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Project Report Submitted to the Indira Gandhi National Open University impartial
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ENROLMENT NO.: 178373099




A Project Report


ENROLMENT NO.: 178373099



Under the Supervision of




o Introduction
o Objective of the study
o Research Methodology
o Scope of the study
o Limitations of the study
o Culture
o Music & Dance
o People and lifestyle of Rajasthan
o Tribes in Rajasthan
o Rajasthan languages
o Role of state government
o Role of art and crafts in tourism
o Conclusion
o Bibliography


Rajasthan has artistic and cultural traditions which reflect the ancient Indian way of life.Rajasthan was

also called Rajputana (the country of the Rajputs) It is also a tourism destination with lots of tourist

attractions and good tourist facilities. This historical state of India attracts tourists and vacationers with

its rich culture, tradition, heritage, and monuments. It has also some sanctuaries & national parks.

More than 70% of Rajasthan is vegetarian, which makes it the most vegetarian state in India.

Rajasthan has its special culture. Rajasthan culture represents unmeasured influence of tribal

communities. In fact, its culture reflects the superb past which was also very famous during the Mauryan

and Mughal empires. Attractive monuments and architectures are indication to this reality. The cultural

traditions of Rajasthan basically reflect the combination of tribal lifestyles and rich historical past. The

Cultural Centers of Rajasthan are also good places to see the tradition and culture of this region from

close quarters. Amongst the Cultural Centers in Rajasthan . Numerous festivals, music & dance

performances are held where people can view traditional lifestyles and taste the delicious cuisine.

Festivals in Rajasthan form a vital part of the culture. The popular celebrations of Rajasthan are Holi ,

gangour , and Dusshera. also celebrated with enthusiasm. This state has a rich legacy of musicians which

again compose an indivisible part of the culture of Rajasthan. Kalbelia (kanhaiaya) songs and songs from

Indian classical music are famous with the nativeshereThe Ghoomar dance from Jodhpur

and Kalbeliya dance of Jaisalmerhave gained international recognition. Folk music is a vital part of

Rajasthani culture. Kathputali, Bhopa, Chang, Teratali, Ghindar, Kachchhighori, Tejaji,parth dance etc.

are the examples of the traditional Rajasthani culture. Folk songs are commonly ballads which relate

heroic deeds and love stories; and religious or devotional songs known as bhajans and banis (often

accompanied by musical instruments like dholak, sitar, sarangi etc.) are also sung.Kanhaiya Geet also

sung in major areas of east rajasthani belt in the collectiong manner as a best source of entertainment in

the rural areas.

The local people of Rajasthan speak Hindi and Marwari. Tribal languages are also used . Another

attractive part of Rajasthan culture is textiles and rural handworks. People like to eat hot and spicy food

here. Daal bati choorma ,Wheat, mutton, fish and rice are their main food ingredient. The specialty dish

of this region is bati which is dipped in rich ghee and is taken with daal. Locals also consume sweet

ladoo. Milk based food is also preferred. In Rajasthan, many fairs and festivals are held throughout the

year. The long-established religious festivals of the Hindus, Muslims and other communities are

celebrated in Rajasthan very enthusiastically as in the rest of India. The tribal festivals in

Deepawali,holi,gangaur,teej,gogaji,Makar sankranti and janmashtami are known for its joyful festivities,

drinking bouts and striking entertainment like cock fighting, Rajasthan is famous for textiles, semi-

precious stones and handicrafts, and for its traditional and colorful art. Rajasthani furniture has intricate

carvings and bright colours. Block prints, tie and dye prints, Bagaru prints, Sanganer prints

and Zariembroidery are major export products from Rajasthan. The blue pottery of Jaipur is particularly



The major objectives of the present study are as follows:

 To study rich Cultural heritage of Rajasthan and the factors that attracts tourists to Rajashtan

 To study the traces of different cultures in Music, dance, architecture, festivities, languages

spoken, traditional beliefs and customs, food, etc and their role in development of Tourism


 To list the various activities undertaken by the State Government and other organizations to

utilize the Culture as a mechanism to boost tourism in Rajasthan

 To discuss about the role of arts and crafts of Rajasthan in tourism.

Research methodology is a way to systematically investigate the research problem. It gives various

steps in conducting the research in a systematic and a logical way. It is essential to define the problem,

state objectives and hypothesis clearly. The research design provides the details regarding what, where,

when, how much and by what means enquiry is initiated.

