... 837
Pepsn 89. Haines, D. W. (1980). On musical instrument wood-Part II. Surface
finishes, plywood, light and water expostre, Catgut Acoust. Soc.
Newsletter 33, 19-23. .......... 849
Papsn 90. Haines, D. W. and Chang, N. (1975). Application of graphite composites
in musical instruments, Catgut Acoust. Soc. Newsletter 23, 13-15................ 855
Pappn 91. Mclntyre, M. E. and Woodhouse, J. (1988). On measuring the elastic
and damping constants of orlhotropic sheet materials, Acta Metall.
36 (6), t397-t416. .............. 859
Pepsn 92. Miiller, H. A. (1986). How violin makers choose wood and what
the procedure means from a physical point of view, paper presented at
Catgut Acoustical Society International Symposium on Musical
Acoustics, Hartford, CT............. ............. 879
Papen 93. Rodgers, O. E. (1992). The adequacy of thin shell finite element analysis
methods and a comment on bent plates, J. Catgut Acoust. Soc. 2d ser.,2
(1), 37-38. 885

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xvi I Contents

M. THE CATGUT ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY ............ ................ 1067


Commentary ... 1069
Pepnn 111. Catgut Acoustical Society. (1981). The Violin Octet (Catgut Acoustical
Society, Montclair, NJ), 12 pp. .............. ..'............... 1073
Peprn 112. Catgut Acoustical Society. (1994). Author Index to Newsletters and
Journals (1964-1994.). (Catgut Acoustical Society, Montclair, NJ). ........... 1087
Pepsn 113. Hutchins, C. M. (1967). Founding a family of fiddles, Physics Today
20 (2),23-37. tt21
Pepnn 114. Hutchins, C. M. (1992b). A 3O-year experiment in the acoustical and
musical development of violin-family instruments, /. Acoust. Soc. Am.
92 (2), Pt. l, 639-650. ................. 1 133

N. ACOUSTIC THEORY AND RESEARCH TECHNIQUES ......... ........... 1145


Commentary ................ .."...ll47
PepEx 115. Benade, A. H. (1987). Musical acoustics entry in Encyclopedia of
Physical Science and Technology,Yol.8, pp. 620-649 (Academic Press,
New York) ......1149
Pnpen 116. Mclntyre, M. E. and Woodhouse, J. (1978). The acoustics of stringed
musical instruments, Interdiscip. Sci. Rev.3 (2), 157-173. .............:............ ll79
Pnpnn 117. Mclntyre, M. 8., Schumacher, R. T., and Woodhouse, J. (1983).
On the oscillations of musical instruments, J. Acoust. Soc- Am.
74 (5),1325-1345. ............1197
Pnpr,n 118. Schumacher, R. T. (1992). Analysis of aperiodicities in nearly periodic
waveforms, J. Acoust. Soc. Am.9L (1), 438451. ... l2l9
............
TrrE FUTURE ......1233
Commentary .-- 1255
Pepr,n 119. Hutchins, C. M. (1992a). The future of violin research, J. Catgut Acoust.
Soc.2d ser., 2 (1) 1-7. 1237

Pepnn 120. Pace, A. (1993). A Baroque queen embalmed, The Strad January L993,

Pepsn 121. Weinreich, G. (1993). Klopsteg Memorial Lecture (August 1992): What
science knows about violins-and what it does not know, Am. J. Phys. 6l
t247
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4 I Part I: 350Years of Violin Research

.-a-.---.a=:'*-a I aq

FIGURE 1. Exploded view of a Stradivarius-pattern viola showing the inside of the top plate with bassbar,
the ribs with blocks and linings, and the back with soundpost in its approximate position, where it is fitted
between top and back and held in place by friction in the completed instrument. The cross-section through
the middle of the instrument shows the relative position of bassbar and soundpost. The purfling consists of
three thin strips of wood inlaid around the edges of top and back. (Courtesy of Scientific American.)

In discussing the stylistic problems of the modem luthier, Antonio Pace (1982, p. 12) suggests
that
a stay, however brief, in the conspicuously baroque city of Turin would give the would-
be luthier a vision of the broad urban landscape in which the violin evolved. A perfor-
mance of Monteverdr's Incoronazione di Poppea in the Scala Theater of Milan, for
example, or of Cimaros a's Matrimonio Segreto in the exquisite little 1Sth-century Teatro
Carignano, again of Turin, would reveal the violin intimately in one of its most conge-
nial settings, namely, as an integral element in the great operatic synthesis of architec-
ture, spectacle, music, drama and poetry usually considered one of the most complete
expressions of the baroque spirit.

1550
This was a time when Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) in Poland was developing the con-
cept of the sun-centered rather than the earth-centered world. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) in
Germany was studying planetary motion and laying the foundation of modern dynamical astronomy'
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) was using his telescopic investigations to prove that the earth revolves
around the sun, developing his pioneer work in gravitation and motion and reestablishing the basis
of mathematical rationalism. According to Dostrovsky (1976),
Almost all 17th century discoveries in the physics of sound and vibration resulted from
the realization that the sensation of pitch is appropriately quantified by vibrational
frequency (that pitch corresponds to frequency). At least since the time of ancient Greece
musical intervals had been represented by ratios obtained from relative lengths of simi-
lar strings, at the same tension, sounding these intervals. These length ratios formed the
basis for the arithmetical music theories of antiquity and the middle ages. Toward the
end of the Renaissance, when arithmetical dogmatism in music was being criticized,
the ratios seemed arbitrary: why, for example, length rather than tension or thickness?
To demonstrate this problem, around 1590, Vincenzo Galilei (the father of Galileo) did
possibly the first experiments in acoustics'

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6 I Part I: 350Years of Volin Research

YNTAGMATIS I{uSICI
N4 ICH/ELIS PR/ETORTT C,

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AnnoChriftl. M. DG.XIX'

Six instruments lrom Plates V and XXI in I'raetorius, l6l9'

FIGURE 2. Six instruments from Plates V and XXI of the Syntagmatis Musici, by Michael Praetorius,
given in Brunswick ft (l
published in l619 (reprint ed., Brirenreiter Kassel, Basel, 1958). Dimensions are
11.235 English in.). The body length of the Bas Geige de bracio is 33% in.
and the Gross
Brunswick ft =
Contra-Bas-Geige is 53Vzin. These measurements can be compared with similar instruments of the Violin
at 51 in'
Octet (see Fig. 1, Sec. M): the baritone violin, at 34 in., and the contra bass violin,
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8 I Part I: 350Years of Volin Research

F6lix Savart
The first scientist who we know experimented directly with the violin was F6lix Savarl (1791-
1841), a physician and physicist working in Paris in the early 19th century when luthiers were
changing the neck and string dynamics of violins and taking their tops off to install the heavier
bassbars. Foremost among the French violin makers was Jean Baptiste Vuillaume (1798-1875),
who is known to have made these alterations on many fine early violins. Savart reported that "it is
through the kindness of M. Vuillaume, distinguished instrument maker of Paris, that we owe the
great number of violins on which we have worked. He has put at our disposal several violins by
Stradivari, Guarneri, and others and has shown azealand devotion for science which we are pleased
to recognize here" (Savar1, 1840a, transl. D. Fletcher).
Savart was particularly concerned with the sounds in the free top and back plates of these
instruments. There is no record of whether Savart studied the free top and back plates of the old
master violins loaned him by Vuillaume before or after the installation of the heavier bassbars. It is
conceivable that Vuillaume had these instruments apaft so that he could adapt them for the more
powerful sound output in demand at the time, and so was able to allow Savart to test the free plates.
Savart invented a cog-wheel measuring machine with which he could check the frequencies of
the normal modes in the disassembled violin plates. He identified the normal modes by mounting
each plate horizontally, sprinkling it with fine powder, and vibrating it by bowing with a rosined
violin bow at various points along its edges. The bending vibrations in the plate cause the powder to
bounce into the nonvibrating nodal areas, thus revealing the nodal and antinodal regions of each
plate at its specific frequencies of resonance. Ernst F. F. Chladni (17 56-1824), an amateur musician
who designed and built some instruments of the glass-harmonica type, had developed this method
(now known as the Chladni pattern method) to observe the modes of vibration of flat metal and
glass plates of various shapes (Chladni, 1809). These plate resonances, or normal modes, are deter-
mined by the physical properties of stiffness and mass basic to the standing wave patterns that are
formed in response to vibration at discrete resonance frequencies unique to each plate. Savart used
the method on a flat trapezoidal violin which he constructed for experimental purposes (Fig. 3).
(By this method it is almost impossible to observe the nodal patterns on the outside of the arched
plates of an assembled violin because the powder simply rolls off.)
Savart (1840a, transl. D. Fletcher) reported that:
to obtain the sounds, the tables are held with wooden pincers at the crossing of two
nodal lines, one transverse, the other longitudinal, corresponding to the two directions

G G

FIGURE 3. Savarl's trapezoidal violin. (Savart, 1819b.)


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6 I q)nasay u11o11to sruai 0St :I uDd
l0 I Port t: 350 Years of Volin Research

r{=i-**-- --_ -.-


FIGURE 4. The octobasse of J. B. Vuillaume and F. Savart in action [from Casimir Colomb, La Musique
(Libraire Hachette, paris, 1878)1. Three of these were designed and constructed and reportedly used by
Hector Berlioz to augment the low tones of his symphonic works. One octobasse is now in the collection
of
the Mus6e Instrumental du Conservatoire National Sup6rieur de Musique de Paris'

1874 a somewhat different apparatus for illustrating the components of a complex tone was
In
developed by Alfred Mayer of Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, New Jersey. This con-
sisted of a free reed pipe which had part of its wooden chamber replaced by a piece of leather to
which were attached eight silk cocoon flbers with their opposite ends attached to eight tuning
forks, each mounted on a resonating box and tuned to the first eight partials of the reed. When the
reed was sounded, each fork sang out loudly and with such accuracy that intervals ofone cent
(1/
100 of a semitone) could be heard clearly by a group of observers (Mayer, 1876)'
Helmholtz observed the now-famous Helmholtz sawtooth waveform characteristic of the bowed
string with the aid of a vibration microscope proposed by the French physicist Lissajous (1822-
1880). Studying the bow-string interaction, he noted the vibrational form of individual points on
the bowed itring, with the result that he could calculate the motion of the whole string and the
amplitudes of its upper partial tones. As far as we have been able to detetmine, Helmholtz was the
firsi to recognize tt ut tn" periodic impulse produced by the stick-slip action of the rosined bow
hairs on the rosined string sets up a regime of oscillation in which the upper vibration components
are maintained in simple harmonic relation to the fundamental. This harmonic relationship is
in
contrast to the vibrations of the plucked string, where the stiffness of the string itself acts to raise
the frequency of the higher partials. (See Part II-B, The Bowed String.)
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12 I Part I: 350Years of Violin Research

8<<<8
FIGURE 6. Sketch of Blackburn's pendulum, used by Lord Rayleigh to illustrate the physical basis of
Lissajous' figures. (Rayleigh, 1894-96, p. 31 of the 1945 Dover reprint.)

for motion perpendicular to this plane, the bob turns about D, carrying the wire ACB
a
with it. The periods of vibration in the principle planes are in the ratio of the square
roots of CP and DP. Thus if DC equals 3CP, the bob describes the figure of the octave.
To obtain the sequence of curves coresponding to approximate unison (a single el-
lipse), ACB must be so nearly tight, that CD is relatively small. (Rayleigh, 1894-96; p.
31 of the 1945 Dover rePrint.)

Research on the bowed string that was done before 1900 by O. Krigar-Mensel and A. Raps is
discussed in Parl II-B, The Bowed String.
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NOTTVIA\ilU CNnOS 'V
20 I Sound Radiation

RESPONSE CURVE

sine sweep
B & K, o.2s"'
mike Oo
14"

"o.Rj'vioLlN

hand
bowing 8()
80

db
70

IOO I OOO
Hz
..SAUN
DERS LOUDNESS CURVE
FIGURE l. Comparison between response curve (upper chart) made with a sine-wave (single-frequency)
a
a violin to generate the broad-
input and a so-called "loudness curve" (lower chart) made by hand bowing
Notice that there are no large peaks
band input of the bowed string that is picked up by a sound-level meter'
below 214Hz in the ."rponr" .u.re, while there are two in the
"loudness curve." These come from so-called
second-harmonic reinforcement. (C. M. Hutchins, 1973, Fig' 12')

R.q.orlrnp IxrnNsrrv a.s .q. FuNcrroN or FnpQunNcv


The sound waves radiated by a violin activated by the broad-band input
from a bowed string
are in an essentially har-
contain all the partials of the fundamental note played. These partials
monicseriessothattheylieinsimplemultiplesofthefundamental: 1,2,3,4,""(Themechanism
Part II-B, The Bowed String')
that creates this situation despite siring stifiness is described here in
would contain
For example, if one were to bow A,-Z2O Hz on the low violin G string, the tone
the air of the
paftials ui ++0H2,660 Hz, 880 Hz, etc. Then if any part of the instrument, including
quality of that parlial is
cavity, resonates at one of the partial frequencies, the amplitude and sound
enhanced. Thus the quality of the sound heard depends largely on the strength of the various par-
tials as they are affected by the resonance modes of the instrument.
present understanding ls tnat the violin, except for the bowed string, is essentially a linear
response curves (which
system. Thus when it is a-ctivated with a single-frequency sine wave, the
are present in the bowed string
are a transfer function) do not contain the effects of the partials that
is highly nonlinear, pro-
tests. [The action or the bowed string (see Part II-B, The Bowed String)
string test, (made by
ducing all the partials of the fundamental tone.l Figure 1 compares a bowed
power output measured in
bowing each semitone as loudly as possible with its maximum sound
instrument. Notice that there is
decibles on a sound level meteri, with a sine wave test of the same
"air" mode aI27 4 Hz'
no strong reinforcement of the sound below the frequency of the Helmholtz
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req8rq eerql oql ruoq seuol aql i.(poq uqor,,r. eqlJo ecuuuosal IeluetuepunJ eql ueql Je,^Aol
eJe seuol esoql ecurs eq lsnl'U 1r peepur se '{eo,^A sr IelueruEpunJ eql 'spunos re,^aol eql JoJ
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22 I Sound Radiation

FIGURE 3. F. A. Saunders in specially built corner of Cruft Acoustical Laboratory of Harvard University,
ca. 1935. (C. M. Hutchins, 1983a, Fig. 9, p. 1428 courtesy of F. A. Saunders.)

under his foot that controls the four-second sweep of a heterodyne analyzer whereby the frequency
and amplitude of the first 10 harmonics of each bowed tone were recorded. With this equipment a
spectrum (a graphic display of harmonic structure) was obtained for each note of an octave of
semitones played on each string (Fig. 4). The amplitudes of the harmonics for each tone on the
violin were then mathematically combined to give the overall "response" curves. Such response
curves for three Stradivarius violins are shown in Fig. 5 (Saunders,1937). Before computers, the
calculations to produce these curves took about a week.
Figure 6 shows the endless-hair bowing setup of Hermann Meinel (1904-1917) in Germany
with the electronics of the 1930s. Using this device combined with harmonic analysis of each
bowed tone, Meinel made many response curves, not only comparing the finest violins with medio-
cre ones, but also relating the characteristics of the curves to subjective evaluation of each instru-
ment. At a meeting of the Acoustical Society of America in I 956 he presented a paper summarizing
his many years of work using such "response curves" (Fig. 7). Meinel (1957) wrote:
In regard to the superb violin timbre the following peculiarities are significant:
(1) Large amplitudes at low frequencies in the response curve mean large amplitudes for
the low harmonics of the sounds. Subjectively, this means that the sounds are agree-
ably sonorous and that they "carry" well.
(2) Small amplitudes at high frequencies (above about 3000 cps) give the sound a harmo-
nious softness and a fine, pure response; see also the results of F. A. Saunders and G.
Pasqual in i.
(3) Small amplitudes near 1500 cps prevent a very nasal character. Such a condition is
likewise very favorable to the tone quality of other instruments.
(4) If the region from 2000 up to 3000 cps is stressed the sound acquires a very agreeable,
pithy, and dull brightness. Less good violins do not exhibit these signs of quality to
the same degree.
B. A.Yankovskii (1904-1977), in the Moscow Experimental Factory for Musical lnstruments,
used an ingenious method of evaluation of violin tone whereby the body of the violin is excited
impulsively in conjunction with spectral analysis. Tapping was applied automatically by a steel
ball with a period of four seconds against a tiny boxwood plate cemented to the bridge of the
instrument-a method which has the imporlant advantage that there is no loading of the violin,
which vibrates freely after each tap. Yankovskii (1966) claimed good correlation between this
method and expert musical evaluations.
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'3lg ul u1r\oqs se euol
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24 I Sound Radiation

FIGURE 6. Hermann Meinel's test set-up using an endless-hair bowing device. (Meinel, 1931b, Fig. 1, p.
r 61.)

Another interesting way of recording violin output using hand bowing is the so-called "long-
time-average-spectra" UIAS) method of E.V. Jansson, J. F. Sundberg, andA. Gabrielsson (Jansson,
1974; Jansson and Sundberg, 1975; Gabrielsson and Jansson,1919. Paper 5, this section). This
method was developed in an effort to relate the recorded parameters of the air-borne sound source
(the violin) to perceived tone quality. Experiments showed that recordings made in the reverbera-
tion chamber are little influenced by playing position and microphone placement, while the player
and instrument provide the larger influences. Comparisons with recordings made in an anechoic
chamber displayed grossly the same peaks and dips, but the level was greatly dependent on the
direction of recording. The units of "BARK" correspond to the critical bands of hearing (Jansson,
1974; Zwicker and Feldtkeller, 1967). (See Fig. 8.)

Hopf. Xliog.nthol. tBrO


wkrc obGrt $ 50

7.b Ant. Stmdivoriur, 1717,


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FIGURE 7. H. Meinel's response curves of a Stradivarius violin of very good tone quality and a Hopf
Klingenthal violin of mediocre quality. (Meinel, 1957, Fig. 2, p. 818.)

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26 I Sound Radiation

tions of excitation (Kondo et aI.,1980). The method of picking up the sounds from the violin is also
very important, not only the type of microphone, but also its distance and position relative to the
surface of the violin. In addition, the environmental conditions in which the violin is tested are of
great imporlance. Tests in an anechoic or semi-anechoic chamber willbe quite different from those
made in a partially reverberant room where the room characteristics are added to the test results.
The disadvantage of an anechoic chamber is that much of the directional output is not recorded,
especially when only one microphone is used (see Radiated Intensity as a Function of Both Direc-
tion and Frequency in this section). Ambient temperature and humidity are also important. Studies
show that wood, even when varnished on one side, absorbs moisture very slowly over a period of
months and will lose the same amount in a few hours (Fryxell, 1965, 1981). Also the frequencies of
the normal mode or Chladni patterns of free violin plates change considerably with varying amounts
of humidity [Thompson, 1979 (Paper 53, Sec. F)].
Except as the player holds and bows his instrument there is no completely realistic way to hold
and vibrate a violin. Thus each researcher has had to make certain compromises in his test meth-
ods, with the result that only tests made in a given laboratory under carefully controlled conditions
can be used to compare one violin to another. Such tests cannot be compared in detail with those of
another laboratory where not only are the holding and vibrating conditions different, but also the
test environment-temperature, humidity, and room acoustics.
As an example of such differences Fig. 9 shows a comparison of response curves of the same
violin made with the Phillips system and the Hutchins system at the Physikalische Technische
Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig, Germany, by Werner Lottermoser. Many hundreds of such re-
sponse curves have been made in various laboratories, each with its own test facility and evaluation
methods. Evaluation is done by comparing charts of the radiated intensity of ordinary violins with
charts made under identical conditions of violins with acknowledged superiority of tonal qualities
(see the quotation from H. Meinel in an earlier subsection, Response Curves Made via the Bowed
String; also see Backhaus, 1936; Lottermoser, 1958, 1968; Lottermoser and J. Meyer, 1951; Meinel,
1937b,1957 E. Meyer and Buchmann, 1931; J. Meyer, 1957; Pasqualini, 1940; Saunders, 1937,
1946, t9s3).

horizontal d rive

Phillips system Hutchins system

'o:5
KHz

Ludw. Aschauer (Haself ichte) Violin


W. LOTTERMOSER, P. T. B. , Braunsweig, 1970
FIGURE 9. Comparison of the response curves of Ludwig Aschauer's "Haselfichte" violin as measured by
W. Lottermoser, PTB, Braunschweig, 1970, using two different vibrating systems. (C.M.Hutchins, 1973,
Fie. 8.)

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28 I Sound Radiation

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FIGURE L0. Measured directional characteristics of a violin in the x,z plane, in linear scale (after Meinel).
The upper part of the figure shows wavelength large in comparison to source dimensions: 290 Hz (solid
line); 517 Hz (dashed line). The middle part of the figure shows wavelength comparable to source dimen-
sions: 922 Hz (solid line); 950 Hz (dashed line);977 Hz (dot-dash line). The lower par-t of the figure shows
wavelength small in comparison to source dimensions: 2323 Hz (solid line); 2630 Hz (dashed line).

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30 I Sound Radiation

FIGURE 12. Boom system of G. Weinreich and E. Arnold for measuring the characteristics of the acoustic
field surrounding the violin. [Weinreich and Arnold, 1980 (Paper 9, Sec. A), Fig. 1, p. 406.]

latitude" or a "meridian of longitude" so that the two microphones may be placed anywhere on
their respective spheres with precision. Using the acoustic pressure as the primary field quantity,
they represent it as an expansion of spherical waves which can be calculated by means of known
functions so that knowledge of the field becomes equivalent to knowledge of the expansion coeffi-
cients of the outgoing and incoming waves as long as the measurements include phases as well as
amplitudes. Details are described for the acoustical and mechanical constraints of the boom system
and the measurement procedures and calculations based on the spherical Hankel functions, as well
as the characteristics of the sound source and the data recording system with illustrative results.
Another method of measuring the radiation characteristics from the surface of a vibrating body
is acoustical holography, which has been used on the violin only to a limited extent so far. This
involves picking up the surface radiation in the near field by an open plane array of over 200 small
electret microphones (or by a scanning robotic microphone). The violin is mounted horizontally on
three foam pads beneath this array in a partially anechoic chamber and is vibrated sinusoidally at
each resonance frequency by means of a small electromagnet placed close to the steel violin string
near the bridge. Time sequences are obtained for each microphone through high-speed digital sam-
pling, Fourier transformed, and the amplitude and phase information for each point in the array
stored in a mini-computeq with the information processed to determine the pressure, pafiicle ve-
locity, and vector intensity in the half-space above the violin. The vector intensity is especially
important since it gives the magnitude and direction of the acoustic energy produced by the violin,
making it possible to trace the acoustic energy as it flows around and away from the instrument or
is absorbed back into it (Strong and Torick, l98Z), as shown in Fig. 13.
The sound radiation from a double bass has been visualizedby Jan Tro et al.11983 (Paper 8,
this section)l using intensity vectors obtained with a two-microphone technique to map the energy
flow around the instrument. The authors indicate that this method, combined with subjective mea-
surements, could form a useful tool for evaluating sound radiation and help to avoid bad micro-
phone placement in near-field sound recordings.

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32 I Sound Radiation

violin behavior critical to musical quality which could have bearing on the legacy of the original
masters.
H. Diinnwald has developed a method of comparing the sound output of violins of varying
quality at seven far-field locations in an anechoic chamber with the exciting-force spectrum and the
loudness curves of the human ear to calculate the level of each partial of each quarter tone from I 96
to 650 Hz. He then uses available criteria to categorize the sound quality of each note, and a
statistical approach to distinguish the overall sound qualities of bowed tones in the more than 700
violins he has tested. Most of the old Italian instruments and a few others of recognized quality
were in a category by themselves. These were equalled by only a small percentage of the more
recent instruments, whether made by master craftsmen, factories, or hobbyists. This technique
provides a cumbersome, but statistically reliable, way to calculate the perceived sound of an instru-
ment [Diinnwald, 1985, 1990 (Paper 3, this section), 1991 (Paper 4, this section)].

Foumnn AN.q,r.vsrs a.No rnB Coxsu.Nr- Q Tnaxsronlr


Today, computer-based Fourier analysis provides researchers with almost instantaneous infor-
mation on the harmonic content of bowed violin tones-a long way from the time-consuming
methods of Helmholtz and Saunders described earlier! In the standard Fourier transform, the data
points range from zero to the Nyquist frequency (ll2 the sampling rate) plotted at spacings related
io the window width of the analysis. Thus Fourier estimates are equal in number at octaves in the
low-frequency end of the spectrum and double in number with each octave increase.
The constant-Q transform provides a similar harmonic analysis, but is produced with an equal
number of points in each octave. This gives a more useful representation of the spectral shape

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FIGURE 14. Each time slice is a constant-Q transform of a violin made by recording and analyzing a bowed
glissando on each of the four strings with computer analysis and display. The trace at the back (top) of the
the amplitude at each frequency maximized over the preceding time slices. (By J' E. Miller,
"hurt."p."r"nts
1993.)

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34 I Sound Radiation

by strong bowing at a1l fundamental frequencies, the summary trace provides an attempted esti-
mate of output at each quafter-tone frequency of which the instrument is capable.
Figure l5 (top) was produced as the result of real-time computation in an endeavor to estimate
more closely than the above method the maximum output across the spectrum of an instrument
when played. A PC hosting an A/D converter and DSP chip (Ariel DSP-16 TMS325) was used to
digitize the output of a microphone, into which a violin was played, compute the Q transfotm, and
display the result on the CRT screen. The procedure was ongoing in real time with the spectral
traces ovelplotted so as to build a composite spectral shape. The player continued bowing in front
of the computer with maximum intensity at all fundamental frequencies until satisfied that no
changes could be achieved in the resulting display. The final output in this case comes closer to
describing the spectral profile of the violin than in the previous figure where the summary trace is
a one-shot production (glissando) of the acoustic input. Figure 15 (bottom) is a replot of the enve-
lope of data in 14 (top) using a linear dB amplitude scale. [See J. E. Miller, 1993 (Paper 7, this
section).1 These techniques seem very promising, but it should be noted that great care needs to be
taken to account for the acoustic properties of the room and placement of the microphone as well as
the position and motions of the player. (See Benade, 1985, for a discussion of room acoustics and
player motion.)

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36 I Sound Radiation
filter bank and its similarity to the auditory system has been
explored in two recent theses2'r that reference previous work
extensively. The article by Higginsa is recommended as a
background discussion of sampling effects in the calculation
ofthe discrete Fourier transform for those wishing to review
the techniques ofdigital signal processing. The theory ofthe
short-time Fourier Transform was originally developed by
Schroeder and Atal.s More recently, it has been extensively
reviewed by Nawob and Quatieri in an excellent article.6
Various schemes for implementing constant Q spectral
DIFFERENCES
ooo
a@o analysis outside a musical context have been published.T 'l
N)oA Gambaradella'' 'r demonstrates equivalence of the constant
N)O
Q transform to the Mellin transformra and the existence of
the inverse transform. This is of importance if manipulation
of the signal in the spectral domain followed by transforma-
tion back to the time domain is desired. Most recently
FIG. l. Pattern ofFourier transform ofharmonic frequency components
plotted against log (frequency ). Teaney et al.r5 have calculated a "tempered Fourier trans-
form" using four A-to-D conversions. They then exploit the
"perfect" ratios for the musical intervals of an octave,
fourth, and fifth to further reduce the complexity of the cal-
culation.
nals), the resolution is 31.3 Hz. At the low end of the range Music researchers at the Center for Computer Research
for a violin, the frequency of G.., is 196H2 so this resolution is in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA)r6 at Stanford have used
l6Vo ofthe frequency. a "Bounded Q " Transform similar to that of Harris.8 They
This is much greater than the 67o frequency separation calculate a fast transform and discard frequency samples ex-
for two adjacent notes tuned in equal temperament. At the cept for the top octave. They then filter, downsample by a
upper end of the piano range, the frequency of Cr is 4786H4 factor of 2, and calculate another FFT with the same number
and 31.3 Hz is equal to0.77o of the center frequency. Thus at of points as before, which gives twice the previous resolution.
this end, we are calculating far more frequency samples than From this they keep the second highest octave. The proce-
are needed. dure is repeated until they arrive at the lowest octave desired.
It is thus clear that for musical applications the use of The advantage of this method is that they have the speed of
the conventional Fourier transform is inefficient. What is the FFT, with variable frequency and time resolution and
needed is information about the spectral components pro- are thus able to optimize information for both frequency and
duced across the wide frequency range of a particular musi- time.
cal instrument. The resolution should be geometrically relat- Kronland-MartinetrT and others have employed a "wa-
ed to the frequency, e.g.,3Vo of the frequency in order to velet transform" for musical analysis and synthesis. This is a
distinguish between frequencies with semitone (6Vo) spac- constant Q method similar to the Fourier transform and to
ing. Thus the frequencies sampled by the discrete Fourier this method but based on a theoretical treatment for the use
transform should be exponentially spaced and, ifwe require ofso-called "wavelets" as generalized basis functions. Their
quartertone spacing, this gives a variable resolution of at method has been successful as a compositional tool where
most (2rl21 - 1): 0.03 times the frequency. This means a the transform is altered to obtain effects in the time domain
constant ratio of frequency to resolution,/,/6f - Q, or a con- when the inverse transform is taken. However, this method
stant Q transform. Here, Q : f /0.029f : 34 and the trans- does not have sufficient resolution to be used for note identi-
form is equivalent to a l/24-oct filter bank. fication.
In Sec. II, we describe a particularly straightforward The present method, described in detail in the following
means ofcalculating a constant Q transform starting from section, has two advantages over these other methods. The
the discrete Fourier transform. Following this section, we first is its simplicity; the second is that it is calculated for
show results of this calculation on sounds produced by a frequencies that are exponentially spaced rvith two frequen-
violin, piano, and flute. These sounds consist of harmonic cy components per musical note. Thus it supplies exactly the
frequency components and demonstrate a constant pattern information that is needed for musical analysis with suffi-
in the log frequency domain as predicted. The conventional cient resolution to distinguish adjacent musical notes.
discrete Fourier transform is included for comparison in two Further, a sound with harmonic frequency components will
cases. In a subsequent article, we will present results for give rise to a constant pattern in the log frequency domain.
these musical instruments using a note identiflcation system
based on pattern recognition. II. CALCULATION
For musical analysis, we would like frequency compo-
I. BACKGROUND FOR CALCULATION nents corresponding to quarter-tone spacing of the equal
The constant Q transform in our implementation is tempered scale. The frequency of the k th spectral compo-
equivalent to a l/Z4th-oct bank of filters. The constant Q nent is thus

426 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 89, No. 1, January 1991 Judith C. Brown: Constant O spectral transform 426

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38 I Sound Radiarion
TABLE II. Window length in samples ( for a sampling rate of 32 000 samp- are "tuned" to the frequencies ofthe source.
les/s) and in ms function ofanalysis frequency.
as a
Ifcomputing time is an important consideration, the
(Hz) (Samples) (ms) algorithm can be modified to low-pass filter at digital fre-
Channel Midinote Frequency Window
quency n/2 and downsample by a factor of two after each
053 175 623 1 195 octave.s If filters were chosen requiring, for example, 7 mul-
656 208 s239 t64 tiplies per output point, this would result in a saving in com-
t2 59 4406 r38
putation time of about a factor of 5. A large amount of space
18 62 294 3705 ll6
24 65 349 3l l5 97 in RAM (random access memory) should also be gained by
30 68 415 26t9 82 this method as the numbers in the storage buffer would be
36 7l 494 2203 69 the same for each octave.
42 74 587 I 852 58
The number of multiplies in our method is roughly the
48 71 699 l5 57 49
54 80 831 I 309 4t same as for a 512-point discrete Fourier Transform yielding
60 83 988 I101 34 256 real points in the frequency domain.This method gives
66 86 1 175 926 29
much more useful information for frequencies varying over a
72 89 1398 778
wide range. Finally, if the current trend toward parallel pro-
78 92 1664 l 308 41
84 95 1978 I 100 34 cessing machines is realized, the downsampled version of the
90 98 2350 926 29 algorithm can be implemented in real time with calculations
96 l0l 2797 778 z4
for each ofthe center frequencies being carried out in parallel
to2 104 3327 65,1 20
108 107 39s6 550 t'7 by 156 processors.
114 110 47 tO 462 l4
120 1 13 5608 -r 88 t2 III. RESULTS
126 I 16 6675 326 t0
132 1 19 7942 274 9 All calculations were programmed in C and mn on a
138 122 9461 230 7 Hewlett Packard Model 9000 Series 300 "Bobcat'i Comput-
144 tzs tt 216 194 6
er. For those interested, the code can be obtained from brow-
150 128 t3 432 162 5
n@ems.media.mit.edu on the arpanet. Examples of sounds
of musical instruments were digitized from live perfor-
mances in the Music and Cognition Group at Massachusetts
Institute of Technology. Other examples were generated us-
ing Barry Vercoe's Csound software. The calculation is car-
frequencies. Second, the bandwidth is less than the frequen- ried out every 500 samples corresponding to about 15 ms at a
cy sampling interval for the bins where Q : 68.The latter sampling rate of 32 000 samples,/s, but it should be recalled
was not considered a problem since one of the real advan- from Eq. (3) that different frequencies are analyzed over
tages of this method is that the analysis center frequencies different time periods. Examples of the analysis windows

FIG. 2. Constant p translorm of three


complex sounds with lundamentals G,
(196 Hz), Gr (392 Hz), and G. (784
Hz ), and each having 20 harmonics with
equal amplitude.

