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74

Testing and Adjusting Section

i00974278 If the amount of NOx and CO that is in the exhaust are


not within ± 10 ppm of the values established during
BTU and Precombustion the engine commissioning, then a determination
Chamber Adjustments must be made if the BTU setting should be adjusted.
A leaner air/fuel ratio will reduce NOx and a leaner
SMCS Code: 1278 air/fuel ratio will increase CO. A richer air/fuel ratio
will increase NOx and a richer air/fuel ratio will reduce
The control strategy for the G3600 will adjust the CO. Two basic concepts of the control strategy must
air/fuel ratio. That adjustment is determined by the be understood before making an adjustment to the
BTU setting, the fuel flow, and the combustion burn BTU.
times. The BTU setting is the initial setting of the
air/fuel ratio. The combustion burn time measurement Basic G3600 Engine Speed And
allows the control strategy to fine tune the air/fuel Governing Control
ratio. This is based on the quality of the fuel. Both
of these adjustments are critical, and problems can The G3600 engine’s control strategy adjusts fuel flow.
arise if the adjustments are not properly set. This is based on the differential between the actual
engine speed and the desired engine speed setting.
BTU Setting
If the actual engine speed is lower than the desired
The BTU setting on the G3600 engine is typically engine speed, then the control strategy will increase
defined during the engine commissioning process. the amount of fuel flow to the combustion process.
The BTU setting should only be readjusted when the If the actual engine speed is higher than the desired
average lower heating value of the fuel changes. engine speed, then the control strategy will decrease
The process involved for properly establishing the amount of fuel flow to the combustion process.
the BTU setting on a G3600 engine requires both The application of load to the engine will result in a
a gas analysis and a emission measurement. A higher fuel flow in order to maintain the same desired
gas analysis is required before making any BTU speed. This is because the actual engine speed will
adjustments on the engine. The analysis defines decrease as the load is increased.
the lower heating value (LHV) of the fuel. Refer
to the Methane Program, LEKQ4196 in order Basic G3600 Air/Fuel Ratio Control
to calculate the lower heating value (LHV). This
program establishes the lower heating value through The control strategy of the G3600 uses the volume of
a calculation that weighs the effect of the various fuel that is supplied to the combustion process and
contents of the gas. This calculation is based on the the engines heating value to determine the amount
percentage of the total gas. The engine should be of air that is required in order to maintain the proper
tuned to this lower heating value (LHV). An emission air/fuel ratio.
measurement should be made in order to verify that
the G3600 is properly set. The emission levels of the The volume of fuel flow that is being consumed by
BTU setting can be compared to the following levels the combustion process is calculated by measuring
that were recorded during the engine commissioning. the following conditions:

• NO • Pressure differential between the fuel manifold and


the inlet air manifold
• NOx
• Temperature of the fuel to the cylinder
• CO
• Engine rpm
• CO2
The BTU setting and the combustion burn times are
• O2 evaluated in order to determine the heating value of
the fuel that is delivered to this process. The volume
of air that is supplied to the combustion process will
increase as the volume of fuel and the heating value
increases. The volume of air that is supplied to the
combustion process will decrease as the volume of
fuel and the heating value decreases. The control
strategy regulates the volume of air by adjusting the
wastegate and the choke positions.
75
Testing and Adjusting Section

Adjustments to the BTU setting will affect the air/fuel The BTU setting should not be adjusted while
ratio during the engine tuning process. In order to the control strategy is running in the “feedback”
obtain a leaner air/fuel ratio, the BTU setting should mode. The control strategy for the G3600 engine
be increased when the G3600 engine is tuned again. will automatically compensate for any variation in
This will increase the volume of air to the combustion the heating value of the fuel. Adjusting the BTU
process. The control strategy will interpret the higher setting, while the control strategy is operating in
BTU setting as a hotter fuel when in fact the actual the “feedback” mode, will not change the operating
heating value of the fuel has not changed. In order to condition of the engine. If the BTU setting is adjusted,
obtain a richer air/fuel ratio, the BTU setting should the adjustment could lead to operational problems.
be decreased when the G3600 engine is tuned again.
This will decrease the volume of air to the combustion Engine Tuning
process. The control strategy will interpret the lower
BTU setting as a cooler fuel when in fact the actual
The BTU setting establishes a reference point that
heating value of the fuel has not changed. the air/fuel ratio is set on the engine. The engine
will operate with very little change in performance
The control strategy also uses the BTU value to
characteristics as long as the heating value of the
calculate the percentage of load that is displayed gas remains the same. The heating value will change
by the engine. This calculated load is used by the
over a given time. The G3600 engine’s control
control strategy to determine the timing, the air/fuel
strategy monitors the quality of the fuel by measuring
ratio, and the operating limits. Adjusting the BTU the time that is required for the combustion process
value will directly affect the operation of the engine.
to occur in the cylinders. The control strategy adjusts
the air flow in order to maintain the proper air/fuel
NOTICE ratio.
The BTU setting will directly affect the air/fuel ratio dur-
ing tuning which in turn will alter the emission level of Basic G3600 Air/Fuel Ratio Control
the engine. Improper settings of the BTU potentiome-
ter during tuning will lead to engine performance prob- The air/fuel ratio control strategy has two modes of
lems and have a negative impact on the site emission operation. The modes are referred to as “feedback”
permits. and “precombustion chamber adjustment”.

