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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................... 2

2.0 STRATEGIES IN THE PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS.................................... 3

3.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT .......................................................................................... 5

4.0 PROBLEM ANALYSIS ............................................................................................... 5

5.0 STRATEGY FOR PROBLEM-SOLVING ................................................................ 6

5.1 Face-to-face discussions in a safe and secure situation. ......................................... 6

5.2 Discuss using a mediator or family representative ................................................ 6

5.3 The official discussion involves the family .............................................................. 6

5.4 Settle the conflict honestly and sincerely................................................................. 6

5.5 Give time for family and herself to make decisions. .............................................. 7

5.6 Listening to the views and opinions of others as guides and considerations ....... 7

5.7 Focus on study without fail....................................................................................... 7

6.0 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................. 7

7.0 REFERENCES .............................................................................................................. 8


1.0 INTRODUCTION

Problem-solving is one of the cognitive and learning processes performed by living


organisms or organisms. Before we fully understand what is meant by the concept of problem-
solving from a psychological perspective it is better for us to understand a little bit about
cognition and learning, because the problem solving actually has a close connection to human
cognition ability as well as learning gained from past experience. The word cognition is a term
taken from the Latin word cogno which means "to know". Cognition emphasizes on the
development of knowledge and understanding (Clarke & Gillet, 1997). Cognition is an
intellectual process in which this process occurs systematically that information is obtained,
transformed, stored, retrieved, and finally used. Sometimes the concept of cognition is
somewhat difficult to understand by some, as the solution to the simple term to refer to
cognition is "thinking". Learning also means behaviour change as a result of experience or
other factors such as mental surgery (Redzuan & Abdullah, 2003).

Humans use ideas in various forms regardless of whether they are good or bad, one of
the functions of thinking is to solve problems and make decisions (Mohamed, 2004). Similarly,
in solving the problem, we use the past experience gained from the learning process to find
ways to address the current situation. In everyday life, we need a way to overcome the problems
or difficulties we face. The way it takes to solve the problem is called problem-solving.
Troubleshooting is important for us to make our lives prosperous, though not all of the
problems we face in full can be solved thoroughly with problem-solving, the difficulty of our
lives will be reduced. According to Clarke and Gillet (1997), problems can be defined as
obstacles that can prevent one from reaching the desired goal. In other words, if we intend to
achieve something but have no idea how to do it, in this case, we are said to be in trouble. The
effect when we face our obstacles will be to use problem-solving which requires us to think
and be capable of making decisions. Solving the problem means we decide which action will
change the situation better (Cohen & Stemmer, 2007). problems can be defined as obstacles
that can prevent one from reaching the desired goal. In other words, if we intend to achieve
something but have no idea how to do it, in this case, we are said to be in trouble.

The effect when we face our obstacles will be to use problem-solving which requires
us to think and be capable of making decisions. Solving the problem means we decide which
action will change the situation better (Cohen & Stemmer, 2007). problems can be defined as
obstacles that can prevent one from reaching the desired goal. In other words, if we intend to
achieve something but have no idea how to do it, in this case, we are said to be in trouble. The
effect when we face our obstacles will be to use problem-solving which requires us to think
and be capable of making decisions. Solving the problem means we decide which action will
change the situation better (Cohen & Stemmer, 2007). The effect when we face our obstacles
will be to use problem-solving which requires us to think and be capable of making decisions.
Solving the problem means we decide which action will change the situation better (Cohen &
Stemmer, 2007). The effect when we face our obstacles will be to use problem-solving which
requires us to think and be capable of making decisions. Solving the problem means we decide
which action will change the situation better (Cohen & Stemmer, 2007).

There are several definitions that have been given to explain the concept of problem-
solving. Because of the importance of solving this problem in human life, many figures from
various fields, especially psychologists who have studied and expressed their views in the
knowledge of problem-solving, solution steps and strategies that can be taken when solving
problems. For troubleshooting steps, for example, there are several forms of techniques or
strategies that can be taken for a good solution.

2.0 STRATEGIES IN THE PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS

As previously mentioned, there are several strategies that can be taken when dealing
with a problem. This process is included in the second step in problem-solving which is to form
strategies to solve the problem.

One of the strategies that can be taken is through an algorithm, this strategy suggests
that we try all the ways available to find the solution and that way requires implementation in
a particular order. Initially, this algorithm problem-solving strategy was used in mathematics
were answers to mathematical questions required a formula made in order to get an answer,
due to its effectiveness in problem-solving tasks, this strategy was widely applied in many other
problems (Clarke & Gillet, 1997). Algorithms can exist in some form such as formulas,
instructions or attempts to solve problems. For example, an individual who does not know how
to cook is said to use an algorithmic strategy when the individual cooks according to the recipes
he referred to, in this case, the recipe acts as a command in order to produce the desired food.
According to Feldman (2010), a problem will certainly be solved if the algorithm strategy is
applied according to the problem.

