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CHAPTER 11-SOCIOCULTURAL -adults share with children the meanings

THEORY & CONTEXTUAL they attach to objects, events and human

PERSPECTIVES experiences. They transform/mediate
Vgotsky’s theory of cognitive development: situations they encounter.
- Value in tools for moving a society -informal conversations are a method
forward through which adults pass along culturally
TOOLS: are cognitive entities- for relevant ways of interpreting situations
instance, concepts, theories, and problem -a way of adults passing along discoveries
solving strategies-rather than actual of previous generations
physical objects -society’s culture ensures that each new
- Rather than determining the kinds of generation benefits from the wisdom that
tasks children could successfully perform preceding generations have accumulated
on their own (Piaget) Vgotsky examined -guiding children by encouraging them to
the kinds of tasks children could complete pay attention to particular stimuli and not
only with adult assistance to others
- RANGE- ability of children to do -engaging in particular activities and not in
tasks, differs per child others
3) Every culture passes along physical
KEY IDEAS IN VGOTSKY’S THEORY and cognitive tools that make daily living
- Neurological maturation and other more effective and efficient
biological factors play a role in -tools like scissors or computers are
development physical objects others are writing
- Children’s behaviors’ which are systems, maps and spreadsheets, involve
influenced in part by inherited traits, affect symbols as well as physical entities.
the particular experiences children have -different cultures pass along different
- Primary focus: the role of the tools
environment –especially a child’s social 4) Thought and language become
and cultural environment – in fostering increasingly interdependent in the first few
cognitive growth years of life
1) Some cognitive processes are seen in -we think in terms of the specific words
a variety of species, others are unique to that our language provides
human beings -language appears first as a means of
-LOWER MENTAL FUNCTIONS: certain communication rather than a mechanism
basic ways of learning and responding to of thought but at age 2, thought becomes
the environment intertwined with language which leads
-HIGHER MENTAL FUNCTIONS: children to speak in an “egocentric”
deliberate, focused cognitive processes manner (or seems so)
that enhance learning, memory, and -SELF TALK: (private speech) lets children
logical reasoning. learn to guide and direct their own
=lower mental functions is biologically built behaviors through difficult tasks and
in, but society and culture are critical for complex maneuvers in much the same
the development of higher mental way that adults have previously guided
functions them
2) Through both informal conversations -self talk eventually evolves into INNER
and formal schooling, adults convey to SPEECH in which children talk to
their children the ways in which their themselves mentally rather than aloud
culture interprets and responds responds -self talk increases when children are
to the world performing more chalenging tasks
4) complex mental processes emerge out think before they act, and to engage in self
of social activities, as children develop, restraint skills for successful participation
they internalize the processes they use in in the adult world
social context and begin to use them
independently COMMON THEMES
-higher mental functions have theur roots
in social interactions 1)Qualitative changes in the nature of
-INTERNALIZATION: process through thought
which social activities evolve into internal -children acquire more complex reasoning
mental activities processes over time
-children also develop with their peers -piaget: 4 qualitatively distinct stages
5) children appropriate their culture’s tools -vgotsky: internalization of many different
in their own idiosyncratic manner mental functions
-they often transform ideas, strategies, = children think differently at different ages
and other cognitive tools to suit their own 2) challenge
needs and purposes -Vgotsky: ZONE OF PROXIMAL
-APPROPRIATION: process of DEVELOPMENT : children benefit most
internalizing but also adapting the ideas from takss they can perform only with the
and strategies of one’s culture for one’s help of a more competent person
own use -piaget: children develop more
6) children can accomplish more difficult sophisticated knowledge and thought
tasks when they have the assistance of processes only when they encounter
people more advanced and and phenomena they cant adequately
competent than themselves understamd using their existing schemes-
-ACTUAL DEVELOPMENTAL LEVEL: phenomema that create
upper limit of tasks that he or she can DISEQUILIBRIUM
perform independently without the 3)readiness
assistance of a more competent person -piaget: children can accomodate ti new
7)Challenging tasks promote maximum object and events only when some
cognitive growth. The range of tasks the assimilation into existing schemes is also
children can not yet perform independently possible-overlap of new and old
but can perform with the help and knowledge. Children cannot learn new
guidance of others is in the ZONE OF experiences until they’ve begun to
PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT transition into a new stage that allows
-ZDP wil change over time them to deal with and conceptualize the
-children develop primarily by attempting experience appropriately
tasks they can accomplish only in -vgotsky: children;s new forming activities
collaboration with a more competent fall within their zone of proximal
individual development and can be fostered through
-challenges in life, rather than easy adult assistance and guidance but other
sucecces, promote cognitive development skills may still be out of reach
-impossible tasks are not beneficial 5) importance of socail interaction
8) Play allows children to cognitively -piaget: children gradually shed the
stretch themselves egocentrism that characterizes the the
-in play a child always behaves beyond his preoperational stage
average age -Vgotsky: children gradually internalize
-by adhering to restrictions on their processes they first use in collaboration
behaviors children learn to plan ahead, to
with others until they can use these -both: value of interacting with people of all
processes on their own ages
-piaget: emphasised the benefits of
KEY DIFFERENCES interactions with peers ( source of
1)To what extent is language essentail for -vgotsky: interactions with adults and other
learning and cognitive development? more advaced individuals who can support
-piaget: language provides verbal labels them in challenging tasks and help them
for many concepts and other schemes make appropriate interpretations
children have previously developed. They -both: when children’s developmetn
also gain knowledge of other people’s requires them to abandon old perspectives
diverse perspectives on situations and in favor for new, more complex ones, the
topics. Much of cognitive development sociocultural conflict is more effective but
occurs somewhat independently of when children’s development instead
language requires that the learn comples new ideas
-vgotsky: language is critical for learning and skills, the thoughtful, patient guidance
and cognitive development. Thought of a competent adult is more beneficial
processes of children are internalized 4) how influencial is cultue?