This study was a descriptive study and the research was conducted by examining the secondary data

only. Various documents pertaining to the history and culture of Rajasthan was deeply explored and

analyzed and a picture of the Rajasthan culture was presented.


Secondary Data

Secondary data was collected from the following sources.

 Newspapers

 Brochures

 Magazines

 Journals

 Articles and seminary papers


This study was limited in scope but it can definitely help in presenting a cultural overview of Rajasthan.

Various hidden and lesser known aspects of Rajasthan culture can be brought to light in this study

which was quite helpful in understanding the Rajasthan culture. This study also creates opportunities for

the researchers to continue their research on the available links of the study and future research can be

done on the finding of some other linking tourism links.


Due to time constraints, only important aspects of culture are dealt with. The material on the culture of

Rajashtan is quite exhaustive and the whole literature cannot be explored.

The culture of Rajasthan is only explored other sects of the state are not touched, hence their is further

scope for research on other sects in the other regions of the state.


Heritage and architecture

Several cities in Rajasthan are extraordinary for their architecture and or scenic beauty. Eight sites in

Rajasthan have been declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO: Chittorgarh Fort ( it was believed to be

made by the Mauryans in 7th century and further the structures were added by Mewar

rulers.),Kumbhalgarhh ,Ranthambore Fort( Ranthambore Fort is located in Ranthambore National Park

in Sawai Madhopur Rajasthan and the park has got its name from the fort ) ,Gagron Fort (Gagron Fort is

situated in Jhalawar district of Rajasthan near Kota and it is UNESCO World Heritage Site which is

known in the history for the remarkable feat by womens who performed Sati or Jauhar and two live

burnings have been stated here in which hundreds of women burned themselves to save their chastity).

Amber Fort (Amber Fort is one of the most majestic forts built by Raja Shri Mann Singh Ji I and is

located on a high hill ),Jaisalmer Fort (Jaisalmer Fort is one of the largest forts built by Bhati Rajput

Ruler Rao Jaisal and is commonly known as Sone ka Quila because of its magnificent looks and is

considered as UNESCO World Heritage Site and is located at Thar Desert ),Keoladeo National Park (It

can be reached by rail through Bharatpur railway station and nearest airport is Jaipur or Delhi. It is

perfect for family holiday and a must see place. Also, you can book taxis from Delhi and Agra or Jaipur

), Jantar Mantar (Jantar Mantar is an astronomical observatory built by Prince Jai Singh II who built it to

know more about the astronomical skills and cosmology concept .

No other state in India, but Rajasthan, enmeshes so many different flavors of tradition and culture. The

state is a cauldron that incessantly concts the various aspects of its multi-dimensional culture and still

upholds a beautifully amalgamated heritage that retains its distinctive zeal. It is home to people

professing all the major religions of India, who dwell in perfect harmony and amity. Apart from them,

numerous colorful tribes add on to the vibrant cultural collage of the state. In fact, variety finds

manifestation in spectacular forms here.

The culture of Rajasthan is a harmonious amalgamation of Hindus, Muslims, Buddhists, Jains, Christians

and Sikhs. Moreover, the tribal communities of the state comprises of different tribes like Berwa,

Bajgar.Balai Valmiki chamar Rajput etc.. These people belonging to numerous religions and ethnic

backgrounds reflect the concept of Indian secularism and contribute to the animated cultural

effervescence of the state. Go through this article and get a kaleidoscopic glimpse of the cultural heritage

of Rajasthan.

Rajput clans emerged and held their sway over different parts of Rajasthan from about 700 AD. Before

that, Rajasthan was a part of several republics. It was a part of the Mauryan Empire. Other major

republics that dominated this region include the Malavas, Arjunyas, Yaudhyas, Kushans, Saka Satraps,

Guptas and Hunas.The Rajput clans’ ascendancy in Indian history was during the period from the eighth

to the twelfth century AD. The Pratihars ruled Rajasthan and most of northern India during 750-1000

A.D. During 1000-1200 AD., Rajasthan witnessed the struggle for supremacy between Chalukyas,

Parmars and Chauhans.

Rajasthan is not only the geographic heart of India, but can also be termed as the cultural and religious

nucleus of the country. The term 'diversity' gets best expression in the place. In fact, the people of the

state provide the first glimpse towards its multi-faceted culture. It conjoins people, belonging to different

religions, castes and communities.