The BTU setting must not be used as an adjustment Feedback


to improve starting and/or load acceptance. Additional
gas analysis and/or engine adjustments are required During normal operation the G3600 will be operating
if the engine will not properly start and load at a in the “feedback” mode. In this mode, the control
single BTU setting. strategy automatically adjusts the amount of air that
is delivered to the combustion process based on
Note: Under normal operating conditions, the G3600 the fuel flow, the BTU setting, and the combustion
will start and operate over a broad range of fuel burn times. While the control strategy is operating
heating values. If the heating value of the fuel in the “feedback” mode, the control strategy will
significantly changes before starting, an adjustment automatically adjust for any variations in the low
may be necessary to the BTU setting in order to start heating value (LHV) of the fuel. The following two
and load a G3600 engine. items can be monitored in this mode in order to
determine the adjustments that the control strategy is
If the final BTU setting is not within ± 25 BTU of the making to the air/fuel ratio:
actual lower heating value (LHV) of the fuel, the
engine is not considered properly set. Additional gas • The Inlet Manifold Pressure
analysis, and/or engine adjustments are required.
• The Fuel Correction Factor
The BTU setting will directly affect the performance of
the engine. If the BTU setting is set too low, the engine
will operate at an air/fuel ratio that is too rich. This will
result in higher exhaust temperatures, detonation,
and possible damage to the precombustion
chambers. If the BTU setting is set too high, the
engine will operate at an air/fuel ratio that is too lean.
This will result in poor engine performance, false
detonation, misfire and shutdowns.
76
Testing and Adjusting Section