1m0 m0
FREQUENCY(Hz)

J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol.89, No. 1, January 1991 Judith C. Brown: Constant O spectral transform

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40 I Sound Radiation

2-t
2.
l.
l.
1.7

1.4

6 1.2 FIG. 4. Discrete Fourier translorm of violin


o playing diatonic scale from Gr ( 196 Hz) to G.
zf l.l
(784 Hz).
o
o
l.o
o.9
z 9.8
U,J
a.?
F
= o.6
o.5
9,4
o.
a.
s.l
g.o

FREQUENCY(Hz)

Figure 8 shows a violin glissando from D. to A. and from C* to C.. The attack on D. is visible at the upper end.
associated spectral changes. Figure 9 is a diatonic scale The graph is tilted so that the attacks and decays ofthe spec-
played by a flute beginning on Co where the amplitude is tral components can be seen. The fundamental shows a rapid
increasing dramatically. In the literature, it is often stated decay followed by a slow decay; this effect has been discussed
that the flute is nearly a pure tone, but this is far from the by Weinrich.'" The low end of the frequency range of the
case here where approximately nine harmonics are visible. horizontal axis extends below that ofthe other graphs begin-
Finally, Fig. 10 is the transform of a piano scale played ning with the frequency corresponding to B, rather than that

1,9
1.8
t.7
1.6
1.5
<t) 1.4

o 1.3
zl 1.2 FIG. 5. Constant Q transforrn of violin
o
a t_l playing diatonic scale from G. ( 196 Hz)
z to G. (78,1 Hz).
UJ 6.9
8.8
F
o.?
o.6
4.5
9.4
s.
4.2
a.t
o.o
G-
5lm

FREOUENCY(Hz)

430 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol.89, No. 1. January 199' Judith C. Brown: Constant O spectral transform 430

IIltilililililiilrililil]
Lurolsup.rl lerlcods o luelsuoc :uMo.r8 c qlrpnf 166LArenuel'L oN'68 lo^'Luv cos lsnocv l'
<- (zu),rcru:no:ul
g
t'a
z'a
a'6
'o
'a
90
I
z'a
m
BO z
@
6'g o
C
'otgrqr^ qtl,{\ (zH t8s) sq 8ut,{e1d o'l z
urlor^JourroJsuell 0 luetsuo3 1 91g o
(h
ql
9l
t'
8'l
6'l
o
l'
z
e'
,.*-'
+-
C,
.(z:g,tBL) rC ot (zH 961)
6'
rg ruor3 oletrzzrd alzrs ctuolurp 3ur,{e1d s
ullor^ Jo tuloJsuuJl I tuetsuo3 '9 CII
€r-
ll I uou0lpoa punos
42 I Sound Radiation

.o

a'
FIG. 8. Constant Q transform of violin
zo
f
glissando from D. (587 Hz) to A. (880
o
a)
Hz\.

UJ

F-

I
o
z
l
o FIG. 9. Constant 0 transform ol flute
U'
z playing diatonic scale from C. (262H2)
u, to C. (523 Hz) with increasing ampli-
tude.
F
=

&00

FREQUENCY(Hz) +

432 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 89, No. 1, January 1991 Judith C. Brown: Constant O spectral transform

Ililililtililliilillil
cc5 uJjolsuE]] lerlcods :uMorg
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-ruBJ pJeoq,{e{ pue 'pur,r '8urr}s eql Surluesorde_r ouerd pue
-eqlu.{s pue srs.{leue leu8rs ]-]uelsuo3,, 'llog g g pue 3:aque8unol .A .[r
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(296r ) e Surlplncl?cJo poqtou pre,rroJlr{SrBrls e posn o^eq elA
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'sopolu I,uooJ Jo slceJe eql oznururlu
(€86t ) ,(Br{
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-sue:1 ,{:o1pne aql Sursn JrsntuJo srsaqlu,(s puu srs,{1euy,, ,laulnels .d .t.. ruooJ JelnSuelceJ e ur pepJocer se,r punos sI{J .rC JO
<-- (zH)AcNlnoiu:
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44 I Sound Radiation
STAN-M-28 ( 1985). (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1989).
r7R. Kronland-Martinet, "The wavelet transform for analysis, syntheses, reF.
J. Harris, "On the use of windows for harmonic analysis with the dis-
and processing ofspeech and music sounds," Comput. Music J. 12 (4), crete Fourier transform," Proc. IEEE 66, 5l-83 ( 1978).
Il-10(1988). r')G. Weinrich, "Coupled piano strings," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 147+
r"A. V. Oppenheim and R. W. Schafer, Dis1ete-Time Signal ProcessinC 1484 (1977).

434 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 89, No. 1, January 1991 Judith C. Brown: Constant O spectral transform 434

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46 I Sound Radiation
L. Cremer: Prediction of eigenmodes of violins

2l=
t
I

_t-
lolLl
-t-

f *55# Fde'

Frequency --------+ (Hz)


Figure 2. Comparison of sound pressure measured in a
reverberant chamber (upper curve) with bridge input admit-
tance (lower curve) as functions of frequency (after Beldie).

top plate appears on all strings and is a good approximation


I
on the middle ones,) If we neglected the mass of the ribs, i.e. \' J

the kinetic energy in them, we would get only one chief body
Figure 3. Hologram of top and back plates of a violin at fre-
eigenfrequency. With that mass we get two, whereby at the quency 550 Hz.
lower one the thinner top plate vibrates more strongly and
at the higher one the thicker back plate. Since the center of
gravity must be at rest the mass of the ribs must vibrate in
the first case more in phase with the back plate, and in the
second case more with the top plate. Since the right bridge
foot rests on the island and moves with the back plate, its
motion appears negligible at the lower resonance; this bridge
motion is often called rocking. At the higher resonance both
feet vibrate equally strongly. You could not expect more from
four finite elements.
I was rather excited when I saw the first photographs of
top and back plate motions at the lower chief body resonance
made by Reinicke [6] with holographic interferometry (Fig.3).
They confirmed the stronger motion of the top plate and its
island and, as a special surprise, the strong vibration of the
top plate at the free edge of the right f-hole. This proves the
importance served by the elongated shape of the f-hole.
Let us now compare this holographic representation of
the lower chief corpus mode at 550 Hz with a modal analysis
representation of a breathing mode in another instrument
(Fie.4) by Schleske [7] where it appears at 450 Hz. Since we Figure 4. Vibration pattern of a violin showing the node line
compare results of different instruments, we cannot expect (after Schleske).
agreement in details. But we can state advantages and dis-
advantages of different representations. Also I find it essen- from Schleske's presentation in Fig. 4. Since top and back plate
tial that in Fig.4 Schleske [7] used a bowing direction parallel are seen from the outside, the same lateral rib parts appear
to the top plate exactly as Reinicke did. at opposite sides of the figure or immediately next to each
No doubt the distribution of the amplitude, especially near other. This diagram makes it easy to follow the "node " line
the boundaries, i.e. the ribs, in the modal analysis presents a which marks the points where the motions change phase. In
better insight into the behaviour of the ribs. It was not to be neither the top nor the back plate does there appear a simple
expected that the ribs would vibrate uniformly in the z- "ring". Instead, the node line, which must be a closed line,
direction as the four-mass model assumes. I remember how runs off the edge of the top and back plate six times, thus
astonished I was at the deformability of the ribs when I saw separating counterphased regions at the ribs. Such a behaviour
for the first time a film of eigenmodes produced by modal has also been presented by Marshall. He found a correspon-
analysis in H.A. Miiller's laboratory. This can also be gathered ding further node, where the lateral parts of the node lines

Catgut Acoust. Soc. J. Vol. 1, No.6 (Series ll) November 1990


-2-

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olu aJeqa uorlenys eql Jo uorlnlos lereueE oJoru B Jo 9) g(S/r.tx:zA-I^
esn 8ur4eu ,(q sorler eser{l e}€InclBcerd osle uBc ed\.epolu ,{q lsodpunos eql Eurqrrcsep pue
-ue8re o1 epouueEre ruo{ serJBA'srs,(pue J€lnpou uror; ue11o8 (s) c:zc:rd
oq uec I{cq/rt 'zal,lr oller rlaql pue Jeq}o qc,e Jo luepuedeput Sur1es .{q secroJ ur ocuoreJJrp eq1 lcepeu
erB zA puB rA sorlrcole^ oql lng 'perpnls eq o1 pBq lsodpunos ,{eu errr 'Surrds Euorls E s€ eloJ lueururoperd slr ur pelseJolur
oql Jo spue eql ueealeq ecuoreJJrp ,(ucolea eqt ,(po uorlcou ,(1uo 'peurecuoc sr lsodpunos er{l sB re; su 'or? o/r{ ecurs lng
-uoc srql u1 'reedde uec lsodpunos eqlJo uorlou Burqleerq e @ zgzzy * Idrzv - zA-
rer.{leq^\ uorlsenb er{l pessncsrp [1uo eaeq em reded sq1 u1 (g) zgzrf* rgrry : rA
xr0Nf ddv suorlenbe
ilod-onl ,{q peleler are lsodpunos eqt Jo spuo eql lB socroJ
'suorlrpuoc II€ repun elq€rrsop s epou lsod puE selllcoJo^ eq1'(4ceq) zlu(r) puu (do1; ts],r t"ru?lc€er-sseu
-punos 8uqleoJq srr{l JI /(ou>I }ou p1noltr 11tls olrt 'oJar{ pelrodar ernd ,(q popBol lou ere lsodpunos eql Jo spue oqt '.erorrueqund
sauo aql sa qcns suorlulnclec pue sluerueJnseeur Suruuo;red 'pelcedxe eq 01 e^Bq seull opou [q se1e1d oql
Jo suorsr^rp
[q ureel lou plno/( e^\ Jr puv 'llnser € su pepreEer oq osle -qns ,(lluenbesuoc l€ql os 'sseru puulsr IIBrus Jer{lBJ eql Jo ..
feur ereq reedde 1ou pp epou srql ler{l 1ceJ eql lng 'uorlou lunocc€ uo qtrq ool sr srql e)U pale1nclec .{cuenberg aql lng
Euqleerq B ur UnsoJ o1 e1e1d do1 uq1 JeqlBJ B ol lcedsoJ k) Iru/r)S] :o
+[(zull +
qll^\ ool sE1t\ lsodpunos oql lBql suBeru srqJ 'ou{ p[os eql
JJIIS uolrE sr qcrq,r\ ;o ,{cuenberyuetre eql
ssoJc 01 q8rqool sB^\ eull peqsep egl 1eql sn roJ Eurluroddesrp ^q
'ruels,{s sseu-Eurrds-ssutu eldurrs e zru pue rru sesseru luecefpe
se1rr 1I 'JeleruBlp urru 9 q1r,n ecnrds;o lsodpunos 3uo1 uc a e oql qll^\ reqtetol Eurturo; 'Eurrds alquuuoJop B se turlce
roy (6) yo eprs lqEu eql s,&oqs eull poqsep aql pue 'crellq oql dlsnor,rqo sr lsodpunos eq1'e1e1d IcEq oql $ ll+ pue e1e1d
do1 eq1 $ rc- epnlldute eqt e^Bq tsodpunos er{l
'llBr{sreI,{ Jo spue eql'z1j 959 tB 'll ('uorlcerrp^llenlou
turmoq ro ]eluozuoq
o1 tutprocce lsodpunos Eurqleerq qll^r opouuoErg 'g arn8gg eql ur eEpuq eq1;o do1 eq1 lB suorlerqr^ pser o1 se os peculd
ueeq a^Bq plnor{s roleruorelecce eql'ullor^ eq1;o uorleredo
pnpe eql o1 ,(1eso1c erour puodserroJ oJ) 'sercuonber; snouel
1B ullor^ aql Jo suorlerqr^ ee4 er{l oArE o1 pezz(1eue ererrr
\\ B1€p esegl rrtel .{lrcordrcer eql Jo esn Eur1e141 'a8puq eql ;o
8z- 99 t, ot-l looJ 0lqe4 eql reau paceld 1nq releruoralocce ue .{q pepelap
eJ01r\ qcrq.{ suorlBJqr^ 0q1 pepJoceJ pue slurod luere;;rp,{ueu
lLr }u':"",ri. te sndroc urtor^ eqt pelrcxo osle IIBr{sreIAI '(S'E1J zH 959 W
,, I eldurexe oql sE^\ eu roJ euo Eurzeure lsotu eql'[g] reuueu
te 8l I ouus oql ur sluesatd fleqsJBhtr qcrq,r sunseJ eql II€ JO
I 2-v'ol't 'suorlrpuoc crlerullc eqt o1 Surp
-rocce ,{ep o1 ,{ep uror; luorunJlsur atues aql ur uole sdeqred
'lueun;lsur 01 luerunJlsur uor; aEueqc 'oo1 'sepourueEre eq1
6-lI 'f1
I t- 1eq1 Surqsruolse lou sr 1I 'elor{-J olqerl eql eprsur uor8er aql o1
polcrJlseJ lou pue re8rul sr luounJlsur s.elselqcs ur pu€lsr eql
lBI{l Sulqsluolse lou eroJereql q 1r pue ere su.re11ed opou oql
olqulsun ,roq selerlsuotuep sqrJ eql;o .{lqrqeuroJop aql
'ocueuosor ,(poq;eqc euo .{1uo
1eE ppom e,{\ sqrr eql ;o ,{8reua crlourl eq1 1noq1r.r 'eloqu
pezrseqdue .{peerle s€ 61ng ',{Ereue crleul{ Jo oJols e Jo r.uroJ
lseydturs eql s€,r Ieporu sseru-rnoJ er.Il Jo sseru qrr peprlrpun
oqJ 'sopotuuo8re luere;;rp on1 ur 8ur11nsor snr{l 'selBld {ceq
zH l'999 pue do1 oql uoo/(loq .{lluere;;rp sosec r{loq ur pelnqrJlsrp sr
sqrr eql Jo ,{8reue crleurl eql luql sueeru srqJ 'eleld dol oql 1€
]IVId X]VB UI 300n 9Nru qcolq pue eql reou stred oql pue e1e1d {c€q oql le medde
..1
su!10!,r J0 sapouua8la J0 u0llJlpard sIourar]
Ll I uoll0lpDY punos
48 I Sound Radiation
L. Cremer: Prediction of eigenmodes of violins

o
\ \ lt/'\f
_\.|
x
@1.
zl-
l
l0
I

o
o
c(!
!
o sound post
o-
E reactance
inverse
admittance

FrequencY (Hz)

Figure 6. Comparison of the inverse admittance


-.5
of the corpus and the stiffness reactance of the soundpost.

in (Ar) and (A, toward the middle, the so-called power symmetry.
- and velocities are superimposed indepen-
dently. For this coupling the following relations hold for Then the reciprocity conditions
eigenmodes: Ztz : Zzri Zi, : Zi (A'
F, : F/; Fr: Fi; vr : vii vz: yj. (A' which hold for both linear systems, and the symmetry con-
So the free motion of the corpus with introduced soundpost dition, which additionally holds for the soundpost
is governed by Zi,:Ziz (Ad
g : (zrr + Zi)vr * (Zrz I Zil)vz (A-) appear with norrnal But since in modal analysis it is usual
signs.
g : (zt + zi)vr * (zzz * ziz)v, to give the velocities vr &fld Vz the same positive direction in
The vanishing of the determinant of the coefficients space, we have adopted this in Fig.7, as we already did in the
characterizes the conditions for the eigenfrequencies of the main body of the paper; the signs change between left and
coupled system, and at those we get from each of the equa- right sides in the equations (As) and (Ae).
tions (Ad the same value for the ratio vr/vr. This ratio appears
We can easily calculate the impedances for the sound-
in a modal analysis approximately as a real quantity since the
post by making use of their definitions in equation (A) and
losses are small. The inside of an area limited by boundaries
observing the positive directions in Fig.7.
or nodelines presents everywhere the same phase, and this
changes by 180" upon crossing a nodeline, i.e., v changes its
ZL : Filvi where vi : 0 (A,)
Ziz : Fild where vl : 0
sign.
All equations derived till now are independent of direc- In all cases we have a soundpost with one fixed end. It is
tion, which we regard as positive for the F and v quantities. evident that therefore its mass scarcely figures compared with
As far as the forces are concerned, it is physically reasonable its stiffness. This also results from the fact that the lowest
to introduce them as action and reaction between soundpost eigenmode of the soundpost appears at ultrasonic frequencies.
and corpus. In Fig.7 we show a pressing of the soundpost as But if we take into account only the stiffness of the sound-
positive. For general discussion it would be advantageous to post it turns out that we get only the earlier result based on
introduce the velocities directed at the ends of the soundpost vr_v::j(u,/S)F (A')

Catgut Acousl. Soc. J. Vol. 1, No.6 (Series ll) November 1990 -4-
0661. roque^oN (ll sarias) 9 oN '1. lo^ |cos lsnocv lno]ec -9-
'(EgOt) 'OOL-S69 'Z'oN s// ''utv 'cos '.(poq pt8rr ,(11ce;red
'lsnorv 'I '.66ullol^ e;o sts,(puy IBpoI L, ''c') 'fl€tlsrel I '8 e seleturxo.rdde lsodpunos eql Josolc eql pue 'l Jo enle^
'6961 peqqlqndun ', 3ur1ttu11 e 01 seuoc zAlI Jesolc oq1 'sndroc eq1 ;o secueped
'sasi(1eu8 Iepou '.'ru '.e{seHcs
-Iur eql sessedrns lsodpunos erll Jo ocuelcBoJ ssauJJrls eql
't L6r
slou oql 'Jeqlunu IEoJ e seuoceq rAlIA olleJ eq1 ',{1uo secuel
'ur1.rag',(lrsrellun Imluqcel'uotlulresstq'.'l6'e{cIuIeU'9 -cear euocoq snd:oc eq1 Jo secuepodull er{t sB l?ql e^Josqo
'(s86 r) el[ 'enle^ erues eql o^eq qloq lsntu sepouue8ta 1e qctq,tl
'BlL{lL'Z'oN' LL''tuv'cos'lsnocY'[,.'. UIIoI^ 0I{1 Jo ("V) '(r,)fs + l(AWq + ors+ zzz-) : z^f^ ro
lueluolu alodlp or{1 pu8 elnr runs eloq punos,, ''D'qclrulo1!\.S (,,V) ,(Alnol "Z)
+ (',rs + "Z\ I @lS- ztz-\ : z^f^
'st6l 'urtreg Iectuqcel'uoltr€lrosslc ''f 'olplefl 't reqlra '(€rv) ro (zryl ruo{ pezrlBer eq .{Isea uBc IUIB Jolqc
"(lrsrerr.run '1861 6€IUToJIIBJ ',{ereluotr l rno ',{11eurg 'lsodpunos SulqlBorq e I{1I1l\ apoluuefte eq1 e11
6looqcs elenper8lso4 'seseo Ierceds JoJ Jersee eq plnolr. uollnlos ctqderE e ielqtssod
IB^BN oqt Jo srseqJ ''v'C '11ou) '€
sr uorleueldxe pcrs.(qd elduts e ereq,t seEuer oql epnlcul
'(9961'e8puqure3'ssar4 117q)
lr,la uerSord eq1 pu€ '(olUS) roJ (ttv) o^los lsnu en ']sod
uoflv 'I fq pelelsuerl 'u11o11 aqlfo scts{qd aqJ ''1'lewata '7 -punos qlr,r sndroc eql;o setcuenbergue8te ge 1eE o1 1ng
'(y361 'ueEttnts 'lozrlH 'g) a31ag Dp 1ls|tld ''-I 'roluer3 'l 'sndroc oql Jo runs ecuepedurt 3ut1e11cso eql ql!,l\ slutod 8ut
-ssorc ,(ueu 1e? s,{u,rp,(eu e,tt'edo1s getus e qltn ut8tro eql
S3CN3U3I:IU
uor; 3u11e; eu1 lq8terls B Jo uroJ eq1 Eutireq 'lsodpunos eql
slueserder qcrqr*'ecuepeer ssetu eql sI ]I erull stql ecut5 'slutod
Eurssorc Jo uorlcnJlsuoc cIqdBJA e ,{q setcuenber;ua8te eq1
eurr.uJelep pue uorlenbe oql Jo eprs JaLIlo eql uo lsodpunos
er{l Jo ecuelcBer oql pue epls ouo uo (lsodpunos 1noq1m)
'g pue jA 'zA 'rA sorlrcole^ eql sndroc eq1;o secuepedut eq1 eleredes uec o,tt utu8e ere11
pue rd pue lg '.zC 'Id seJroJ er{l Jo uolloorlp o^tllsod '1 ern81g (9IV) 'zA : IA : A oJoql\ Atr lol : z,{
- t.{
o1 spuodserroc uolllpuoc stql 1uq1 ,(1tsee
se^ord (rV) qll.&\ uorlsnbo srql Jo oprs lJol aql Jo uosuedruoc y
,Z) I
(SIV) 'htro!- : (ofls)n : zzz
(ztZZ rrz)
- -
:sercuenberyueBte ro; uotltpuoc puoces e uI
i- ---
-- -'nr' sllnser srqJ '(r,V) Jo rurel lsrrJ eq1 tcepeu ,(etu on setcuenb
ttir t
i
Za tr -er;;o eEue: re.rol B uI '(tV) ol spuodseuoc qclq^\ '(6) ut uop
tY .l 1
lr t, -erurxordde Jno s€ orues oql sI uolllpuoc slqt lng'setcuenber;
rl
litt lr -ue8re eql ure,ro8 sluJel o,tu IsJIJ eql setcuenber; qBIq Jo
il lr eEue: e8rel B roJ leql luepr^o seuoceq 1l Iurot olppru eql qll./I\
ill1 /r eyqereduoc eq o1 (o[79) yo senp,r q8g speeu ulre1 lsel eqt eculs
Iu-
,!.-.\.-\ ln ,l\
(,'V) 0 : z@fs)n + (.,rs) FZ(, + zz7 4 n7-) + (c27 + zt7t71
--lt" --:r'- :(oUS) q re,,'rod puoces eq1 ;o uollenbe ue
se sreedde tueururolap-sluercrJJooc s1r;o Surqsruel eql pue
(',v) z^(zti - I) [(otls) o
,!J (,,v) ,^[((,[/s) ,,71
- tz7\l+'^[((',Us) - "zl ::
a * r^(ztt - I) [(o,Us) + "zl 0
le8 e,r (,V) otur (,,V) pue (ry) elnlrlsqns /(ou 0/t\ JI
'(I^ ro) .^(Z / ntr(,f) rurel eq1 ,tq relleus sr srql puB Euuds eql go
uorleruroJep eq1 uo.{1uo spuedep eprs pexrJ or{t uo ocroJ er{I
(,,v) oUS- :,lZ-:zlZ
ur reedde lou seop ruJel srql leql Ierluasse
,r\ou sr lI '1 o1 peredruoc leus s,(enye sz pre8er eA\ qcrq,{
(o'v) ^Bur
S/IAIzo: n
releruered uorlceJJoc-sseru p sr n oJoq,r
(ztn - r) (oUs) :
(,v) ZllNoll + o,f/S : z:Z- : tlz
ur sreedde
JIur{ sqt uor{J 'spue eql 18 sosseu JIeq o^\l olut lt ?utllllds
.{q lsod eql Jo sseru oql ecnpoJlur ,(eu e.tr lsodpunos eq1 ;o
,{cuenber;ue8re lso,r\ol oq} .troleq qcnw ,(.ta,t satcuenber; rog
'lsrxo ruls sepouueEre leql pu€ elqez\eu s,{e,tr1e lou sr uorl
-Ipuoc slql leq} A\ou{ e1r\ eculs luelclJJns 0q lou plno,& SlqI
suflolr l0 sap0uuaSla f0 uo!]Jlpald :rauralJ "l
6l I uo1101p0Y punos
Iitii
'uorssnurad qlr.,r,r petur-rdag '8e1ren 1az:t11 'S 066I O
'pu?lq3sln0c
ur opolqcsrolun qcls U€p'uaEue8e8sne uo^ep prlrd. Ieq <pleaauunq'H lC
'de;sepung 'zuele1Jg 0rlg'0, ue{slorrol
-BCI'lout{clezeS;ne (e,rrnlzuenberg) EueBzuenber;1e8
-od sle uoqdor461 lueulo lIIu Eunlqcrg uelpue,tra8nz 066I IIrdV'97 rue uoruuroue?ue
'066I llrdy '71 urz ue8ue8a8utg
urnIllqnd tuep rop uI IIIn€u ueruJesuolxouoJ IUI prIA\
'u€ uoSunt
IIBqcS allq€rlsoEqe luelunrlsul luo^ rec
-ur1(qcs ueErruro.Ssnurs nz Uer) Joluelsuo{ r1ur 8o1S -Jolun uouoA\gel J uoqcslle4s.(qd uol IUJoJ uI oluetu
Iue so lSeJ 'lgnuuloog puolnepoqun rnu sluolunJlsul -nrlsul rep ualJeqosue8tg uaqcqEuePl elp 'lqnepe
sep uoryeqcsusErg erp uoll{nrlsuo) reutes punr8;ne soqcle.{\'ulos uepueqJoA uorrl€JJoAUel41 seleu8tee8 ute
Joqclo,t\'re1pue16 reqcsrureu,(p utg'uesserueE ueIIcEV gntu lsrlceunz 'qe ueEunzlessneJo1 ue8rlqctan ueErure
IIIP uol 13ueq ueullol1 uo,t 1e111enb8u€l) rep Eunururtls
HJ1(U rop {rlsn{Y ol{csluqcel rnJ lnlllsul
uerqeJra1 uoueqolrqcseq [1] ut utsp qceu eluelunrlsul -eg uelrl>1efqo Jnz suerrleJre1 seule 8un11ct,tl1uE etq
ellB uopJn,ry\ lIeqJY reselp ueluqBu IUI'uoqcellI nz tlcll
Sunrqgu;g '1
-Bue?nz es,{1euy reure lluos els pun uoss€JJe nz lqcsle.J
'IUelueSSIIII0IA UOS Op luelu sl? prr^\ leept8uel; eqcsluolTetllle sBCI 'uouIIoIA 001 'P)
-enbrun ttue,Lo.rd assrnd lueun:1sul un.p gtrlenb ep p:ep uoa e?ueBzuanbo.r;1e3s4 .iap ue8unsse;41 ueuolp uegeqcs
-u€ls lneq s1 anb elqeqo:durt lueruolneq e.rluol.red lse -uo3rg uoqcr13ut11 :ep Sunqcnsrelun alp :n1 e8elpun:g
syy 'lgrBraprazr tqtslqJe^un uauIIoIA uolqonsrslun Jap
II 'leuuorsseJoJd erte.;-;roles un,p uorlec11dde.l ep llue^
-ord uerq elquos 'alle 33rr€ lc"luos ua luel"lg rnb s:etq1n1 uageqcsuo8rE elp eqcle,lt 'epoqleruger\l :eute Sunpue,t
-uy .Iep JnB uoJolseq assruqoS.rg ue111e1se3.ro,t lolq eICl
ep no auuelrue ellell.l 3p lueue,to:d sluelunJlsul sal suep
'soJouos s?lrlenb sauuoq se.Il ep uollelnrunss€.'I eieu Sunsse;ueruuusnT
-ssrue no olloulsnpul uoIl"cIJqeJ ep luelel? sJualunJlsul ueurlol^ uo^ lBlllunbSuBlx rep aunurulllsofl
se1 enb uoles sluer?JJlp s?.Il 3]q luo sl"1ps?r se1
'gtr1enb
uo^p{efqo rnz uoJtlEJro^ selrolle^ua ulg
ep er[Jou e11oc p npuodse]lo3 Juo sqJnsoru sluarunllsul
sel snol ep r tZ uorIAuA'sgsodo:d luos eltlenb 3p serleur
-e.red bur3 'aulrIex3 luarunJlsuI.l sp glrlenb e1 elnseru uo '8urBe;o ssseold 5q1 [q d1]
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sseql tzql f1aryl$n sl lI 's3pe1.ttou4 pormberJo uotler
00L uoJrlue.p sellercuonber3 senbtlsuglce;ec sop ser -rlddB er{t 01 p31nqF11s oq u". 'loor{ts u"II"}I plo 3ql
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11
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uooq seq llqr$dr Jo slf,?q 3q1 uO 'p31u3$Qrd AJe sratr
-eurered .{lllarb eatd 'psmweur $ sluelrmrslrl Jaq}oJo
'uoqeq ]qJtoJJe p;?pu3lssl€ltlenI ueqoq uesstp
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1sr (.trsn eulTol^lelsle6 'auqol,T4:qeg) UunIloH
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zu0lJ>lrg
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Eunruurllsefl uell]{olqo Jnz uoJI{€JJeA seUe}IoA\Jo UIE
1r"3unlS (066r) I/ to
692 3"FeA IozrIH S e VJIISN]V
19 I uolLDlpotr punos
52 I Sound Radiation

ACUSTICA
270 H. Diinnwald: Klangqualitdt von Violinen vol. 71 (1990)

den Klangeigenschaften verschiedener Violinen in der Die dritte wesentliche Voraussetzung fiir die Ent-
Ubertragungsfunktion vom Steg zum Ohr des Horers wicklung von Aussagen iiber die Klangqualitdt von
niederschlagen und somit, wegen der starken Vermi- Violinen aus MeBkurven ist ein geniigend groBer
schung der Phaseninformation in realen Riumen, ins- Uberblick ilber die vorkommende Variationsbreite
besondere in den Betrdgen wiederzufinden sein miissen. des Instrumententyps Violine. Das bedeutet, daB nicht
Eine weitere Voraussetzung stellt das Wissen um nur geniigend viele Instrumente, sondern auch Violi-
Zusammenhdnge zwischen der Form von Klangspek- nen aus allen vorkommenden Qualitdtsstufen in aus-
tren und der empfundenen Klangfarbe dar. Leider reichender Anzahl gemessen werden mi.issen. Diese
gibt es von der Seite der Horphysiologie noch keine Voraussetzung ist inzwischen erfiillt. Es wurden ins-
fiir Geigenkliinge brauchbare Verfahren. Man ist also gesamt ca. 700 Violinen gemessen. Darunter eine Viel-
auf Details angewiesen, welche im Laufe der Zeit bei zahl sehr guter lnstrumente, aber auch sehr viele Vio-
vielen friiheren Arbeiten zusammengetragen wurden. linen mit ausgesprochen schlechten klanglichen
Es sei hier speziell auf Meinel [2] und Lottermoser [3] Eigenschaften. Da die Musiker und Laien, die ihre
verwiesen, welche sich mit den Zusammenhdngen zwi Instrumente fiir Messungen zur Verfiigung stel1ten,
schen Verdnderungen der Ubertragungsfunktion und diese aus der Gesamtheit des Angebots auf dem Gei-
damit verbundenen Verdnderungen des subjektiv genmarkt ausgewdhlt haben, entspricht das Verhdltnis
empfundenen Klanges auseinandersetztefi. Lotter von guten zu schlechten Violinen nicht dem Verhdlt-
moser [3, 4] stellte eine Reihe von Regeln auf, welche nis, welches im Handel anzutreffen ist. Es wurden auf-
Zusammenhdnge zwischen starken Resonanzen in be- grund der Auswahl der Musiker zu viele gute Instru-
stimmten Frequenzbereichen und der verschiedenen mente gemessen, was den Vorteil einer differenzier-
Klangeigenschaften (2. B. nasal, scharf, rauh usw.) auf- teren Aussage im Bereich der besseren Instrumente
zeigen. Meyer [5] faBte in sechs Richtungen gemessene bietet.
Pegelfrequenzgdnge in Terzbandbereiche zusammen Als Qualitiitsbezug wurde der iiberwiegende Teil
und verglich die resultierenden Terzpegel verschiede- der gemessenen altitalienischen Instrumente (ca. 50)
ner Instrumente miteinander. Alle diese Ergebnisse verwendet, da es sich bei diesen um allgemein als erst-
stammen von Betrachtungen der Frequenzkurven, klassig anerkannte Violinen handelte, welche regel-
welche alle wichtigen Informationen iiber den Klang md8ig von Musikern im Konzert gespielt werden. Des
eines Instruments enthalten. Tiefergehende Aussagen weiteren sind etwa 50 gleichwertige Violinen anderer
erfordern jedoch, daB auch Informationen iiber die Herkunft bekannt. Diese beiden Gruppen bilden den
Art der Benutzung der Violine mit in die Untersu- MaBstab fiir gute Klangqualitdt. Als Ma8stab ftir
chung einbezogen werden. Werden beispielsweise schlechten Klang gelten weitere ca. 50 Instrumente.
Photographien von verschiedenen Automodellen ohne Gemessen wurden insgesamt 55 altitalienische Vio-
Vorgaben verglichen, ergeben sich unsinnige Aussa- linen, 75 alte Meisterviolinen, die vor 1800 gebaut
gen, wie z. B. ,,die meisten Autos mit geschwungenen wurden, 300 Meisterviolinen aus der Zeit nach 1800,
Formen sind gelb oder rot". Erst wenn beriicksichtigt 170 Fabrikviolinen und ca. 100 Instrumente anderer
wird, daB sich Autos mit hoher Geschwindigkeit in Herkunft.
Luft bewegen, ergibt sich aus der Form iber den Luft-
widerstand eine Differenzierung der verschiedenen
Modelle nach dem zu erwartenden Energieverbrauch. 2. Die direkte Auswertung der Frequenzkurven
Dieses vordergriindige Beispiel zeigt, wie das Einbrin-
gen einer Nutzungsvorschrift erst den Blick auf frir die Bevor auf die Auswertung der Frequenzkurven hin-
Nutzung wesentliche Eigenschaften freigibt. Fiir die sichtlich der klangrelevanten Eigenschaften eingegan-
Violine bedeutet das, da8 sich aus der Form der Fre- gen wird, soll kurz der Aufbau der MeBkurven an drei
quenzkurve nur grobe Zusammenhinge ableiten las- Beispielen erldutert werden (siehe Fig. 1). Bei ihnen
sen. Legt man dagegen eine Anregung mit einem fiir wurde jeweils der hochste vorkommende Pegel als
die gestrichene Saite charakteristischen Linienspek- Vollausschlag am Pegelschreiber eingestellt. Der dar-
trum zugrunde und bezieht ein Vibrato mit ein, erhalt gestellte Pegelbereich umfaBt 25 dB. Der Frequenzbe-
man eine Vielzahl von unterschiedlichen Einzelklang- reich erstreckt sich von 190H2 bis ca. 7000 Hz.
spektren, welche jeweils nur kleine Bereiche aus der Trotz erheblicher individueller Unterschiede zwi-
Frequenzkurve enthalten und in ihrer Form (2.B. schen den drei Kurven sind auch Gemeinsamkeiten zu
Einhiillende) unter Umstdnden nur noch entfernte erkennen. Dazu gehort zundchst die im Frequenzbe-
Ahnlichteit mit der Frequenzkurve aufweisen. Diese reich um 275 Hzliegende Helmholtzresonanz, und die
Einzelklangspektren sind aber erst diejenigen physi- beiden zu hoheren Frequenzen anschlie8enden Haupt-
kalischen GroBen, die eine direkte Beziehung zur corpusresonanzen mit gelegentlich vorhandenen Ne-
Klangqualitdt der gemessenen Violine haben. benzipfeln. Diese Resonanzen kommen bei allen Violi-

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54 I Sound Radiation

ACUSTlCA
2'.72 H. Diinnwald: Klangqualitit von Violinen
Vol. 71 (1990)

ben, Einzelklangspektren zu untersuchen, allerdings


ohne Beriicksichtigung eines realistischen Anregungs-
spektrums und ohne eine Bereinigung der Frequenz-
kurven vom Frequenzgang des Anregungswandlers.
Trotzdem zeigten sich deutliche Zusammenhdnge zwi-
schen dem Verlaufder Einhiillenden der Einzelklang-
spektren, insbesondere der Lage des Maximums und
der Klangqualitdt. Da feine Details der Spektren
keine Bedeutung zu haben schienen, wurde der unter-
suchte Frequenzbereich fiir die Auswertung in vier
Bereiche unterteilt. Diese Frequenzbereiche stehen in
direktem Zusammenhang mit Klangfarben und wur-
den fi.ir diese Untersuchung nur geringfiigig gedndert
und unterteilt beibehalten. Somit liegen dieser Aus-
]s 18 20 dB 25 wertung folgende Bereiche zugrunde:

C D
Fig. 3. Summenhiiufigkeit der Instrumente in Abhiingigkeit
vom Parameter l. a) Fabrikviolinen, b) Meisterviolinen nach
190 - 650 - 1300 - 1640 - 2580 - 4200 - 7000 Hz.