versions of social interactions that are -vgotsky: culture is of paramount
largel verbal in nature, and conversations importance in determining the specific
with adults help children discover the thinking skills children acquire. Children;s
meanings that their culture ascribs to reasoning skills dont appear at the same
particular events. The 2 language based ages across cultures. Some reasoning
phenomena are SELF TALK and INNER processes- especially those involving
SPEECH formal operation thinking skills-may never
-middle ground: children acquire more appear if a cultural group doesnt require
complex understandings of physical their use
phenomena and events not only through
their own interactions with the world but CURRENT PERSPECTIVES ON
also by learning how other interpret those VGOTSKY’S THEORY
phenomena and events. Verbal -Focused mroe on the processes through
exchanges may be less important for which children develop than on the
cognitive developmetn in some cultures characteristics that childrenof particular
than others ages likely to exhibit
2) What kinds of experiences prmote -He identified the stages of development
learning and development ? but portrayed them in only the most
-piaget: children’s independent, self general terms
motivated explorations of the physical -his descriptions of developmental
world form the basis for many developing processes were often vague and
schemes and children often construct speculative which is why his theory has
these schemes with little or no guidance been more difficult for researches to test
from others and either verify or disapprove
-vgotsky: activities that are facillitated and
interpreted by more competent individuals SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF MEANING
=distiction: that is self exploration versus -an adult will help a child make sense of
guided exploration and instruction the world through a discussion of a
3) what kind of interactions are most phenomenon or event that the two of them
valuable? are simultaneously experiencing
-MEDIATED LEARNING EXPERIENCE: engage in behaviors and thinking skills
encourages the child to think about the within their zone of proximal development
phenomenon or event in particular ways- -it also helps children tie newly acquired
attaching labels, recognizing principles skills and thinking abilities to the specific
that underlie it, and draw vertain contexts in which those skills are likely to
conclusions from it be useful later on
-in addition to co-constructiont menaings -participation in adult activities sometimes
with adults, children often talk amongst involves joining a COMMUNITY OF
themselves to make sense fo phenomena PRACTICE: a group of people who share
-SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM: people common interests and goals and regularly
sometimes work together to create new interact and coordinate their efforts in
knowledge pursuit of those interests and goals
-as they acquire greater competence they
SCAFFOLDING slowly take more central roles in particular
-a variety of supportive techniques that activities until they’re full fledged
can help students of any age accomplish participants
challenging taks in intructional contexrs
-one technique is to ask questions that get APPRENTICESHIPS
students thinking in appropriate ways -an intensive form of guided participation
about a task in which a novice works with an expert
-depending on their particular knowledge mentor for a lengthy perios to learn how to
and ability levels, diferent students at any perform complex tasks within a particular
single age or grade level may need domain
different scaffolding to support their -a person learns not only the behaviors but
success also the language of a skill or trade
- as students become more adept at -can show how experts typically think
performing a task, their scaffolding is about a task or activity- COGNITIVE
gradually phased out so that they APPRENTICESHIP
eventually accomplish it entirely on their -includes these features:
own 1)modelling: mentor performs the task and
-providing too much scaffolding can be says the process, learner listens
distractiong and impose an unnecessary 2)coaching: learner performs the task,
burden on working memory mentor gives suggestions, hints and
PARTICIPATION IN ADULT ACTIVITIES 3)scaffolding: mentor gives support by
-all cultures allow children (or require simplifying the task and breaking it into
them) ti be involved in adult activiteis to smaller, easier components or providing
some degree less complex equipment
-children’s early experiences are often at 4)articulation: learner explains what he is
the fringe of a activity and their doing and why, mentor examines his
involvement is mediated, scaffolded and knowledge, reasoning and problem solving
supervised through oppertunities that is strategies
called GUIDED PARTICIPATION/ 5)reflection: mentor asks learner to
LEGITAMATE PERIPHERAL compare his performance with that of
PARTICIPATION experts or with an ideal model
-vgotsky: gradual entry into adult activities
increases the probability that childen will