The control strategy is adjusting the engine. The Misfire Detection


adjustment is based on the fluctuations in the
fuel. There will be very little affect on the other The first step that must be taken before adjusting
performance parameters. Both the inlet manifold air the G3600 is to determine if there is any misfire
pressure pressure and the fuel correction factor factor present. In the “feedback” mode, the control strategy
are accessible through the Caterpillar Monitoring will adjust the air fuel ratio based on the BTU setting,
System (CMS) and the Digital Diagnostic Tool (DDT). the fuel flow, and the cylinder burn times. If misfire is
If the heating value of the fuel increases, the cylinder present, then the cylinder burn time will not be an
combustion time will decrease. The engine will accurate reading. The misfire will mistakenly increase
be operating at a richer air/fuel ratio. The control the average burn time.
strategy acknowledges this shift. The control strategy
increases the air flow to the combustion process in Note: Failure to correct the misfire will result in an
order to increase the combustion burn time back to improper engine setting that will lead to problems.
the desired value. If the heating value of the fuel
decreases the cylinder combustion time will increase, Under normal operating conditions, the cylinder
because the engine will be operating at a leaner combustion time is an average value that is displayed
air/fuel ratio. The control strategy acknowledges this on the DDT in milliseconds (0.001 seconds). The
shift. The control strategy decreases the air flow to combustion time begins when the spark plug is fired.
the combustion process in order to decrease the The combustion time ends when the flame front
combustion burn time back to the desired value. passes by the combustion sensor. When a cylinder
misfires, the combustion sensor does not detect the
Precombustion Chamber Adjustment flame front passing by the sensor. The combustion
time does not stop until the next cylinder is about
The second mode of operation for the G3600 is to fire. This results in a long combustion burn time
referred to as the precombustion chamber calibration (18.00 milliseconds or longer). The indicated burn
or sometimes simply as the “not in feedback” mode. time increases, because the indicated burn time is an
This mode is enabled by selecting screen “50” average of several injector firings of the cylinder.
on the DDT. This will allow an individual to adjust
(tune) the G3600 engine to the proper performance Adjusting the fuel supply in the precombustion
characteristics of the gas that is being used. This chamber on a misfiring cylinder will result in an
mode is automatically enabled for starting purposes incorrect setting on the engine that will lead to
when the CMS indicates the G3600 is operating operational problems.
below 50 percent of the rated torque. When the unit is
operating in the “precombustion chamber calibration” A misfire can be monitored by eliminating the
mode, the control strategy does not automatically averaging process of the cylinder combustion
adjust the amount of air that is delivered to the times while the control strategy is operating in the
combustion process. The cylinder burn times are “precombustion chamber calibration” mode. This
eliminated in the calculation of the air/fuel ratio . is accomplished by pressing the “ALT 2” key when
The BTU setting and the fuel flow are the primary the DDT is set to screen “50”. The display will now
parameters that determine the amount of air that is indicate the actual value for every third combustion
delivered to the combustion process. This allows the cycle. A cylinder that is operating without misfire will
adjustment of the air/fuel ratio via the BTU setting usually display random combustion times between
and allows the adjustment of the G3600 engine for 3.0 to 7.0 milliseconds. Cylinder misfire will be
these conditions. If the BTU setting is increased in represented by a long combustion burn time (15 to
this mode then the quantity of air that is delivered 19 milliseconds). There is usually a small amount of
to the system will also increase. This will result in a misfire that is present while the engine is operating.
leaner air/fuel ratio. If the BTU setting is decreased in A problem may exist when a cylinder is misfiring at a
this mode then the quantity of air that is delivered to rate that is greater than 3 to 5 times in thirty seconds.
the system will decrease. This will result in a richer An analysis should be made in order to determine the
air/fuel ratio. The cylinder combustion time can be cause of the misfire before attempting to adjust the
set to these conditions by adjusting the amount of fuel supply for the precombustion chamber.
fuel that is delivered to the precombustion chamber.
Each cylinder has a needle valve that controls the Pressing the “ALT 2” key again will return the display
amount of gas to the precombustion chamber. combustion time back to the averaged value. After
pressing the “ALT 2” key, wait 60 seconds for the
proper averaged burn time to be displayed.

There are two forms of misfire:

• True Misfire
77
Testing and Adjusting Section

• Indicated Misfire • Combustion Probe


The exhaust port temperature will provide the • Combustion Probe Extender
differentiating between these two forms in some
extent. If the exhaust port temperature is low, then • Electrical Connections On Top Of The Combustion
true misfire is occurring. Troubleshooting can be Probe Extender
concentrated on those components that are likely to
be causing the true misfire. • Combustion Probe Wire
This list should include the following components: • Combustion Buffer
• Precombustion Chamber Check Valve Excessive oil in the cylinder will also cause short
combustion burn times.
• Spark Plug
In order to isolate the exact component that is
• Spark Plug Extender affecting the combustion burn times, the components
from a problem cylinder can be interchanged with
• Ignition Coil other cylinders. Run the engine in order to locate
the bad component. The misfire will move with the
• Combustion Buffer component to one of the other cylinders.

• Precombustion Chamber Needle Valve Setting Adjusting Fuel Supply To The


Precombustion Chamber
• Precombustion Chamber Gas Supply Line
The next step, before tuning the engine, is to define
• Gas Admission Valve Setting the operating load and the speed conditions for the
application. This is required in order to establish the
If the exhaust port temperature is still correct, an
load and the speed at which the engine will be tuned.
indicated misfire may still be occurring. Indicated
misfire occurs when proper combustion in the The most common tuning point for the G3600 is at
rated speed and at 75 percent rated torque. This
cylinder is not measured correctly.
is indicated on the Caterpillar Monitoring System
This would be a failure in the following components: (CMS). This can change due to the operating load
and the speed conditions for the engine.
• Combustion Probe The G3600 engine is expected to operate at speeds
that can vary from 750 rpm to 1000 rpm. The
• Combustion Probe Extender recommended tuning point is 850 rpm at 75 percent
rated torque. This is indicated on the CMS. This
• Combustion Probe Wire tuning point will allow the engine to perform better at
both 750 rpm and at 1000 rpm.
• Combustion Buffer
The precombustion chamber needle valves can be
Note: True cylinder misfire can occur without
adjusted, once the preliminary steps have been
significantly affecting the exhaust port temperature.
completed.
Another condition that can generate incorrect burn
1. If this is an initial start after installation or a major
times is electrical noise in the combustion feedback
system. This results in combustion times that are too repair, set the engine’s control strategy to the
“precombustion chamber calibration” mode. This
short. The electrical noise will stop the timer before
will prevent the engine’s control strategy from
the flame front passes by the combustion sensor.
Electrical noise can be detected by eliminating switching into the “feedback” mode when the
indicated torque increases above 50 percent. This
the combustion time averaging while the control
will allow direct control of the air/fuel ratio with the
strategy is operating in the “precombustion chamber
calibration” mode. This is accomplished by pressing BTU setting in order to start and load the engine
before tuning. Skip Step 3 and review Step 4.
the “ALT 2” key when the DDT is set to screen “50”. A
cylinder that is operating without electrical noise will
usually display random combustion times between 2. Start the engine and operate the engine at the
selected tuning point until the water temperatures
3.0 to 7.0 milliseconds. Electrical noise will cause the
and oil temperatures are stable. This will usually
combustion time to indicate 2.0 to 2.2 milliseconds.
take about an hour for a G3600.
The components that are susceptible to electrical
noise are the following components:
78
Testing and Adjusting Section