The next strategy is heuristics, this strategy is usually against the algorithm in problem-
solving. If the algorithm requires us to solve the problem by outlining some sequences to solve
the problem that usually takes a long time but instead heuristic over the problem-solving in a
short, by the most accurate and rational way of guessing, it is usually done based on knowledge
and past experience (Mohamed, 2004). This heuristic strategy approach helps to narrow down
alternative solutions to getting only one of the best solutions. For example, when we have
insomnia problems or difficulty in the sleeping night, there are several possible solutions that
can be taken such as managing sleep time, work out in the evening to sleep easily at night, to
meet with counsellors to deal with stress or to take sleep medication to sleep quickly. In this
situation, we are said to use a heuristic strategy when we choose one of the alternatives of
problem-solving to overcome the problem of insomnia such as choosing to set a fixed sleep
time while other alternative solutions are not taken.

There are also other commonly used strategies, one of which is sub-objective
analysis. This strategy is taken by establishing the closest goals or defining intermediate
problems that put us in a better position to achieve the ultimate goal (Redzuan & Abdullah,
2003). For example, the final goal is to prepare a paper while the sub-objective is to collect the
reference material, meet the lecturer to examine the draft, decide on the time to complete it and
make the papers according to the format provided by the lecturer. In this case, the sub-objective
analysis serves as a solution to the problem of achieving the ultimate goal, for example in the
present situation the tasks involved in preparing papers are a problem-solving process.

According to Clarke and Gillet (1997), there are two other strategies that can be taken
in problem-solving, namely the hypothesis and literacy experiment strategy. Experiment
hypothesis has taken by assumptions about how the problem can be solved and then see
whether it works as expected or not. If the hypothesis is proven correct then the problem faced
will be resolved and if the hypothesis is proven to be incorrect then this means the problem has
not been resolved. For example, we have drowsiness and body lessness then we assume that
the initial sleep time required by humans for 6 to 8 hours a day will make us more vibrant and
energetic the next day, then the assumptions made are applied or implemented by we see
whether the assumptions we make are true or false.
Another strategy is literacy, usually, not all problems can be resolved systematically or
sequentially. Most problems are solved through literacy. This strategy can be taken by
practicing self-unifying past experiences and identifying how the problem solving from those
past experiences can be applied to different problems, the current problems encountered
(Clarke & Gillet, 1997). Often, we experience or encounter a sudden problem-solving idea, in
which case the various experiences we have come together and created a new problem-solving
idea. Literacy among human beings often involves preparing or pasting up prior information
in a meaningful way (Redzuan & Abdullah, 2003). For example, here when we are in
elementary school, we usually experience problems to remember the arithmetic table
emphasized by the math teacher, therefore we are forced to learn the arithmetic table by
memorizing it. Eventually, we will then realize that the multiplication in the arithmetic table is
actually the mixing that will produce the same answer, for example, 3 × 3 = 9 is actually the
number 3 mixed up three times, i.e. 3 + 3 + 3 = 9.

3.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT

Based on the given case study, a young college student, Helen wants to get married to
an IT technician, Johnny who is 10 years older than her. However, her parents do not approve
of their marriage because they expect Helen to support the family after she graduates and
start working. This put Helen in dilemma.

4.0 PROBLEM ANALYSIS

Marriage is a highly-claimed matter. Marriage is not just a relationship between two


people of different sex but it is the union of two big families in the presence of women and
men. Therefore, it is very important in a family bond. The desire to marry is human nature
which means human nature as God's creatures. Every human being who is mature and have
health physically and spiritually, definitely needs a life partner of different sexes. So, Helen’s
desire to get married is something that is reasonable in terms of practice.

However, in a situation involving Helen and her family, this dreamed marriage has
some obstacles based on several factors. Among the others are Helen’s status as a student and
need her to focus on a study first. That is a family prerequisite. Therefore, it creates the issue
arising in Helen and her spouse to get married.
5.0 STRATEGY FOR PROBLEM-SOLVING

Here are some things that can be thoroughly refined between Helen, Johnny and Helen’s
family:

5.1 Face-to-face discussions in a safe and secure situation.

Face-to-face discussions are the most important way of marriage. Face-to-face


discussion means that the discussions that are under control, preferably on the part of women
and spouses to discuss with each other first. All wishes and plans are to be informed to the
family in detail. At this stage, various issues may arise, as well as questions and
contradictions. The basic thing that needs to be mastered is two-way communication skills.
Everyone who talks needs to play the role of communicators and listeners. Each role should
change according to the situation. For example, if a family talks then Helen should be a good
listener without a slight opposition. This skill allows discussions to take place in a harmonious
atmosphere.

