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Derivatives: Integrals:

Z

d xn+1

axn = an xn−1 a xn dx = a

dx n+1

Z

d dx

sin ax = a cos ax = ln x

dx x

Z

d 1

cos ax = −a sin ax sin ax dx = − cos ax

dx a

Z

d ax 1

e = aeax cos ax dx = sin ax

dx a

Z

d 1 1

ln ax = eax dx = eax

dx x a

Z

dx x

√ = arcsin

a 2 − x2 a

Z ³√ ´

dx

√ = ln 2

x +a +x2

Constants: x2 + a 2

Z

dx 1 x

2 2

= arctan

²0 = 8.8542 × 10−12 C2 /(N m2 ) x +a a a

Z

µ0 = 4π × 10−7 Wb/(A m) dx 1 x

3/2

= 2√

c = 2.9979 × 108 m/s (x2 + a2 ) a x + a22

Z

x dx 1

3/2

= −√

(x2 + a2 ) x + a2

2

Physics 208 — Formula Sheet for Final Exam

Do NOT turn in these formula sheets!

Maxwell’s equations predict the existence of electro- Object and image distances:

magnetic waves that propagate in vacuum with the elec-

tric and magnetic fields perpendicular and with ratio: 1 1 1

+ =

s s0 f

E = cB

where f = R/2.

The waves travel with velocity c where Thin Lenses

1 Object and image distances:

c= √

²0 µ0 1 1 1

+ =

Energy in Electromagnetic waves: s s0 f

The energy flow rate (power per unit area) of an elec- where

tromagnetic wave is given by the Poynting vector S~ µ ¶

1 1 1

= (n − 1) −

~= 1E

S ~ ×B

~ f R1 R2

µ0

~ is called Magnification

The magnitude of the time-averaged value of S

The lateral magnification for the systems described

the intensity of the wave

above is

1 Emax Bmax E2 1 y0 s0

I= = max = ²0 cEmax

2

m= =−

2 µ0 2µ0 c 2 y s

Speed of light in materials

When light propagates through a material, its speed

is lower than the speed in free space space by a factor

called the index of refraction

c

v=

n

Reflection and refraction

At a smooth interface, the incident, reflected, and re-

fracted rays and the normal to the interface all lie in a

single plane. The angle of incidence and angle of reflec-

tion (measured from the normal) are equal θr = θa and

the angle of refraction is given by Snell’s law:

na sin θa = nb sin θb

Polarization

A polarizing filter passes waves that are linearly po-

larized along its polarizing axis. When polarized light of

intensity Imax is incident on a polarizing filter used as an

analyzer, the intensity I of the light transmitted depends

on the angle φ between the polarization direction of the

incident light and the polarizing axis of the analyzer:

I = Imax cos2 φ

Physics 208 — Formula Sheet for Exam 3

Do NOT turn in these formula sheets!

The force on a charge q moving with velocity ~v in a ~ such

there is an induced, nonconservative, electric field E

~ is

magnetic field B that

I Z

F~ = q~v × B

~ ~ ~ d ~ · dA~

E · dl = − B

dt A

and the force on a differential segment d~l carrying current

I is Mutual Inductance:

When a changing current i1 in circuit 1 causes a chang-

dF~ = Id~l × B

~ ing magnetic flux in circuit 2, and vice-versa, the induced

EMF in the circuits is

Magnetic Flux:

Magnetic flux is defined analogously to electric flux di1 di2

E2 = −M and E1 = −M

(see formula sheet 1) dt dt

Z where M is the mutual inductance of the two loops

ΦB = B ~ · dA

~

N2 ΦB2 N1 ΦB1

M= =

The magnetic flux through a closed surface seems to be i1 i1

zero

I where Ni is the number of loops in circuit i.

~ · dA

B ~=0 Self Inductance:

A changing current i in any circuit generates a chang-

Magnetic dipoles: ing magnetic field that induces an EMF in the circuit:

A current loop creates a magnetic dipole µ

~ = IA~ where

di

~

I is the current in the loop and A is a vector normal to E = −L

dt

the plane of the loop and equal to the area of the loop.

The torque on a magnetic dipole in a magnetic field is where L is the self inductance of the circuit

~τ = µ ~

~ ×B ΦB

L=N

i

Biot-Savart Law:

The magnetic field dB~ produced at point P by a dif- For example, for a solenoid of N turns, length l, area A,

~

ferential segment dl carrying current I is Ampère’s law gives B = µ0 (N/l)i, so the flux is ΦB =

µ0 (N/l)iA, and so

~ = µ0 I d~l × r̂

dB N2

4π r2 L = µ0 A

l

where r̂ points from the segment d~l to the point P .

