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Thyristor Converters

Pekik Argo Dahono


Single-Phase Half-Wave Converter
is T io

vo
vs R

(a) Skema
Averageoutput voltage:
1 
Vo  
2Vs sint d t 
2
vs
is

0
 2 t 
2Vs
1  cos 
2
vo

io

0  2 t

(b) Bentuk gelombang.

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 2


Gate Signal Generation
AC line Saw - tooth vsw Gate signal
Comparator
Generator
vsyn and logic
vc

vsyn

vsw
vc

Gate signal

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 3


Linearizing the Phase-Control Characteristic

sin t 
 
FF
 

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 4


Single-Phase Half-Wave Converter

is io vs
is
 vL
T
vs vd vo 0
R  2 t

vd

•Input and output currents have the same io


waveforms and discontinue
• Input current has dc and all harmonic orders
•Average output voltage is determined by the 0
 2 t

firing angle and operating condition.

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 5


Single-Phase Half-Wave Converter

is io

 vL vs
T
vs vd vo is
FD R
0  2 t

vd
RMS input current is smaller than the output current
Input current has dc component and all harmonic io
orders
Average output voltage is determined only by the
 2 t
0
firing angle 

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 6


Single-Phase Half-Wave Converter under
Large Inductive Load
is io

 vL
T vs
vs vd vo is
FD R

0  2 t

vd

io

 2 t
0

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 7


Single-Phase Half-Wave Converter Taking
Into Account the Source Inductance
is
vs
is
 Ls
T
vs FD
vd Io
0  2 t

vd

io
Source inductance makes the average
output voltage decreases with the
 2 t
0
 
Increase of load current.

2Vs
Vd  1  cos    fLs I o
2

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 8


Single-Phase Half-Wave Converter under
Active Load
is io

 vL
T vs
Vo
vs vd Vo
is

0  2 t

vd

Average output voltage is also Vo


influenced by the load emf io

0
  2 t

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 9


Single-Phase Full-Bridge Converter

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 10


Single-Phase Full-Bridge Converter

Averageoutput voltage:
1 
Vo   2Vs sint d t 


2Vs
1  cos 

Input current has only odd order harmonic


currents
Output voltage and current ripple have frequency
that is two times of the input frequency

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter


11
Single-Phase Full-Bridge Thyristor Converter
io

T1 T3 Ld Average output voltage:


is
2 2

Vo  Vs cos
vs vo R 
Average thyristor current:
T2 T4 IT  Io / 2
RMS input current:
vs
is
I s  Io
Source PF:
t
Vo I o 2 2
PF   cos
Vs I s 
vo

io Average output voltage can be controlled
From the negative upto positive maximum.
0
 2 t

T1 & T 4 T2 &T3

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 12


Single-Phase Full-Bridge Thyristor
Converter under Large Inductive Load
vs
is

T1 T3
t
is

vs vo
Io
 vo
Io

T2 T4 t
0 
2

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 13


Output Voltage

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 14


Single-Phase Thyristor Converter
vs vs
is is

t t

vo vo
Io Io

0  2 t 0  2 t

vT1 vT1
t t




vs 4 
2
is vs
is
t
t

Io
0  2 t Io
 2
vo 0 t

vo
vT1
t
vT1
3 15

4 Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter  
Power and Harmonic Analysis
Power :
P  Vs I s1 cos
Q  Vs I s1 sin  P
Harmonic input currents :
Q

is  2  I k sinkt  
k 2n1 0


4  /2
Ik   I o sinkt d t 
2 0 2


4Io
1  cosk / 2
2k
2 2
I1  Io

I k  I1 / k
Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 16
Effects of Source Inductance
T1 T3
is vs
is
 Ls
vs vo
Io
t

T2 T4
  vo
Io

0  2 t

2 2
Vo  Vs cos   4 fL s I o

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 17


Turn-Off Margin Angle
vs vs
is is

t t

  vo
 
Io Io
vo
0  2 t
0  2 t

vT1
vT1


2 2
2 2 Vo  Vs cos   4 fLs I o
Vo  Vs cos   4 fLs I o 

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 18


Discontinuous Mode
vs
io
is
T1 T3 Ld
is t

vs vo Vo
vo

Vo io
T2 T4
0  2 t

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 19


Output voltage characteristic

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 20


Half-Controlled Thyristor Converters

io

Ld
T1 D3
is

vs vo R

T2 D4

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 21


Half-Controlled Thyristor Converter

Average output voltage:

V 1  cos 
2
Vo 
 s
Average thyristor current:
 
IT  I o
2
RMS input current :
1/ 2
  
Is  Io  
  
Source PF :
Vo I o 2 1  cos
PF  
Vs I s      1/ 2
 
  

22
Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter
Half-Controlled Thyristor Converter

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 23


One-Way Three-Phase Thyristor Converter

vun vvn vwn

0  2 t

iw T3
io
iu T1
u

R T2

Load
AC source

n vo
iv
T
w v
S

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 24


Average Output Voltage

Averageoutput voltage:
3 56 
Vo    2Vln s sint d t 
2 6
3 2 
Vo  Vlls cos 0  
2 6