5.2 Discuss using a mediator or family representative

This discussion should happen in both parties whether it is a woman or a


man. Intermediaries may consist of family members who are believed to have good family-
honoured negotiations. Helen should talk to this representative in depth so that any issues that
arise can be discussed with the family.

5.3 The official discussion involves the family

This discussion occurs when both sides are ready to talk more about the bigger
family. The role of the male parents is very important because of the doubts arising out of the
woman. The doubts are due to the status of students who still have the responsibility of
studying and no income sources. The possibility of this financial issue is also taken into
consideration by the women's family. Hence, men should be present to answer these doubts
by convincing the families of women in matters relating to finance.

5.4 Settle the conflict honestly and sincerely


Conflicts that exist are the issues of barriers to the achievement of the word break and
agreement. So, every conflict there needs to be clarified so that everyone involved in this
decision is aware of each issue. Helen should ask her family about their concerns or doubts
about her ability to get married since she is a university student.

5.5 Give time for family and herself to make decisions.

Without urging her family and herself, Helen needs to give time for discussion to be
peaceful and harmonious. It should be noted that marriage is aimed at unifying non-
separation. Any process involving the business should have its own order and is not in a
hurry. Helen should take time to calm down without prejudice but try to convince herself and
her family about the desire to get married.

5.6 Listening to the views and opinions of others as guides and considerations

Good views need to be scrutinized while those that otherwise need to be filtered
first. However, sharing from others with different experiences and opinions is important in
making decisions. Being open to accepting other people's views is a good effort towards the
goal to achieve.

5.7 Focus on study without fail

Although the desire to marry has become a priority agenda in Helen at this time, the
focus on responsibilities is to be as good in academic as possible without fail. If Helen is
disturbed and lose focus in her study because of this issue then it is directly proving that she
cannot afford to manage this if she is married. This disturbance will further complicate the
desire to get married.

6.0 CONCLUSION

In conclusion, it can be explained that problem-solving is a very important process for


human beings. Every day we are often faced with various forms of trouble regardless of
whether it is difficult or fun. To address these issues, we need certain strategies for the purpose
of making it easier to solve them. From a psychological point of view, most psychologists
recognize that problem solving is a useful medium to humans in the face of challenges and
obstacles in our quest for life goals.

In this case, most psychologists have their own views and approaches in explaining the
definition and concept of problem-solving. From the description discussed earlier, it is also
possible to explain that most psychologists outline some basic steps that should be taken when
dealing with a problem. In carrying out these troubleshooting steps there are several strategies
that can be taken as an effective solution technique. Each problem-solving strategy has a
different way and usually, each strategy is applied depending on the problem. One of the
strategies emphasized in the discussion of this paper is the role of heuristic strategy in the
problem-solving process. From the heuristic, judgments have certain advantages and
disadvantages that can affect our decision making.

7.0 REFERENCES

Clarke, V., & Gillet, S. (1997). Psychology for VCE. (2nd ed). Melbourne: Nelson ITP.

Cohen, H., & Stemmer, B. (2007). Consciousness and Cognition: Fragments of Mind and
Brain. United States: Elsevier.

Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. O. (2008). Psychology A Journey. (3rd ed). United States: Thomson
Learning.

Feldman, R. S. (2010). Psychology and Your Life. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Fogler, H. S., & LeBlanc, S. E. (2008). Strategies for Creative Problem Solving. (2nd ed).
United States: Pearson Education.

Langley, P., & Rogers, S. (2004). An Extended Theory of Human Problem Solving. Retrieved
on 3 February 2011, from http://cll.stanford.edu/icarus.cs05.pdf

Mohamed, M.N. (2004). Pengantar Psikologi: Satu Pengenalan Asas kepada Jiwa dan
Tingkah Laku Manusia. Selangor: Dawama Sdn. Bhd.
Redzuan, M. & Abdullah, H. (2003). Psikologi. (2nded). Universiti Putra Malaysia, Shah
Alam: Mc Graw-Hill.

Zainal, A. & Shuib, M. (2004). Meningkatkan Potensi Minda. Bentong: PTS Publications &
Distributors.