3. Make reference to the value of the fuel correction b. Closing the needle valve will decrease fuel flow
factor with the engine’s control strategy operating to the precombustion chamber and closing the
in the “feedback” mode. valve will increase the combustion burn time.

a. If the fuel correction factor is 100 percent then c. Adusting the needle valves too far will result
no special consideration is required. in either rich or lean precombustion chamber
misfire. This will be reflected in long unstable
b. If the fuel correction factor is less than 99 burn times.
percent or greater than 101 percent then the
lower heating value of the fuel may have shifted 6. Make reference to the engine performance data
since the engine was last tuned. A gas analysis on the CMS, the DDT, the Exhaust Pyrometers,
would be required to determine the new and the ECM. Compare the data to the engine
heating value of the fuel. The change in the commissioning and/or operational history data.
lower heating value must be compensated for Pay particular attention to the fuel correction factor
before the engine is tuned. While the engine’s and the inlet manifold air pressure. Also measure
control strategy is operating in the “feedback” the exhaust emission levels and compare the
mode, determine the lower heating value of levels to the engine commissioning and/or
the fuel. Note the fuel correction factor value. operational history data.
Adjust the BTU setting to the new value.
a. Make reference to any variations and determine
4. Use the DDT for switching the engine’s control the root cause.
strategy to the “precombustion chamber
calibration” mode. Press the “Select Mode” 7. Change the engine’s control strategy to the
button until the screen number “50” (PC CAL) is “feedback” mode.
displayed. Press the “Select Function” key.
a. Press the Select Function key on the DDT
a. Screen number “50” on the DDT will display the in order to exit the “precombustion chamber
actual and the desired combustion burn time calibration” mode. Automatic control of the
for the No. 1 cylinder. air/fuel ratio will begin immediately. Assuming
the engine has been operating above 50
b. Press the “Enter” key on the DDT in order to percent load for more than three minutes.
change the displayed actual and the desired
combustion time to the next consecutive b. CMS gauge “three” on the ESS panel will
cylinder. display the red limit bars.

c. Do not exit the “precombustion chamber 8. Observe that the inlet manifold air pressure
calibration” mode while tuning the engine. remains the same. Observe that the fuel correction
This could result in the engine adjusting to factor stays at 100 percent.
an improper air/fuel ratio and lead to poor
engine performance. When the engine’s control a. If these values shift then the engine is not
strategy is in the “precombustion chamber properly set, and this process should be
calibration” mode the Fuel Correction Factor is repeated.
automatically set to 100 percent. CMS gauge
three located on the ESS will not display the 9. If the BTU setting was adjusted in step 3, reset
red limit bars. the setting to the original value. The setting will
affect the indicated load.
5. A logical tuning process is to record all the
cylinder burn times that are observed on the DDT a. The only reason that the BTU setting should be
with the engine’s control strategy operating in left at the new value is when the median lower
the “precombustion chamber calibration” mode. heating value (LHV) of the fuel has changed.
Adjust the precombustion chamber needle valve
on the cylinder that has the combustion time that 10. Record exhaust emissions. Compare the exhaust
is the farthest from the desired combustion time. emissions to the engine commissioning data. The
Repeat this process with the other cylinders until NOx and CO levels should stay within ± 10 ppm of
all the actual combustion times are within ± 0.20 the engine commissioning information.
milliseconds of the desired combustion time.
11. Record all the engine operating parameters
a. Opening the needle valve will increase the from the DDT, ECM, SCM, CMS, and exhaust
fuel flow to the precombustion chamber and pyrometer. Save this data for future reference.
opening the valve will decrease the combustion
burn time for the cylinder.
79
Testing and Adjusting Section