1800, c) Meisterviolinen vor 1800, d) altitalienische Violinen.


Diese Bereiche ergaben sich aus der Betrachtung vie-
ler Frequenzkurven und aus Horversuchen mit ein-
stellbaren, elektronischen Filterbdnken. Der Bereich
Wert fiir I aus den Pegelschrieben abgelesen, welche A ist fiir den Gehalt des Klanges an niedrigen Teilto-
noch nicht vom Frequenzgang des Anregungswand- nen verantwortlich (SonoritA|. Der Bereich B muB
lers bereinigt sind (Differenz ca. 1 dB).) relativ zu seiner Umgebung ACD gesehen werden.
In Fig. 3 ist die Summenhdufigkeit der Instrumente Wo er zu stark ist, ergeben sich topfige Klangfarben.
der vier oben angegebenen Gruppen in Abhiingigkeit Die Bereiche CD und E fiihren bei geniigender Stdrke
vom Parameter I dargestellt. zu brillanten, tragldhigen Kldngen und bewirken Aus-
Alle vier Kurven haben einen dhnlichen Verlauf, geglichenheit beziiglich der Klangfarbe und der Laut-
jedoch der Mittelwert ist von den Fabrikviolinen a) stdrke. Der Ubergang von den Bereichen D und E zu
tiber die Meisterinstrumente b) und die alten Meister- F fthrt zu klaren oder heiseren Kl6ngen, je nach
geigen c) zu den altitalienischen Yiolinen d) stark zu Gro8e des Abfalls des Spektrums von D E nach F.
hoheren Werten von L verschoben. Alle sehr guten In Fig. 4 ist dargestellt, welche Schritte zur Berech-
Instrumente des Qualitdtsbezugs liegen bei Werten nung eines Einzelklangspektrums durchgefiihrt wer-
von mehr als 18 dB. Die Aussagekraft dieses Parame- den. Zundchst wird das Spektrum des Anregungs-
ters ist erstaunlich groB, denn nur 34Yo aller Instru- wandlers von der Frequenzkurve abgezogen. Als
mente konnen mit dem Qualitdtsstandard konkurrie- Anregung dient dann ein gemitteltes Spektrum aus
ren,66oh sind nicht mehr akzeptabel. gemessenen Spektren einer gestrichenen Saite. Die
Das bedeutet jedoch nicht, daB alle Instrumente mit Wahl dieser Anregung ist unkritisch, da bei der weite-
einem Wert L > 18 dB sehr gut sind. Es gibt einen Teil ren Berechnung immer iiber Frequenzbereiche gemit-
unter diesen, der zu den als besonders schlecht be- telt wird. Wichtig ist, daB das Anregungsspektrum zu
kannten Instrumenten gehort und ebensoviele nur hoheren Frequenzen abf?illt. Bei einem wesentlich an-
mittelgute Violinen. Somit sind weitere GroBen not- ders verlaufenden Spektrum mii8ten allerdings die
wendig, um sehr gut klingende Violinen eindeutig zu spdter angegebenen Schwellenwerte entsprechend
charakterisieren. modifiziert werden. Das entstehende Einzelklang-
spektrum (Fig. a, unten) frillt wegen der Form des An-
regungsspektrums zu hoheren Frequenzen ab. Das
3. Die Auswertung von Einzelklangspektren Auf und Ab der Teiltone spiegelt die Pegel der Fre-
quenzkurve bei den entsprechenden Frequenzen wi-
Bereits in [6] wurde die Bedeutung von Einzelklang- der. Die Spektren sind fiir jeden Grundton unter-
spektren bei der Beurteilung des Klanges einer Yioline schiedlich.
erkannt. Da die Frequenzkurven noch von Hand aus- Zwei Vorgehensweisen sind nun denbkar, um den
gewertet werden mu8ten, konnten nur sehr einfache Grundtonbereich (190 Hz''' 760Hz) quasikontinu-
Beziehungen betrachtet werden. Mit Hilfe einer Teil- ierliche zu untersuchen. Entweder erzeugt man viele
tonschablone war aber schon die Moglichkeit gege- Spektren mit jeweils dicht benachbarten Grundtcinen,

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56 I Sound Radiation

ACUSTICA
274 H. Diinnwald: Klangqualit:it von Violinen
Vol. 71 (1990)

kung etwas zu hciheren Frequenzen, je nach Struktur Vibratoperiode nacheinander auftretenden Spektral-
des untersuchten Einzelklangs. Somit ist die Wahl der anteile zur Berechnung der Lautheit als gleichzeitig
Frequenzgrenzen unkritisch und nur als grobe Vor- vorhandene stationdre Anteile betrachtet werden diir-
gabe anzusehen. Jedes Klangspektrum erzeugt auf- fen. Das entspricht sicher nicht der Realitdt beim Ho-
grund seiner Teiltonstdrken selbst die geeigneten Fre- ren, da die unter Umstdnden starken Schwankungen
quenzgrenzen. der Pegel einzelner Teiltcine wdhrend des Vibratos
Die in Fig. 5 (unten) angedeuteten Stufen zwischen besonders auffrillig sind und somit das Vibrato gerade
den verschiedenen Frequenzbereichen sind folgender- durch die transienten Vorgdnge den Horeindruck be-
maBen zu verstehen: Ist der Mittelwert (Teillautheit einfluBt.
N(B)) im Bereich B mehr als 7,6 Sone groBer als die Die Teiliautheiten in den einzelnen Frequenzberei-
Teillautheit N (AC D), dann ist der Einzelklang topfig. chen und auch die Schwellenwerte wurden ursprting-
Ist N (B) kleiner als dieser Schwellenwert, ist der lich im logarithmischen MaB in Phon berechnet bzw.
Klang nicht topfig und damit im Sinne des Qualitiits- angegeben, da sie dann vom Pegel des Klanges unab-
standards gut. Es ist aber festzustellen, daB gerade bei hiingig sind. Leider ergab sich damit keine gute Diffe-
den sehr gut klingenden Violinen viele Kldnge vor- renzierung zwischen guten und schlechten Violinen.
kommen, bei denen N(B) mehr als 10,8 Sone kleiner Die Lautheiten und Schwellenwerte in Sone dagegen
ist als N(ACD). Diese besonders ausgeprdgte Abwe- fiihrten zu sehr guten Ergebnissen, welche im folgen-
senheit der topfigen Klanganteile fiihrt dazu, daB auch den Kapitel zusammengefa8t dargestellt werden.
bei ungiinstigen Bedingungen, welche diese negativen
Klanganteile verstdrken kcinnen (Bogen, Saiten, Spiel-
weise, wetteremphndliches Instrument usw.), der Klang
4. Ergebnisse
immer noch als gut eingestuft wird. Das gleiche gilt ftr
Das erste Quahtatskriterium wurde bereits im 2. Ka-
die Stufung zwischen den Bereichen DE und E Ist
pitel vorgestellt. Es handelt sich um den relativen Pe-
N (F) weniger als 12,7 Sone kleiner als N (D E), ist der
gel ,L der Helmholtzresonanz, welcher bei sehr guten
Klang heiser oder nicht klar. Ist N (F) kleiner als diese
Violinen groBer als 18 dB ist (s. Fig. 3).
Schwelle, ist Klang klar und damit als gut einzustufen.
Die weiteren Ergebnisse, die sich aus der Betrach-
Bei einer Stufe zwischen D E und F von mehr als 22,8
tung der Einzelkldnge ergeben, sind in Fig. 6 zusam-
Sone ergibt sich ein klarer Klang mit gro8er Unemp-
mengefaBt.
findlichkeit gegenriber Storungen. Diese vier Bedin-
gungen frir einen schlechten (topfig, heiser) und fiir
einen sehr guten Klang (nichttopfig, klar, jeweils mit 80
groBem Abstand) gelten fiir Einzelklinge. Als Quali-
tdtsparameter, welcher eine Aussage iiber den Klang
I
des gesamten Instruments macht, gilt die Gesamtheit ls0
der Aussagen iiber alle untersuchten 46 Einzelkldnge. I

Dazu wird die relative Anzahl der Einzelkldnge in


Prozent angegeben, welchejeweils eine der vier Eigen-
schaften aufweisen; und zwar nach folgender Zttord-
0
nung:

Prozerttzahl Klangeigenschaft 80

& tophg
N, heiser 1

& stark nichttopfig N4

N4 sehr klar

Die hier vorgestellte Methode zur Ermittlung schlech-


ter bzw. guter Klangmerkmale bei Einzelkldngen 20 30 v" LA

hingt von einigen Vorgaben ab. Wie schon erwdhnt,


wirkt sich die Wahl des Anregungsspektrums (s. Fig. a)
auf die Festlegung der vier Schwellenwerte aus, kann Fig. 6. Qualitiitsparameter: Oben: Abszisse: Anzahl N, der
topfigen Kldnge, Ordinate: Anzahl N, der heiseren Kldnge,
aber ohne Anderung des Gesamtergebnisses durch unten: Abszisse: Anzahl N. der stark nichttopfigen Kldnge,
Anpassung der Schwellen kompensiert werden. Des Ordinate: Anzahl N* der sehr klaren Kldnge, (O) altitalieni-
weiteren wird angenommen, da8 alle wdhrend einer sche Violinen, (o) alle anderen.

lliilLiillll
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58 I Sound Radiation

ACUSTICA
276 H. Diinnwald: Klangqualitiit von Violinen Vol. 71 (1990)

Horkontrolle und Beeinflussung der Instrumente auf klanglich zu beeinflussen. Leider fehlt meistens etne
rein empirischer Basis durchaus denkbar. genaue Vorstellung dariiber, welche Klangelemente
Die Werte der Fabrikviolinen in Fig.7 geben das die alten Vorbilder auszeichnen. So wird oft nach Kri-
Ergebnis wider, welches sich ohne Anwendung von terien vorgegangen, welche rein geschmacklicher Na-
akustischem Wissen zufiillig einstellt. Die grciBere tur sind oder es wird versucht, den Klang der Instru-
Exaktheit der baulichen Ausfi.ihrung fiihrt bei den mente am Ohr des Spielers dem der guten Vorbilder
Meisterviolinen zu einer Verbesserung. Jedoch erst bei im Konzertsaal, d.h. aus groBer Entfernung anzuglei-
einigen Meistern, welche zvr Zeit der altitalienischen chen. Vorrangig scheint also die Aufkldrung iiber aku-
Geigenbauer lebten und mit diesem Kontakt hatten, stische Zusammenhdnge und die Schulung des Geh<irs
zeigen sich iihnlich gute Ergebnisse wie bei den Schop- zu sein. Da jeder Instrumentenbauer seine eigenen
fern der altitalienischen Instrumente. Diese Instru- ,,Tricks" hat um in die Funktion seiner Instrumente
mentenklasse bewirkte, da8 das Gesamtergebnis der einzugreifen, ergibt sich nach der Bereitstellung einer
Meisterviolinen vor 1800 in Fig. 7 besser ausfdllt als Kontrollmoglichkeit iiber das Gehor die praktische
das der Geigen neuer Meister. Hier ist wichtig zu be- Vorgehensweise ganz von selbst.
merken, daB dieses Ergebnis (Fig. 3 c) sich aus zwei
unterschiedlichen Verteilungen zusammensetzt. Ein
Literatur
Teil der alten Meistergeigen weist ein Ergebnis auf,
welches sich mit dem der Instrumente neuer Meister [1] Diinnwald, H., Zur Messung von Geigenfrequenzgdngen
deckt, andere erreichen die Werte der altitalienischen Acustica 5l [1982], 281.
Violinen. Die Verteilung ist hier personenspezifisch. [2] Meinel, H. F., Uber Frequenzkurven von Geigen. Akust.
Es gibt Instrumentenbauer. welche offenbar Wissen z. [1931],62.
[3] Lottermoser, W., Das Ausgleichsverhalten von Geigen
angewandt haben und daher vorwiegend sehr gute und seine Beziehung zu der Resonanzkurve. Acustica 8
Instrumente bauten, andere dagegen bauten Violinen lr958l, 98.
mit vom Zrtfall gepragten klanglichen Eigenschaften. [4] Lottermoser, W. und Meyer, J., Akustische Priifung
Bei den Fabrikviolinen und bei den nach 1800 gebau- der Klangqualitdt von Geigen. Instrumentenbau-2. 12
ten Meisterviolinen deckt sich nach bisherigen Er- ltes7), 42.
[5] Meyer, J., Akustische Untersuchungen zur Klangqualitdt
kenntnissen das Ergebnis der einzelnen Hersteller mit von Geigen. lnstr. Musik Inter. 2 119'151, 1.
dem Ergebnis der Gesamtheit aller Hersteller. [6] Dinnwald, H., Ein Verfahren zur objektiven Bestim-
Es ist durchaus moglich und auch wiinschenswert, mung der Klangqualitiit von Violinen. Acustica 58

die in dieser Arbeit aufgezeigten Zusammenhdnge fiir [1e8s],162.


[7] v. Bismarck, G., Sharpness as an attribute of the timbre
Musiker und Instrumentenbauer aufzubereiten und of steady sounds. Acustica 30 [1974), 159.
damit anwendbar z$ machen. Viele Instrumenten- [8] Zwicker, E., Das Ohr als Nachrichtenempfdnger. Hirzel-
bauer versuchen, ihre Instrumente nach Fertigstellung Verlag, Stuttgart 1967.

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60 I Sound Radiation
H. Duennwald: Deduction of objective quality parameters

lies in tubes in which there is damping mass. The wire is held 3. RESULTS
in position by small hooks at the ends so that it runs freely In Figure 2 are shown three different response curves.
through the slits. A sinusoidally varying current through the The sound level range is 25 dB. The frequency range is 190
wire applies sinusoidal force to the wire within the magnet Hz to 7 kHz. All curves are similar in the lower frequency
gap. If the contact point where the wire touches the bridge range, up to 700 Hz. The first resonance (Helmholtz) is situated
is inside the magnet gap the bridge is excited by a force around 270 Hz. After a more or less wide gap there are two
proportional to the current. Because the resonances ofthe wire high resonances which are sometimes split. They result from
are damped, the exciting force of the transducer is constant large vibrating areas of the corpus. Above another gap
over the desired frequency range. centered around 700 Hz there are many resonances which
result from complicated divisions of the plates into small
vibrating areas divided by nodal lines. This part of the response
curves shows the largest differences between the three curves,
and these differences are directly related to the differences of
sound quality of the instruments. But it is not well known
whether the envelope contains all the important information
about sound quality or whether details play an important part
as well. The top response curve in Figure 2 is from a Petrus
Guarneri of 1749. The other two are from factory made
violins.

3.1 IMPORTANT FREQUENCY AREAS AND THE


FIRST OUALITY PARAMETER
In Figure 3 overlays of ten curves of old Italian violins
(top), ten curves of master instruments (middle), and ten curves

300 500 1000 2000 4000 7000


Figure 1. Mounting of the transducer.

6'^
EU

o
rlo
ol
El
f'
oo
0
25

300 500 1000 2000 4000 7000


Frequency (Hz)
-'
Figure 2. Response curves of three violins Figure 3. Overlays of groups of violins
A: Pietro Guarneri, 1749 Top: 10 old Italian violins
B,C: Factory violins Middle: l0 master instruments
Bottom: 10 factory violins

Catgut Acoust. Soc. J. Vol. 1, No.7 (Series ll) May 1991


166! (il salias) /'oN '! lo^'f'cos'lsnocv lnolEC
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62 I Sound Radiation
H. Duennwald: Deduction of obiective quality parameters

in the top curve. The "Lautheit" for each frequency band is So, finally, there are five quality parameters used to
given by the average of the modified sound spectrum in that describe the tone quality of a violin:
band. Experience has provided four conditions under which 1. The relative level of the Helmholtz resonance.
the sound characteristics will be extreme: 2. Fraction of very nasal sounds in 7o.
3. Fraction of very "unnasal" sounds in 7o.
If the average "Lautheit" in the B range is very much greater
4. Fraction of very harsh sounds in 7o.
than the average in the sum of the A, C, and D ranges, the
5. Fraction of very clear sounds in 7o.
sound is very nasal.
Similarly if average B ( average ACD, the sound is verY
"unnasal." 3.3 RESULTS OF ALL MEASURED VIOLINS
ifaverageF)average DE the sound is verY During this research we measured about 700 violins.
harsh.
Included are 53 old Italian violins, 75 violins of old masters,
if average F (( average DE the sound is verY (Hopf, Klotz, Stainer...), 300 violins made by masters after
clear.
1800, about 180 factory made instruments, 42 made by hobby
Any values of the average between the above extremes are makers, and a few others. Figure 6 shows the results for all
normal in every tone of the violin. The above conditions can violins. In the upper part are shown dots for each violin
be fulfilled by many different sounds which may vary very
representing the number of bad sounds of the nasal (X axis)
strongly in details. This means that there are no restrictions
and harsh (Y axis) types. The old Italian violins are identified
regarding taste in sound qualities (for example, dark or brilliant
by stars. The stars and points that represent the good violins
sounds).
are concentrated at low values of both parameters. This means
For the final judgment of the quality of an instrument
that the very good instruments do not have many individual
calculations are made of the existence of the above conditions sounds that are nasal or harsh.
for each of the 46 single tone spectra. The criteria are what A combined parameter is developed for the results shown
percent of the individual tone spectra fall in each of the four
in the top graph of Figure 6 by drawing a line from each point
extreme conditions described above. perpendicular to the direction of the arrow and extending the
line until it intersects the y-axis. The combined parameter thus
obtained is a number in 7o ot the y-axis, but it is treated as
a plain number since it is no longer a percentage of anything.
In the middle graph of Fig. 6 this combined parameter is
plotted against the relative level of the Helmholtz resonance
(see 3.1). The very good instruments are characterized by

l
I

E
o9
o!
5=
oo
b6
oo
LIB -u Fraction of tones which are very nasal
AVERAGE ACO Y. t EVEI NF HF! MHOLI
-.

B>>ACO --> VERY NASAL S0UN0


N6'
Aco>>B "> NOT NASAL S0UN0 =!
o-
c^
EI
9s
*c
;o
x3
icE
Combined Parameter +
AVERAGE OE
NoT NASAL SoUNoS Y,

@l
t
o
.E _U
AVERAGE F
oo
b6
oo
6=
L=
F>>DE ..> VERY HARSH SOUNO
CLEAR SOUND
Fraction of tones which are not nasal ->
VIOLINS . OTHER VIOLINS
OLD ITALIAN

Figure 5. Calculation of relative loudness in different


frequency bands. Figure 6. Development of a combined parameter for violins.

Catgut Acoust. Soc. J. Vol. 1, No.7 (Series ll) May 1991

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66 I Sound Radiation

ACUSTICA
48 A. GABRIELSSON et al: AVERAGE.SPECTRA AND QUALITIES OF VIOLINS Vol.42 (1979)

1. Introduction Table I.
Relation between the number of violins selected and their
Long-time-average-spectra (LTAS) of scales tonal quality ratings, 80 being maximum rating.
played and recorded in a reverberatiou chamber
have proved to be reproducible and sufficiently Number Tonal rating
sensitive to display differences betu.een different ...
2 70 80
violins [1]. 6 60 ... 69
The LTAS offer a simple method for surveyable 7 50 ... 59
analysis of the sound from complex sources, as for 4 40...49
example the sustained and approximately invariant 30 ... 39
parts of the tones of a violin. In this investigation
the LTAS are applied to the anal;,gig of quality- an early Cremona violin, labelled Andreas Guarneri,
rated violins. Cremona 16402 and one being labelled "Marcus
The purpose of the investigation is to extract Obbo fecit Napoli 1726".
main parameters describing differences betlveen All 27 violins lr'ere brought to the reyerberation
the physical sound of different violins. These chamber of the Dept. of Building Acoustics at the
parameters may then be tested in experiments for R,oyal Institute of Technology in four rounds on
their relation to perceived tonal qualities. Thus, the same day. The recording procedure earlier
we are seeking the answers to two main questions: reported was used [1]. A Brriel Kjrer 112 inch
Do suitable methods exist, for analyzing the 4133 microphone was placed at the previously
LTAS ? and What information on the tonal quality selected standard recording position and connected
can be extracted from such analysis ? In the follow- to a Nagra III tape recorder run at 19 cm/s.
ing we describe the recording of the violins and The player rvas sholvn the standard playing posi-
the making of the LTAS. The LTAS are analyzed tion, giving a diffusor to shield the microphone
by averaging over groups, .w,ith separate correlation from the player. He 'w'as instructed to play a set
analysis, and thereafterr'vith more advanced sta- ofthree whole tone scales over three octaves making
tistical methods as factor analysis and multidi- a short break between each scale to let the sound
mensional scaling. X'inally the results are summa- "die out". He was instructed to play the scales
rized and conclusions are dra'wn. d6tach6 starting from the open G-string as loud
as possible and rvith a tempo of approximately
2. Recorilings one note every second.
In the first round, the reference violin 'r,r.as
The violins for this investigation were borrowed recorded first, thereafter eight violins from the
from the "1975 Instrument Exhibition of the Scan- exhibition and finally the reference violin once
dinavian Violin Maker Association" [2]. All 103 more. The same procedure nras repeated in the
violins of this exhibition had been rated for tonal second round v.ith the reference and u,ith eight
quality by a jury containing trvo professional "new" violins, and in the third round with six
violin players. They tested the instrumeuts mainly "new" violins from the exhibition. X'inally, the
for equality in "loudness" and timbre for all notes same procedure was repeated with the reference
and stringsl. Trvo three-octave scales 'lvere played violin and with the four special violins. Thus,
A fl,at maior scale
slo'wly and evenly, one being an recordings rvere obtained for each of the twenty-
and the other an ,4 major scale. Furthermore, two quality-rated violins, for each of the four
the instruments u'ere tested for their ease of special violins, and for eight playings on the "re-
playrng. Both jurors gave their judgments as ference" violin. The player had not played and
players and listeners. The violins were given tonal u,as not familiar with any of the violins except for
quality-ratings from 72 to 36, the highest possible his own Cremona-Violin.
rating being 80.
Twenty-two violins u.ere selected for our iuvesti-
3. First simple analysis
gation, representing the different tonal quality
ratings from the highest to the lowest, see Table f. LTAS u'ere made of the recordings by means
Recordings of t'hese instruments were made t'o- of the computer program LTAVSPEC 92. This
get'her with a "reference" violin (made by H. Sundin program represents an extension of that previously
1971) and four special instruments, one being
2 Certificate from Hamma & Sohn, Stuttgart, gives
r
A. Pisuke, personal communication with one of the "X'rancesco Rugeri, Cremona approx, 1690" as maker
jurors after the completing of the scientific investigations. and year of making.

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68 I Sound Radiation

ACUSTICA
50 A. GABRIELSSON Ct a]: AVERAGE-SPECTRA AND QUALITIES OF VIOLINS Vol. 42 (19?9)

ties betu-een any tv-o violins u'ere indeed in most


cases significantly larger than the dissimilarities
between different playings on the reference violin.
An interesting fact is indicated in the LTAS
of X'ig. 1. The "average" LTAS of all t'wenty-tv'o
violins and the LTAS of this single violin are not
drastically different, both LTAS display peaks
at 4 " '5, 8, and 11 Bark and a broad peak at
13 ... 18 Bark. These four peaks u'ere found in
most of the trventy-tto violins. The lou'est peak
corresponds to the range of the main rvood reso-
nance.

4. \Yeight function analysis


In Fig.2 the average LTAS are plotted for the
eight violins 'lvith the highest quality-ratings and 0 4 B 1? 16Bark20
for the seven violins rvith the lo'lr'est quality- Iig.3. \Yeight functions: Function 1 is a simplification
ratings. The peaks and dips are found in approx- of the difference function of Fig. 2 and functions 2 "' 6
imately the same regions as before. The difference represent different variations of function 1.
curve (the upper currre) indicates that' it should
be favorable for the tonal quality to have "strong" The correlation betlr.een tonal quality-ratings
frequency components at lotr and medium high and the calculated scores according to diff'erent
frequencies, and that "lveak" frequency compo- weight functions are given in Table TI. The t-eight
nents are favorable at 10 Bark and above 16 Bark. functions 0 ... 6 give approximately the same re-
The difference curve indicates the sign and the sults, holr,ever rrith sligtrtly lol.er correlation coef-
magnitude of the difference as a function of fre- ficients for weight functions 2... 5. This indicates
quency (Bark) and probably'lvith some correlation that the difference function is reasonably tell
with the differences in tonal quality. One might correlated u.ith the tonal quality-ratings. The
therefore try to use the difference function as a square ofthe correlation coefficient can be regarded
weight, function for tonal quality. By multiplying as displaying the proportion of variance accounted
this rveight function with the difference function for by the linear regression, i.e.
640/r.
between the LTAS of any single violin and the
"average" LTAS of all twentl,-tv,o violins (muJti- 5. Correlation betlveon soparate frequency regions
pl),1ng the respective rveights with the respective antl tonal quality-ratings
difference in each filter band and summing over
Another alternative to study rvhich frequency
the filter bands) a score for each violin rvas ob-
regions may be important for tonal quality is,
tained. The same procedure was also used for
of course, to look at the correlation bet'ween the
a somewhat idealized function plotted in n'ig. 3 LTAS values of the violins in the different filters
together v-ith five variations.
and their quality-rating scores. These correlations
appear in X'ig.4. Moderately high correlations
Table II.
Product moment correlation bet'reen tonal quality ratings OB

and calculated scores using v'eight function 0 (the difference


function of Fig. 2) and the v,eight, functions 1 "' 6 of n'ig. 3. 0.4
1

.sl
Weight Correlation .sl
function coefficient,

t^l
.e
0 0.80 s -0.4
1 0.78
2 0.68
0.67
4 0.67 0481216 Bark 20
5 0.67
n'ig.4. Correlation between LTAS values in filters and
6 0.78
quality ratings over twenty-t'rvo violins.

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69 I uouolpoY punos
70 I Sound Radiation

ACUSTICA
52 A.GABRIELSSONCTAI:AVERAGE.SPECTRAANDQUALITIESOFVIOLINS Vol. 42 (1979)

sented by three v'idely separated filt'er bands' By


extencling the analysis to comprise seveu factors,
the variance accounted for rises to 85o/o. The five
factors described above are also found here u'ith
some minor modifications. The most obvious
modification is that filter bands 16 "'18, which
had high loadings in factor 2 above, norv constitute
the main loadings of the added factors 6 and 7'
In a more restricted X'A including only the four
special violins and the eight' different playings
on tt reference violin, four factors accounted
" of the variance. The first three factors
for 88o/o
were fairly similar to factors 1 "' 3 above, rvhile
the fourth factor had no direct correspondence'
In a final analysis on the whole material (the twenty-
tu.o violins included in the competition, t'he four
special violins, and the eight playings of the
,"f"r"rr.." violin, in all thirty-four "violins") a five
factor solution accounted fot 74o/o of the total o
variance. The first four factors were very similar
to factors 1 "' 4 described above, while factor 5 40

possibly represented a fusion of the earlier men-


tioned n'5 and F7.
As a complement to the results above also the
factor scores for the different violins rvere computed'
The factor scores represent the positions of the
respective violins rrit'hin each of t'he factors de-
2A

scribed above. The detailed results are not given


here, onlY some comments regarding the factor
scores in the last n'A including all the violins used
and the different playings of the reference violin,
see Fig.6. The d.ispersion of factor scores for the
different playings of the reference violin is con- Bark ?0

siderably smaller than the dispersion of factor


50

o
40

-3-2-101
Factor Score_*
X'ig. 6. Result of factor analysis of the tv'enty-seven violins, "0
0
1+ B '12 16 Bark 20

spiead in factor scores. The thick lines mark the spread


Fig. 7. Examples of extremes for single factor, maximunt
fir the tu'enty-two violins, the thin lines mark the spread factor score (-), minimum factor score ("""').
of the eight playings on the same violin, the broken part
the distatce to-the first playing compared to the other (a) Factor 1 (dissimilaritY 57),
seven playings, factor scores of the Cremona-violin are (b) factor 2 (dissimilarity 56), and
marked bv circles and those of the Napoli-violin by boxes' (c) factor 3 (dissimilaritY 50).

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72 I Sound Radiation

ACUSTICA
54 A. GABRIELSSON et al: AVERAGE-SPECTRA AND QUALITIES OF VIOLINS
Yot.42 (19i9)

compared with the corresponding information in tions as regards D1 and D2 and low correlations
the factor analysis, that is, with the factor scores as regards D4 and D5.
for the violins. Since the interpretation of the The multiple correlation (computed by mearrs
factors in the FA and the dimensions from the of the BNIDO2R, program for step'r,r,ise regression
INDSCAL analysis are rather similar, it may be [8]) of all five factors rvith the quality-ratings ryas
expected that the positions of the violins also 0.86. Thus, abofi 71o/o of the variance in the
should be similar in the two analyses. As regards quality-ratings are accounted for by these five
factors/dimensions 1 ... 4 there 'w.as a correlation factors, the most important being X'5, tr'3, and X'2.
of 0.83 ... 0.96 between the positions in corre- X'or the solution u'ith seven factors the multiple
sponding factors/dimensions (positions in n'1 relat- correlation rose only slightly to 0.87. As regards
ed to positions in D1, in X'2 related to D3, F3 to the INDSCAL solution the multiple correlation
D2, T4 to D4). As regards D5 there was a correla- of the flve dimensions rvith the quality- ratings
tion of 0.70 with n'7. rvas 0.83 corresponding to about 690/o variance
accounted for.
9. Relations to quality-ratings ft may be noted that the correlations and the
proportions of variance accounted for here are
The correlations betlr.een the positions of the somelyhat higher than that obtained rvhen corre-
violins in the above-mentioned factors/dimensions lating the quality-ratings r,vith scores for the violins
and the quality-ratings are given in Table III computed with the u.eight, functions (Table II),
but somer.vhat lolr.er than the variance accounted
Table III. for by the simple correlation analysis. The .lveight
Correiation between tonal quality ratings and factor scores function scores referred to the r,hoie frequency
of violins in five factors given in X'ig. 5.
region, while each of the factors/dimensions in the
tr'actor Correlation I'A/MDS mainly referred to certain limited fre-
coefficient querlcy regions. The results of the simple correla-
tion analysis and the FA are in good agreement.
1 0.08 In fact, the four filter bands r,vith highest correla-
2 0.28
tions had high factor loadings in any one or t.wo
0.40
4 0.07 of X'5, n'3, and T2 - at 18 Bark in X'2 and X'5,
5
- 0.69 at 10 Bark in tr'5, at 14 Bark in tr'5 (and n'4),
and at 12 Bark in n'3. The filters at 3, 20, and
21 Bark with the next highest, correlations corre-
as regards the five factor solution. There is a fairly
spond to high factor loadings in tr'1 and X'2. How-
high correlation between the positions (factor
ever, there are certain discrepancies betr.veen
scores) of the violins in tr'5 (the peak at 10 Bark
corresponding correlations in Table III (for X'A)
in X'5 corresponds to the dip at 10 Bark in the and Table IY (for MDS), rvhich implies that the
correlation, f ig. a) and the quality-ratings, moder-
results should be regarded lr.ith caution. The dis-
ately high correlations as regards n'3 and X'2, and
crepancies are, of course, a consequence of differ-
near zero correlations as regards tr'1 and n'4. In
ences betlreen the n'A and the MDS analysis of
Table IV the corresponding correlations are given
the LTAS (compare Figs. 5 and 8). As noted earlier
for the five dimension solution. There is a fairly
the MDS (INDSCAL solution) seemed someu'hat
high correlation bet.ween the position in D3 and
dubious.
the tonal quality-ratings ,moderately high correla-
10. Discussion anal eonelusions
Table IV.
Correlation betrveen tonal quality ratings and positions The main questions of this investigation were:
in each of the five dimensions of the II(DSCAL analysis Do suitable methods exist for analyzing LTAS
given in Fig. 8. of played scales on violins? and What information
about tonal qualitv can be extracted from such
Dimension Correlation methods ? The trvo questions are treated jointly
coefficient
in the following.
1 0.31 tr'our different approaches have been tried: by
2 0.36 means of 'w,eight functions, separate correlation
- 0.52 analysis, factor analysis, and multidimensional
4 0.16
5
- 0.11
scaling. The results from all of them seem to be in
good agreement,
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76 I Sound Radiation
MEYER PAPERS

example, the average sound power level of a violoncello


played forte lies at 90 dB re l0-r2 W. 1.2 Temporal Structure
The tonal color depends mainly on the strength of Another important detail of the tonal characteristics
the overtones; sometimes partials building up a vowel- is the temporal fine structure. Fig. 2 shows three-di-
like formant are stronger than the fundamental [2] . For mensional spectra of three staccato tones, two of a
the entire sound of an ensemble the higher har- violin played with different techniques-off the string
monics-about 3000 Hz and higher-are particularly and on the string. The third example is played by a
important. The relative strength ofthese overtones can bassoon.
be described by the level difference between the 3000- Essential criteria for the temporal sound structure are
Hz components and the strongest components. This the duration of the starting transient and the decay time.
difference depends on the pitch for instruments having The duration of the starting transient can be measured
different compasses as well as for different registers from the very first beginning to the point when a level
of individual instruments. of 3 dB below the final level is reached [4]. The decay
For the orchestral instruments, when playing forte, time Tl is measured over 60 dB, as is the reverberation
there are differences of about 30 to 50 dB in the lower time. In our examples the decay times differ between 0.7
pitch range; between different instruments, variations s for the fundamental of the violin tone if the bow has
of about 20 dB and more occur for coincident pitch. been taken off, and 0.1 s for the bassoon tone or the
At higher pitch the overtones become stronger: the dif- violin tone if the bow remains on the string. The attack
ferences are reduced to about I 0 dB especially fgr oboe times 16 vary between 20 and 90 ms.
and violin. The smallest differences are found for those Fig. 3 shows the typical ranges of the transient times
singers who generate a strong so-called singer's formant for the orchestral instruments. The lowest values are
t3l. found with a staccato attack of the double reeds, having
Furthermore with different types of instruments, the a duration of 15 to 35 ms. A staccato attack of the
relative strength of the high-frequency components de- violin needs about 50 ms, and the longest duration is
pends on the dynamic level of playing. With the string found with the lower stringed instruments and the flute.
instruments there is only a small influence; the 3000- Naturally players have the ability to smooth the starting
Hz components increase by about l. I dB if the strongest transients, and transient times of 100 ms and longer
partials increase by I dB. For the woodwinds this factor may occur. Typical articulation noise of instrumental
lies between 1.3 and 2 dB, whereas for the brass this sounds has a duration of about 30 to 100 ms.
factor may exceed 3 dB. This means that the audible With regard to the sound impression of listeners in
impression of dynamics will be supported by this vari- a hall and of the other musicians of an orchestra, some
ation of the tone color in a typical way for the individual room acoustical criteria should be compared with the
instruments, which cannot be described independent properties of the instrumental sounds mentioned. Early
of the room acoustical situation because of the rather reflections in a concert hall being responsible for the
strong absorption at high frequencies. spaciousness have a delay time of up to 80 ms after

PP PP f rf ff
Violon Fast Scales
Viola ffi
Violoncello
lndividualTones
Double Bass I,..-ffi" iI

FIute
Oboe
Clarinet
Bassoon

French Horn
Trumpet
Trombone
Tuba ffiffiffiil
50 60 70 80 90 100 dB 120
L*-
Fig. l. Dynamic range and average forte of orchestral instruments . L,,-sound power level re 10-12 W.