Rajasthan is a land that embraces all the major religions of India - Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism, Jainism,
Buddhism and Christianity. Even though the state is a common abode of people belonging to numerous

religions, castes and creeds, no internecine feuds exist amongst them. In fact, the state upholds 'Unity in
Diversity', on which rests the entire concept of secularism in India.

The state of Rajasthan can be termed as a cultural museum of India. The place not only unifies many

religions in its lap, but is also home to some of the most prominent tribal communities of the country.

These tribal and aborigines of Madhya Pradesh have contributed to the rich cultural saga of the place,

intrinsically blending their indigenous cultures to its large melting pot.


In whole India, Rajasthan is the name for rich diverse culture and tradition. The liveliness of

Rajasthani traditions and culture reflects through Folk music and dance. For Rajasthanis,

music and dance are the life and they habituated them as their part of life.

If we observe, there is a great prominence for the arts in Rajasthan. The best example is

the Jodhpur’s RIFF which is an international festival to promote folk attractions.

Here is the list of popular Folk Music and Dance Forms of Rajasthan perform by the

Rajasthanis in festivals and fairs.

Traditional Folk Dance Forms of Rajasthan

1. Ghoomar
Ghoomar, a very popular dance form of Rajasthan which is inhabited from ancient days.
During the times of Kings, this dance form was performed to entertain the kings. Women in
colorful attires and the dance moves by swaying & clapping the hands and twirl ing in rounds
looks very attractive and interesting to see. Now, this dance form is very famous throughout

the nation and the world.

Best Places to Enjoy: Udaipur, Kota, Bundi, and Jodhpur.

2. Bhavai Dance

Bhavai is a skillful and wonderful dance performance by the women balancing 6 to 7 brass
or earthen pots on the head. To perform this traditional dance form needs great effort and
hard work. Apart from balancing the pots, they will dance by placing their feet on a plate or
on the edge of a weapon. Just think, balancing the pots and dancing w ithin a plate, it’s really
mind-blowing dance performance.

Best Places to Enjoy: Jaipur and Bikaner.

3. Kalbelia

Kalbelia dance form popularly known as “Sapera Dance” or “Snake Charmer Dance”

and also recognized by UNESCO as Intangible Cultural Heritage. It is a tribal

community dance form by the tribes known as “Kalbelia”. Kalbelia is such a beautiful dance

form women in variant colorful clothes forming curly and round line segments resembling a

snake. And the background music to the dance performance is another great thing to


Best Places to Enjoy: Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Bikaner, Barmer, Jalore, J aipur, and Pushkar.

4. Chari or Pot Dance

Chari is a traditional dance form by the Kishangarh and Saini communities which is
followed during some special occasions like festivals. Women perform this dance form with
a brass pot on head and a lighted lamp in it. They balance the pot skillfully by dancing and
making different patterns around the floor with ease.

Best Places to Enjoy: Ajmer and Kishangarh.

5. Dandiya

Dandiya, a colorful dance play by both men and women in Rajasthan. It is a very popular
and simple dance play along with folk music by circling in rounds and playing with the
sticks known as Dandiya sticks. Men and women dancing rhythmically according to the
beats of music in vivid clothes looks very colorful and impressive. This dance form mostly
performed during festival and marriages.

Best Places to Enjoy: Jaipur and during festivals, almost all places in Rajasthan are known

for Dandiya.

6. Kachhi Ghodi

Kachhi Ghodi is a famous dance form by the men representing the stories of Bandits

of Shekhawati region. During this dance form, men wear different traditional attires like

dhoti, turbans, and kurtas and they perform the dance by riding on puppet horses. The

dance form runs with the background songs related to Bandits and mock fights with swords.

Best Places to Enjoy: Shekhawati region, Jaipur, and Udaipur.

7. Terah Taal

Terah Taal is the most ancient art of Rajasthan which is very important and skilled dance

form. The main part of this dance form is thirteen Manjeeras means small brass discs.

These thirteen brass discs will be attached to the different parts of the body.
When the dancer moves these discs makes rhythmical sounds. Along with these, dancer
balances a sword in their mouth and pots on the head. That’s why this dance form will be
performed by the skilled dancers only. The dance will begin with the women on the floor
attached to the manjeeras. Kamada tribes perform this dance form.
Best Places to Enjoy: Not specific. Almost played in all popular festivals in Rajasthan.

8. Gair

Gair is another famous folk dance form by the Bhil community and this dance

performance mostly taken place during the festivals like Holi and Janmashtami. Both

men and women perform this dance form in colorful traditional attires. Men attires look

attractive in long skirts and also they handle sticks for rhythmic beats. The dance formations

in clockwise and anti-clockwise moves according to the music beats attracts everyone.