LR Circuits:

Magnetic field produced by a moving charge: When an inductor L and a resistance R appear in a

Similarly, the magnetic field produced at a point P by simple circuit, exponential energizing and de-energizing

a moving charge is time dependences are found that are analogous to those

found for RC-circuits. The time constant τ for energizing

~ = µ0 q ~v × r̂

B an LR circuit is

4π r2

L

Ampère’s Law: (without displacement current) τ=

R

I

~ · d~l = µ0 Iencl

B LC Circuits:

When an inductor L and a capacitor C appear in a

simple circuit, sinusoidal current oscillation is found with

Faraday’s Law:

frequency f such that

The EMF produced in a closed loop depends on the

change of the magnetic flux through the loop 1

2πf = √

dΦB LC

E =−

dt

Physics 208 — Formula Sheet for Exam 2

Do NOT turn in these formula sheets!

A capacitor is any pair of conductors separated by an the resistance R of the conductor is

insulating material. When the conductors have equal and

ρL

opposite charges Q and the potential difference between R=

the two conductors is Vab , then the definition of the ca- A

pacitance of the two conductors is A current I flowing through the resistor R produces a

potential difference V given by

Q

C=

Vab V = IR

The energy stored in the electric field is Resistors in series:

1

U= CV 2 Req = R1 + R2 + ...

2

If the capacitor is made from parallel plates of area A Resistors in parallel:

separated by a distance d, where the size of the plates is 1 1 1

much greater than d, then the capacitance is given by = + + ...

Req R1 R2

C = ²0 A/d

Power:

Capacitors in series:

The power transferred to a component in a circuit by

1 1 1 a current I is

= + + ...

Ceq C1 C2

P =VI

Capacitors in parallel:

where V is the potential difference across the component.

Ceq = C1 + C2 + ...

Kirchhoff ’s rules:

If a dielectric material is inserted, then the capacitance The algebraic sum of the currents into any junction

increases by a factor of K where K is the dielectric con- must be zero:

stant of the material X

I=0

C = KC0

The algebraic sum of the potential differences around

any loop must be zero.

Current: X

When current flows in a conductor, we define the cur- V =0

rent as the rate at which charge passes:

dQ RC Circuits:

I=

dt When a capacitor C is charged by a battery with EMF

given by E in series with a resistor R, the charge on the

We define the current density as the current per unit area, capacitor is

and can relate it to the drift velocity of charge carriers

by ³ ´

q(t) = CE 1 − e−t/RC

J~ = nq~vd

where t = 0 is when the the charging starts.

where n is the number density of charges and q is the When a capacitor C that is initially charged with

charge of one charge carrier. charge Q0 discharges through a resistor R, the charge

on the capacitor is

Ohm’s Law and Resistance:

q(t) = Q0 e−t/RC

Ohm’s Law states that a current density J in a material

is proportional to the electric field E. The ratio ρ = E/J where t = 0 is when the the discharging starts.

is called the resistivity of the material. For a conductor

Physics 208 — Formula Sheet for Exam 1

Do NOT turn in these formula sheets!

~ exerts a force F~ on a charge q given

An electric field E The electric field inside a conductor is zero. All ex-

by: cess charge on a conductor resides on the surface of that

conductor.

F~ = q E

~

A point charge q located at the coordinate origin gives The electric potential is defined as the potential energy

~ given by

rise to an electric field E per unit charge. If the electric potential at some point

is V then the electric potential energy at that point is

~ = q U = qV . The electric potential function V (~r) is given by

E r̂

4π²0 r2 the line integral:

where r is the distance from the origin (spherical coor- Z ~

r

dinate), r̂ is the spherical unit vector, and ²0 is the per- ~ · d~l + V (~r0 )

mittivity of free space: V (~r) = − E

~

r0

Beware of the minus sign. This gives the potential pro-

duced by a point charge q:

Superposition:

The principle of superposition of electric fields states q

~ of any combination of charges V =

that the electric field E 4π²0 r

is the vector sum of the fields caused by the individual

charges for a collection of charges qi

X

~ =

E ~i

E X qi

i V =

i

4π²0 ri

To calculate the electric field caused by a continuous dis-

tribution of charge, divide the distribution into small el- and for a continuous distribution of charge

ements and integrate all these elements:

Z Z Z

dq dq

~

E = dE = ~ r̂ V =

q 4π² 0r

2

q 4π²0 r

Electric flux: zero infinitely far from the charges.

Electric flux is a measure of the “flow” of electric field

through a surface. It is equal to the product of the

area element and the perpendicular component of E ~ in-

tegrated over a surface: Field from potential:

Z Z Z If the electric potential function is known, the vector

~

ΦE = E cos φ dA = E · n̂ dA = E ~ · dA~ electric field can be derived from it:

∂V ∂V ∂V

~ to the sur-

where φ is the angle from the electric field E Ex = − Ey = − Ez = −

∂x ∂y ∂z

face normal n̂.

Gauss’ law states that the total electric flux through µ ¶

any closed surface is determined by the charge enclosed ~ =− ∂V ∂V ∂V

E ı̂ + ̂ + k̂

by that surface: ∂x ∂y ∂z

I

ΦE = E ~ = Qencl

~ · dA Beware of the minus sign.

²0

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