J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol.41, No.4, 1993 April


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78 I Sound Radiation

PAPERS
MEYER

of strings rests on the phase distribution of the vibrating about the directions of main radiation. In addition to
parts of the body, especially of the belly. Therefore the published data for wind instruments [2] , some values
its dependence on frequency is particularly significant. for stringed instruments have been estimated by the
Even directions of the strongest radiation vary, de- author proceeding from measurements in two planes.
pending on the frequencY. At frequencies of about 500 Hz the deviation from
A characteristic value for the strength ofthe directivity an omnidirectional radiation is rather small. At 1000
is the so-called statistical or energy-related directivity Hzfor many instruments values of about 2 are reached.
factor. It is the ratio of the angle-dependent sound This means that in the direction of the main radiation
pressure generated by a real instrument and the sound the critical distance or reverberation radius is doubled.
pressure generated by an omnidirectional source ra- It seems interesting that at about 3000 Hz the directivity
diating the same sound power. Fig. 6 shows the range of the woodwinds is less strong than the directivity of
of this statistical directivity factor for the orchestral the strings, whereas, as is well known, brass instruments
instruments at three frequencies, neglecting information have a much more sharply concentrated radiation.

10 20 50 100 200 ms 500


Staccato Sofl
ililt F,,I:i'] Flute 'l
m ,
0boe
Bassoon
ilililililililililililil[
.,.u,,,
:,,,,,,, ,,1 Brass

m
I
I Violin
V. -cello
Bass Iirni"
tilnlflllllllllll Articulation

I Note Spacing

ffi
ffi.i#i
Overtone Break
Synchronicity

) --Muslclan
IIIII W Direct Sound
Uselul Refl. /
m l:l'?fl'sri:'' ) Li ste ner

'10 20 50 100 200 ms 500


Fig. 3. Characteristic values for temporal structure of sound onsets'

5 s 10

-I -------*
60 dB Decav
I Violin
)
Violoncello
Double Bass
Winds
Timpani
Piano (EDT)

Period
of Vibrato

EsseE.-Tins
Concert Halls
Churches
0,05 0,1 0,2 0,s 5 s10
Fig. 4. Characteristic values for temporal structure of sound decays

J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol.41, No.4, 1993 April


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80 I Sound Radiation
PAPERS
MEYER

tones is merely due to the linear frequency scale. This tone G5, which is generated by overblowing, the blowing
frequency modulation is heard very well by the player, noise is amplitude modulated. In particular the very
but not as well by a listener in a hall. high components above l0 kHz show strong fluctuations
As there are different delay times, the listener in the of 15 dB and more. As the very high frequency com-
hall receives simultaneously sounds that have been ponents exist preponderantly in the direct sound, the
produced earlier at different moments. Therefore all vibrato enhances the presence ofthese instruments inside
the frequencies played during a vibrato period are mixed the orchestra, making them more noticeable in com-
and their amplitudes are time averaged. Fig. 8(b) shows parison to the other instruments.
an equalized frequency band for each partial. This The second point to be mentioned concerning the
broadening effect generates more "volume" or a more sound of a single part is the fact that often several
"rounded" sound. It is typical for all stringed instruments voices sound as being gathered simultaneously and
played with vibrato. blended to a new tone color. Blending effects occur
Wind instruments, particularly brass and flutes, especially when several instruments play in unison or
generate a different sound effect when played with vi- in octaves. In those cases the playing technique can
brato [6]. The high partials are amplitude modulated determine which one of the instruments is perceived
by the vibrato in an extension of 15 dB and more. as the leading instrurnent. The impression of "leading"
Because this modulation is in phase for all these over- can be caused not only by the loudness, but also by
tones, it leads to an audible tone color modulation. the brightness of the tone color as well as by the artic-
As an example, Fig. 9 shows two flute tones in the ulation noise.
lower and middle registers. In both cases there is only
a small frequency modulation of less than -r l0 cents. 2.2 Combination of Several Parts
But the tone Ga shows a marked amplitude modulation, Often the musical context demands that several mu-
which is in phase for all higher overtones. With the sical parts can be distinguished by the listeners. These

near the lnstrumenl in the Hall

Fig. 8. Temporal structure of violin vibrato; note C6 (fo: 1024 Hz); microphone distances 100 mm and 7 m.

note: Go
ms
800
700
600
500
400
300
7Ot 200 70r
dBl 100
o"l
o oJ
ol 5 15 kHz 20
O S kHzlo o 10
(a) (b)

Fig. 9. Temporal structure of flute vibrato; notes G+ (/o = 384H2) and G5 (/s :168H2), recorded in anechoic chamber.

208 J. Audio Eng, Soc., Vol. 41, No.4, 1993 April


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82 I Sound Radiarion

MEYER PAPERS

difficulties. In addition it should be mentioned that the instrument groups. On the other hand the lower limit
first violins sound more brilliant-because of the of the orchestral dynamic range may be determined by
masking effect-if behind them there are the dark only one instrument playing pianissimo, for example,
sounding low strings and not the brighter second violins a clarinet generating a sound power level of about 58
t7). dB. This leads to an overall dynamic range of about
60 dB for a symphonic orchestra.
2.3 Tutti Sound of the Orchestra Furthermore it should be mentioned that for the lis-
The tutti sound of the whole orchestra as generated teners in a concert hall the impression of the musical
by many parts is perceived by the audience and by the dynamics can be enlarged by the so-called spaciousness,
players in quite a different way. For the listeners the which grows with ascending loudness [8]. It is caused
impression of loudness is determined more or less by by the early lateral reflections and gives more volume
the sound power of the orchestra. In addition the to the forte sound. Because of this variation of tonal
impression of musical dynamics is influenced by the quality and its influence on the perceived dynamics,
spaciousness of the sound generated by early lateral spaciousness is an important criterion for the quality
reflections. The sound power of an orchestra can be of a concert hall.
estimated, using the values in Fig. 1, by summing up As mentioned, a further aspect of the orchestral tutti
the sound power levels for all instrument groups. sound is the location-related tonal balance. With the
For an orchestra playing fortissimo an example is most usual seating arrangements, the high instruments
given in Fig. 12.It shows the sound power levels for are concentrated on the left of the orchestra and the
single instrument groups, namely, entire groups of low instruments on the right. This leads to a more or
strings, woodwinds, and brass, as well as for the whole less pseudo stereophonic impression. It is quite a dif-
orchestra. The numbers below the graphs indicate the ferent sound impression if high pitched instruments
number of players for each group. Such a medium- are distributed over the entire width of the orchestra:
sized orchestra may generate a fortissimo sound power the timbre of the tutti sound has a better geometrical
Ievel of ll8 dB. But as can be seen from the figure, balance.
in this case the brass levels should be slightly reduced The points discussed up to now were related to the
to reach a better dynamic balance between the various time-averaged tutti sound. But there is a temporal

2OO-4OOHZ,55OHz 425H2 5OO Hz

6OO - 8OO Hz 1OOO -125OHz

2OOO Hz

Fig. 11. Main directions of radiation (0 to -3 dB) for violins.

J, Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 41, No. 4, 1993 April

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84 I Sound Radiation
PAPERS

Unison Triple Counterpoint

dB
o -/t
I
Level
of Own
lnstrument

-r5 -15 L
O dB +2o -60

Level of other lnstruments *


Fig. 13. Influence of other instruments on dynamic level of individual violinists (according to Naylor t13l). 0 dB-level of
own instrument when undisturbed.

rangement, reach their full value in more or less every


3 FINAL REMARKS
hall.
The sound of an orchestra is the very complex result
of the cooperation of the playing technique of the mu- 4 REFERENCES
sicians, the sound radiation of the instruments, and the
acoustic influences of the room. Last but not least the [] J. Meyer, "Zur Dynamik und Schalleistung von
acoustic perception of the audience and the players Orchesterinstrumenten," Acustica, vol. 7l , pp. 217 -
forms the artistic impression of listening to the orchestral 286 (1990).
music. Therefore it is a very attractive task to illustrate [2] J. Meyer, Acoustics and the Performance of
the various points which contribute to the typical sound Music (Bochinsky, Frankfurt a.M., Germany, 1978).
of an orchestra by playing suitable sound examples. [3] J. Sundberg, "What's So Special About Sing-
Topics of such selected examples can include the fol- ers?," ,/. Voice, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 107 -ll9 (1990).
lowing: t4l A. Melka, "Messungen der Klangeinsatzdauer
. Chorus effect produced by groups of strings bei Musikinstrumenten," Acustica, vol. 23, pp. 108-
. Tone mixture in unison and in octaves tt7 (1970).
. Location-related tonal balance between upper and [5] J. Meyer, "Zurklanglichen Wirkung des Strei-
lower voices I (1992).
cher-Vibrato s," Acustic a, v ol. 7 6, pp. 283 -29
. Seat arrangement of strings-motif separation and [6] J. Meyer, "Die spektrale Feinstruktur von Vi-
blending it Proc. 9th FASE Symp . (Balatonfiired,
bratokliingen ,"
. Loudness level balance between instrument groups; l99l), pp.285-290.
masking in fortissimo [7] J. Meyer, "Gedanken zur Aufstellung der
.Dynamics and space impression Streicher im Orchester," Das Orchester, vol. 35, pp.
.Time structure of onset of tutti sounds. 249-256 (1987).
Since some of these effects depend on the locational t8l W. Kuhl, "Riiumlichkeit als Komponente des
distribution of a multitude of incoherent sound sources, Raumeindrucks," Acustica, vol. 40, pp. 167-l8l
these illustrations can only be performed successfully ( l 978).
by a live performance of an orchestra, not by loud- t9l R. A. Rasch, "Synchronization in Performed
speaker reproduction of recorded music. This restriction Ensemble Music," Acustica, vol. 43, pp. l2l-132
concerns the playback of reverberation-free recorded (t979).
sound examples for an audience seated in a hall as well [10] J. Meyer, "Zum Hcir-Erlebnis des Musikers im
as the reproduction of music recorded in the hall to be Konzertsaal," Festschrift fiir Fritz Winckel, Technical
considered for listeners seated in a special studio. A University, Berlin, pp. 157-193 (1982).
tolerable approach to the actual situation might be the I l] A. C. Gade, "Investigations of Musicians' Room
dummy-head technique. Acoustic Conditions in Concert Halls," Acustica, vol.
It is an exciting result of such live performance il- 69, pp. 193-203 (1989).
lustrations that some detrimental effects, such as poor U2l A. H. Marshall, D. Gottlob, and H. Alrutz,
location-related balance, occur particularly in halls "Acoustical Conditions Preferred for Ensemble," "/.
having restricted acoustic quality with regard to re- Acoust. Soc. Am., vol. 64, pp. 1437 -1442 (1978).
verberation and especially spaciousness. On the other [13] G. M. Naylor, "Musical and Acoustical Influ-
hand some positive effects, such as the audible sepa- ences upon the Achievement of Ensemble," Ph. D.
ration of different voices caused by the seating ar- thesis, University of Edinburgh, UK, 1987.

212 J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 4t, No. 4, 1993 April


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sullol^ Jo sluoluoJnsBoru IBJIJOdS
L8 I uoqolp0v punos
88 I Sound Radiation

J.t. Miller: Spectral measurements of violins

lution of spectral estimates. To improve the resolution, that particular frequency. At the expense, admittedly, ofgreater
is, increase the number of estimates, we may lengthen the computational complexity, this gives a better overall spec-
time window. See Fig. 3 in which the time window was tral estimate, and furthermore, it is possible to select param-
raised from 512 to 2048 samples. The resolution is now four eters of the computation to determine how many and for
times finer than in Fig. 2, but the response falls off with an which frequencies the estimates are made. FFT's (fast
increase in frequency. This sagging results from the fact that Fourier transforms) work with time windows that are always
at the high end the pitch periods are small and are getting a power of two thus limiting the choices for bandwidth. For
smaller with too much change in size within this longer time musical considerations it is desirable to treat all octaves
window for the estimates to be accurate. The situation can alike and make the same number of estimates per octave.
be improved by using a signal which does not time-vary so Choosing that number to be 24 will provide quarter-tone
rapidly. See Fig. 4 in which the sawtooth glissando rate has resolution.
been slowed to l/2 octave per second, requiring 8 seconds
for four octaves, and resulting in 1600 frames. Other param-
eters ofthe analysis are the same as in Fig. 3. Indeed, there is
less sagging in the estimated amplitude.

=
)t
o

Figure 5: CQT Sawtooth gliss 1/2 octave/second


LOG2 FHEOUENCY 1N Hz

Figure 3: FFT N : 2048 Sawtooth gliss I octave/second Such an approach, applied to the slower 8 second saw-
tooth glissando data of Fig. 4, resulted in Fig. 5. The param-
eters of this computation were chosen to produce 128
estimates for 5 and l/3 octaves at quarter-tone spacing start-
ing at 196 Hz. The scaling on the CQT displays is the same
as used on the FFT's for convenience in comparisons, and
o
tick marks on the plots indicate semi-tones within the
4 G-scale octaves. The benefits are readily seen. There is no
o appreciable attenuation in the high frequency estimates.
f
t
=
APPLICATION TO A VIOL]N
The above illustrations were all made on artificial data
LOG2 FREOUENCY iN Hz to illustrate the inherent features of analysis. The method is
Figure 4: FFT N :2048 Sawtooth gliss l/2 octave/second now applied to the output ofan actual violin, but lest the re-
sults be interpreted as definitive with respect to this particu-
lar violin, let it be noted that no attention was paid to the
Fourier analysis is not well suited to sine sweeps and
acoustics of the room when "miking" the violin as advised
glissandi, and choosing the right duration for the analysis
in the introduction to this paper. This discussion is merely
window in these time-varying signals will always be proble-
intended to describe the method and not present a thorough
matical. Too large is bad for high frequencies of short per-
experimental procedure.
iod; too small is inadequate for the long periods of low Four bowed glissandi were played, each starting on an
frequencies.
open string and moving up approximately an octave and a
fifth beginning with the G string. A nearly l0 second long
CONSTANT O TRANSFORMS
analog signal was digitized at a sampling rate of approxi-
The recommended suggestion for violin spectra is to mately 20 KIlz and stored as a computer file. Then a CQT
use constant Q transforms (CQT's).[] This method was computation was performed about l5 times in every second
prompted by the referenced paper from JASA of January, of data for a total of 140 time frames, and in each frame the
1991, by J. C. Brown in which it was used to produce effec- 128 estimated frequencies were connected by a line to form
tive 3-D displays in applications involving pattern recogni- a spectral response trace. These traces have been arrayed
tion on musical content. vertically starting at the bottom to form the simulated 3-D
Q is a parameter of a spectral estimate defined as the effect shown in Fig. 6. A coarse time resolution was used in
ratio of the frequency being estimated to the estimate's order to fit an overview ofall the data on the display screen.
bandwidth, where bandwidth is determined by the time du- At the top of the display above the time traces is the super-
ration of the analysis. In Fourier analysis the bandwidth position of all 140 time frames with the vertical lines indi-
(1/T) is the same for all frequencies, and therefore, the Q is cating maximum magnitude for each of the 128 estimates.
increasing with frequency. If estimates are to have constant The four ridges in the traces to the left ofthe display corre-
Q, then the duration of the time window must vary inversely spond to the fundamental frequencies ofthe four glissandi,
with frequency. That is, each frequency must be estimated and the ripples to the right of each are their corresponding
with a different window whose duration is tailored to the overtones.
Catgut Acoust. Soc. J. Vol.2, No.4 (Series ll) November 1993

iIiillttililililItililililil
e66t reqL!3^oN (ll sauas) r 'oN 'Z loA f coS lsnocV lnOleo -t-
'urlor -ur ue qll.,rr pue .&\ol oql lB pe^ordur sr lrelep leJlJeds oql
pa^\oq Jo elBtullsa oPnllldue 1|3 eurl-1eeg :6 arnSgg q8noqtlv'8 '3llJo sleued, oql ur u1(oqs ere,(aql 'sezrs,,rrop
-ur,tt luoroJJrp rnog Eursn elup etues srql uo polnduoc ero^\
s.JlC 'eteturtse IOJ srql Jo sseJJns oql elercerdde oJ
'rpuessrlS
urlor^ ruo{ elelurlse epnlrldrue 1}3 1pre,r.6 :4 arnSrg
HUOJSNUUl 0 1NU1SN03 fHI1-tU3d
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,!!r 6 1!!rsm :oNVS
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u,troqs ,{eldsrp eq1 ruroJ pesodturredns qcrq/( 'serue{ 096 I
8t0e = N
Jo IElol e roJ puoJos red seurl 002 opetu se,,\ uorlelnJlBc
e elep srql ruo4 eleturlse 1|3esnerd eroru e uroJ oJ
tcuenberg srr{l lB ,(8reuo
punos qcnu olurpeJ lou op surlor^ leql u,rou{ IIe,^d sr 1r erurs
Sursrrd:ns 1ou - ,{.eldsrp srql ur uoes eq ot opnlrldtue ur ,r\ol
oo1 sr zH 961 13 leluoruepunJ eql ereJ €rlxo sFIl r{lr.^d ue^E
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t201. = N ur ornJe^Jnc;eleer8 eql LUoIJ olqtulersrp tceJ e:Uels,^Nols e
Ztg=N
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'pe;re.;erd oq ol sr llnsel 'psleurlsorepun eq IIr.^ sercuenber3 esaql lBql ecuenbesuoc
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11
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surl0r,{ J0 sluaur0Ins?au prlJads :Jarul{ 'J'f
68 I uo1101p0a punos
90 I Sound Radiation

J.E. Miller: Spectral measurements of violins

APPENDIX
REAL-TIME COT
Computational Details - Historical Developments:
One last improvement is possible to suggest.and that is
the collection of data in real-time with the potential for
visu- ihe time windows referred to above are not merely
atty monlto.ing the accumulating results of superimposed time intervals of varying duration but are actually func-
tions, usually raised cosine functions (Hamming windows),
spectra on the computer screen. If a signal is
pre-recorded'
the resulting customarily ipplied to the time data to shape the tails before
it. .*p..i-.nter his no further control over
the analysis computing transforms. The program used in reference [l]
..ti-ui.t, that is, there will be no feedback until
produced was written for a large computer with sufficient memory to
trut t..r'p..formed, and if the signal has been
will allow for pre-computation and storage of the 128 windows
*lii, t* r'apid changes in frequency then the estimates
used in m;king the CQT estimates. A listing of this
program
U. iruA.quute. On ihe assumption that the experimenter
for a given vi- was generously supplied to O.E. Rodgers by Judy-Brown but
;ril;;i;;ti",ate maximum potential outputwhile playing' *ur iot suitable foi use on a standard PC. Development of
it is desirable to make these CQT's CQT procedures by JEMSoftware went through four stages:
"f*,
watching the screen, and continuing to do so till no further
.frung.t".un be made on the output display' It is even desir-
procedure to 1) The matrix of I 28 frequencies times the number of time
able io have a computer controlled clean-up
outliers fiom the data display that may be re- fiames was considered in inverted ordeq and the estimates
.fl-inut. for a given frequency were computed over- all time frames
;;;;.4;; spurious. Although such potential.requires consid-
been iather-than computing all 128 estimates for a given time
Ei"Ui. .".prtational power, such a facility has already
using a digital signal processor frame. This inveriion eliminated the need for having all 128
successfully implemented
was windows always available and thus memory requirements
hosted by a trigtr speed personal computer' The system
joint were reduced. However, the program was very slow since the
demonstiated in Cromwell, C! at the VSA/CAS meet-
data had to be repeatedly scanned over all time frames for
irg i"l,f"v this year. (Computer details are deferred to the
"f Reiults using this technique were obtained each frequencY.
aFpeNolx.)
il;; th. same violin studied above and are shown in the 2) One high resolution window was prepared only' and the
final Fig. 9.
It i; evident from the agreement between locations of
Jirf.i.nt iizes obtained from it bv table look-up' This
thai the violin is the same as that p.o".O to be an improvement' though still time-consuming'
-ajoi peutt and valleys expected difference on this display and is the method currently used by O' E' Rodgers'
u#ivr.a io. Fig. 7. The
irln'irr. ou..alftevel whictL is clearly higher' The violin was 3) The idea described by Brown in [2], which makes use of
pluv.O fruta.. and longer at every frequency.to produce and It results
io.nrur. its maximum output. Even an illusive output from
Ffit una Parseval's Theorem was implemented'
Howeveq the ln u r..v efficient CQT algorithm suitable-for processing
;;. i; G;". captured to i verv slight degree'level' indicates Jutu o" a modern PC. It is that used in'SAND', the signal
ri-ifu.ity, after compensating for overall
in unuivtlt and display package for pre-recorded data used in
iiliiil;;;.-.ecorded glissando data was prettv successful this paPer.
..f..t.ntlng the output of this violin in the first place'

4) The fourth stage is the real-time version, which is an im-


CONCLUSIONS piementation of the original computational paradigm on an
violins
Analysis of artificially stimulated (non-bowed) i.i.iU"".O (DSP-16 wlltr a ttvtsC25 chip)' The output of a
their high fre- pre-amp' fil-
rnuv'f.uJio ,nrealistic conclusions regarding Ai.ectionat microphone is passed through a
qraray energy potential since bowed instruments are only tered at 8 KHz to prevent aliasing, and digitized by the A/D
excited by overtones at the high end ofthe spectrum'
Spec-
.Ln"..t.t of the Aiiel board at 20tKHz' (Higher rates would
using FFT's on time-varying data are suspect
..q"i.. larger windows.) CQT's are continuously com-puted
tral analyses
range or
urO .u, te troubGsome at one end ofthe spectral
period
uni..nt t5 the host PC for display' The algorithm for re-
it. "it..; i.e., estimates may be undervalued if the movat of data outliers and logarithmic scaling of amplitudes
i;;g,h ;iih. iignal is too variable within the analvsis win- is handled by keyboard control on the PC'
O-oi. s. ,u.. oIth. conditions under which they
are used'
C"ttturrq transforms give better estimates due to their use REFERENCES
treatment of octaves
;i;i;;a windows. Also, their uniformestimates 1. Brown, J.C., "Calculation of a constant Q spectral trans-
to number and spacing of is appropri-
*itf, ..gu.O
-musical form," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 89(1), 425-34, (1991)'
ate in acoustics. Unfortunately, CQT's are more
intensive than FFT's, and software for the 2. Bro*n, J.C., 'An efficient algorithm for the calculation
.ornpututlonully
Nonetheless' thev are well of a constant Q transform," J' Acoust' Soc' Am' 92(5)'
;;;;;;i; Gtt ieadilv available' 2698101, (t992).
worth it and are recommended'

Catgut Acoust. Soc J Vol. 2, No. 4 (Series ll) November 1993


(7 '3q eas) saueld puors '(1 '3rg ees) ,(1uo luaurdtnbe ?rrunsuaru l?cqsnor?
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re,uod e]?ls ,(pee1s etlt;o seldurexe suorlErlsnlF luasard ot{J -ap sr ,,poqlaru euoqdorcnu-euo,, srql 'senl"A arnsserd orlsnoc?
^loqs
xalduoc roJ ?ar? tre eldures 01 pesn eq tq8ru 'ecuere;a.r pu8rs
'E prr? , soJueJeJer sreqto ?uorue 'slueun-usut Pclsnu ruo{ e rprrrr rer4e3o1
'euoqdorclu e1?urs e 'pleg punos ,ftuuorlets rod
uouurp?r punos puu uopcnpord prmos equcsep slrodar pre,reg 'sec
-rnos prmos paleclldruoo pue Sulselelut ere sluetututsul Isf,rsnry sooHrgl{'IvJ.Nsl^ltugdxg
srlnsgu
's8rnp.rocar punos plelF?eu uI
suorlrsod auoqdorcnu p?q prol? ol InJasn eq tq8rur lrrcum.usq aql
€'uesue Rsu) r{q petuese.ld uorJ uoq?rp?r prmos pazrlunsrl uopcnpo.rd olprus roC 'sluarun-lsur
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sr rolJe^ ,trsuetur puorsueunp-o.rl Plol ew '?urururns ,{11etro1ce,r -3uo1 'acuulrurpe tndul ?acads uou?rqll ',&leurore;retu1 sB I{rns
puu uouJe4p aruus eql ur $uauodruoc arp Sur8ere,ry 'uollcefip 'luat'unrsrn eql rrro.g uorl?rpur punos pue fpoq tuarunqsul eqt Jo
qcee ur slueuoduroc .(lrsuelur orrrt sa,u8 srnoJ uI BlEp sIW ?urdnorg sopredo.rd uor1zrqrl eqg.sep ol pasn ueeq eABq scuqrel snoLIeA
'peJols pu? relnduroc E olul peJ sr tuod ecu€l rlceo 1e elzp ernsserd
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lecrsAqdpoo8 u e,r,r8 rr?J srol.al ftlsuetrn;o sderu /r\ol{ t\oqs ol (I
$ uop?zlpnsll ? rlcns Jo asodrnd aq1
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urorJ uonsrp?r punos pazqsnsr^ e^sr{ e,u ,(Bn srw q
'plog Pmos
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ol pesn ere ecuereJer pu?rs eqgr.,rr raqle?o1 auoqdorcnu ey8rns y
rf,vursflv
(e.,'r.rop 'HJAI - ureqpuo{ r€01-N 'tw1g
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16 I uouolp0Y punos
92 I Sound Radiation

The instrument was excited steadily at 98Hz and 230H2 by a B


& K Minishaker connected to the middle of the G-string. The two-
dimensional arrow maps (intensity vectors) give information about
the local sources of radiation, the magnitude of radiation, and the
direction of the power flow. At low frequency excitation the bass
acts like a monopole, shown in Fig. 3. As seen, the f-hole origi-
nates the longest arrows, i.e., at this frequency the f-hole is the
main source of radiation,

At higher frequency several phenomena occur, like the power


rotation in Fig. 4. Such a steady circulation of acoustic energy in
closed loops has been shown in reference 6. The figure also shows
a typical non-symmetric radiation in the near field area at higher
frequencies. At this frequency (230 Hz) a region of the brck plare
is an important source. This back plate radiation seems to contrib-
ute also to the side way and frontal power flow in 0re bass bar half
plane.

I I I I tt tl /t /
Fig. 2. Measuring planes: BB, vertical plane on the bass bar side; \ lll///////
\ /l ///?////
SP, vertical plane on the sound pgst side; B, horizontal plane I I / /,t////uz
I I / /////22?
through the tridge. I / t z/?2-a--

llllltttrt,. //
1 I I I I I I t ,./'\ .
--
l'r.'a-'\\\\\.-
\ -l '--l- -f --J--, t t t t ," .., ' '-
r \ \ \\-
't/ / I \ \\-
\ I I I I I l'./-_r
-\ , t .
I I I I I I t t /\./ ? ,
llllt/ttlr\.r.,
\ I I I / l.-./ t / / / .
1 I I I I I / t../ . 2 .
Ll i7-r'---r-r,,,,2 Fig. 4. Power flow in the B plane at 230 Hz
I I / I'y / / -'\- -
Figures 5 and 6 show radiation in 0re two vertical planes, It is
seen that partsof the surface of the instrument radiate while other
parts receive acoustic energy.
);l

i-rl (\ \ \ \\ \ ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I tlr \ \ \
Itl-r.t..'. \ \ \ Part of this study was supported by the Norwegian Research
Council for Science and the Humanities. Parts of these data were
tlr \ \ tt( \ presented at *re llth lnternational Congress on Acoustics, Paris,
\\t-.-(r\ Inly 19-27, 1983, and at the Stockholm Music Acoustics Con-
l:'
I t \ I \ ! \_z\' \ \ \ \ ference, (SMAC), July 28-August 1, 1983.
,\\lr\/r\\\\\
-l--t--\ I \ t \ \ \ \ t \
REFERENCES

rA.
Fig. 3. Power flow in the B plane at98 Hz. Solid lines show iso G. Askenfelt, "Eigenmodes and tone quality of the double bass,"
phase contours. STL-QPSR 4, Stockholm (1982).

Catgut Acost. So. Newsletter 40, November 1983 J. Tro, O. Kr. O. Pettersen, and U. K. Krisliansen: Sound radiation frm a double bas visulized by intmsity vstor
solm i(llslErrl fq pa4Jmm ssxl alqnoP B urJ uorlBrpu punos :uasuensuy Xn pue 'ueselad O Dl .o ,orJ .I eg6l requ"^oN
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(uer8am:o11 ur) troder By.IA ,,.crsnur w sltrrsrru.u lesu6,, .orJ .I,
(196I) S€II 'oN uda1 ''cul NgB ,,.sacuds lu?reqrelor
PttB sPPg rBau ur luauems"etu Flrsuelr{* ..lu la ,.rI .wlus .^\ .dc
'(rsor) ooe-soe'(z)
9t 'rql1 punos 'I ,,,eusrqrueui ?uqurqr,r ? ol esol. uoqnqqslp
'(916 1 ) uleqpuorl'r(8o1ouqce1 flrsuelrn cqsnoou arp ;o ,{pn1s lBcuaumu V,, \resr.rurlsuy .U .n€
elnlpsq uer?a,nro11 .(rm13a,nrotr1
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s6 I uoltolpDY punos
96 I Sound Radiation

aration should be in the vicinity of a quarter wavelength, the position of the microphone will make a bigger and
but this quantity is not critical. bigger contribution to the fieLd at smaller radii as Z
increases, due to the behavior of the Hankel functions
It cannot be overemphasized that this type of an- previously discussed. Thus a small but finite amount
alysis assumes that phases, as weII as amplitudes, of of high-L noise can cause catastrophic divergences at
the field are measured. Data on amplitudes (or, equiv-
small radii. (fhis is simply the converse of the fact
alently, sound-pressure levels) alone are insufficient that high-I source motions near the origin do not ra-
for a complete dynamical analysis of the field. diate much-it is difficult to determine high-.L motions
near the origin from measurements far away.)
C. Gonvergence of expansion
What this means is that, at small radius (or, strictly
At large distances, the function fu(kr) approaches speaking, at any finite radius), the expansion (1) must
so that all tr values behave the be viewed as semiconvergent rather than convergent,
eryQkr -ttn/z)/lpr,
same except for characteristic phase shifts' For small to be cut off at an Z value at which the agreement with
values o!.kr, otthe other hand', h"(kr) becomes reality begins io become worse rather than better.
(2L - 1)t /i(kr)L-r. This divergent behavior, custom-
r. What this value is canbe estimated if we know the errors
arily described as the "near field," sets in when the of measurement and the radii of the measurement
argument kr becomes smaller than Z. Hence, the spheresl in effect, this consideration places a limit on
near field e:dends further and further out for high I.; the resolution with which the source motion at small
in fact atany r, no matter how large, near field be- radius can be determined.
havior wilt be encountered if sufficiently large 'L values
are included, II. APPARATUS AND PROCEDURE

As far as the angular dependence is concerned, the A. Mechanical boom system


rms values of normalized spherical harmonics are, by As er<plained in Sec. IB, a complete determination of
construction, independent of. L. Of course, their os- the acoustic field is effected by measuring the acoustic
cillations become more and more rapid with increasing pressure on two concentric spheres. In order to ac-
Z, so that an experimental microphone measurement complish this, we designed and built a special boom
whose spatial resolution is finite will average very high
system which simultaneously moves lwo microphones
Z contributions to zero. This does not happen, how- so that each one maintains a constant distance from
ever, until Z becomes at least as large as the ratio of the coordinate center, and the values of the spherical
sphere radius to microphone size, a number much
angles (0,p) are always the same for both. This sys-
larger than the values of -L dealt with in this work. tem must be able to locate the microphones with pre-
We thus see that convergence of the expansion must cision and not scatter an appreciable amount of sound.
depend on the coefficients aro aod bro falling off at Since the first condition requires rigidity and the sec-
high Z. Now if the field is due to a source of approxi- ond small size, they are to some degree contradictory.
mate extent d Iocated at the origin, it may be assumed The arrangement we have used is shown in Fig. 1. The
that, as long as the spherical harmonic expansion of primary boom, made of i-in. brass tubing, is pivoted
the motion of the source surface has coefficients which at the bottom so that it can rotate about a vertical
do not increase for high .L, the radiated wave will not "primary" axis. Attached to it is a horizontal tube
contain appreciable contributions for tr greater than whose axis intersects the primary one . Running through
kd. The reason is precisely that for larger .L values the this tube is the shaft of the secondary boom, at the end
Hankel function at the source is much larger than its ol which are located two Knowles BT1?59 microphones,
asymptotic value, so that the contribution to the far mounted so as to be radially displaced from each other.
field will be small. On the other hand, if the source The weight of the system is supported by two thin iron
is not at the origin, its "size" must be viewed as the wires attached to a ball bearing collar which turns on a
radius of the smallest sphere centered at the origin shaft mounted to the celling of the room. Motion of the
which yet contains it. For example, a localized source primary or secondary boom causes each microphone to
at a distance I from the origin will have appreciable sweep out, respectively, a "parallel of latitude" or a
partial wave contributions up to a"bout .L =k?. In the "meridian of longitude." Thus, the combination oI the
extreme case of a plane wave (which can be viewed as two motions allows the microphones to be placed any-
due to a source infinitely far away), there is no upper where on their respective spheres. The radii of the two
cutoff on tr values. measurement spheres are 58.1 and ?2.6 cm.
Experimentally, the presence of random errors in the The shafts are driven by small electric motors and
measurement of amplitudes and phases of the micro- worm:and-gear systems. Mounted on each final worm
phone signals will appear as "white noise" in the shalt is a Lucite disk, painted so as to have alternate
spherical harmonic expansion, that is, it will be char- opaque and transparent sectors and equipped with a pair
acterized by an essentially uniform contribution to all of LED-phototransistor combinations. As the disk
partial waves. If we are interested inthe far field, this rotates, the square wave that comes out of the photo-
noise wiII play the same role as it does in any other transistors operates a digital counting system whose
physical measurement. However, if we wish to ex- state at any moment defines the position of the respective
trapolate the field inwards toward the source, a rather boom. The system counts up or down depending on
serious problem arises: a given amplitude of wave at which of the two phototransistors first sees the passing

405 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol.68, No.2. August 1980 G. Weinreich and E. B. Arnold: Measuring acoustic radiation fields 405

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98 I Sound Radiation
tering should, in lowest order, consist only of a com- outputs of these amplifiers are then proportional to the
bination of s wave andp wave. It would be relatively sine and cosine components of the original sinusoidal
easy to measure the corresponding scattering Iengths input. The switching is done carefully to insure a 5070
empirically, and use them to compute a first-order duty cycle, and the positive and negative gains are
correction to the zero-order field at the microphones accurately matched. When this is done the signal an-
and, finally, a first-order correction to the coefficients. alyzers are insensitive to even-harmonic components in
Such a procedure should reduce errors due to boom the input signal; odd-harmonic components do contri-
scattering by an order of magnitude. bute in inverse proportion to their orders, however,
and thus must be minimized in the input signal if pos-
B. Audio system sible. The signal analyzer outputs are filtered by
Figure 3 is a block diagram of the eleetronics, to be second-order, critically damped Low-pass filters with
discussed in this and the following sections. 10-Hz corner frequencies which effectively average
over many cycles of the signal analyzer outputs.
The oscillator used for driving the sound source
must have the following characteristics: The sensitivities of the two microphones, as weII as
the gains in the associated amplification and analyzing
(1) Its frequency must be very stable, since com-
channels, were intercalibratedby repeating some typical
putation of the field depends on an accurate knowledge
runs aIter physically interchanging the two micfophones'
of the wavelength,
The four filtered outputs of the signal analyzer, which
(2)It must have low harmonic content, since our are slowly varying dc voltages, are routed next to four
analyzer circuit is sensitive to some harmonics (see analog sample,/hold amplifiers, based on the Analog
below),
Devices model AD582 integrated circuit, and controlled
(3) It must provide both sine and cosine outputs to be by logic circuits which cause the HoLD mode to be en-
used as references for the analyzer, tered when an externally generated FREEzE signal is
received (see next section). The logic circuits then
We use a specially designed oscillator which, in
insure that the HOLD mode is maintained as long as is
addition to the above features, has control inputs that
necessary to digitize all four sampLed signals and store
allow it to be phase-Iocked to an external source while the resulting digital values in temporary storage reg-
maintaining very low harmonic content. This makes it
isters. Following this, the sample,/hold circuits return
possible to drive a violin at a frequency which is locked
to the SAMPLE mode, in which they quickly acquire the
to one of its string resonances, a feature which is not
current values of the signal analyzer outputs and follow
of direct relevance to the general method except insofar
them until the nextFREEzn signal occurs. If aFREEZE
as it allows a convenient separation of the frequency
signal occurs while the previously held values are still
stability and Iow distortion functions.
being digitized, an .inhibiting signal is produced which
Amplitude and phase information is obtained from the prevents it from propagating to other parts of the logic
microphone signals by an analyzer circuit which sep- circuitry which depend on it to perform other functions
arates each of the lwo amplified microphone signals simultaneousty with the sampling of the signal analyzer
into sine and cosine components. This is done by pro- outputs. When the digitizing has been completed, this
ducing square waves from the sine and cosine oscil- inhibiting signal is removed after a short delay (to
lator signals and using these to switch the gain of permit the sample,/hold circuits to settle to new values)
amplifiers between +1 and -1. The time-average and the FREEzE signal propagates in its normal manner

OSC i LLATOR

FIG. 3, Block diagram of


the electronics. PA-
power amplifier; S-sound
source; M1, M2-micro-
phones; MA-microphone
preamplifiers; LPF-Iow-
pass filters; S/H-sample,/
hold amplifiers; MIIX-
multiplexer; ADC-analog/
SIGNAL ANALYZER DIGITIZER digital converter; MR-
memory registers; UART-
ASCII serial code generator;
FSK-modulator.