(14.28 percent Torque per Cylinder X 5 Cylinders) +


NOTICE 14.28 percent Fuel Flow through the dead cylinder =
Adjustments to the precombustion chamber needle 114.28 percent Indicated Load
valves should not be made when the engine’s control
strategy is operating in the “feedback” mode. The en- The 110 percent limit would cause the engine speed
gine’s control strategy adjusts the air fuel ratio to main- to drop. This speed drop could continue until the
tain the actual combustion burns equal to the desired engine stops if the load is high enough. This would
burn times. Therefore, adjusting the needle valves will result in an insufficient manifold pressure fault code
not result in different burn times. Adjusting the needle 106 - 01. The turbocharger is not able to maintain
valve will, instead, set the air/fuel ratio to an unknown the inlet manifold air pressure at the lower engine
value, because the engine’s control strategy will at- speeds. This could also result in a shutdown with no
tempt to correct for this change. shutdown command “DIAG 05” on the Status Control
Module.
Continual problems with the check valves could Operation of the engine at an air/fuel ratio that is too
be an indication of contaminated fuel gas. If the rich will increase the exhaust port and exhaust stack
contamination is in the form of small particles, a fuel temperatures. This operation could result in high
filter that has a 0.01 micron filter is recommended. exhaust stack temperature shutdowns.
If the contamination is in the form of liquids, then
improvements are required in the gas supply system Damage may occur to a precombustion chamber if
to remove the contamination. the engine is operated at an air/fuel ratio that is too
rich. This can occur if misfire is not corrected before
The service literature indicates that the preliminary adjusting.
needle valve setting for a G3600 is 4 to 5 turns in
the open direction. This only applies when a G3600 The settings of the precombustion chamber needle
is placed into operation or if major work has been valves should be logged. An increase in this setting
completed, such as a top end over haul. Presetting over time indicates that problems may be occurring in
the needle valves on an engine that has been tuned the precombustion chamber. A borescope inspection
and in operation will make the engine much more of the precombustion chamber should be made in
difficult to start and more difficult to load. order to determine the root cause of the increased
needle valve setting.
Changes in the lower heating value (LHV) of the fuel
while the engine is being adjusted will result in tuning
difficulty and will result in improper engine settings. i00976240
The exhaust emissions should be tested after the
engine is tuned. This is in order to verify that the Governor Type
engine was properly tuned.
SMCS Code: 1264
The fuel flow on a G3600 engine will increase when
cylinder misfire occurs. This increased fuel flow is the The options on the DDT for the Customer Specified
combined result of the unburned gas that is passing Parameters (CSP) can be used for the adjustment of
through the misfiring cylinder and the increased fuel the Governor Setting, the Governor Droop Setting
consumption of the remaining cylinders that must and the High Idle Setting.
pick up the additional load. The load is based partly
on a calculation of the fuel flow. An increase in the Governor Selection Procedure
fuel flow due to the cylinder misfiring will result in a
higher indicated engine load. A cylinder misfire could 1. Connect the DDT to the ESS. Display the screen
drive the engine into an overload (load greater than number 32 on the DDT. “GOVERNOR” will be
110 percent) condition. The G3600 engine’s control displayed on the top line of the DDT screen
strategy has a fuel limit that allows the engine to number 32.
operate only up to 110 percent of the engines rated
torque at any given engine speed. This limit was 2. Press “ALT1” in order to toggle between
established in order to prevent damage to the engine “ISOCHRONOUS” and “DROOP” modes.
due to excessive engine loads, while still providing a
buffer to changing engine conditions. If a G3600 is 3. Press “ENTER” in order to program the ESS with
operating with one dead cylinder, then the indicated the desired mode.
load would increase to the following value:

100 percent Torque / 5 Cylinders = 14.28 percent


Governor Droop Setting Procedure
Torque per Cylinder
1. Connect the DDT to the ESS. Display the screen
number 31 on the DDT. “DROOP SETTING” will
The same fuel flow will also pass through the dead
be displayed on the top line of the DDT screen
cylinder for the following value:
number 31.