Vo 
2
6
 
Vlls 1  cos 6    
6
 
5
6

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 25


One-Way Three-Phase Thyristor Converter

iw T3
io
iu T1  vun vvn vwn
u

R T2

Load
AC source

n vo
iv
0 
T 2 t
w v
S

iu
The pulse number of output voltage is three. t
Transformer secondary current has dc component. iv

iw

Averageoutput voltage:
3 2
Vo  Vlls cos
iR

2

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 26


One-Way Three-Phase Thyristor Converter

 vun vvn vwn 


vun vvn vwn

0  0
2 t
 2 t

T1 T2 T3
T3 T1 T2

vT 1
t
vT 1 t

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 27


Full-Bridge Three-Phase Thyristor Converter

io  vwn
vun vvn
T1 T3 T5
iu
u
0  2 t

iv vo
n v R

iw vd
w
t
T2 T4 T6

iu
Output voltage pulse number is six.
Input current harmonics are 5,7, 11, 13,…

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 28


Three-Phase Thyristor Converter Under
Resistive Load

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 29


Three-Phase Converter Under Resistive Load

Averageoutput voltage:
3  
Vo 
 2  
2Vll sin t  6 d t 
6

3 2 
Vo  Vll cos 0  
 3

Vll   sint d t 
3 2
Vo 
 3

3 2    2
 Vll 1  cos     
  3  3 3

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 30


Thyristor Converter under Inductive Load

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 31


Three-Phase Thyristor Converter under Inductive Load
vun
vun
iu
iu
2 t
2 t 0

0

vun vun

iu iu

2 t 2 t
0
 0

32
Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter
Analysis
Averageoutput voltage:
Power factor:
3 2
Vo  Vllscos 3
 PF  cos
Input current : 

iu  2  Ik sinkt 
k 2n-1
2 2  /2
I1 
  / 6 I o sint d t 
6
I1  Io

I k  I1 / k
I k  0 for k multiple of 3.
Iu  Io 2 / 3

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 33


Input current

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 34


Input current characteristics

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 35


Effects of Source Inductance

T1 T3 T5
iu
u

iv
n v

iw
w
Ls T6
T2 T4

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 36


Effects of Source Inductance
vun

iu

2 t
0

vuv vuw

3 2
Vo  Vll cos   6 fL s I o

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 37


Half-Controlled Thyristor Converters

io
io
T1 T3 T5 D1
L
T1 T2 T3 iu
L u
iu
u
iv vo
v R
iv vo
v R
iw
iw w
w
T2 T4 T6 D2
D1 D2 T3

Rectifier A Rectifier B

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 38


Half-Controlled Rectifier (A)
 vun vvn vwn  vvn vwn

vun

0  0
2 t  2 t

vd vd

t t

t t
iu iu

iw
iw

iR
iR

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 39


Half-Controlled Thyristor Rectifier (B)

t t

t t

iu iu

iw iw

iR iR

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 40


Application Considerations
• Single-phase rectifiers generate input
harmonics at the order of 2p±1, where p is
the pulse number.
• The displacement power factor is reduced
when the output voltage is reduced.
• Commutation generates voltage notches
across the source.
• Input harmonics can be reduced by
increasing the pulse number.
Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 41
Current Controller
• A thyristor converter is usually operated as a
current source
• A thyristor converter cannot be controlled faster
than the thyristor can respond
• After a thyristor is turned on, the thyristor can
only be turned off by the input line voltage.
• By operating as a current source, the thyristor
converter is inherently overcurrent protected.
• A current source can paralleled easily with other
current sources

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 42


Current controller for Phase-
Controlled Rectifiers
es Ls
io
L
vd
Load

Gate driver

Reference 
PID cos1
current 

Actual
current

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 43


Current-Controlled Phase-
Controlled Rectifiers

Vo (s)

 1 3 2   1
I L (s)
I L* (s) PID Vll
1  sTd  sL

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 44


Current Control of Phase-Controlled Rectifiers

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 45


Dual Thyristor Converter

ia

ia*  Current
cos1
controller

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 46


Application Considerations
• At present, thyristor converters are used only for large
power applications.
• The AC side always need reactive power under both
rectifier and inverter operations.
• The AC side current has high harmonic content. The
harmonic order is pk1 where p is pulse number and k is
integer. The harmonic current can be reduced by
increasing the pulse number.
• Thyristor converter also generates voltage nothches due
to the commutation.
• It is recommended to use a special feeder (or it is better
if using a dedicated transformer) to supply a thyristor
converter.

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 47


High-Current Rectifiers

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 48


High-Current Rectifiers

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 49


High-Current Rectifiers

50
Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter
High-Current Rectifiers (PWM)

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 51


DC Arc Furnace Applications

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 52


HVDC Applications
• Environmental advantages
• Economical advantages
• Asynchronous interconnections
• Power flow control
• Added benefits to the existing
transmission system

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 53


HVDC History
• Hewitt’s mercury-vapour rectifier, 1901
• Experiments with thyratrons in US and mercury-arc valves in
Europe in 1940s.
• First commercial HVDC operation, Gotland, Sweden in 1954.
• First solid-state semiconductor switches, 1970.
• First microcontroller applications for HVDC in 1979.
• Highest DC voltage operation (600 kVdc) for Itaipu, Brazil, in
1984.
• First dc active power filter, 1994.
• First capacitor commutated converter for Argentina-Brazil
interconnection, 1998.
• First Voltage Source Converter for HVDC in Gotland, 1999.
Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 54
HVDC Topology

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 55


HVDC Systems

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 56


HVDC Operation

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 57


HVDC Station

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 58


AC and DC Comparison

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 59


AC and DC Comparison

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor 60


converter
HVDC Technologies

61
Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter
HVDC Applications

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 62


HVDC System

+/- 500 kV, 2800 MW, Kii Chanel, Japan

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 63


Thyristors for HVDC

Pekik A. Dahono : Thyristor converter 64


The End