POSITION POSITION COUNTERS


SENSORS

J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol.68, No. 2. August 1980 G. Weinreich and E. B. Arnold: Measuring acoustic radiation fields
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66 I uoqolpotr punos
100 I Sound Radiarion
D. Computer processing away, it is easily shown that its expansion will match
that of a plane wave for.L values up to about kR.
The data collected in the manner described in the
preceding section is, for each microphone, expanded With the boom system assembled and lined up in the
in spherical harmonics up to Z:9. If F(0, @) is the center of the anechoic chamber, we placed aloudspeaker
complex amplitude of the microphone signal (which is in one of the corners of the room, at a distance ot2.'11
proportional to the complex acoustic pressure), the m from the center of the spheres defined by the mea-
coeff icient C rr ol this eryansion is obtained from the suring system. Choosing a frequency of ?33.5 Hz (be-
original data, .F(0,Q), by eause of the accidental availability of a crystal-con-
trolled source at that frequency), we find that the
ft
C t u: J0I Ot A?)G(M;O) sln? d0 , (3) resulting wave should be essentially plane up to.L :35
or so. Since our analysis never went beyond L :9, the
where approximation to a plane wave should be excellent.
Having taken a complete run under these circum-
GW;e):(h)-rtz{""*0,- iMilF(e,ild\. (4)
stances, we first computed the coefficients of outgoing
and incoming waves. The amplitudes of the two waves
Here Orr(0) is a normalized associated Legendre func- were then separately resynthesized at large radii,
tion. The computing procedure is straightforward: omitting the factors exp(+ikr)/ikr which characterize
since the data file runs through a complete circle in the radial dependence of the far field. The results are
@ at constant values of 0, we first compute the functions shown as polar plots in Fig. 4. The plane of the dia-
G(M;e) on each circle. This is done by direct numer- grams is vertical and is oriented so as to include the
ical integration, assigning an increment d@ to each Ioudspeaker, the doited lines showing the direction in
point by examining the preceding and following values
which it is located.
of the independent variable. In this way, 19 values of
G(M;0), with M ranging from -9 to *9, are found for For an ideal plane wave, the outgoing wave should
each 0. At the end of every @ sweep the program com-
putes contributions to the 100 integrals C, using
appropriate values of the functions G(XII;e).
Having obtained the spherical harmonic expansion of
the acoustic field on each sphere, it is a simple matter
(knowing the radii, the frequency, and the speed of
sound) to obtain the coefficients of the incoming and
outgoing waves. After that, the field at any location in
the region of eonvergence can be computed, either as
an acoustic pressure or as any desired component of
velocity. We have found it extremely useful to plot
the results with the use of a Hewlett-Packard 7221A
digital plotter. Some examples are given inthe dis-
cussion of the next two sections. 6!rle+

III. ILLUSTRATIVE RESULTS

A. A plane wave
As stated above, whenever there is no source or
scatterer inside the measuring spheres, the coef-
ficients of the outgoing and incoming waves must be
equal so as to add up to the nonsingular Bessel func-
tion. Preliminary tests, with the apparatus in an
ordinary Iaboratory with considerable wall refleetions,
showed that condition to be rather weII satisfied. It
seemed interesting, however, to repeat the experiment
in an aneehoic chamber, where we could deal with a
wave which not only originates outside the measuring
spheres, but whose nature is fairly well known. In
particular, a plane wave propagating in the direction
6',0'has the expansion
FIG, 4.Separation of an almost-plane wave into outgoing (top)
*rltL
LM
i"1nr)Yir/.e' ,e')Yru@, Q) , (5)
and incoming (bottom) parts, The absolute value of the re-
constructed asymptotic amplitude at large distances is plotted
showing that arbitrarily high , values will be rep- in a polar graph in a vertical plane, oriented so as to contain
resented in it. If the wave is not exactly plane, but the source (whose direction is indicated by the dotted lines).
originates from a localized source some distance E The summation of spherical harmonics is carried up to L = 9.

409 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol.68, No.2, August 1980 G. Weinreich and E. B. Arnold: Measuring acoustic radiation fields
Sound Radiarion I LOl

appear as a delta function in the direction of propa- at the center of the spheres defined by the microphone
gation, and the incoming wave as a delta function in the motion, and a run was taken.
opposite direction. Insofar as the wave is more com-
Figure 5 shows the result for the outgoing wave,
plicated than merely plane, the pattern can change, but
plotted in a horizontal plane as the amplitude which
the incoming and outgoing waves must remain inversion
would obtain asymptotically at large distances from
images of each other as long as there are no sources or
the source Iafter taking out the factor exp(ibr)/ikr).
scatterers inside the measuring spheres. It is seen In this case the phase is indicated by drawing the real
that the results are in excellent agreement with this
and imaginary parts of the ampLitude separately, and
expectation. The finite width of the lobes is consistent further distinguishing positive from negative values by
with the fact that we expand only up to.L:9. the choice of dashing fonts. It is seen that the pattern,
while not exactly isotropic, is at least devoid of any
B. Anechoic chamber reflections fine structure that would make the interpretation of the
As one of the applications of our method, we examined reflected wave difficult. The imaginary part of the
the wave reflected from the wall of our anechoic cham- amplitude, which is positive in the forward direction
ber. This chamber is part of the University of Michigan and negative in the bacl$/ard one, is due to imprecise
Phonetics Laboratory, and its construction has been centering of the source relative to the coordinate sys-
described elsewhere.2 For the present purpose, it is tem of the microphones and the fact that the responses
important to note that the structure of the walls is dif- of the lwo speakers at this frequency are not compLetely
ferent from the wedge arrangement commonly used. identical.
As a money-saving feature, the chamber was built
The reflected wave is shown in Fig. 6, on a scale
instead with accordion-Iike walls made by lacing a
which is magnified by a factor of ten (that is, 20 dB)
fiberglass blanket in and out between a grid of metal
relative to Fig. 5. The pattern is easily explained as
bars approximately 2 ft apart. The rods are vertical
due to diffraction of the sound from the periodic accord-
on the walls but, of course, horizontal on the ceiling
ion-shaped walls. In fact, the numbered lines in the
and floor, and the depth of the accordion is approxi-
figure indicate the directions of the zero-, first-, and
mately equal to its spacing.
second-order peaks to be expected from geometrical
In order to interpret the incoming wave in terms of considerations of wavelength and accordion spacing.
the properties of the chamber, it is convenient to have It is also interesting to note that the size of the lobes
the outgoing wave as simple as possible, preferably is consistent with the fact that the wall, viewed as a
isotropic. We produced sound at a frequency of 733.5 grating, is "blazed" for second order at this frequency;
Hz by a pair of ineryensive 2]-in. speakers mounted that is, the accordion angles are such that specular
at the ends of a 3-in.-long tube of the same diameter, reflection occurs at approximately the second-order
and wired so that the outward motions of the two cones angle.
are in phase. This pseudoisotropic source was mounted

---- REAL PART, POSITIVE


'-'-.-.- REAL P RT, NEGATIVE
REAL PART, POSITIVE IMACTNARY PART, POSITIVE
-.---
.-.-.-.- ..-.-.. IMAGINARY PART, NEGATIVE
REAL PART, NEGATIVE
IMAGINARY PART. POSITIVE
.*----. -
IMAGINARY PART, NEGATIVE

-
FIG. 6. hcoming wave obtained from the same run as Fig. 5,
FIG, 5, Outgoing wave from a double-loudspeaker source at the and due to reflection of the outgoing wave from the wall of the
center of the measurement spheres, plotted as a reconstructed anechoic chamber. The scale represents a magnificatiou of a
asymptotic amplitude at large distances. The plane of the factor of ten, or 20 dB, relative to Fig. 5. The numbered
(polar) plot is horizontal. The phase is shown by plotting the segments on the circumference of the graph indicate the loca-
real and imaginary parts separately, and using different tion of diffraction maxima of corresponding order, as computed
dashed-line fonts to distinguish positive and negative values. directly from the geometry of the accordion-shaped walls.

410 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol.68, No. 2. August 1980 G. Weinreich and E. B. Arnold: Measuring acoustic radiation fields 410
L02 I Sound Radiarion
IV. CONCLUSIONS grateful to Sarah Gilbert, Jack Bartholomew, Lillian
Ho, and John Monforte for help with experimental pro-
The method described in this paper allows an an-
cedures, and to Tom Witten, Michael Sanders, and
alysis of acoustic fields at a level of detail not here-
Colin Gough for fruitful discussions of various aspects
tofore available. Considerable improvements, both
of the work.
in the mechanical boom structure and in the data pro-
cessing, are still possible, In connection with the
latter, a fast system which digitizes the microphone
waveforms themselves could be combined with a broad-
band source and Fast Fourier Transform procedures
to obtain data at many frequencies simultaneously.
Although our main interest was in violin acoustics,
it appears that the domain of applicability of the method
is much wider. lFor a discussion of spherical harmonics and spherical Hankel
functions see, for example, G. Arfken, Mathematical Meth-
ods for Physi.cr'sfs (Academic, New York, 1970), 2nd ed,,
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Chaps.11-12.
This work was supported in part by National Science 2G. W. Pete"son, G. A. Hellwarth, and H. K. Dunn, J. Audio
Foundation grant number PHYll-22953. We are Eng. Soc.15, 67-72 (1967\,

411 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol.68, No. 2, August 1980 G. Weinreich and E. B. Arnold: Measuring acoustic radiation fields 411
The Bowed String
lllilltililililililltfl
s. Tm Bowpp Srnnqc
Paper 10. Benade, A. H. (1975). The wolf tone on violin family instruments, Catgut
Acoust. Soc. Newsletter 24, 2l-23.
Paper 11. Cremer, L. (lgSZ). Consideration of the duration of transients in bowed
instruments , Catgut Acoust. Soc. Newsletter 38, 13.
Paper 12. Gough, C. (1984). The nonlinear free vibration of a damped elastic string,
J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 75 (6), l17l-1776.
Paper 13. Hancock,IU. (1989).The dynamics of musical strings, 11)J. CatgutAcoust.
Soc.2d ser., [ (3), 3345.
Paper 14. Hancock, M. (1991). The dynamics of musical strings, 12) J. Catgut Acoust.
Soc. 2dser., 1 (8), 23-35.
Paper 15. Kubota, H. (1987). Kinematical study of the bowed string, J. Acoust. Soc.
Jpn. (J) 43 (5), 301-310 (in Japanese). English translation prepared for this
book by the author.
Paper 16. Lawergren, B. (1983). Harmonics of S motion on bowed strings, J. Acoust.
Soc. Am. 73 (6;), 217 4-2179.
Paper 17. Legge, K. A. and Fletcher, N. H. (1984). Nonlinear generation of missing
modes on a vibrating string, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 76 (l),5-12'
Paper 18. Mclntyre, M. E. andwoodhouse, J. (1979). On the fundamentals of bowed-
string dynamics, Acustica 43 (2),93-108.
Paper 19. Mclntyre, M.E., Schumacher, R.T., andWoodhouse, J. (1981)' Aperiodicity
in bowed-string motion, Acustica 49 (1), 13-32. (See also corrigendum in
Mclntyre et a1.,7982.)
Paper 20. Mclntyre, M. E., Schumacher, R.T., andWoodhouse, J. (1982)' Aperiodicity
in bowed-string motion: On the differential slipping mechanism, Acustica
50 (4), 294-295.
Paper 21. pickering, N. c. (1985). Physical properties of violin strings, J. Catgut
Acoust. Soc. 44,6-8.
Paper 22. Pickering, N. C. (1986a). Elasticity of violin strings, J. Catgut Acoust. Soc.
46,2-3.
Paper 23. Pickering, N. C. (1989). Nonlinear behavior in overwound violin strings, -I'
Catgut Acoust. Soc.2d ser., L (3), 46-50.
Paper 24. Schumacher, R. T. (1979). Self-sustained oscillations of the bowed string,
Acustic a 43 (2), 109-120.
Paper 25. Schumacher, R. T. (1994). Measurements of some parameters of bowing,
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.96 (4),1985-1998.
Paper 26. Weinreich, G. and Causs6, R. (1986). Electronic bows: Digital and analog,
P ro c e e din g s, I 2 th Int e r nat ional C on g re s s o n Ac ou sti c s, To ront o, 1 9 86, Vol.
III, paper K3-7.
Paper 27. woodhouse, J. (1993a). On the playability of violins, Part I: Reflection func-
tions, Acuslica 78, 125-136.
Paper 28. woodhouse, J. (1993b). On the playability of violins, Part II: Minimum
bow force and transients, Acustica 7 8, 137 -153.

105
106 I The Bowed String

M"nresearch has been done on the string, for its behavior is more amenable to analysis than
any other part of a bowed string instrument. Although the string itself may seem to be very simple,
until recently no general solution was known to the problem of describing the motion of a string
when it is bowed. Difficulties arise not only because of the extreme nonlinearity of the friction that
is found in all parts of the bow/string interaction, but also because of the meagerness of what we
know about the way friction varies with velocity.

HrsronrcAr, UNDERSTANDTNG

The first clear thinking we have on the subject is a rather neglected writing of the mathemati-
cian Jean-Marie Duhamel (1797-1872) in which he recognized the need to consider two parts of a
period of vibration-sticking and slipping (Duhamel, 1841). He derided the idea that the vibra-
tions of a bowed string are caused by the plucking action of barbs on the bow hair-a concept that
still plagues us [Menzel and Marcus , 19J3, Rocaboy, 1990 (Paper 32, Sec. C)]-and he looked on
the behavior of the string as that of a static spring. He failed, however, to understand that what
distinguishes the bowed string from other commonly observed forms of stick-slip action is the
behavior of wave propagation along the string, which is not instantaneous, but occurs with finite
velocity. In a note on Duhamel's "M6moire," R. T. Schumacher (1973) indicates that 25 years
before Helmholtz, Duhamel perceived most of the essential elements of bowed string motion, a
work of which Helmholtz was apparently unaware.
In his research on the bowed string, Helmholtz (see Part I, 350Years of Violin Research, under
the subheading 19th-Century "Greats") recognized two simple facts: first, the stick-slip phenom-
enon and second, the ability of the stretched string-if it is flexible and low in energy loss-to
vibrate in the form of a relatively unchanging wave. The result is that out of numberless waves that
are possible, the string accommodates itself to a steady vibration consistent with alternate sticking
and slipping.
The string itself provides the unique driving force which gives the player not only control of
the violin under his fingers but also forces him to solve certain problems in the quality of the
sounds produced. As the bow is drawn across the string, the string appears to move back and forth
in a lens-shaped curve, an optical illusion due to the rapidity of the string motion. A completely
flexible string would take the form of a straight line with a sharp bend that could be seen in slow
motion or via stroboscopic illumination as a "kink," known as the Helmholtz corner, tracing out the
lens-shaped curve as it propagates back and forth between the two ends (Fig. 1 ). As the kink passes
the bow it dislodges the string from the bow hair to which it has been clinging and reverses the
string's motion. The kink causes slipping, and hence, in the Raman model, the velocity discontinu-
ity times the string propagation impedance must exceed the maximum static frictional force for
release to occur [Schumacher,l979 (Paper 24,this section)]. The bow is thus freed from the string
not as a result of a gradual increase in stress between the rosined hair and the rosined string, but
because the kink has turned it loose (Schelleng, 1973). The time of sticking is one of slow motion

Bow
FIGURE 1. The lens-shaped path of the Helmholtz corner (or kink, k) is shown by the dotted line. The solid
line shows the actual conhguration of the bowed string at one instant as the kink races around from bridge to
nut and back at the frequency of the note being played. (C. M. Hutchins, 1977,Fig. 2, p. 4.)
The Bowed String I '1.07

l. String bowed String plucked near bridge

I
o
t0
d
3. String plucked near niti-Point
A I
o
o
o
o
,r
k
o
'l-tt ', L."
lt
r

o
t< rl I

C. String plucked near bridge


lr'r'l
ll,tl

Time 4
A and B aaldeai together 6ive C

FIGURE 2. Configurations of the bowed string vs. the plucked string. (Courtesy of J. C. Schelleng.)

in one direction followed by a quick snap-back in the other upon release, giving the sawtooth
waveforms of Fig. 2. The motion of the string under the bow is repetitive, since the kink races
around from nut to bridge and back again at the frequency ofthe note being played
(for example, at
A = 440 Hz, the kink makes 440 round trips per second). Because of the repetitive nature of this
motion the parlials of the bowed string are integral multiples of the fundamental frequency.
The action of the bowed string serves to lock together the various motions of the string into a
single periodic entity despite such perturbing effects as bending stiffness and torsion of the
string
as wef as finite admittance at the string terminals. These effects make the string
modes inharmonic
when they are separately excited and left to ring freely, as in the plucked and struck strings of such
instruments as the guitar, hatp, and piano.
Developments in optics and photography made possible the work on vibrations of the bowed
string done during the first decades of the 20th century by a group of researchers in England and
India, best known of whom was Chandrasekhara V. Raman ( 1 888-1970), who has been honored for
his work in spectroscopy and whose discovery of the Raman effect earned him the Nobel Prize in
1930. (Selected papers by C. V. Raman as well as references to additional writings on the bowed
string are reprintldin C. M. Hutchins, 1975.) In his research he used not only the technique of hand
bowing, but also an automatic bowing device whereby the violin could be moved under a fixed bow
at vary1ng speeds, with the bow balanced so that the amount of bow force could be controlled and
varied. Uiing this device, which could simulate quite closely the bowing techniques of a violinist'
Raman measured the effects of bow speed, bow force, and distance of the bow from the bridge,
with varying interrelations of these parameters. Both his calculated and observed results showed
that minimum bow force varies directly as the speed of the bow and inversely as the square of the
distance of the bow from the bridge within the limits of normal bowing (Raman, 1920-21). In
his
detailed analysis of various kinds of bowed string vibrations based largely on photographic records
of the cello string and body, he illustrated many different types of curves in an effort to develop a
dynamical theory consistent with vibrational modes in the string and its interaction with the bow
(Raman, 1918a). Raman's studies of the wolftone have provided the basis for much discussion of
this phenomenon (the wolftone is considered later in this chapter).
String players are well aware that long acquaintance with a particular instrument is needed in
order to uOupi to*ing techniques to its unique resonance characteristics-the strong and weak
areas of tonal response. Variations in minimum bow force needed to make each note
"speak" are
108 I The Bowed String

also imporlant. Raman found that minimum bow force can be increased by a factor of two as the
fundamental frequency is swept through the Helmholtz air resonance or the principal wood reso-
nance. For each position of the bow as related to the bridge there is a minimum and a maximum
bow force at which the kink, or discontinuity, travelling around the string can trigger the beginning
and end of slippage between the string and the bow.
In his writings, Raman indicated that he had further plans for research on violin strings. In
answer to a letter asking about this he replied (C. V. Raman, personal communication to C. M.
Hutchins, 1969):
My studies on bowed string instruments represent my earliest activities as a man of
science. They were mostly carried out between the years 1914-1918. My call to the
professorship of Calcutta University in July, l9ll and the intensification of my interest
in optics inevitably called a halt to fufther studies on the violin family instruments.
FrederickA. Saunders (1875-1963), who pioneered violin research in the United States, work-
ing at the Cruft Acoustics Laboratory in the Physics Department of Har-vard University in the
1930s and 1940s, extended Raman's work on minimum bow force and its relation to body reso-
nances and called attention to the existence of a maximum bow force that should be investigated
(Saunders, 1937, 1946, 1953).
F. G. Friedlander (1953) and J. B. Keller (1953) explored the mathematical properties of simple
bowed string models which, like Raman's, assume a perfectly sharp Helmholtz corner and do not
take into account the change in string motion as bow force is varied between maximum and mini-
mum. Friendlander, however, found the significant result that dissipation of energy is essential for
the stable, periodic motion which is necessary for acceptable tone production.
B. Bladier (1961, 1964) studied the transient and steady-state vibrations of cello strings in
relation to bow speed, bow force, and the distance ofthe bow from the bridge as well as the effects
of the materials of string construction on harmonic content.
In his paper "The bowed string and the player," Schelleng (1973) was able to draw together the
strands of information on the bowed string that exist in the writings of Helmholtz, Raman, and
Saunders by using electrical circuit concepts and an experimental method in which a restricted
magnetic field is brought to bear on the string at the point along the string where motion is to be
studied. Fig. 3a and b shows oscillograms made by this method. In his concern for the player,
Schelleng (a cellist) suggested that this work may interest the player as the physical setting behind
the string behavior with which he has long contended (Schelleng,1973):
This involves knowing the difference between the mechanisms of minimum and maxi-
mum bow force, applying available data to their calculation and relating the results to
various domains of bowing, good and bad, that he has always recognized; the factors
controlling volume of sound and the rather subtle differences in timbre controlled by
bowing; the efficiency of the stick-slip process and the effects of negative resistance at
the contact between bow and string; conditions occurring at the beginning ofvibration
and the equivalent circuit of the string.

Schelleng's synthesis and his extension of Raman's work provide the first explicit theoretical
formulas for both minimum and maximum bow force [Schelleng, 1963 (Paper 75, Sec. I),1974].
The graph of Fig. 4 summarizes Schelleng's findings on maximum and minimumbow force, show-
ing the trends as the bow is moved away from the bridge for a given bow speed and a given note on
the instrument. This graph indicates why bowing near the bridge demands greater control by the
player. Schelleng's formulas, which give orders of magnitude only, indicate that above maximum
bow force, the arrival of the Helmholtz corner, or kink, from the nut is insufficient to cause the
string to slip, while below minimum force the bow fails to keep hold of the string during the time
the Helmholtz comer is travelling between bow and nut. Theoretical and experimental work on
minimum and maximum bow force has also been published by Cremer and Lazarus (1968) and by
Lazarus (1973). Other solutions of the wave equation for a bowed string are given in Kojima (1989).
Kubota has done a kinematic study of the bowed string [Kubota, 1987 (Paper 15, this section)].
It is well to note that the sloping lines of Fig. 4 are not really simple straight lines. They do,
however, give a useful and broadly correct idea of gross trends, but it is important to realize that
The Bowed String I 109

P=*,

Velocity at bow

Displacement at bow
iat
lr, c
(a)

O.O33 nust( wtrr

moDt
B=1 !ow PtrSSurt
-T- ---T----

StcoN!
"m"v'IrYlow

rowl3l o-
(b)

,'"t;"
FIGURE 3. Oscillograms made by J. C. Schelleng of the actual motion of the bowed string. (a) The velocity
curve shows the rolling of the string under the bow during sticking and the quick snap upon release. The
displacement curve shows the Helmholtz motion. (This is a very flexible string.) (b) A series of stiff-string
velocity curves with different amounts of bow force (pressure). (J. C. Schelleng, 1969, Figs. 1-5B, p. 13.)
ll0 I The Bowed String

ItrDG: lo aow, INY rNtltuflNt

rrllrlvi ottrrxc:, p
!tt tttt
t9i 9e aa 2a l2 6 3
t 192
2rvb
A' r =
lp.-p6 ) ao96

)i o'o,
a\ \.o.-ry
o'\
t\
IO2a

p= 1"
'o;ton
rur
r'<crro
*k.
2r 1"'
t1 256
tt t3tutr rx clln 3
). reucoul
c:tto l 3ttltao
t u N DA m I X Il L
\., -'

b-2
to G_

vl = lo'6/rrt
o.r! t., 3 a t2 2a lc
rlrl lr I = llO rtr
CT
i = a x ro' .g.
lttDol ro tow, ct lto a ttllL0
,, rt.ll. - |. ati.nl. = O.t
,tc 3
ttro

FIGURE 4. Bow pressure (force) vs. bow position used in playing. (J. C. Schelleng, 1970, Fig' 4, p.26.)

there is structure of all kinds associated with different bowed string modes assuming different
relative importance-plus hysteresis in parameter regime selection.
In an ideal string with rigidly fixed ends, minimum bow force would become zero. Since the
ideal Helmholtz motion is a free motion of such a string, the bow would not be required to maintain
the motion once it started. In the actual violin string, however, there are small losses from the
motion of the ends of the string as well as larger losses from the vibrations of the instrument body
(Gough, 198la; Reinicke, 1973). Cremer has pointed out that "the most difficult problem in the
theory of bowed strings is the exact treatment of reflections which are influenced, not only by the
bridge, but by the body of the instrument" (Cremer, 1972; 1913 1983, pp' 79-89).
Schelleng (1973) also discusses the concept of the rotational modes of the string (see Fig. 3a)
during the sticking portion of the Helmholtz motion. In a recent study Norman Pickering [1985
(Paper 21, this section)l has reported a considerable set of measurements on this important prop-
erty of real strings. He has also written a book on the bowed string for the player and string maker
(Pickering 1t991,a).Included is a further paper by Pickering [1989 (Paper 23, this section)] giving
some very interesting insights into the nonlinearities of overwound strings.

Tur WoIFToNE
At strong body and air resonance frequencies, where energy input and losses tend to be the
greatest and hence the bowing tolerance least, considerable energy is stored. This stored energy at
strong resonances creates a time-lag affecting the instrument's transient behavior and causing what
is known in severe cases as the "wolftone."
The Bowed String I lll

Mclntyre and Woodhouse [1978 (Paper 116, Sec. N)] give a description of the wolftone phe-
nomenon [which also refers to the work of others: Raman, 1918b; Firth and Buchanan, 1973;
Benade, 1975 (Paper 10, this section)l:
Suppose that we bow a note whose fundamental frequency coincides with a strong
body resonance, and that a Helmholtz motion is set up at the starl. The energy stored by
the body takes a number of cycles to build up, and during this time there is a continual
increase in the rate of energy loss from the string, and hence in minimum bow force,
which is dominated by losses at the fundamental. . . . If the minimum bow force needed
exceeds the actual bow force before a steady state is reached, the Helmholtz motion
gives way to a 'double slip'regime. . . . The energy stored in the body is in just the right
phase to promote the growth of this second slip, which takes over as a new Helmholtz
motion, out of phase with the old one. Then the whole cycle repeats itself, and the result
is the characteristic stuttering sound which is a particularly common problem with cer-
tain notes on cellos.

This qualitative explanation of the simplest kind of wolftone is substantially due to


Raman (1916), although he did not make clear the importance of the phase reversal
between alternate cycles of the wolf. This latter point was first brought out by Schelleng,
who confimed Raman's picture using an alternative approach to the simplest wolftone
starting from the idea that its behavior immediately suggests beating and coupled cir-
cuits.

In technical language, Schelleng's is a frequency-domain viewpoint, complementing


the time-domain view of Raman. Raman's viewpoint readily explains why pressing
harder with the bow can suppress the wo1f, at least in some cases, while Schelleng's led
him to a simple quantitative criterion for susceptibility to wolves which shows why
cellos are more prone to them than violins. Both approaches explain why wolves can be
alleviated by fitting a correctly tuned wolf eliminator or a lighter string, either of which
reduces the coupling of the string to the body and hence the maximum stored energy.
More complicated wolves, some of which are analogous to so-called multiphonics in
wind instruments, have been observed by Raman, Firlh and Buchanan and others, and
have been discussed by Benade. A quantitative theory covering all known cases has yet
to be constructed and verified.

Benade [1975 (Paper 10, this section)] discusses the wolftone in considerable detail based on
the heterodyning effect of a strong body resonance near the wolftone frequency. This converts the
ordinary first-mode string resonance peak (measured at the bowing poin| into a pair of peaks,
indicating how the displacement of the first-mode stdng resonance peak in the response curve of a
bowed string can give rise to the wolftone. This analysis shows that the wolftone phenomenon
depends on the wave impedances of the string and of the body, as described by Schelleng.
Further studies of the wolftone phenomenon by Mclntyre et al. 11983 (Paper 117, Sec. N)l
using computer simulations indicate that the "wolf ' or beat period may increase purely through the
nonlinear effects of an increase in bow force. This nonlinear increase can be explained from Raman's
concept of "minimum bow force" [Schelleng, 1963 (Paper 75, Sec. I'),1913 Cremer 1972)based
on time-domain thinking, but not from the simplest frequency-domain viewpoint which, in deter-
mining the wolftone period, considers only the approximately linear part of the problem, namely
the vibration properties of the string coupled to the body and its surroundings.
Hancock (1975, 1977) was the first to point out that the rocking motion of the bridge will
inevitably complicate any discussion of the bowed string. He has made a long and detailed study of
the resonance behavior of musical strings operating in isolation from an instrument body using a
Doppler-laser measurement system and more precisely defined terminal conditions than are found
in normal use. Results show that there are, as yet, little understood vibrations in different strings,
such as double and distorted resonance peaks that are due primarily to the fact that ideal circular
uniformity can never be found in any rea1, practical string [Hancock, 1982, 1989 (Paper 13, this
section), 1991 (Paper 14, this section)1.
In a study of the interactions of the vibrating string and the main body resonance of the violin,
Gough [980, (Paper 69, Sec. I), 1984 (Paper 12, this section)] has shown that the rocking motion
ll2 I The Bowed String

of the bridge results in two independent modes of vibration at low frequencies which can affect the
establishment of a stable sawtooth Raman wave. (For a description of Gough's and Hancock's
methods see Part II-I, Interrelation of String, Wood, and Cavity Resonances of the Whole Violin,
under the subheadingTheViolin Studied by String Resonances.) Gough's study confitms Schelleng's
description of the wolftone phenomenon and indicates that the different response of these two
modes results in the string being forced to vibrate in a direction different from that of the exciting
force-a phenomenon not considered in the above description by Mclntyre and Woodhouse. See
also Benade (7916,p.561), Diinnwald (1979), and Meamari (1978) on the wolftone.
L. Cremer [1982 (Paper 11, this section)] has discussed the duration of transients in bowed
instruments, refeming to measurements made by H. Backhaus (1931) and H. Meinel (1937b) and
showed the long duration of the fundamental found by Backhaus in relation to the action of the bow
on the string, particularly the changes of bow velocity and bow pressure.
It is well known that the action of the bow on the string is a highly nonlinear process. In
addition to the wolftone phenomenon several other nonlinear effects of interest to the player have
been studied in recent decades. These include corner rounding and sharpening at the bow, pitch
flattening, flyback jitter, and subharmonics, all discussed below'

ConNBn RouNnrxc AND SHARPENING


It has been shown that the bowed violin string has slightly anharmonic partials, and that when
the string is allowed to vibrate freely, its various partials decay at different rates (H. Fletcher et al.,
1965). This causes the sharp corner of the idealized Helmholtz sawtooth wave to become some-
what rounded since the high-frequency partials decay most rapidly. Cremer, Lehringer, and Reinicke
(Reinicke, l9l2;CremerandLehringer, 1973;Cremer,l974)firstpointedoutthatcornerrounding
is also necessary for the variations that have been observed as bow force varies between the toler-
ated minimum and maximum. When a rounded Helmholtz corner passes the bow, friction (the
"stick" phase) tends to sharpen the corner. The greater the bow force the more the sharpening and
the more high-frequency content, so that the motion of the string at the bow represents an equilib-
rium between corner rounding by the string and its terminations and corner sharpening by the bow
[Mclntyre and Woodhouse, 1978 (Paper 116, Sec. N)]. Detailed discussion of corner rounding is
given by Cremer (1983, pp. 79-89) and by Mclntyre, Schumacher, and Woodhouse [Mclntyre el
al., l9l7; Mclntyre and Woodhouse, 1979 (Paper 18, this section)1.