Best Places to Enjoy: Marwar region

9. Fire dance

Fire dance is a dangerous and difficult folk dance form which is mostly habituated in

desert areas. This dance form explains the lifestyle of Jasnathis of Churu and Bikaner.

During this dance form, a large bed of wood and charcoal will light up and men of

Banjara community performs different dangerous stunts on this fire according to the

drum beats.

Best Places to Enjoy: Bikaner, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, and Jaipur.

10. Kathputli

Kathputli is a famous puppet dance show which is coming from centuries back. Through this

Kathputli puppet dance show, they will narrate different mythological and tribal stories of

the past. This puppet show showcases rich culture and traditional values of ancient days. In

Rajasthan, for this puppetry dance form has great significance.

Best Places to Enjoy: Marwar region and also most of all villages in Raj asthan.

Also Read : Know about Marwar Festival of Jodhpur

Popular Traditional Folk Music of Rajasthan

11. Pabuji Ki Phach

Pabuji Ki Phach, a popular Folk music style in memory of great folk hero Pabuji in the

14 th century who did a lot to the Bhopa community. Through this music form, they will

describe the historic deeds of Pabuji.

Best Places to Enjoy: Places near to the Thar desert is the best option to enjoy this musical


12. Maand

Maand is one of the most popular music styles in Rajasthan. This music form is known for
the classical touch of different ragas in India and describing the greatness of folk heroes and
kings of the past times of Rajasthan through the music.
Best Places to Enjoy: Jodhpur, Bikaner.

13. Panihari

Panihari is a different music form came from distress and difficulty to find water in the
desert areas. This folk music was composed by Rajasthani women by describing the rushing
rivers and waves in their songs. The songs of this music form praise for wa ter and rains.

Best Places to Enjoy: Villages near to the Thar desert.

These are the few top popular folk dances and music forms all over India and the world.
Every element and factor that are highlighted in these folk arts illustrates the significant
traditional values and the past of Rajasthan.

Folk Musical Instruments in Rajasthan

Folk musical instruments give life to traditional dances and music of Rajasthan. Not even a
small dance or music performance will not be attractive or enjoyable without these
instruments. Here is the list of popular folk musical instruments in Rajasthan.

Stringed Instruments: Ektara, Morchang, Sarangi, Rawanhattha, and Kamayacha.

Percussion Instruments: Nagaras, Dhols, and Damrus in all sizes and shapes.

Flutes and Bag Pipes: Poongi, Algoza, Tarpi, Been, Bankia, and Shehnai.

Traditional Instruments: Baara, Jantar, Ghoralio, Thali, Garasiyas, Jaltall, etc are the

different types of musical instruments which were the reason behind for the charm and glory

of Folk music and dance.


The people of rajasthan fiercely guard their tradition and culture , which is refected in their day to day

life. They wear brightly coloured clothes and jewellery and are cheerful in nature, Their warm hospitality
has enabled people from different parts of India and the word to enjoy their stay in Rajasthan. The
Rajasthan has a population of 75.645 Millions,of which 78% are hindu,18.6% are muslims,2.3% are
jains and other are 1.0%. They work in various industries like manufacturing business,IT, Education and


The most prominent tribes in Rajasthan are Bhil ,Minas, Damor, Dhanka, Garasia, Kathodi, Kokna
,Koli, Nayaka , Patelia, Seharia or sahariya. They indulge in various activities to earn their livelihood.
Earlier they were semi nomadic people but most of them have now settled down and have choosen their


The origin of the customs and traditions of Rajasthan is easily traceable to the cantos of the Vedas,

wherein specific rites and ceremonies are prescribed in the minutest detail for the Samskaras in the life of

every man and woman. The Customs and traditions of Rajasthan are the Rajasthani version of these

Vedic rites and rituals. The Rajasthani people have religiously followed the dictum of the Vedas at every

stage from birth till death. They have added some regional rites and rituals to these Vedic ceremonies.

According to the Vedas every man has to perform certain ceremonies, known as Samskaras, from birth

to death. Sixteen in number, they mainly relate to three major events in one's life i.e., birth, marriage and



The primarily spoken language of Rajasthan is Hindi. However, when the state of Rajasthan was

founded, a number of princely states were merged. This led to the emergence of different dialects in the

local laungague of rajasthann.The four main dialects of Rajasthani language are:


The Marwari dialect is mainly spoken in the western Rajasthan. In fact, Marwari is the most widely

dialect in Rajasthan.