TuB Fr,rrrENING Errncr


Another result of increased bow force is a flattening of the pitch of the bowed tone. Raman
noted the existence of this flattening, but Mclntyre andWoodhouse [1979 (Paper 18, this section)]
were the first to demonstrate its likely cause. It is intimately related to the competition between
corner rounding and corner sharpening, and in parlicular to the fact that there is a hysteretical
difference between the details of the sharpening at release and the sharpening at capture. A careful
time-domain analysis of the resulting changes in the waveform shows that the process results in a
net delay in the round-trip time of the Helmholtz corner, causing a decrease in frequency of the
fundamental tone. The waveform changes leading to this net delay can be thought of in terms of a
release process that takes a larger "bite" out ofthe waveform than the capture process does (Fig. 5).
This phenomenon of pitch flattening explains why high notes on a violin G string, where corner
rounding is most drastic, are particularly prone to pitch flattening with increased bow force [Mclntyre
and Woodhouse, 1978 (Paper 116, Sec. N); Mclntyre et al., 19ll-see Fig. 51.
Xavier Boutillon has given an analytiealexplanation of the flattening effect in the frequency
domain. This leads to the pre{iCfi,on of the efftq with regard to bowing parameters such as bow
velocity, bow pressure, bowrlosition, string lengt\nd the characteristic impedance of the string
which are relevant to musieians (Boutillon, 1991) \
Schumacher measure( the parameters of bowing (lq86b) and has now done an extended study
measuring some of these farameters such as pitch flatte]i.nqrelated to-plaximum bow force for
Helmholtz oscillations on a variety of real vioiin string, ,sirr]-arcareffiy calibrated bowing ma-
The Bowed String I ll3

cap ture release cap ture release

-.4---: L---------\--
-

t i,me
NORMAL BOW FORCE INCREASED BOW FORCE

FIGURE 5. Pitch flattening with increased bow force is caused by a delay in the round-trip time of the
Helmholtz corner. This is due to the size of the "bite" removed from the wave form being greater on release
than on capture, as shown in C and D, giving a hysteresis effect. (After M. E. Mclntyre and J. Woodhouse.)

chine. These measurements, combined with computer simulation using the standard friction func-
tion model of the bowed string, allow an assessment of the probable validity of the friction cufl/e
model of the force between bow, hair, and string in bowed string motion [Schumacher ( 1994 Paper
25, this section)1.

Norsn
Another kind of aperiodicity in bowed-string motion is the presence of noise. which Mclntyre,
Schumacher, andWoodhouse [Schumacher,l979 (Paper 24,this section); Mclntyre andWoodhouse,
1979 (Paper 18, this section); Mclntyre et al., 1983 (Paper 117, Sec. N)l have shown to be caused
by sharp "spikes" superimposed on the Helmholtz sawtooth. The major cause of these spikes is a
mechanism depending on the finite width of the bow hair in contact with the string. When using a
round stick as a bow, they could find no spikes, but when a longitudinal channel was cut in the stick
and the two parallel edges smoothed and rosined, spikes similar to those obtained with the bow
were observed. Further experiments and modelling have shown that the spikes are a direct result of
the differential slipping of the bow hairs during the sticking phase of the Helmholtz cycle, and that
the hairs of the bow nearest the bridge slip the most [Mclnlyre et al., 1981 (Paper 19, this section),
1982 (Paper 20, this section)1.

SurrunuoNrcs
The tendency for subharmonic pattems to occur in starting transients was pointed out by Cremer
[1982 (Paper 1 1, this section); 1983, Sec. 1.8]. Further discussion of subharmonics as well as other
nonlinear phenomena such as "double flyback" motion and Raman's "higher types" of vibration
can be found in an excellent survey paper by Mclntyre et al.11983 (Paper 117, Sec. N)1.

ttHrcuBn TvpBS" oF BowED SrnrNc Morrox

A study of the so-called "higher types" of bowed string motion based on the work of Krigar-
Mensel and Raps (1891) and of Raman (1918a) was done by B. Lawergren [1978, 1980, 1983
(Paper 16, this section)].
An extremely detailed study of these "higher types" of vibration is reported by H. Kubota
[1987 (Paper 15, this section)], working at the Kondo Laboratory of Gakushuin University. Using
velocity diagrams of the bowed string measured at the closest point from the fi.xed end, he shows
that when a single stick-and-slip pair occur, one or more clockwise Helmholtz waves and one or
more counterclockwise Helmholtz waves coexist on the string. Thus, a simple Helmholtz wave is
replaced by superposed waves as the fundamental rather than one Helmholtz wave travelling in the
ll4 I The Bowed String

specific direction of bowing. As referred to earlier, Raman observed these "higher type" waves, but
never completed his work of categorizing them in relation to bowing position. Kubota shows dia-
grams and gives tables and equations for the number of Helmholtz waves, their amplitude, and
their phase based on bowing positions on the string.
A unified scientific presentation of much of the field of violin acoustics, including a rigorous
consideration of the many aspects of the bowed string discussed and referenced here, can be found
in the book by L. Cremer, Physik der Geige ( 1981), and its English translation, The Ph1'sics of the
Violin (1983).

RncBxr THronv AND CoMpurER Sruur-.trrox


In the past decade the theory of bowed strings has been formulated in such a way as to allow
computer simulation of the dynamics of real strings bowed by real bows, indicating that it is pos-
sible to calculate the properties of real strings and their effects on the dynamical properties of
interest to expert violinists.
The earlier theory of bowed string excitation described thus far assumes that the string and the
bow hair move and stick together during the string's forward motion, while during the return swing
(the "slip") the friction is negligible. This theory has served to predict successfully many features
of the bow-string oscillation, but it does not give a dependable account of the driving force spec-
trum envelope at the bridge. In the current theory the "sticking" portion is considered as a strong
frictional force urging the string in the same direction as that of the rapidly moving bow. In the
"slipping" porlion the string is moving opposite to that of the bow, making the frictional force quite
small and the slipping velocity large. Thus, in each vibrating cycle a strong force acts to augment
the oscillation as the string moves forward with the bow, while in the remainder of the cycle there
is a weaker depleting action as the string moves opposite to the bow [Mclntyre et al., 1983 (Paper
117, Sec. N)].
The basis of this reformulated theory is considered in an excellent survey paper by A. H. Benade,
1987 (Paper 115, Sec. N) on musical acoustics in which he also discusses the acoustics of bowed,
plucked, and struck string instruments, wind instruments, and the singing voice, pointing out many
similarities in their spectral behavior as related to the human auditory nervous system and instru-
mental sounds in a room.
Mclntyre and Woodhouse [1979 (Paper 18, this section)] describe details of a computer model
of bowed string motion capable of predicting plausible behavior combining the nonlinear frictional
force of the bow with the string. In this model the terminations of the string are represented as a
linear system having an impulse response at the bowing point, allowing for all the complexities of
real strings on real instruments as long as they are described by linear theory. By varying normal
bow force and bow velocity during computer simulation the model string can be "played" so that it
is possible to simulate transient motions of musical interest as well as periodic motions.
Schumacher, in a companion paper [1919 (Paper 24,this section)], calculates the bowed string
motion in the periodic limit, using an independent mathematical starting point, and shows that, for
the same parameters of the model, the simulation by Mclntyre and Woodhouse [1979 (Paper 18,
this section)l gives the same results. He also shows that their mathematical formulation is equiva-
lent, in the periodic motion limit, to the equation derived for the periodic limit in his paper.
Schumacher also demonstrates the first numerical calculation of the flattening effect and shows the
effects in a rudimentary model of string rotational motion and/or bow dynamics.
To provide experimental verification of this theoretical work, Schumacher (1986a, 1986b) has
studied pitch flattening and maximum bow force with real strings on a real violin. The magnitude
of the maximum bow force for which Helmholtz motion is still preserved was found to vary sub-
stantially with the brand of string and to be considerably larger than predicted by steady-state
theory (Schelleng, 1973). Detailed understanding of these results awaits computer simulations that
include all possible contributions, such as string rotational motion and bow dynamics.
Knut Guettler (.1992) has done a computer simulation of some of the characteristics of the
bowed string attack transients relating to torsion and transverse motion, frictional losses, and the
effects of bow compliance.

it iilil lil liliilltililiillililil


The Bowed String I ll5

The rotational modes of real strings have been studied by Norman Pickering, who has pub-
lished a considerable set of measurements of this important property [Pickering, 1985 (Paper 21,
this section), 1986a (Paper 22, this section), 1986b1.
In discussing several of these effects in the bowed string, Mclntyre and Woodhouse (1984a)
indicate that "a description is needed to take into account (among other things) the strong nonlinear
variation of the wolfing frequency with bow force."
The nonlinear transfer of energy of modes of different frquencies on a vibrating string has been
investigated both theoretically and experimentally by K. A. Legge and N. H. Fletcher [1984 (Paper
17, this section)l indicating that under certain circumstances nonlinearities occur which undoubt-
edly influence to some extent the auditory perception of the sounds produced.
In a study aimed at clarifying the many discussions of why the Helmholtz motion of the bowed
string is to be expected and under what circumstances it is stable, Weinreich and Causs6 [1986
(Paper 26, this section)l have used a digital bow on a real string to obtain more exact measurements
of the frictional characteristics of the bow-string interaction than are possible with a rosined bow.
Considering the Helmholtz motion as a special case of the "two-velocity motions" in which a given
point (at which the bow is located) alternates, in the course of a cycle, between two constant veloci-
ties, they have shown theoretically and with computer simulations that instabilities arising from
the negative slipping resistance cannot be eliminated by assigning a finite positive value to the
sticking resistance. They conclude with the statement that "the apparent stability of Helmholtz
motion observed in real playing situations remains aptzzle." (Weinreich and Causs6, 1991).
In a two-part paper, J. Woodhouse [1993a (Paper 27, this section), 1993b (Paper 28, this sec-
tion)l explores in some detail what the present-day understanding of the physics of the bowed
string has to say about the differences in the playability of violins. In Part I he considers the reflec-
tion functions and establishes a theoretical framework within which questions of playability may
be addressed. In Part II the framework is employed to study two specific problems related to play-
ability: bow force limits for playing steady notes and the effects of starting transients. The current
understanding of the bowing process is reviewed with discussion of the relevant work of Raman,
Schelleng, and Cremer. A preliminary investigation by computer simulation addresses which re-
gime of self-sustained oscillation arises from a particular starting transient.
Further information on the history and physical characteristics of violin strings can be found in
Benade (1977), Bonta (1976), Chiang and Houtsma (1982), Firth (1986, 1987a), Lee and Rafferty
(1983), Schumacher (1978), and Segerman and Abbott (1976, 1978, 1988).
From the research reported in this chapter on the bowed string it is evident that theory and
computer simulation are far ahead of experiment-a situation which presents a sharp challenge to
the ingenious experimenter.
-l
The Bowed String I 117

o 1975 C.tgut Acostiel sciAy. Reprinted frm catgur Acousdcal smiety Newsletter 2A,21-23 (Novmbq 1975)

THE WOLF TONE ON VIOLIN FAMILY INSTRTJMENTS1

A. H. Benade
physics Departrnen! case western Reserve university, clevelan4 oH 44106

There has been great interest in recent years among players of shifs in the resonance frequencies of the o0rer part' the shift being
wind instruments in a type of sound which has acquired the name relatively small if the two parts have widely differemt wave imped-
ances, as is the case of a string coupled to the body of a cello. We
of multiphonics. These are sounds which arise under conditions
which are abnormal to conventional music as a result of small per- conclude here that under wolf-lone conditions ttre instrument's body
turbations in 0re construction of the instrument and intentional resonance is able to shift the string's first-mode frequency away
introduction of nonlinearity into the source of vibratioru such as the from is normal position as the lowest member of a harmonically
mouthpiece of the clarinet. The result is that the overtones depart related set of string resonance frequencies. The octave change
in frequency from the customary harmonic series' The wolf tone' arising from the wolf-note displacement of the first-mode frequenry
produces a change analogous to the loud-playirrg typ of woodwind
though I trust it can never be used with musical intent, exhibis in
the fundamental principles of is product a close analogy to multi-
register change.
phonics, as hofessor Benade points out in the following article'
Let us glance briefly at the reason why it is sometimes possible
John C' Schelleng to stabilize the oscillation and prevent a wolf by use of heavy bow
- pressure. At any sliding speed, increasing the bow pressure makes
Players of bowed string instrumens, particularly cellists, are trou- the bow-plus-string interaction more nonlinear, so that the various
Ulei Uy spots in the playing range of their irsruments in which it heterodyne effects become more pronounced. Assuming, for exam-
is more oi less impossible !o produce a steady tone of good qua1iry'
ple that a dozen of the string resonances are available for participa-
A bowed note may suddenly leap upward an octave or give a tion in a regime of oscillation, it may become possible with heavy
rough, pulsating sound whose pitch is close to that of the desired bow pressure for the up,per eleven resonances to jointly control the
note but which contains strong hints of the octave, as though it disruptive influence of the detuned fust mode so as to give a slight-
were thinking of jumping into what a woodwind player would call ly shifted playing frequency of the sort that is familiar in the play-
the second register. It is this iatter, pulsating sound that is com- ing regimes of ordinary wind instruments (whose resonancqs are
monly known as a wolf rote. Sttng players and craftsmen have almost never in perfect alignment)'
given a lot of att€ntion to the wolf note because of the practical
importance of suppressing or weakening it, or at least of moving it Raman's snrdies led him to describe the wolf note as an altema-
to a place where notes ordinarily used in playing do not provoke it tion of a fundamental frequency tone and of its octave, this alterna-
into action. The wolf note has also received a fair amount of scien- tion taking place several times a second at what we shall call the
tific attention, with Raman and Schelleng being the major contribu. pulsation frequercy. kr 1963 Scheleng provided us with a some-
tors to our present knowledge of its behavior' what more illuminating way of describing Raman's observatiorl a
way that allows him to demonstrate that the phenomenon is consis-
Lrt us begin ow examination of the wolf-note phenomenon with tent with the basic stick-slip physics discussed by Helmholu and
a b,rief description of the conditions under which it occurs and of Raman. Schelleng poins out that the even harmonic comPonents
the effect of changes in bowing pressure on its behavior' The wolf of the string oscillation run fairly steadily during the entire pulsa-
is usually encountered at places in the scale where the first-mode tion cycle, whereas the odd harmonics (including the fundamental)
frequency of the bowed string is in the general neighborhood of appar to grow and shrink more or less e/r bloc at the pulsation rate'
some strong resonance frequency of the body. The so-called mdn The perceived switching of octaves is easily understandable in these
body resonance frequency determines the region in which the wolf terms, since it coincides exactly with the physical changes that are
takes place. If one uses very light bow pressure to play a chromatic taking place. At instants when the odd partials are of appreciable
scale, the tone is likely to jump up an octave as one gets into the amplitude, our ears are presented with the complete harmonic series
wolf region. Heavier bow pressure gives rise to the characteristic based on *re string modes, and we assign the pitch accordingly. At
rough sound of the wolf tone; in certain mild cases of the disease' those moments on the other hand when the odd components are
increasing the bowing pressure yet more may suppress the wolfing irsignificant, we perceive the even partials in their own right as a
and produce a more or less normal tone. tone having its pitch an octave higher.

We have had numerous occasions in this book to recognize that The top tlree lines of Fig. 1 illustrate Schelleng's explanation of
a strong resonance in one part of a two-part system can lead to how the idealized sawlooth motion at the bowing point of a normal-
ly operating string (toP line) can be separated into the parts contrib-
uted by the even-numbered components (second line) and by the
odd-numbered ones (third line). It is clear from a comparison of
Acoustics, Oxford Universiry Press' March 1976' lines I and 2 that abolition of the odd components leaves us with a
Il8 I The Bowed String

double-frequency oscillation that is otherwise of a normal appear-


ance. The bottom line of Fig. I shows rhe appearance of rhe !J
ql
bowing-point motion during the course ol a wolf tone. At some o
o-
irstants (marked A) when odd components are of normal srength, fl
lrl
we find the smooth wave belonging to ordinary operation of the
string. At other times (marked B) ttre odd components have dis- F
appeared, leaving a sawtooth whose repetition rate is double that of o
the normal oscillation. In between lhese two, we have intervals (9
(marked C) during which snrall airounrs of odd harmonics are pres-
ent, producing a jagged waveform which nevertheless is of rhe ]
=
o
o
stick-slip type discussed by Helmhottz and Raman.

So far we have provided oursclves with a description of one type


of wolf-note motion for a bowed string and have verified ttrat it is L'
tlt
consistent with the stick-slip behavior expected of such a sysLem. 2
o
We have also recognized that the presence of a body resonance near o-
L'
the wolf-note frequency is required and rtrat it will aher lhe l]]

first-mode vibrational Foperties of the string (but not rhose of the F


higher modes), We will now consider *re ways in which lhe com-
z
plete dynamical syslem cofites to choose the wolf tonc as its pre- 0-
(,
ferred type of oscillation.
o
t
Schelleng in his discussion of the wolf nore points out that rlie
presence of a body resonance converts tJre ordinary first-mode string zoo 300
resonance peak (measured at the bowing point) into a pair of peaks. FREQUENCY (Hr)
The upper part of Fig. 2 shows the narure of rhe bowing-point reso-
nance curve that is found when the body resonance lies below thc Figure 2
first-mode string frequency. For simpliciry, the srring is assumed
to be tuned to 100 Hz. Notice that ttre body resonance has caused The essential feature for the production of a wolf note on a
the original 100-Hz first-mode peak (shown dorted) to be displaced bowcd string is that there be a strong resonance immediately above
upward in frequency, while the other peak lies below the natural or below the ideal position of the lowest string resonance relative
frequency of the body itself. Notice also that the dip berrveen the to the higher modes. (In woodwinds there is an exactly analogous
pair of peaks is not as dcep as the dips that 1ie betweon the nonllal- type of oscillation to which I have given considerable study since
ly spaced resonances ol the string. The lowcr part of Fig. 2 shows it provides a valuable diagnostic tool for the adjustment of the
similarly that when the body resonance lies above that of rhe isolat- conical woodwinds.) The presence of the second member of the pair
ed string, the string resonarce is displaced slighrly below irs origi- of pcaks is not required for the production of the wolf, alttrough it
nal 100-Hz position, while the newly added peak lies somcwhar can aggravate the wolf+one tendency if it is placed syrnmetrically
above the natural frcquency of the body itsclf. opposite its mate, so that the unmodified (100-Hz) first-mode fre-
rluency of the string lies exactly halfway between the two peaks.

The physicist Ian Firth of the University of St. Andrews in Scot-


COMPLETE
MOTlq\ land has made a number of experimental studies of the wolf-lone
behavior of cellos, some of which he carried out during the summer
of 1974 at fie Speech Transmission Laboratory in Stockhokn.
Firth's data confirm the general correchless of Schelleng's analysis
and conl-ain a weal*r of additional information. Despite certain
apparent inconsistencies in the data and in Firth's interpretation of
thcur, his results underlie a considerable portion of my explanations
in tlie remaining part of this section.

Keeping Fig. 2 in mind with its pattem of the lrst resonance


peak slightly misplaced and everything else neatly lined up, we can
now make an analysis of the oscillation possibilities. Notice partic-
B ularly that the even-numbered resonance peaks of the string tone are
all harmonically related and are thereby admirably set up to gener-
Figure 1 ate a set of componenls whose frequencies are even multiples of the

Catgut Acost. Sa. Newsletter 24, Novernber 1975 A. H. Benade: The wolf tone on violin fmily irotrumsts
The Bowed String I ll9

string's normal playing ftequency. If we confine our attention to does the fundamental pair. This beating rate is in further agre€ment
these even-numbered peaks by themselves and to the components with the observation of Raman, as reformulated by Schelleng and
that they gererate directly, it is clear that no matter what sort of confirmed by Firth, that the paired odd Partials all give rise to a
nonlinearity is present at the contact point between bow and string, pulsation at exactly the same frequency, regardless of the accidents
all the heterodyne frequencies that are generated among the of placement of suing nrning and body resonance. The fact that we
even-numbered peaks will be themselves members of this same do not expect the members of each pair to be of equal amplitude is
collection of even-numbered harmonics'' In other words, these also in accord with experiment. During the course of a wolf-tone
components will be very srongly generated in a stable kind of pulsation, one does not generally find a total extinction of the odd
sub-regime. partials, nor does one find the degree of extinction to be tre same
for all of them.
l.et us now ask what happens to the oscillatory contribution of
a first-mode peak that is displaced to run a little sharp, generating When one looks more closely at the details of the vib,ration spec-
a component at l02Hz. The simplest heterodyne offspring of this trum of a wolf tone there are many components present besides the
component and the strongly maintained even harmonics tum ou! to ones that we have listed so far. These other components tend to b€
be of the following tYPe: somewhat weaker, and more particularly their presence does very
little to alter the basic behavior that has been outline&-i.e.' reason-
102t200 = 98, 302H2 ably strong and steady even partials and synchronously beating odd
1021400 = 298, 5o2Hz partials. Lrt us examine a few examples of these less important ad-
102 t 600 = 498, 702H2 etc., etc. ditional components, chiefly with an eye to seeing why tlrey play
a minor role in the behavior of the string, Here are some of the
Notice that each of *rese heterodyne components lies close to the heterod).ne components that are generated by the odd-partial pairs
frequency of one of the odd-numbered resonance peaks and so has themselves:
a reasonable chance of gaining support from it. Pay particular
attention to the 98-Hz heterodyne component; although it lies in the 98 t 102 = 4, 20OHz
dip between the pair of first-mode resonance peaks' this dip is rela- 298t302 = 4, 600H2
tive shallow, so that the component is able to gain considerable 498 t 502 = 4, 1000 Hz etc., etc.
oscillatory support in its own right. Because of this help, the com-
ponent can have an amplitude that is quite comparable to those of In every case we find the same low-frequency (4-Hz) component
its higher-frequency odd-numbered heterodyne brothers, which sit and an exact even-harmonic component that can cooperate with its
on the shoulders of their respective resonance peaks. corresponding peak to aid the net oscillation in a vigorous way.
The low-frequency component is low enough to be felt by the play-
Here is the first place where we can make a direct comparison er's hands as a pulsation or stuttering of the bow and perhaps of the
with experience: in the neighborhood of 100 Hz we have found a instrument itself.
pair of components--98 and 102H2-of appreciable (but not neces-
sarily equal) amplitude, which can beat together. This is exactly When we combine each odd-numbered component with one from
what one observes in a typical wolf tone. Theirjoint appearance is another pair, the following frequencies result:
roughly that of a pulsating fundamental component of the sort rec-
ognized by Raman and by Schelleng, although (contrary to a com- 98!298 = 200, 396H2
mon impression) it is not corect to say that the pair of components 98+302 = 2A4, 4C0Hz
at 98 and l02Hz is equivalent to a single 100-Hz component of 298 t 502 = 204, 800 Hz etc., etc.
fluctuating amplitude except in the unusual case in which the two
actual components have precisely equal amplitude. Once again we find that exact even harmonics are produced by each
combination, along with something we have not seen beforra set
We can continue our examination of the descendants of the two of weak satellites that are 4 Hz away from the strong even harmon-
fimdamental components by noticing that pairs of components are ics in the tone. The fact that even the paired, pulsating, odd par-
found centered about all the odd harmonics of 100 Hz--e-g.,298 and tials themselves give rise to even-harmonic components in all their
3A2H2,498 and 502H2, etc. As has been remarked earlier, these dealings serves to stabilize them by binding them ever more closely
pairs will feed themselves from the odd-numbered resonance peaks, to the more normal oscillatory behavior of the even partials. Add-
and in general one or the other member of the pair will be par- ing weak satellites to these even partials does not make them pul-
ticularly strongly supported in corsequence of the small upwald and sate very much, since there is little chance for a few weak com-
downward frequency displacements of these peaks that are an inevi- ponents of differing frequency !o gang up simultaneously on the
table consequence of various kinds of string inharmonicity. These strong central component to cancel it out'
paired components will beat at exactly the same 4-Hz rate as
In the preceding paragraphs we have leamed how the displace-
frequencies" is meant the new frequencies that ment of the first-mode peak in the response curve of a bowed string
@tne
can be produced in a nonlinear device, for example, mp + nq, can give rise to the wolf tone: an oscillation in which the even
where p and q are the frequencies of applied tones and m and n are partials run fairly steadily (i.e., with weak satellite components)
position integers. while the odd partials pulsate sffongly, which is a simple way of

Catgut Acwst. So. Newsletter 24, November 1975 A. H. Benade: The wolf tone on violin fmily imuummts
120 I The Bowed String

saying that they are in fact constructed out of two or more compo- Schelleng studied this relationship and has suggested not only a
nents of roughly equal amplitude. Since the fust-mode displace- means for predicting whether or not a given instrument will have
ment (and splitting into two resonances) depends on the mutual a wolf but also the ability to devise changes in the design that can
influerre of the string and the cello body, it is clear that the pres- minimize its effects. Schelleng's own experimental observuions
ence or abcence of the wolf phenomenon depends on the relation- plus more recent ones by many other people confirm the correctness
ship benreen the wave impedances of the string and of the body. of Schelleng's analysis.

Cstgut Acoust. Se. Newsl.etter 24, Novmber 1975 A. H. Baade: The wolf tone on violin fmily irutrmars

I
The Bowed String I l2l

O 1982 Cstgut Acostiel Srciety. Reprirted frm Catgui Acoustical Society Newsletter 38, 13-18 (November 1982)

CONSIDERATION OF THE DURATION OF TRANSIENTS IN BOWED INSTRTJMENTS'

Lothar Cremer
8160 Miesbach. Immanuel Kant Strasse 12, Cermany (FR)

It is well known that musical instruments are less recognized on


account of their periodic time-dependence of the produced sound
pressure but even more by theL transients.r Therefore Backhaus,2
whose early contributions to violin acoustics are well known' also
observed transients of different instruments by analyzing oscil-
lograms period by period in their partial tones. Figure 1 shows as
an example at the toP the amplitudes of the lowest 5 partials over
time of a trumpet and at the bottom that of a violin. Whereas we
may say for the trumpet that the transient process is finished after
about 100 ms, this is not the case for the violin, where just the
fundamental tone is still increasing.

Now we must consider that the violin corpus may have its lowest
structnre-borne sound resonanc e near 435 Hz. So we should prove
if this could be the reason for the slowly increasing fundamental.

At each oscillator we may derive the damping corstant 6 from


the half-power bandwidth of the resonance peak in the frequency- 0 rC 20 X (c 50 60 m 80 90 lm ll0 rm 130ns1.0
dependence of a characteristic quantity, here the sound pressure
produced in some distance by sinusoidal excitation in bowing direc- Fig. 1. Analyzed amplitudes of the lowest 5 partials during a tran-
tion at the bridge. sient in dependence on time, Top: of a trumpet; bottom: of a
violin. (After Backhaus)
Figure 2 shows as an example the p,n-curve of a viola lecorded
by Meinel, who was one of the first to do such recording,3 where If we furttrer regard the transient process practically as finished,
the string was mechanically bowed and the p1q-dependence was when the sound pressure level deviales by I dB only from its as-
analyzed with the help of beats with a variable sinusoidal oscilla- ymptotic value, we may define the duration of the transient T, by:
tion, which was added in the receiver system. The diagram in Fig.
2 (dated 18.12.35) never was published. It was a personal favor t,= 1- 10120=0.108 (3)
"-t
that Meinel analyzd my own viola, which I still possess.

From Fig. 2 we may gather from the second peak, the lowest lr 2.2 (3a)
structure-hrne somd resonance, the half-power bandwidth Af, by 1 -6-
comparing the width b in the diagram with the octave distance d*,:
I ' ar.. Ar.. I
log"If.*
b Z")l$^,. ;)l lot'q X?nal
'
t ,2 35)

?- loe Q) (1)

Jr
= l-r
I Jor,l
l-t
I log,(2) .J I f-", J

On the other hand, between the half-power bandwidth and the


decay constant generally the relation holds:

6 = ,tAfri (2)

Ttrlr p"p"t -"s presented at the Catgut Acoustical Society Inter-


national Confetence on Musical Acoustics held at Northem Illinois Fig.2. Sound pressure of the fundamental of a bowed viola in
University, DeKalb, Illinois, April 23-26, 1982. dependence of its frequency (after Meinel)
122 I The Bowed String

By combining these relalions we get for this example (Fig. 2):

tr=81 ms (3b)

Now it is well known from the isolation of machines by install-


ing them with their foundations on springs that we are able to avoid
the buildup process of a dangerous eigenfrequency, which always
has to be expected below the service rotation frequency, by running
through the resonance very fast. The same could happen for string
instrumens. The large difference between peaks and valleys may
become evident only by playing a chromatic scale with rones of
rather long duration, but not by playing the same with a very fast
sequence. The latter would arise only if the duration of excitation
would be shorter than q at each note.

Now Reichardt and Kusseva found by evaluating many records


of different musical examples that the shortest durations of sring
t
notes are about 73 ms; this is rather near !o the maximal transient
duration we found at a strong resonance. So we may expect that
we would not become less aware of such resonance peaks by excit_
ing a sinusoidal tone scale with long or short tones.

That we do scarcely notice these level differences in the p,n- __-_r


dependence is a result of the many partials with which the bowed
string excites the body, adn this was the reason for Saunders to
regard the dependence of the loudness levels on frequency of the Fig. 3. Top: pure Helmholtz-morion of a bowed sting; bonom: the
frurdamental as more suitable for characterizing a sEing instrument.s same with static deformation

So the comparison of the evaluated transient duration wittr Back- responds !o the suprposition of two Helmholtz motions, running
haus' observation demands another explanation for the long tran- symmetrically against each other, supplemented by the also sym-
sient duration of the fundamental tone. In fact the player is not meftical triangle-shaped deviation due to the sliding friction force
exciting the body by a periodic excirarion from rhe beginning with (see Fig. 4).
the same amplitudes in all periods. when he starts a new note by
accelerating the sfing at the bowing-point from rest to a special This motion during the first half period is the same that we get
bow velocity it takes time to get the periodic Helmholtz morion, if we pluck the sring in the middle and if the bow touches the
whereas a comer of the deviation of the string runs to and fro bet- sliding sring (see Fig. 4, botrom). But in this case we would not
ween two enveloping parabolas (see Fig. 3, top), supplemenred by come back to the initial triangle of t = 0 after a full period t T;
the permanent triangle given by the mean friction force at rhe bow =
on account of the sliding friction which is always directed against
(see Fig. 3, bottom).
the movement, the enveloping triangles decrease from period to
period. In the case of the bowed string the friction force has al_
To study this transient process we may ask for the most simple ways the same direction, and in the periodic case the same amount.
example. As such we may regard a string, fixed at both ends and The result is that the motion during capture repeats that of the half
bowed in the middle. If we would neglect all losses at a so-called period of sliding but in opposite direction and sequence.
forced oscillation with sinusoidal excitation, we would get infinite
amplitudes at resonance conditiors. But in the exciting of an oscil_ If we now rry to get this periodic motion by bowing the string
lator by friction this is not *re case. The existence of a maximal with a constant bow velocity voo after rest at t = 0 (see Fig. 5), we
friction force during capture hinders the amplitudes of the deviation first get a rotally different configuration. At t = T/g we have a
to surpass certain limits. We may even further simplify our model triangle which only covers half the length l. The parts outside are
by assuming that the friction during stiding is only smaller as this in rest as long as the excited propagating waves have not arrived
maximal friction but independent of the relative velocity between there. (As already in Fig. 4, bottom, we mark the existence of
string and bow. velocity of string parts by hatching the lines of deviation by short
veflical strokes on the side of the direction of the velocity, the
The choice of the bowing point in the middle, of which lengths of the strokes are adapted to the amount of the respective
Woodhouse6 made use in his dissertation to demonstrate a principal velocity.)
behaviour as easily as possible, offers the chance of a symmeuical
periodical solution in contrast to the Helmholtz motion which is to Ar r = Tl4 the ends of the string are reached and reflection starts,
be expected as eccentric bowing. This symmetrical solution cor- resulting in branches ar rest (see t- 3Tl4) which form angles of

Catgut Acost. Sa. Newsletter 38, November 1982 Lothar Cremer: Considentim of the dwation of traroimts in bowed instffiats

llr
The Bowed String I 123

+Y f* Vs+

4+
,za:s+
+
/^( i,
-0
rz
r)
.arr-rn{-'f
fi<o+|+r
+ a

a\

uut 4:lU;,

f,c.h+r
I
t
Fig. 5. Deviation of a string bowed after rest at the middle at dif-
ferent time points, with change of the bow velocity. Time in-
creasing in vertical direction. Right-hand over time: deviation,
velocity, pressure, vh at x = xb.

(F" = tension force of the suing), and this is larger than the maxi-
mal friction force, so that the bow releases the string.