In the east and southeast regions of Rajasthan, the Jaipuri dialect is spoken. Also known as Dhundhari,

this dialect forms is spoken by the maximum number of Rajasthanis, after Marwari.


The people of the southeast region speak in the Malvi (Malwi) dialect, apart from Jaipuri. This dialect

covers the Malwa tract i.e., Indore, Bhopal, Mandsor and the Ujjain area.


In Alwar and the surrounding region, Mewati dialect is heavily used. It is somewhat like the Braj bhasha

spoken in Bharatpur district. Apart from these major dialects, a number of other dialects are also spoken

in Rajasthan. Some of these are Harauti, Kishangarhi and so on. However, English is also widely

understood in Rajasthan. You also get guides and translators in Rajasthan speaking foreign languages

like German, French, Chinese, Japanese, etc.


The State Government will confine its efforts to infrastructural development ensuring uninterrupted

electricity, water supply and provision of basic medical facilities. It will also be responsible for

dissemination of information, organisation of festivals and inter-departmental co-ordination to create

conditions for attracting private sector investment for the tourism sector. For this it will provide fiscal

incentives, assist in providing suitable sites and remove bottlenecks, especially those connected with

infrastructural development.


A special package of incentives for the tourism industry has been prepared. These incentives will also be

available for private entrepreneurs for any of the following activities:

 Hotels, Motels and Restaurants.

 Heritage Hotels, Health Farms, Recreation Centres, Ropeways, Golf Courses, Museums,

Amusement Parks, Craft Villages, Convention Centres, and all other bonafide tourism related

activities recognised by the government.

 A/c Luxury Coaches, A/c Mini Buses, and imported Limousines purchased by registered tour

operators for tourist transport.

 Activities connected with adventure tourism, such as hang gliding, para sailing, river rafting,

boating, trekking, rock climbing etc.

The specific incentives are:

 Land

1. Government land will be offered with the approval of the Empowered Committee as

equity participation on behalf of the Government at current market value for setting up

Joint Ventures.

2. The companies thus formed who are given any kind of Government land will be expected

to complete the project within a period of three years from the date of transfer of land,

failing which the land will revert to the Government. The company will not be allowed to

transfer the land to anybody else, or use it for any purpose other than that for which it is


3. For construction of approved category hotels, etc. in the urban areas, exemption under

Section 20 of the Urban Land Ceiling Act will be made available on a case-to-case basis

as decided by the Empowered Committee.

 Luxury Tax

New projects shall be exempt from Luxury Tax for ten years from the date of commencement of

commercial operations.

 Sales Tax

New projects shall be exempt from Sales Tax for ten years from the date of commencement of

commercial operations.

 Entertainment Tax

Entertainment Centres will be exempt from Entertainment Tax for ten years from the date of

commencement of commercial operations.


If there is one sector whose fate is intimately bound up with that of tourism, it is clearly that of the craft

sector. Indeed, whatever the type of tourism (resort holiday tourism or tour holidays), the tourist never

fails to take home the obligatory souvenir. Tourism has developed into a new market for the handicrafts

industry, and the articulation of the tourism handicrafts mechanism is seen through the creation of new

products directed towards the domestic and foreign tourist demands.

The bulk of present-day tourism, and that planned for the future, in many of the developing countries is

package –tourism. It is important to consider tourism and especially tourists, not as an abstract quantity

but as a very specific group of consumers, whose desires and tastes create the new market that local

artisans have entered, or will in the future (Handicrafts, Tourism and Development).


Every area and community in Rajasthan has developed its distinct style of life and lifestyle. All
these make the culture of Rajasthan pluralistic and vibrant. This is reflected in the different art
forms and traditions, which are practiced and celebrated in Rajasthan. All the tribal and non-tribal
communities have their own socio-cultural space.


 A special report on India: Ruled by Lakshmi Dec 11th 2008 from The Economist print edition

 "Hunger in India states 'alarming'". BBC.

 Encyclopedia of India and her States, V.Grover and R. Arora(Eds), Vol 6, D&D Publishers, New

Delhi, 1996.

 "Humpty Dumpty ruled 'too Western". BBC. 2006.

 Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribe Welfare Department, Government of Rajasthan.

 Rajasthan (India). The Rajasthan Human Development Report 2002: Using the Power of

Democracy for Development.