2) We must assume that the sliding velocity of the string, as least


after the next half-period, equals the bow velocity, which may be
now vbl,

Fig. 4. Deviation of a sring bowed at the middle, periodic solution This velociry is a consequence of the fact that during T/4 the
situation is attained where the string has only its staJic deviation,
2fJc (c = speed of transversal waves of the suetched string) with which is given by the force of sliding frictioru normalized, f.. so
the abscissa i.e., the rest-position of the string. we get for vr:

Atr=Tf2 the whole string is again in rest, not as a straight line


vo, = {(2v* - f"Yq(+t+) - 2v* - fe (s)

but as a triangle. But this is already a situation as we have it once


in each period of the periodical solution and this situation could be Since f, is proportional to *re so-called bow pressure, it would be
the beginning of such a solution under two conditions: principally possible that v, equals v*, but it would be an improb-
able chance that the bow pressure would be from the begirming so
1) We must assume that *re normalized friction force adjusted to the bow velocity that f, results as v*. But in each case
- we have chosen f, as,tJ2 in Fig. 5 - it is possible to change the
f = Ftz (4) bow velocity so - in our example vl = 3vJ2 - that we get already
a periodical solution after a transient time of half a period. (Alte-
(Z = charactaistic impedance of the string), which would be neces- rnatively we could have adjusted the bow pressure.)
sary !o move the string further in bow direction and which would
be here: If we retain the original bow velocity, we get the behaviour
shown in Fig. 6, which is extended Lo t - Wl4. Until t = T dl
F, = F.|22 (6vJc) = 3f" (4a) situatiors at correspondingnTl4 arc the same. But at the subse-

Catgut Acost. 56. Newsletter 38, November 1982 Lo*rar Cremer: Cmsidentim of the dwation of traroims in bowed irorrumas
124 I The Bowed String

f*
;-0

1Lr
A.
T
T
-0
2
T
1
|4-fi+*,
A*,
,,..,,..,f,r -A T
T

Ai, A*., a
Tt

&frr lr
\

"z/a:s";,
#jrJ lr
-2r6. The same as in Fig. 5, but with constant bow velocity
Fig.

quent T/4 steps the situations become different. It is astonishing


that we get at t = 2T the same situation as at t = 0; this means we
vA T

get a subharnonic of the expected period, a possibiliry which has Fig. 7. The s.une as Figs. 5 and 6, but bowed at the point xa= ll4
been discussed by Friedl?inde/, and this from the beginning without
any transient time. Fig. 8 is further modified by assuming the maximal friction force
as so high that the frst sliding appears att=3T14, when the reflec-
What we learn from these two simple examples is that the tran- tion of the original wave retutns from the other end, the "nut" or
sient duration of the bowed string depends on the change of bow "finger," in accordance with the Helmholtz motion. Here we also
velocity and bow pressure, which are up to the player. It is quite get the next capture at t = T, i.e., a quarter of a period later, again
natural that he increases this velocity during the transient, certainly corresponding to the Helmholtz motion, We can even get the next
not stepwise by 50Vo and this already after half a period. sliding at r=7T14, i.e., a full period after the first, but again only
by changing a playing parameter; this time it is ttre bowing force
That we cannot expect such a short transient duration at the which we would have to decrease a bit.
usual eccentric bowing (with respect to the length of *re sring) is
shown if Figs. 7 and 8, in which we choose for simpliciry a dis- But all these tricks did not result in a Helmholtz motion. We
tance of 1/4 for the bowing point from one end corresponding to the even carmot expect it asymptotically. The assumption of an ideally
bridge. reflecting end can never extinguish all the corners, which fravel
from the beginning and again and again in both directions.
In Fig. 7 we assume the first sliding at t=T14, i.e., if the origi-
nal wave returns from the bridge. But since at the Helmholtz mo- To derive realistic trarsient durations we have to inroduce losses
tion this presents the moment of capture, we cannot expect to ap- which attenuate the waves, at least at the bridge end, where they are
proach this intended periodic solution, at least not soon. furthermore inevitable for the sound radiation of the body.

Ca'€ut Acost. Sm. Newsletter 38, November 1982 Lotlar Cremer: Cmsidentim of the dwation of uamims in bowed itrtmans
The Bowed String I 125

_0 t+ But this "past-history velocity" - therefore the subscript "h" -


was derived by Mclntyre and Woodhouse from the integral equation

.*--- _ i of the bowed string for its velocity at the bowing point:
u - (r - /)d/ (7)

a*1 Jt1r141g
Here the force is divided into short impulses of height f, and the
differential duration dt' and g(t - t') indicates the velocity response

z1--1r to a Dirac pulse at t'. At the string, as we know from Fig. 5, t =


T/8, the response begins with two equal propagating waves starting
to both sides, whereas our normalized force f equals the produced
T velocity v. This means g(t - /) starts as well with a Dirac pulse.

A:*,
T If we now withdraw this first reaction from g(t - t') we get a new
fimction:
fr,att
g'(t - t') = g(t - t') - 6(t') (8)
/\*, which depends only on the further fate of the excited waves and

Ar, allows us to write *re integral equation in the form:

v=f + Jrtrc')le'(t-Oar (9)

f.<G. 7
The comparison with Eq. (6) shows that v" is generally dehned as

a;6rlr vo=JT1v1r11g'(t-t)d/ (10)

+rZ fr which explains its name.

In our simple example of Fig. 5, where the sEing is bowed in the


l^\urrl T'-
11 middle and where the ends are regarded as ideal reflecting, it is

A lr
clear that g'(t) consists of a sequence, periodic with T/2, of Dirac
pulses with the sreng*r 2, because two pulses arrive always simul-
taneously, which change altematively their signs, starting with -2.
Since furthermore our f - t dependence changes stepwise in distan-
/\ ,3- ces of T/2 in a known way, the derivation of v" from Eq. (10) ap-

A T'
lr
pears as a simple summation of all reflections, which arrive at the
same respective time. The same holds for the examples in Figs. 6
and 7, where more steps and their reflections have to be considered.

aO;;; *" same as Fig. 7, but with higher and variable bow pres- But one general qualiry of vo can be seen in Fig. 5, our simplest
example. The string velocity has no mean value as soon as the
soiution has become periodic; otherwise the string would leave its
It is to the credit of Mclntyre and Woodhouse8 that they were fixed ends. In contrast v, has such a mean value, which it needs to
able to study transients at bowed strings with losses by simulating compensate the mean, i.e., the static, value of the force f. This
the physical processes on a computer. demonstrates that vo is no velocity which may physically be separ-
ated and measured, but an auxiliary term with the dimensions of
To make this general simulation of the bowed string at least ve1ociry.
plausible, we may retum to Figs. 5 to 7, where time is increasing
downwards and where the following are plotted horizontally - the But the function g'G) in the general integral Eq. (10) is not re-
velocity v at the bowing point the normalized force f, and finally stricted to ideal reflections with their corresponding time delays;
their difference, designated by vo: they can as well include losses either during the propaguion on the
string or at the ends and there also distortions, which at sinusoidal
vn=v-f (6) waves would appear as frequencydependant phase shifs.

Catgut Acsst. Se. Newsletter 38, November 1982 Lorhar Cremer: Considmtio of the dwation of traroiats in bowed imtrumats
L26 I The Bowed String

All these processes can be combined in convolution integrals tions to vo are given by the box at the top, In contrast to the repre-
which transform a velocity v, (= Boing from the bow) either to the sentation in my booke I substitute here the switch which changes
bridge (x = 0) or to the nut or finger (x = 1) in a corresponding part between capture and sliding conditions, by Friedliinder's graphical
of the mentioned vr. solution. Here the force f and dre velocity v are given by the inter-
section of the dashed straight line following from Eq. (6) and the
In my book Physik der Geigee I ffied !o explain the Mclntyre friction characteristic (solid line). Is right-hand vertical branch
and Woodhouse procedure by so-called sigaal flow diagrams, one means v = vb, i.e., capture, and the left-hand curve represents the
wi0rout consideration of the torsional waves and one with their dependence of the sliding friction on the relative velocity (vr - v),
consideratiorL and I like to follow this didactic stepwise procedure In contrast to periodic solutions, which are treated in the book, this
here as well. These signal flow diagrams regard the periodical dependence cannot be approximated by a straight line, because that
solutions only. In the meantime a correspondence with Michael could intersect the abscissa and so include negative v values of the
Mclntyre, !o whom I am very indebted for this, encouraged me to sliding friction which would work in the direction of the relative
extend my signal flow diagrams also to the nonperiodic solutions, velociry and are physically impossible. Fruthermote we have to
i.e., o each kind of transients. express the characteristic here by its deviation from the maximal
value f-... If we normalize the already normalized forces f again
In the signal flow diagram of Fig. 9, the mentioned convolution by dividing by f-^, - following Friedlilnder - writing
integrals are written in the two lowest boxes; that at the left repre-
sents the bridge side, and the right, *re nut side. If at the bow, i.e., f/f*=Q(v.-v) (11)
in the box in the middle, we would initiate velociry waves by a
Dirac pulse which enters the lower boxes and then short-circuits the and corresponding instead of Eq. (6)
middle box, corresponding to vanishing force at the bowing point,
the v-pulses would pass both low boxes altemating again and again, f/f*=(v-vJ/f.* (12)
just as they would run to and fro over the string and be reflected at
the ends. So we would record at the bowing point *re function the characteristic becomes independent of the bow presswe, to
g'(0. This simulation is the easiest way and the physically most which f*, is proportional, and ttre change in{luences only the slope
adequate [o produce it. of the straight line given by Eq. (12). So it is not only possible but
rather easy to change the bow pressure during the simulation of a
In the case of the bowed string the time dependence of vo causes transient. The same holds with the bow velocity. It only means a
perrnanent changing of tlre friction forces at the bow. Their rela- shift of the intersection with the abscissa, because now the point v
= 0 gets another place. Also this change is easy during the simula-
tion of a uansient.

Finally we must mention that the quantitative behaviour of the


excited transversal waves is essentially influenced by the fact *nt
the bow touches the string ercentrically, so that the velocity v* at
the periphery determines the force of fiction:

vR=v+aw (13)

(a = radius of the string; w = angular velocity ofit). Thus the force


excites also torsional motion at the bowing point and corresponding
torsional waves, which are also reflected at the ends.

Figure 10 shows the corresponding signal flow diagram, where


-(?;) now 4 boxes with convolution integrals appear (this time the sym-
ff),' bol * is used) and as well four independent kinetic quantities, two
v's and two aw's and the ratio 2 ( of torsional and transversal im-
pedances. But it would exceed the aims of this paper to enter into
the details of this extension. We must here refer !o the literature.qe
We mention it only because Mclntyre and Woodhouse did consider

i
Yho- it in their studies of transients.
! uso (t') '
c
Again the easiest defined condition for a transient would be
?o $'t) dt' \(t-tt)cu' constant bow velocify and bow pressure. But as Mclntyre and
Woodhouse8 report, it may take several hundred periods until a
Fig. 9. Signal flow diagram of the simulation of transients at a periodic solution is approached. They found this when they tried
bowed string on a computer (according to the procedure of Mc- with their simulation method to get the same result as Schumach-
Intyre and Woodhouse) er,,o who solved the integral equation in another way, which is

Catgut Acost. Sc. Newsletter 38, November 1982 Lothar Cremer: Considentim of the duation of traroimts il bowed itrtromots

il].ltilliilil
The Bowed String I 127

quency of 230 Hz, a transient time of 5l ms, i.e., shorter than the
shortest duration of a note! It is to be assumed that "legato', play-
ing presents longer transient times. But it is not only the kind of
playing that brings differences. There will also be large influences
caused by the experience of the player, if he is a master or a pupil.
Since the manipulation of bow pressure and bow velocity must
happen during a 20th of a second, they can be done only un-
v^=un+(1+2Qf corsciously. Therefore teaching how to play a string instrument is
more difficult than for instance teaching physical acoustics, where
the time of understanding and reproducing does not enter into 0re
results.
(;:) . ,r, '(:::)
We thus have to admire Mclntyre and Woodhouse that 0rey
(';,) .,=(;',) succeeded in simulating a marteli on the computer.

It would be very interesting to record the change of bow velocity


and pressure during a transient of famous string instrwnent players.
The first could easily be done. The latter has not been successful
thus far. It would be impossible to put a Reinicke piezo receiverrr
between string and bow. It may be that one in the norch of the
bridge could control the bow pressure as a mean value of ttre com-
ponent towards *re body.

Without having such information and thus the possibility of


defining a special adequate playing behaviour during the transient,
we may not be able to define what the so-called response of dif-
d who'
ferent instruments indicates.
awgo )tXs

LITERATURE
Fig. 10. The same as Fig. 9, but with considerarion of torsional
waves
'C. Srumpf, Die Sprachlawe, Berlin 1926, p.374.
2H.
Backhaus, Z. f. tecln. Phys. 13:31 (1932).

,,I ril.llllll]'llil.illT IIt I


3H.

oW.
Meinel, Akust. Z. 2:22 (1937).

Reichardt and A. Kussev, Z. F. elektr. lnform. u. Energietech-


ntk 3:2,66 (1912).

rr,r 5F.

6J.
Saunders, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 11169 (L946).

Woodhouse, dissertation, Cambridge, England.

'F. G. Friedliinder, Proc. Cambridge phil. Soc. a9(3):516 (1953).


Fig. 11. Example of a marteld bowing. Top: simulated on a com-
puter, Top: simulated on a computer with torsional waves; *M. E. Mclntyre
and J. Woodhouse, Acusrica 43:93 (1919).
bottom: electrodynamically recorded on a srring (after Mclnryre
and Woodhouse). eL.
Cremet, Physik der Geige, S. Hirzel, Stuttgart, 1981, chap. I.g.
The author wishes to take the occasion to mention here two
restricted to periodic motions. This means a rathet long transient errata: 1) p. 164 and 165, the signs must be changed before (l
duration, much longer than all transients given by resonance peaks + 2l)f-^ in (8.90) and (8.92); qd 2) p. 151, the integrals J-g(t
of the body. - C)dt' should be replaced by J-e(t)dt; rhe same on p. 160 in
(8.80) for 8n and En'.
But when they changed the parameters bow velocity and/or bow
pressrue, they could simulate a so-called marteld bowing, as the
'k. T. Schumacher, Acusrica 43:L@ (1979).
comparison with a hand-bowd, marteli shows in Fig. 11. Here
they needed only about 12 periods. This means, ar the srared fre- I'W. Reinicke, dissertation,
T. U. Berlin (WesQ, 1973.

Catgut Amst. Sc. Newsletter 38, November 1982 Lo*rar Cremer; Considentio of the duadon of trstriqts in bowed instrumqts
llll.illil
The Bowed String I 129

The nonlinear free vibration of a damped elastic string


Colin Gough
Departrnent of Physics, Uniuercity of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

(Received 23 May 1983; accepted for publication l3 December 1983)

A theoretical analysis of the large-amplitude free vibration of a damped elastic string shows that
the perturbation in vibrational frequency and the precession ofany orbital motion ofthe string
about its equilibrium position resulting from nonlinearity is simply related to the mean-square
radius and area of the orbital motion. A computer simulation of the coupled nonlinear equations
of motion and measurements made on a loosely stretched string confirm our theoretical
predictions, which ditrer from those of an earlier analysis by Anand [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 45,
1089-1096 (1969)1. The significance of nonlinear string vibration is considered for musical
instruments.

PACS numbers: 43.40.Cw, 43.40.Ga, 43.4O.Tm

INTRODUCTION tion and the precession are described in terms of well-defined


In view of current interest in nonlinear physics, it is geometric properties of the orbital motion-the mean-
clearly important that the properties of simple systems square radius vector and its area-which are cleady inde-
should be properly understood, such as the nonlinear elastic pendent ofchoice ofdefining axis.
string which is the simplest example of a spatially distributed As a check on our theoretical analysis, we have studied
nonlinear system (see, for example, Morse and Ingardl). the coupled nonlinear equations of motion using a small mi-
Quite apart from the intrinsic theoretical importance of this crocomputer and standard numerical techniques, and find
problem, it is also of some interest to consider whether non- excellent agreement between theoretical predictions and the
linearity leads to any acoustically significant efects for mu- computed results.
sical instruments that produce their sound by vibrating We have also undertaken an experimental investigation
strings. ofthe large-amplitude vibrations ofa loosely stretched string
There have been many theoretical and experimental in- using an opto-electronic method based on a technique devel-
vestigations of the forced response of the nonlinear string oped earlier to study small-amplitude string vibrations.a The
(see Narasimha2 for a critical discussion and for references to measured frequency and precession of elliptically polarized
eadier work) where nonlinearity leads to the familiar skew- transverse waves excited on the string are also in good agree-
symmetric, hysteretic response that characterizes resonance ment with our theoretical predictions.
in nonlinear systems.r In addition, nonlinearity causes a Finally, we consider the effects of nonlinearity for two
string subject to a sinusoidal time-varying force in a single representative stringed instruments-the cello and guitar.
transverse direction to undergo a transition from colinear We show that nonlinearity can, in principle, lead to a modu-
planar vibrations to a tubular or whirling motion, at frequen- lation ofthe sound produced after a string is strongly bowed
cies slightly above the low-amplitude frequency of free vibra- or plucked. The precession ofthe apparent plane ofp olariza-
tion. Such motion corresponds to each point of the string tion ofstring vibrations also accounts.for the rattling that
moving in phase in an elliptical orbit about the equilibrium sometimes occurs on an instrument after a string has been
position. strongly excited by bowing or plucking.
In this paper we return to the problem offree vibration
at large amplitudes, which was considered in an early paper I. THEORY
by Anand3 but which appears not to have been re-examined
We base our theoretical analysis on a generalized ve*
theoretically or investigated experimentally. On transient
sion ofthe equation used by Carriet' to describe the trans-
excitation, a string is in general given some angular momen-
verse vibrations of a nonlinear string,
tum, so that points on the string execute orbital motion
about their equilibrium position, similar to the whirling mo- ii+/n -,.(r +!l' l*l'*)4*:0, (r)
tion excited in sinusoidally forced vibration. In the small- \ 2eJol0zl ) Al
amplitude linear limit, each point on the string moves in a where R(z,r ) is the transverse vector displacement of the
stable elliptical orbit with damping leading to a gradual re- string at a point z along its length, c is the velocity of trans-
duction in size oforbit. verse waves and e is the longitudinal extsnsion of the string
Anand3 showed that any nonlinearity will result in a oflength /. The equation has been generalized to include a
precession of this orbital motion, but his predictions are un- damping term involving the damping coefficient)". The non-
physical since they depend on the choice ofaxis used to de- linearity arises from the increase in tension associated with
fine the problem. In contrast, we show that a relatively sim- the stretching of the string for large-amplitude transverse
ple solution can be found for the nonlinear equations used by vibrations. Anand3 and Narasimha2 subsequently justified
Anand, in which both the perturbation in frequency of vibra- the use ofthe above equation by showing that, to a very good

1770 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 75 (6), June 1 984 OO01 -4966/84/061 770-07$OO.8O @ 1984 Acoustical Society of America 1770
130 I The Bowed String

approximation, it also accounts properly for coupling to the enables us to express Eq. (6) as a pair ofcoupled equations
longitudinal modes of vibration, which is an essential feature
of the nonlinear problem (see Morse and Ingardr for a de-
* + tk -zor
tailed discussion). The string is assumed to be perfectly flexi- +{- a'+ r]oll + K(x2 + Y2l1}x:0, (7)
ble and to be rigidly clamped at both ends, so that for any two
and
orthogonal directions the transverse modes, in the absence of
nonlinearity, are degenerate. t+LY+zak
Any general solution of Fa. (1)would involve the solu- +{ - o' + ,3lr + K (x2 + Y2l1}Y: o. (s)
tion ofan infinite set ofcoupled nonlinear equations, since By suitable choice of axis and origin of time we can, as a first
there are an infinite set of possible spatial Fourier compo- approximation, look for a slowly decaying periodic solution
nents ofthe form of the form
R(z,r): X : (X rcos @, + X, cos 3att le -
1' tz,
\C,(t)sin!9,
and
where n is an integer. However, the problem simplifies ap-
preciably (Anand3), if we assume that initial excitation in- Y : (Yr sin o/ * Y3 sin 3@t )e - ^t /2,

volves only the lowest-order spatial mode, where third-harmonic terms have been included to describe
R(2,, ) : rltlsnltrz/l\. Coupling to all other modes can then first-order corrections to the shape ofthe quasi-elliptical or-
be ignored (see also Dicke6) so that Eq. (1) reduces to bit. Substituting in Eqs. (7) and (8) we obtain
+,ii + or30 + ,l(r2)r : 0,
f (2) fut?o - O' - ,'lX, cos @, + lr| - O' - gr'Vrcos 3arr
where aro : ur/l is the low-amplitude angular frequency of
- 2OaYl cos ar, + alK (Xl cos2 att
free vibration and K : (l / el ) (tr/212.
+ I? sin2 attle- ^'X, cos arl : 0, (9)
In the small-amplitude limit we can neglect the nonlin-
ear terms and, with appropriate choice of axis, write the gen- and
eral solution as (otZ
- O' - ,'lY, sin a.r/ * {rZ - O' - 9a}1Y, sin 3arl
r : kr cos aror, yrsin4.ot)e-^'/2, (3) ot?oK(X'r cos2 ot
-20atXrsinarl+
where we assumethat).1oto. Such a solution corresponds to * If sin'z @tle-^'Yt arl: 0,
sin (10)
each point on the string executing a stationary elliptical or-
where higher-order corrections in X,
and 7, have been
bit, with all points along the string moving in the same phase.
dropped, though second-order terms in O have to be re-
We might hope to describe nonlinear perturbations by
tained to give correct results for circular motion. On equat-
including higher Fourier components of the orbital motion,
ing Fourier components we then obtain
corresponding to a distortion in the shape of the periodic
orbit. However, periodic solutions in the stationary frame of @3-o'-r'Wr-ZootY,
referance only exist for two special cases-for linearly polar- + (@3K /4)(3x2, + Ylyre-^' :0, (ll)
ized (planar) string vibrations and for circulady polarized
motion at constant radiusp about the equilibrium position. @3-a'-r')Y,-2aax,
For planar motion in the x direction the problem reduces to + ?DSK /41(x2,+ 3Yzr)Yre- ^', : O, ll2l
^' :
the standard one-dimensional, nonlinear oscillator problem
(see, for example, Ref. I ), where for 2 (aro a solution for a can
@'o - o' - 9r'lx, + @eK /4)lxl - Yllxre- o,
(13)
be derived from a Fourier expansion giving

at' : ot'o(l * JKx2re- ^'1, (4) kt'" - a' - 9aiyy, + (a2oK /al7! - xllyre- ^' : o,
(14)
while for circular motion the problem reduced to the two-
dimensional simple harmonic oscillator problem at constant which give
increased tension giving a2 : atzo\ + {3K /4)(x1 + rlle- ^'f - a', (15)
af:a20(l+KP'e-^']l. (s)
aO/al: -6/4)XrYre-^', (16)
Any general solution must clearly include the above results and
as special cases. x, __ Y, _ K a&(x2, - Y2rl (17)
We now show that a stable solution can be found by
transforming the problem to a frame of reference rotating
Xt Yt 4 l9a2 - co| + A2l'
with angular frequency O in thez direction, where the value The above solution is slowly decaying but otherwise
of O is to be determined. In the rotating frame of reference periodic in the rotating frame with each point on the string
Eq. (2) is modified by the inclusion of Coriolis and centrifu- executing a slightly distorted elliptical orbit with orbital an-
gal acceleration terms, gular frequency ar, which to first order is perturbed from aro
by an amount proportional to the mean-square radius vector
;ali* 2() X i -A2r+a'zr(t ar(r2)r:0, (6)
Xi + yi. Yiewed from the stationary frame of reference,
where r is now the vector displacement in the rotating frame. this orbit precesses at a rate O, which, to first order in r(, is
Introducing orthogonal X and I axis in the rotating frame proportional to the orbital area rX ,Y r. Our predictions are

1771 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol.75, No. 6, June 1984 Colin Gough: Vibration of damped elastic string
The Bowed String I l3l

Eq. (l) can exist in the stationary frame ofreference, unless ar


ard A are accidentally commensurate and damping is ab-
sent. For a real string, the nonlinear coupling between the
motion in the x and y directions is likely to be a far more
important source of instability of periodic motion than cou-
pling to the higher-order spatial modes of string vibration
discussed recently by Dicke.6

II. COIIPUTER SIMULATION


To test our theoretical predictions we have simulated
solutions ofthe coupled nonlinear equations [Eqs. (7) and (8)]
on a small microcomputer using standard numerical tech-
niques. A typical result of such a simulation is shown in Fig.
l, which illustrates the predicted precession in the opposite
sense to the orbital motion with a precession rate that de-
creases with time as damping reduces the amplitude of the
string vibration. Figure 2 shows the associated components
of string displacement along orthogonal .r and y axis in the
stationary frame of reference. The characteristic beat pat-
FIG. l. A computer simulation of the motion of the center point of a string
executing free vibration in the stationary frame of reference. The orbital
tern associated with the precession could alternatively be
coordinates have been computed at intervals of l/l@ the period of low- described as an interchange in energy between the coupled
amplitude string vibration. Note the precession in the opposite s€ns€ to the motions in the x and y directions. The ellipticity of any pre-
orbital motioa. cessing orbital motion can be deduced from the ratio in
heights of the maxima and minima of the beat pattern in a
simpler than those of Anand3 who appears to arrive at an single direction.
unphysical result by implicitly assuming that a solution cor- We have computed the variation in orbital frequency
responding to a uniformly precessing ellipse [his Eq. (54)] and precession simulations as a function of the amplitude of
can conserve angular momentum, whereas, to conserve an- the major and minor axis of the orbital motion and have
gular momentum and energy, as required by the central compared these values with the predictions of Eqs. (15) and
force of Eq. ( I ), higher-order Fourier components of the mo- (16). In Fig. 3 the square of the normalized orbital frequency
tion must be included. Furthermore, Anand makes no (oilao)2 is plotted as a function of the sum of the squares of
allowance for the decrease of angular momentum in the the computed major and minor orbital axis .R-* and .R-,.,
damped system. which to first order are equalto X rand I,, respectively, for a
It should be noted that our treatment gives correct re- range of values of nonlinearity constant K. We have purpose-
sults for the two special cases of planar and circular orbital ly chosen to keep R-., constant equal to I and to vary.R-,,,
motion, Eqs. (a)and (5), though in the latter case it is impor- rather than to use a single plot in terms ofnormalized coordi-
tant to distinguish between the orbital period in the precess- tates lR^r^/t/Kl and lR^ */1/K), since we are then able to
ing frame ot, ar,d that measured in the stationary frame investigate possible orbital-shape dependent deviations from
s1': s1* O. For nearly circular motion in the stationary the predicted values. The straight lines in Fig. 3 are those
frame the apparent frequency measured in the stationary predicted bV Eq. ( I 5) for the undamped U" : O) situation as-
frame is given suming to a first approximation that corrections from third-
a1'2:(aaaf harmonic components and terms of order (O /osl2 can be
neglected. In Fig. 4 we show similar computed measure-
: @tlr + lK /4ll3lxi + riy -2xtyt)e-^,1, (18)
X= 1 y = r) VX = r) = rl.4
to Eq. (4) when X, : Yt: p.The composi-
VY COUF,LING t,r = 1
which reduces DAIIF l NCi CONSI ilNT = . 3E- (JI
tion ofa;'into a separate orbital and precessional frequency
would be evident for any slightly perturbed motion of the
orbit from its circular shape.
The perturbation in vibrational frequency and the
precession of the orbital motion decrease as damping re-
duces the amplitude of transverse string vibration. This cor-
rects Anand's3 surprising prediction that the precession rate
would remain constant even when the amplitude became so
small that the nonlinear terms responsible for the precession
were negligibly small.
Our calculations confirm that any perturbation from
strictly planar string vibration leads to a precession of the FIG. 2. Components of the computed orbital motion in two orthogonal di-
apparent plane ofpolarization ofthe transverse string vibra- rections in the stationary.ry plane. The substructure within the envelope is
tions. Therefore, in general, no strictly periodic solution of an artifact ofthe digitized output.

1772 J. Acoust. Soc, Am., Vol.75, No.6, June 1984 Colin Gough: Vibration of damped elastic string 1772
132 I The Bowed String

motion from coupling to vibrational modes ofthe supporting


structure, the strings were mounted on a heavy iron frame
with the ends of the string rigidly clamped between v-shaped
grooves. Ofthe various types ofstring studied, high-quality,
aluminum covered, multistranded wire strings, of the type
widely used on modern stringed instruments, proved to be
the most suitable for this investigation. Such strings tend to
vibrate at low amplitudes in purer modes than solid metal
strings, with no evidence ofany splitting ofthe degeneracy of
the fundamental mode associated with nonuniformity in
manufacture. Furthermore, whereas the damping of the fun-
'1
1
15 2 damental mode is sufficiently small to enable the free decay
pl6qr Rj*. R],n crrculor
to be studied over a reasonable number ofperiods ofstring
(R =1) vibration, the higher harmonics are relatively quickly
damped.
FIG. 3. Computed values of the square of the normalized orbital period (a;/
aal2, as a firoction of mean-square radius vector, fifu, +x'?.,", for
The results reported here are for a Jargar viola D-string
R*, : I for various values of nonlinearity coefficient r(' The ellipticity in of diameter 0.65 mm and vibrating lenglh 27.5 cm. Before
the shape of the orbital motion increas€s from the rR-;" : I (circular mo' clamping, the string was slightly stretched to give a low-
tion)to rR-6 :0 (planar motion). amplitude vibrational frequency that was typically of order
60 Hz (farbelow its normal playing pitch on an actual instru-
ments of the normalized precession frequency - Oo/af; as ment). At these small tensions nonlinear effects are impor-
a function of the product R-*R-i.. The straight lines are tant with vibrational amplitudes at the center of the string as
those predicted by Eq. (17) with the same assumptions as small as I mm.
before. In,both cases the agreement between the theoretical Vibrations in the vertical and horizontal planes were
predictions and the computed values is remarkably good, in monitored using an LED and photo-diode assemblyT pro-
view ofthe large perturbations in frequency and the relative- ducing, to a good approximation, a linear voltage output as a
ly large precession rates involved. function of string displacement for displacements of the
The above results are not significantly changed when string across the detector of less than about 0.5 mm. In order
damping is included. In particular, damping does not appear that measurements could be made with string amplitudes
to lead to any appreciable progressive change in orbital near the center of the string twenty times larger than this, the
shap€ even when 2 becomes comparable with A, which re- detectors were mounted as close as possible to the ends of the
mains an unexplained feature of the measurements to be re- clamped strings, where the vibrational amplitude was very
ported in Sec. III. small. Two detectors were used, one at each end of the string,
so that transverse string vibrations in two orthogonal direc'
III. MEASUREMENTS tions could be monitored simultaneously.
We have made a number of measurements of the large- The string was excited either manually by plucking at
amplitude free vibration ofloosely stretched strings to inves- the midpoint or electromagnetically by passing an alternat-
tigate whether the theoretical and numerical predictions, ing current through the string, which passed between the
bised on a somewhat idealized mathematical model, provide poles of a large permanent magnet placed about its midpoint.
an adequate descripticin of nonlinear string vibrations in Electromagnetic excitation was used to establish stable
practice. In order to eliminate perturbations of the string string vibrations for the initial calibration of the detection

0 05 10
iolonor D D
r\mdr\min crrculdr

(R*'1 )

FIG. 4. Computed values of the normalized precessional frequency, FIG. 5. Typical oscilloscope traces of string displacement measured simul'
aa /alzo, as a finction of 'R-," for fixed R-.' : l ' for several values of non- taneously in two orthogonal directions for a string plucked near its mid-
linearity coefrcient K. point. The total trace length is 2 s.

'1773 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 75, No. 6, Jun€ 1984 Colin Gough: Vibration of damped elastic string 1773

lll
The Bowed String I 133

system in terms ofthe measured vibrational amplitude at the computer simulation of Fig. 2. In particular, the decrease in
center of the string. This calibration was performed over the precession rate with decreasing amplitude is confirmed. In
frequency and amplitude range used in the subsequent mea- these measurements, no electronic filtering was used so that
surements of free vibration. Any frequency-dependent end some substructure associated with the presence of higher-
correction arising from the finite flexibility ofthe string and order harmonics is evident, particularly in the early stages of
the frequency dependence of the electronics were automati- the decay.
cally corrected for in this calibration procedure. In Fig. 6 we show a sequence of measurements, using a
When investigating free vibration, we chose to excite low-pass filter to remove higher harmonics, for string vibra-
the string by plucking, since this enabled us to obtain a much tions in a single direction recorded on a digital-storage mem-
wider range of orbital motion than could be established elec- ory oscilloscope. The string was plucked at its center in such
tromagnetically, which tended to result in a whiding motion a way to excite a large range of orbital motions from nearly
with neady circular orbits at large amplitudes. However, planar at the top to nearly circular at the bottom. The depen-
plucking the string at its center excites all the odd-harmonic dence of the precession rate on the degree of ellipticity is
spatial modes of the string whereas our theoretical analysis clearly illustrated. To make measurements over a time scale
assumes that only the fundamental mode is initially present. sufficiently long to observe the precession rate, it was not
This clearly limits the validity of any comparison with the- possible to record many points per period of the orbital mo-
ory. Nevertheless, the initial amplitudes of the odd-harmon- tion. This accounts for the rather granular nature of the xy-
ic excited are relatively smallll/9, l/25, l/49, etc.). More- recorder output in which digitized points are connected by
over, since such harmonics are more strongly damped than straight lines.
the fundamental, we assumed that their influence could be From such measurements we were able to determine
neglected, at least as a first approximation. Nevertheless, we the orbital frequency and precession rate as a function of
found it nec€ssary to incorporate a low-pass electronic filter orbital size and shape. For simplicity, we chose to obtain this
to remove these higherharmonics from our recorded output, information using a single, carefully calibrated detector
in order to determine as accurately as possible the amplitude monitoring the amplitude in a single direction. The ampli-
of the fundamental mode. tudes of the major and minor axes of the precessing elliptical
A typical oscilloscope record showing simultaneous orbit were determined from the maxima and minima of the
measurements of the transverse string vibrations in two or- beat pattern as described above. The precession rate was de-
thogonal directions is shown in Fig. 5. The observed beat termined from the time between the minima and the fre-
pattern produced by the precession is seen tobe similar to the quency at', in the stationary frame of reference was derived
from the time for ten oscillations in the vicinity of each maxi-
mum. The orbital frequency ar was then assumed to be given
by ot' + lO l. Measurements of these quantities from thexy-
recorder trace could only be made with an accuracy ofabout
! 5Vo. A more sophisticated data acquisition system and
subsequent computer analysis would undoubtedly have im-
proved the accuracy, but in view ofthe uncertainties asso-
ciated with the excitation of higher harmonics this was not
considered appropriate at this stage ofour investigation.
In Fig. 7 we have plotted laias)2 as a function of the
mean-square radius vector of the orbital motion at the center
ofthe string, which according to Eq. ( I 5) should be a straight

2.O

!A\

a'

q
0
(xf.12)zmm2
FIG. 6. Digitized measurements made in a single direction illustrating the
dependence of the precession rate on the ellipticity of the orbital motion. FIG.7 Measurements of {a / coo)2 plottd as a function of ,Y ] a If .

1774 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 75, No. 6, June 1984 Colin Gough: Vibration of damped elastic string 1lt4
134 I The Bowed String

line of slope 3Kl4. Similarly in Fig. 8 we have plotted the 9


normalized precession rate aO /atf;, in a form that can be O
a
directly compared with 84. (16)giving a graph with predict- T a
ed slope of K /4. It should be noted that individual points 3t3 a
a
a
along the horizontal axis can represent orbital motions ,of ql3
aa
t_
widely different ellipticity. 5
'loa
In both cases, the predicted linear dependence is con- a

flrmed within the relatively large experimental error. The


ratio ofthe two slopes, obtained from a least-squares fit, is
3.34 t 0.2 compared with the theoretical ratio of 3. The ab-
solute values obtained for the nonlinearity coefficient were
r( : 0.116 + 0.003 mm-2 from measurements oforbital fre- -123
0
quency and K: 0.104 t 0.004 mm-2 from the precession
X,t/mm2
rate. These values should be compared with the value of
K : 0.128 t 0.008 mm-2 determined dependently from the FIG. 8. Measurements ofthe normalized precessional frequency a A /af, as
extension e : 0.079 t 0.005 mm required to give the mea- a function of Xt f,.
sured low-amplitude frequency of vibration of 59 Hz. This
extension was deduced from the measured vibrational fre- cello, vibrational amplitudes near the midpoint of the lowest
quency using a least-squares fit to measurements of longitu- string as large as l0 mm can easily be excited by strong bow-
dinal extension as a function of the square of the resulting ing or plucking, whereas the maximum amplitude on the
vibrational frequency over a frequency range from 5G200 guitar is typically only of order 5 mm. In both cases an orbi-
Hz. This procedure assumes that Hooke's law is obeyed tal motion with Yo/X6=0.3 can readily be excited. The re-
down to the smallest tensions, whereas small deviations sulting fractional increase in frequency for the cello of
=3Vo
might be expected as any small kinks in the wire are initidly
(about a quartertone), is certainly audible, whereas the in-
straightened out. crease of for the guitar is negligibly small. For the
=O.3Vo
The agreement between these completely independent cello (and for other stringed instruments where the spacing
methods of determining K is probably as good as could rea- between the strings and fingerboard may be too small), the
sonably be expected from the approximations in both the precession ofany excited orbital motion can lead to a rattling
theoretical and experimental analysis, particularly in view of of the string against the fingerboard, some time after the note
the relatively large perturbation in motion caused by the has initially been sounded. For the cello C string the preces-
nonlinearity. sional period is about 3 s. Such precession can be observed
That some further refinement of the theoretical model very easily, by slackening the lowest string ofa cello or guitar
is needed to account fully for our observations is evident to reduce its pitch by an octave.
from the measurements shown in Fig. 6, where the ellipticity In principle, any rotation of the orbital string motion
of the orbital motion appears to decrease with time, since the can also lead to a periodic variation in the sound produced by
relative amplitude of successive maxima decreases rather an instrument as the major axis rotates relative to the strong
faster than the minima. This effect was not reproduced in the coupling direction at the bridge.s In practice, however, the
computer simulations. [t seems likely that this effect is asso- coupling of the string at the bridge to the structural modes of
ciated with either the initial presence or the subsequent vibration removes the degeneracy ofthe transverse modes of
growth of the third-harmonic spatial components of the string vibration,8 so that the above theoretical analysis is no
string motion, which we have neglected in our analysis. longer applicable. A systematic study of the influence of
nonlinearity on the fundamental modes when their degener-
tv. DtscusstoN acy is lifted by nonrigid end supports is, however, beyond the
scope of the present investigation.
The above measurements support our theoretical and Our analysis has confirmed Anand's3 prediction that
computer analysis and confirm the predicted dependence of nonlinearity should lead to a precession of any orbital mo-
orbital frequency and precession rate on the size and shape of tion of the string about its equilibrium position. Our theo-
the orbital motion. In our measurements the nonlinear ef- retical, experimental, and computed investigations show
fects were purposely made rather large by the use of a slack that the orbital and precessional frequencies can be simply
string with a small equilibrium tension. related to geometric properties of the orbital motion, in con-
In practice, however, strings on musical instruments trast to Anand's earlier result. It follows therefore that, in
are more tautly stretched. The form in which we have ex- general, no periodic solution for the lightly damped free de-
pressed the nonlinearity coefficient, r( : (l / el I ltr/2)2, readi- cay of the two-dimensional nonlinear coupled equations ex-
ly enables an estimate to be made of the likely influence of ists in the stationary frame of reference, unless the orbital
nonlinearity on musical instruments based simply on the ex- and precessional frequencies are accidentally commensur-
tension e required to bring the string to its playing pitch. For ate.
the lowest string of the cello and guitar, for example, e is
typically 5 and 20 mm, respectively, for string lengths of ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
order 700 mm, giving nonlinearity coefficients of order I should like to express my gratitude to Bernard Ri-
7 X 10-amm-2 and} X 10-amm-2, respectively. Forthe chardson for first drawing my attention to this problem, to

1775 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 75, No. 6, June 1 984 Colin Gough: Vibration of damped elastic string 1775

iln
The Bowed String I 135

Professor Lothar Cremer for independently encouraging me string," J. Acoust. Soc. Am.4ti, 1089-1096 (1969).
oC.
G. B. Baker, C.M. Thair, and C. E. Gough, ,,A photo-detector for mea-
to make these measurements and for his comments on an suring resonances of violin strings," Acustica 44, 70 ( 1980).
eadier version of this manuscript, and to Graham McCauley 5G. F. Carrier,
"On the non-linear vibration problem ofthe elastic string,,'
for many helpful discussions. This investigation was sup- Q. Appl. Math.3, 157-165 (1945). [An analytic solution of the one-dimen-
ported by a grant from the Royal Society. sional problem is given by Kirchhoffin Yorlesungen uber Mathematische
Physik I ll*ipzis,1897), Chap. vI, p. aa3.l
6R. W. Dicke, periodic
"stability of solutions of the nonJinear string,', e.
Appl. Math. 3E,253-259 (1980).
tP. M. Tslotted opto-ss,itch,
Morse and K. U. Ingard, Theoretical Acousrics (McGraw-Hill, New Radio Spares component 306-061. The circular, ac-
York, 1968), Chap. XIV. tive detecting area was half-masked and the shadow ofthe string positioned
2R.
Narasimha, "Non-linear vibration of an elastic string," J. Sound Vib. 8, so that one side ofthe shadow always remained in the masked area.
134-146 (1958). EC.
E. Gough, "The theory of string resonances on musical instruments,',
rG. V. Anand, "Large-amplitude damped free vibration of a stretched Acustica 49, 124-141 (198 l).

J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 75, No. 6, June 1 984 Colin Gough: Vibration of damped elastic string 1776
The Bowed String I 137

THE DYNAMICS OF MUSICAL STRINGS


Maurice Hancock
66 Salisbury Road
Farnborough, Hants, GU14 7AG England

ABSTRACT a sequence of events including transfer of the work to a new


The paper continues the presentation of work first de' location, re-organization of the data processing arrange-
ments, and long delays due to servicing and reconstruction
scribed in CAS newsletter No. 38 of November 1982, and gives
of some of the associated electronic equipment. The string
details of the measurement and analysis of the resonant
that was used in the original part of the work (Rotosound cello
characteristics of musical strings operating in isolation from
A) was abandoned with the change in workplace, and since
an instrument body, and with more presicely def ined loading
the re-start in mid-1987 records extending from the f undamen-
and terminal conditions than are found in normal use. Two
plain steel piano strings and two rope cored cello strings have tal through all odd overtones, in some cases up to the 25th,
have been taken for two plain steel piano strings and two rope
been used and the odd numbered resonances from the
fundamental to the 25th have been examined. ln broad outline cored Lycon cello strings, one D and one G. Data for more
the results follow the predictions of the standard classical than 200 separate resonances have been collected to date,
and are stored in about 320 kilobytes of computer disc space.
theory for a stiff string in respect of resonant frequency and
amplitude and peakwidth, but there are several anomalies The results show a pattern of behaviour with regard to
that can not yet be explained. The patterns of increasing resonance frequency, peak amplitude and peak width through
resonant f requency with overtone number for the steel piano the overtone range that is broadly in accordance with the
strings are closely but not exactly in accordance with predictions of the standard classical theory for a stiff string,
theoretical predictions, and for the more f lexible rope cored but surprisingly, several of the resonances show pronounced
strings there is some increase of resonant f requency in the double peaks, and for the single peaks, although the pattern
higher overtone range as would be expected, but in the lower of resonant frequencies through the overtone range is closely
overtone range there is an anomalous decrease of resonant in accordance with the predictions of classical theory, some
frequency below the expected patlern, showing that for this anomalies remain, and the patterns of amplitude and
string a more elaborate analysis than that for the peakwidth variation have not yet been satisfactorily ex-
homogeneous stiff string may be required. plained. lt is conjectured that small dimensional and/or
ln all cases the resonant peak amplitudes decrease pro- material irregularities might account for some of these
gressively through the overtone range, and the peak widths, features, and for the rope cored strings, a more refined
after a small decrease in the lower overtone range increase analysis may be required to deal with the bending
in the higher range. ln general the pattern of these effects characteristics of the composite construction. Further work
is consistent with higher losses in the rope cored strings than that might provide some explanations of these points, and
in the homogeneous steel strings, but even for the steel an extension to gut and synthetic cored strings is projected.
strings, it has not yet been possible to find values for the loss The work has been made possible through financial grants
parameters that give a close match between the from the Royal Society of London and the Leverhulme foun-
measurements and the predictions of the standard classical dation, and through the loan of equipment from the SIRA
theory over the full overtone range. lnstitute, and through the provision of accommodation and
Another rather surprising result is that with some of the facilities by the lmperial College of Science and Technology,
strings, many but not all of the resonances show pronounced London.
closely spaced double peaks, and there is strong, although
not fully confirmed evidence that these are associated with EXPERIMENTAL ARRANGEMENTS AND PROCEDURE
the development of movement at right angles to the direc' ln the experimental setup, the string under test hangs ver-
tion of the applied driving force. The cause of these effects tically below a heavy block suspended from a substantial
has not yet been discovered, but it is conjectured that they steel f rame mounted on a solid masonry wall, and a second
are caused through small dimensional and/or material ir- heavy block attached to the lower end of the string produces
regularities in the string. the working tension. This arrangement has the advantage of
A program of f urther work directed towards a clarif ication providing a constant and precisely known string tension, but
of the several unresolved problems that have emerged is pro- it carries the penalties that the effects of end movement and
jected, and an extension to other strings including examples of a small tension gradient might be significant, and there
with gut and synthetic cores will be undertaken. is a small ever present pendulum movement that has also
to be taken into account. The end block attachments are
INTRODUCTION designed to define the effective end points of the string as
This paper gives an account of the examination of the res- precisely as possible.
onant behaviour of musical strings operating in isolation f rom The string is excited by a sinusoidal driving force produced
an instrument body, and with more precisely def ined loading by an alternating current in conjunction with a small
and terminal conditions than are found in normal use. The horseshoe magnet spanning the string at its mid-point, and
object of the work is to find how closely the departures of the resulting mid-point motion is measured by a helium-neon
the behaviour of real strings from the ideal physics text-book laser-doppler system coupled to the string through an optical
string can be explained by a relatively simple analytical f ibre [2]. The electrical output f rom a photo-diode in the laser-

model, and further, to find how closely these second order doppler system carries information about the string motion
characteristics can be correlated with the wide range of in the form of a frequency modulated wave, and a standard
materials and constructional methods used in string commercial transient recorder (Datalab 905) is used to cap-
manufacture. ture a short sample - typically a few milliseconds - of this
A preliminary account of the early stages of the work was wave for subsequent analysis by an Apricot microcomputer.
given in an earlier CAS newsletter [1], and the long delay in The sampled section of the wave is stored as a sequence
making this further presentation has been caused through of 1025 eight bit digitised values, and a least squares

JCAS Vol. 1, No. 3 (Series ll) May 1989


L38 I The Bowed String

optimisation procedure is used to extract the amplitude of can be taken into account by using a complex constant qr
the string motion and its phase relative to the driving cur. + iq, (with j' = -1) instead of the real Young's modulus q,
rent, and in this process the pendulum component of motion and the real b must then be replaced by a complex b, + jbr.
which can be treated as constant during the short sampling The general solution of equation (1) for the motion at the
interval is eliminated. The string driving f requencies are con- mid-point in response to a concentrated driving force
trolled by a quartz oscillator, and are known to an accuracy F exp(j ort) applied at the mid-point with fixed ends is taken
of at least one part in a million by reference to the carrier a Y = Y exp(i<,rt) where Y is given by
frequency of the BBC long wave radio transmission.
These experimental arrangements and procedures are
X,Xz(tr? - L(l? + X?)sinh(X,L)sinh(tr,1)
+ 2 X, \,(1 - cosh(tr,1)cosh(trzL))l (MK,b,/LF)Y =
described in greater detail in the original CAS newsletter
article [1], but the introduction of the Apricot microcomputer 2( ),posh( X,l)sinh( -
for data processing was necessitated by the change of ^,1) \,|)sinh( \,1) + 2 \f \,(cosh( \,1)
Xisinh( \,|)cosh( \,1))sinh(
workplace. ln the early part of the work, the data from the + 2 cosh( \,1) - 3 cosh'z(\,|)cosh(\,1))sinh( \,1) -
transient recorder was stored on magnetic tape for subse- 2 X, trl(cosh( tr,|) + 2 cosh(trrl) -
quent batch processing by the lmperial College mainframe \,1)
3 cosh'1( irl)cosh( tr,|))sinh( (2)
computer. with I = Uz,i' - \! the roots of
-1 and trf and
ln a typical run, about 20 different frequencies are used K2b2 X * (K2a2 - a2 - j<,ro)X'? - u2 + j<op = 0 (3)
to cover the range between the two points where the and for the lossless case (o= I = b, = 0) the
amplitude is about a quarter of its peak value, and the phase resonant frequencies are given by the solutions of
range covered extends to about 75 degrees on each side of
the mid-point. The use of an on-site dedicated computer
(If + I!)sinh( tr,1)sinh(tr,1) + 2 I, \,(1 -
allows the laser-doppler records for the sequence of f requen-
cosh( tr,1)cosh( tr,1)) = 0 (4)

cies used in tracing a resonance to be processed one by one where trf and \!
are the roots of
as they are taken so that the resonance contour can be seen K2b'z 14 *
(K2r,r2 a')- I' -
o)2 = 0 (5)
as it develops, and the sequence of frequencies can be
chosen to give an optimum def inition of the contour. For the
resonances that produce single peaks the amplitude and
REVIEW AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
- The lirst steel string
A plain steel piano string was chosen for the first series
phase measurements are then used with smoothlng of measurements because it was thought that the absence
polynomials, generally of fourth order but sometimes sixth, of material and constructional complications would give
to produce smoothed contours from which the salient more straightforward results than might be obtained with a
characteristics of the resonance are taken. ln the best cases string of composite construction. The string used had a work-
the root mean square deviation of individual measurements ing length of 81.3 cm, a mean diameter of about 0.89 mm and
from the smoothed contour is less than one percent of the a load of 6.78 kg, and a summary of its amplitude
peak value for amplitude, and about one degree for phase, characteristics taken from 31 separate resonances is given
and the deviations only exceed twice these values in a small in table 1. The resonant frequencies are taken from the peak
proportion of cases. No processing beyond the measurement positions of the amplitude smoothing polynomials, and the
stage has yet been undertaken for the double peaked increase in resonant f requency per unit overtone number with
resonances. increasing overtone number shown is generally of the form
expected for a stiff string. The amplitudes used although
THE ANALYTICAL BACKGROUND small were sufficient to give good signals from the laser.
The analytical background for the work is taken from doppler system, and were in some ways preferable to larger
Rayleigh, Vol. l, Art. 188 [3] which deals with the transverse ones on account of both the small size of the sensitive zone
vibration of a uniform bar subject to longitudinal tension, but at the tip of the optical f ibre and limitations in the analogue
the Rayleigh treatment includes neither loss factors or driv- to digital processes in the signal analysis. The string heating
ing force, and when these are included the equation of motion produced by the driving current is negligible, the power in-
for small transverse displacements becomes put at the maximum current of 46 ma being less than 1

K2(b2 alyl ax4 - -


dtyl(dl'1ax')) a2 02yl 0x2 + a2yl al? milliwatt. The fractional peakwidth in the last column of table
1 is the ratio of peakwidth at half resonant amplitude to reso-
- o d3y/( at ax'z) + 0 ayl dl - Lf/M (1)
nant frequency, and is referred to subsequently as the half
where x is the position co-ordinate along the string peak width. The amplitude and half peak width f igures for
y is the transverse displacement of the string repeated runs on the same overtone show more scatter than
K is the radius of gyration of a transverse section of might have been expected, and this must ref lect in some way
the string about an axis through its centre of grav- on the overall accuracy of the data gathering and process-
ity and perpendicular to the plane of bending, = ing procedures, but no further explanation for this can yel
half the radius for a homogeneous round section. be given. To a smaller extent a similar comment also applies
b'= (T + Q) /e )withT = tension,q = Young's to the resonant frequency figures because as already men.
modulus tioned, the individual driving frequencies are known to an
a2 = T/p p -
density accuracy of at least one part in a million.
a is the damping coefficient due to bending losses The phase data associated with the results of table 1 are
p is the damping coefficient due to air loading generally as would be expected, showing the string position
L is the string length very nearly in quadrature with the driving current at the reso-
M is the string mass nant frequency, but the frequency for exact quadrature is in
f is the linear density of applied driving force a most cases slightly higher than that for maximum amplitude.
function of position x, and time t. The ratio of frequency difference between the 45 and 135
The o damping coefficient accounts for losses due to degree points to the quadrature frequency (subsequently
viscous processes associated with the rate of change of referred to as the half quadrature width) follows a similar
curvature, but there is also the possibility of a hysteresis pro- pattern to the corresponding half peak width when the mean
cess that would introduce losses related to changes in the values for each overtone are taken, as shown in fig. 1,
direction of bending, and when the motion is sinusoidal this although the ratio of half quadrature width to half peak width

JCAS Vol. 1, No. 3 (Series ll) May 1989 -34-


The Bowed String I 139

TABLE 1 AMPLITUDE DATA FOR FIRST STEEL STRING


-
RESONANT AMPLITUDE FRACTIONAL
STRING FREQUENCY (Hz) (MILLIMETRES PEAK WIDTH
CURRENT PER UNIT PEAK to PEAK) AT HALF
OVERTONE MILLIAMPS OVERTONE PER MILLIAMP RESONANT
NUMBER RMS NUMBER AT RESONANCE AMPLITUDE

0.25 68.1541 0.1556 0.000476


0.5 68.1552 0.1579 0.000490
0.5 68.1544 0.1617 0.000458
1.0 68.1542 0.1586 0.000512
1.0 68.1531 0.1670 0.000426
1.0 68.1536 0.1620 0.000455

1.5 68.4111 0.02413 0.000280


3.0 68.4097 0.02482 0.000269

2.5 68.9223 0.00661 0.000240


2.5 68.9241 0.00664 0.000249
5.0 68.9229 0.00584 0.000285
5.0 68.9229 0.00658 0.000250

3.5 69.8457 0.00461 0.000210


7.0 69.8468 0.00445 0.000214

4.5 71.0451 0.00252 0.000240


9.0 71.0469 0.00286 0.000205
9.0 71.0468 0.00263 0.000230
9.0 71.0462 0.00288 0.000198

11 5.5 72.5082 0.00194 0.000176


11.0 72.5045 0.00194 0.000196
11.0 72.5047 0.00170 0.000235

13 13.0 74.2143 0.00126 0.000206


13.0 74.2213 0.00119 0.000217

15 15.0 76.1545 0.000864 0.000219


30.0 76.1599 0.00088s 0.000200

17 17.0 78.3170 0.000565 0.000239


17.0 78.3099 0.000554 0.000235

19 19.0 80.6735 0.000388 0.000259


38.0 80.6737 0.000365 0.000305

21 42.0 83.2020 0.000270 0.000272

23 46.0 85.8841 0.000194 0.000309

TABLE 2 _ FREOUENCY EXCESS PERCENTAGES FOR FIRST STEEL STRING


OVERTONE coL coL coL coL coL coL coL col
NUMBER 1 2 3 4 5 6 78
3 0.376 0.446 0.469 0.506 0.613 0.444 0.445 0.444
5 1.128 1.333 1.339 1.511 1.827 1.327 1.327 1.324
7 2.483 2.649 2.778 2.998 3.618 2.635 2.636 2.629
9 4.244 4.378 4.585 4.944 5.955 4.351 4.353 4.342
11 6.385 6.499 6.797 7.323 8.798 6.454 6.457 6.440
13 8.897 8.990 9.387 10.104 12.106 8.919 8.924 8.900
15 11.743 11.826 12.328 13.255 15.838 11.722 11.728 11.695
17 14.907 14.982 15.591 16.745 19.949 14.835 14.844 14.800
19 18.369 18.431 18.171 20.543 24.402 18.233 18.244 18.188
21 22.079 22.150 22.973 24.619 29.159 21.891 21.906 21.835
23 26.015 26.114 27.040 28.946 34'185 25.785 25.803 25.715

JCAS Vol. 1, No. 3 (Series ll) May 1989


-35-
140 I The Bowed String

.zaa The Seebeck constants A and B are functions of the of the


ratio Kb/La, and they can be combined to give the equation
\12 - r'zAlB) Kb/La)'2+ 4(Kb/La) * 1 = 0fromwhich Kb/La
aaaq can be found. The best frequency fit gives A = 4633.382 and
"
B = 5.187464, the resulting value for Kb/La being 0.010888,
and it is of interest to compare this with the possible range
HALF of values obtained from the physical data for the string.
PEAK Several measurements of the string thickness, using a TESA
. aaz I,J l DTH micrometer with scale subdivisions of 0.002 mm gave values
covering the rather surprisingly wide range of 0.87 to 0.90 mm.
These measurements were distributed both along the string
aza and in different directions across it, and they seem therefore
"
HELF to show that the string shape deviates slightly in both
GI.]ffDRR TL]RE longitudinal and circumferential directions from the ideal cir.
i^]I DTH cular cylinder. The string length of 81.3 cm was known with
.aza an uncertainty not exceeding about 2 mm, so that on the
basis of these f igures, l(L should lie in the range 0.000267
to 0.000277. Tabulated values of Young's modulus for steel
OUERTONE Nt"]11BER give a range of 20 to 21 tirnes l0rldynes per sq cm (200 to
210 Gigapascals(Gpa)) and the loading of 6.78 kg was known
to an accuracy of about 1 gm, so that the possible range of
Figure 1. Comparison between half peak width and half b/a ratios is 42.3 to 44.9 and the resulting possible range for
quadrature width for f irst steel string.
Kb/La from the physicaldata is 0.0113 to 0.0125. With this
for individual records shows an apparently random scatter spread and the value derived from the Seebeck constants,
between 0.45 and 0.79. it is of interest to f ind whether a calculation of the overtone
The main interest in the analysis of the resonance data frequencies based on the more exact solutions of equation
(1) might give a closer approximation to the measurements,
lies in checking how closely the results can be f itted to the
analytical model represented by equation (1), and here the and for this the simpler no loss solution given by equations
first feature examined is the relationship between resonant (4) and (5) has been examined first. The results of some
f requency and overtone number. The results of this examina-
calculations of the frequency excess percentage from these
tion are given in numerical form in tables 2 and 3 rather than equations, and using various values for l(L and b/a are given
being shown graphically because much of the significant in columns 3 to 8 of table 2, but it must be noted here that
detail is too small to show in a graph of reasonable size. the Seebeck derivation does not allow l(L and b/a to be
Column 1 of table 2 shows the percentage by which the separated from their product although their separate values
measured ratio of overtone to fundamental frequency exceeds are required in the more rigorous calculation. However, a sub-
the overtone number (the frequency excess percentage), the sidiary investigation shows that when l(L is much smaller
figures being based on mean values for each overtone. lhan b/a, the resulting f requencies are mainly determined by
Column 2 of table 2, and table 3 show the result of fitting the product and only very weakly influenced by the separate
the measured frequencies to the Seebeck approximation, values, and with this preparation columns 3 to 8 of table 2
(frequency)'? = A.N.2 + B.N.4 quoted by Rayleigh [3] as equa-
can be explained.
tion (9) of Art. 190. ln this equation A and B are constants Column 3 uses K/L = 0.0002722 from the middle of the
and N is the overtone number, and the best fit is taken as 0.000267/0.000277 range with b/a = 40 which gives the
that which minimises the sum of squares of the misfit 0.010888 product obtained from the Seebeck equation.
Column 4 uses the two low limits l(L = 0.000267 and b/a
((f requency)'? - A.N' - B.Na) over the whole overtone range.
fit frequencies using the derived
The reconstructed best = 42.3.
values of A and B are shown in comparison with the Column 5 uses the two high limits l(L = 0.000277 and b/a
measured frequencies in table 3, and the frequency excess - 44.9.
percentages for this reconstructed list are shown in column Column 6 uses l(L = 0.000265 with b/a = 40 found by trial
2 of table 2. These figures are all larger than those in col- to give about the best obtainable match to the measurements
umn 1 because the fundamental given by the best fit of the of column 1.

Seebeck equation is smaller than the measured f undamental. Columns 7 and 8 show the effects of changing l(L and b/a
whilst keeping their product constant. ln column 7, l(L has
TABLE 3
SEEBECK FREQUENCY FITTING FOR
- half its column 6 value and in column 8, b/a has half its
column 6 value.
FIRST STEEL STRING These results show that both the Seebeck approximation
OVERTONE MEASURED SEEBECK and the more exact solution for the lossless case can be
NUMBER FREQUENCY FREQUENCY made to give close f its to the measurements, but there are
residual misfits in every case, and the mainly smooth form
1 68.1541 68.1070 of the differences makes it unlikely that a random distribu-
3 205.2312 205.2331 tion of measurement errors could be responsible. Amongst
5 344.6153 345.0749 the possible causes of these differences, the damping and
7 488.9237 489.378 end effects are obviously in need of further examination, and
I 639.4'162 639.796 the damping effects require closer examination in connec-
11 797.5638 797.8652 tion with the analysis of the amplitude and peak width
13 964.8314 964.9874 measurements, but with regard to the overtone frequency
15 1142.358 1142.421 pattern it is only necessary to note that calculations using
17 1331.336 1331.281 the full solution of equation (2) with heavier damping co-
19 1532.798 1532.543 eff icients than are required to explain the measured
21 1747.242 1747.05 amplitude and peak width patterns show only a very small
23 1975.334 1975.531

JCAS Vol. 1, No. 3 (Series ll) May 1989


The Bowed String I l41-

effect on the overtone frequency pattern. The effects of end With this preparation, a computer search using equations
motion when added to the complexities of a lossy stiff string (2) and (3) for thestiff lossy string with fixed ends and mid-
lead to very complex solutions, but a simple order of point drive and measurement has been made through a range
magnitude estimate of the effect can be obtained from the of values of the loss factors to f ind a combination that gives
analysis for an ideal lossless f lexible string terminated at one the best match between measured and calculated amplitude
end by a finite mass and fixed at the other end, With the and half peak width patterns over the whole overtone range.
dimensions and loading of the string used, the Nth overtone ln making this search the K/L and b/a values from column
f requency for this arrangement would be about 0.017/N per- 6 of table 2 were used, the b/a value now being assigned to
cent higher than with both ends fixed, and this is much b,/a, and the best result was judged on the basis of a
smaller than the differences to be explained, minimum sum of squares of deviations over the whole over"
Other possible causes of small anomalies in the overtone tone range, but the results are rather poor and no explana-
frequency pattern might be attributable to coupling between tion for this can yet be given. The loss factors do not appear
longitudinal and transverse modes, or to the effects of tension to be appreciably amplitude dependent as can be seen f rom
gradient in the vertical string suspension, or to some indeter table 1 where the peak widths for different amplitudes at the
minacy in the location of the effective end points of the string same overtone show no clear sign of amplitude dependence,
and f urther work will be necessary to make a def inite resolu. but frequency dependence in the bending losses might be
tion of these possibilities. The fundamental longitudinal partly responsible for the poor result. Also the end fixings
frequency for the string and lower end mass is about 24 Hz could be responsible for some loss that cannot be lumped
which is perhaps far enough below the transverse frequen- with the p term, and the dimensional irregularity factor might
cies to give not much significance to any coupling, and the also be involved. ln both the amplitude and width searches
difference in tension between the ends of the string is only sharply defined optimum results were not found, and the o
about 0.06 percent of the mean tension which is perhaps too and p values for the best results were quite different for the
small to produce any signif icant effect. Also, although none amplitude and width fittings, and there was no evidence in
of the double peaks mentioned in the introduction were found either case for other than a zero value for the hysteresis term
with this string, it is possible that its dimensional br. The o and B results for the best fits were as follows
irregularities might have been sufficient to account for some
anomalies in the overtone f requency pattern.
Amplitude fit o = 14.9 (cm2sec-1) 0 = 1.09 (sec-1)
Peakwidth fit cr = 2.52 (cm'?sec-') fr = 0.143 (sec-1)
ESTIMATE OF LOSS FACTORS FOR THE FIRST STRING and the best fitting results obtained are shown in comparison
The loss factors show their effects in the patterns of peak
with the measurements in table 4. A small contribution to
amplitude and width variation with overtone number, and it the poor amplitude fit obtained in this search must be at-
ought to be possible to estimate the sizes of the loss fac. tributable to the fact that the equation (2) solution applies
tors from an analysis of these patterns. Before starting this for a concentrated point driving force whereas, in the ex-
perimental set.up the driving force is distributed over about
analysis a preliminary study was made to examine the
a 5 mm length of the string with an approximate cosine bell
separate effects of a and B type losses on an ideal flexi-
profile, but this would account for only a small part of the
ble string with f ixed ends, and this study also included the
case of viscous loss in the end couplings with zero a and misf it.
Because of the inconclusive result from this f irst attempt to
6. This show that for cr damping only, the peak amplitude
decreases as the inverse cube of the overtone number, and find loss factors giving good fits between calculated and
the peakwidth increases in proportion to the overtone number, measured values over the whole overtone range, two other
whilst for B damping only, the amplitude and width are both more limited trials were made to fit calculated amplitude and
phase values to measurements for just one fundamental and
inversely proportional to the overtone number. With viscous
end loss only, the amplitude and width follow the same one 3rd overtone using the whole range of frequencies
pattern as for B damping only, and to separate these two covered in the measurement of these resonances. For the fun-
effects it would be necessary to have data for at least two damental the search was made over appropriate ranges of
different string lengths. the six ratios t(L, b,/a, brla, lla, cr/aL and B Ua, but for the

TABLE 4 _ FIRST LOSS ANALYSIS FOR FIRST STEEL STRING


PEAK AMPLITUDE PER
UNIT CURRENT HALF PEAK WIDTH
OVERTONE MEASURED CALCULATED MEASURED CALCULATED
NUMBER BEST FIT BEST FIT

1 0.1605 0.0708 0.0004695 0.0005815


3 0.02447 0.0201 0.0002745 0.0002334
5 0.00642 0.00910 0.000256 0.0001868
7 0.00453 0.00487 0.000212 0.0001825
I 0.00272 0.00279 0.000218 0.0001913
11 0.00186 0.00171 0.000202 0.0002052
13 0.001225 0.001108 0.0002115 0.0002210
15 0.0008735 0.0007459 0.0002095 0.0002372
17 0.0005595 0.0005152 0.000237 0.0002531
19 0.0003765 0.0003745 0.000282 0.0002682
21 0.00027 0.000275 0.000272 0.0002824
23 0.000194 0.000201 0.000309 0.0002956

JCAS Vol. 1, No. 3 (Series ll) May 1989


-37 -
142 I The Bowed String

3rd overtone l(L and b,/a were f ixed at the values used in col- at about the 5 degree level, and the best results for amplitude
umn 6 of table 2 and the search was made over the other four and phase were given by different sets of constants. A sum.
ratios. ln this trial the RMS amplitude misfits were reduced mary of the results of these trials is given in tables 5A and 58.
to about 1% of the peak, but the best RMS phase misfits were ln using the general solution of equation (2) to make com.

TABLE 5A SECOND LOSS ANALYSIS FOR FIRST STEEL STRING


-
Fundamental: using }(/L = 0.0002625 L/a = 0.01487 b,la - 25.28
b,la - 0.005924 a/al = 0.00000135 ?Ua = 0.000819
giving a= 0.6006 6= 0.05505
AMPLITUDE PHASE
FREQUENCY MEASURED CALCULATED MEASURED CALCULATED

68.1852 0.01117 0.01116 152.5 163.5


68.1806 0.01306 0.01294 150.8 160.8
68.1759 0.01588 0.01533 147.6 157.1
68.1713 0.01808 0.01867 141.3 151.5
68.1666 0.02319 0.02346 133.2 143.4
68.1620 0.02983 0.03016 119.6 130.0
68.1597 0.03410 0.03399 107.1 120.4
68.1573 0.03752 0.03739 97.5 108.4
68.1559 0.03923 0.03879 87.3 100.1
68.1550 0.03911 0.03929 82.0 94.4
68.1541 0.03934 0.03940 75.8 88.6
68.1527 0.03869 0.03881 68.0 79.9
68.1504 0.03636 0.03619 54.2 66.6
68.1481 0.03267 0.03251 41.1 55.5
68.1434 0.02534 0.02530 29.2 39.9
68.1388 0.01996 0.01997 19.3 30.4
68.1341 0.01630 0.01624 13.6 24.3
68.1295 0.01347 0.01361 8.2 20.2

RMS amplitude misfit = 1.28oh RMS phase misfit = 11.56 degrees

Fundamental: using NL = 0.0002427 Ua = 0.01491 b,/a = 32.41


b"la= 0.009929 alaL = 0.00000204 FUa = 0.000816
giving cr= 0.9045 0= 0.0547
AMPLITUDE PHASE
FREOUENCY MEASURED CALCULATED MEASURED CALCULATED

68.1852 0.01117 0.01196 152.5 161.9


68.1806 0.01306 0.01402 150.8 158.6
68.1759 0.01588 0.01683 147.6 154.1
68.1713 0.01808 0.02081 141.3 147.3
68.1666 0.02319 0.02648 133.2 136.6
68.1620 0.02983 0.03367 119.6 119.1
68.1597 0.03410 0.03685 107.1 107.0
68.1573 0.03752 0.03849 97.5 93.2
68.1559 0.03923 0.03838 87.3 84.6
68.1550 0.03911 0.03785 82.0 79.0
68.1541 0.03934 0.03699 75.8 73.6
68.1527 0.03869 0.03523 68.0 66.0
68.1504 0.03636 0.03167 54.2 55.2
68.1481 0.03267 0.02803 41.1 46.6
68.1434 0.02534 0.02193 29.2 34.6
68.1388 0.01996 0.01763 19.3 27.2
68.1341 0.01630 0.01459 13.6 22.2
68.1295 0.01347 0.01240 8.2 18.7

RMS amplitude misfit = 9.98% RMS phase misfit = 5.71 degrees

JCAS Vol. 1, No. 3 (Series ll) May 1989