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Rotordynamics Module

Application Library Manual


Rotordynamics Module Application Library Manual
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Part number: CM024503


Created in COMSOL Multiphysics 5.3

Rotors Connected by a Spline Coupling

This model is licensed under the COMSOL Software License Agreement 5.3.
All trademarks are the property of their respective owners. See www.comsol.com/trademarks.
Introduction
This example demonstrates a method for coupling two rotors connected by a spline
coupling. An eigenfrequency analysis is performed at different rotor speeds, and the results
are compared with those obtained in Ref. 1.

Model Definition
The model consists of two rotors connected through a spline coupling. The first rotor is a
cantilevered rotor fixed at its left end. The second rotor is a simply supported rotor with
one of its support points away from its coupling end and the other at the right end. The
right end of the cantilevered rotor is connected to the left end of the simply supported
rotor through a spline coupling. It is assumed that only translational motion is coupled
between the rotors through the coupling, while the rotations of both the rotors are
uncoupled. The rotor configuration is shown in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1: Rotor geometry.

A disk at point B on the cantilevered rotor has both mass and moment of inertia. The
coupling, located at point C on the rotor, has only mass with negligible moment of inertia.
There is also a pulley at location E on the simply supported rotor having only mass but
negligible moment of inertia. Points D and F are the locations of supports on the simply
supported rotor.

2 | ROTORS CONNECTED BY A SPLINE COUPLING


The properties of the shaft are given in the Table 1.
TABLE 1: PROPERTIES OF THE SHAFT.

PROPERTY VALUE

Density ρ 7832 kg/m3


Young’s modulus E 206820 MPa
Shear modulus G 79546 MPa
Diameter D 12.7 mm
Length l1 88.9 mm
Length l2 76.2 mm

The properties of the mountings on the shafts are given in the Table 2.
TABLE 2: PROPERTIES OF THE MOUNTINGS.

PROPERTY VALUE

Mass of the disk md 1.27 kg


Polar moment of inertia of the disk Ip 0.00256 kg/m2
Diametral moment of inertia of the disk Id 0.00128 kg/m2
Mass of the coupling mc 0.7 kg
Mass of the pulley mp 0.87 kg

3 | ROTORS CONNECTED BY A SPLINE COUPLING


Results and Discussion
Figure 2 below shows the whirl plot for the second mode (backward whirl, f = 312 Hz) at
50,000 rpm. The discontinuity in the rotational degrees of freedom is clearly visible at the
coupling location.

Figure 2: Whirl plot.

4 | ROTORS CONNECTED BY A SPLINE COUPLING


The third mode for the forward whirl (f = 421 Hz) of the coupled rotors at 8000 rpm is
shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Mode shape.

The gyroscopic effect in the rotor stiffens the forward modes and softens the backward
modes. This phenomenon is illustrated in the Campbell plot shown in Figure 4. A
comparison of the critical speeds (in rpm) with those of Ref. 1 is given in Table 3.
TABLE 3: COMPARISON OF CRITICAL SPEEDS WITH REF. 1.

MODE COMSOL REF. 1

First (backward) 7489 7489


First (forward) 8521 8521
Second (backward) 21707 21703
Second (forward) 21724 21720
Third (backward)( 23405 23404

5 | ROTORS CONNECTED BY A SPLINE COUPLING


TABLE 3: COMPARISON OF CRITICAL SPEEDS WITH REF. 1.

MODE COMSOL REF. 1

Third (forward) 25379 25373


Fourth (backward) 27068 27056
You can clearly see that the second mode is relatively unaffected by the gyroscopic effect.
However, the fourth mode is very strongly influenced by the gyroscopic effect.

Figure 4: Campbell plot.

Notes About the COMSOL Implementation


Two Beam Rotor physics interfaces are used to model each rotor separately.

It is assumed that the spline coupling couples only the translational degrees of freedom,
leaving the rotations uncoupled between the rotors. This is achieved by using the same
name of the displacement dependent variable in both physics interfaces.

The mass of the coupling is distributed equally on the two rotors by using a Disk feature
for each physics interface.

6 | ROTORS CONNECTED BY A SPLINE COUPLING


Reference
1. Wen Jeng Chen and Edgar J. Gunter., “Introduction to the Dynamics of Rotor-Bearing
Systems,” Trafford Publishing, Example 5.3, pp. 186–189, 2007.

Application Library path: Rotordynamics_Module/Verification_Examples/


coupled_rotors

Modeling Instructions
From the File menu, choose New.

NEW
In the New window, click Model Wizard.

MODEL WIZARD
1 In the Model Wizard window, click 3D.
2 In the Select Physics tree, select Structural Mechanics>Rotordynamics>
Beam Rotor (rotbm).
3 Click Add.
4 Click Add.
5 Click Study.
6 In the Select Study tree, select Preset Studies for Selected Physics Interfaces>
Eigenfrequency.
7 Click Done.

GEOMETRY 1

Parameters
On the Home toolbar, click Parameters.

GLOBAL DEFINITIONS

Parameters
1 In the Settings window for Parameters, locate the Parameters section.

7 | ROTORS CONNECTED BY A SPLINE COUPLING


2 In the table, enter the following settings:

Name Expression Value Description


Ow 0[rpm] 0 1/s Angular speed of
the shaft
rho_shaft 7832[kg/m^3] 7832 kg/m³ Density of the
shaft
E_shaft 206820[MPa] 2.068E11 Pa Young’s modulus of
the shaft
G_shaft 79546[MPa] 7.955E10 Pa Shear modulus of
the shaft
d_shaft 12.7[mm] 0.0127 m Diameter of the
shaft
m_disk 1.27[kg] 1.27 kg Mass of the disk
Ip_disk 0.00256[kg*m^2] 0.00256 kg·m² Polar moment of
inertia of the
disk
Id_disk 0.00128[kg*m^2] 0.00128 kg·m² Diametral moment
of inertia of the
disk
m_coupling 0.7[kg] 0.7 kg Mass of the
coupling
m_pulley 0.87[kg] 0.87 kg Mass of the pulley
l1 88.9[mm] 0.0889 m Distance of the
disk from the
clamped end
l2 76.2[mm] 0.0762 m Distance of the
coupling end from
the disk
x_disk l1 0.0889 m Position of the
disk
x_coupling l1+l2 0.1651 m Position of the
coupling
x_support1 l1+2*l2 0.2413 m Position of the
first pinned
support
x_pulley l1+3*l2 0.3175 m Position of the
pulley
x_support2 l1+4*l2 0.3937 m Position of the
second pinned
support

8 | ROTORS CONNECTED BY A SPLINE COUPLING


GEOMETRY 1

Bézier Polygon 1 (b1)


1 On the Geometry toolbar, click More Primitives and choose Bézier Polygon.
2 In the Settings window for Bézier Polygon, locate the Polygon Segments section.
3 Find the Added segments subsection. Click Add Linear.
4 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set x to x_disk.
5 Find the Added segments subsection. Click Add Linear.
6 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set x to x_coupling.
7 Find the Added segments subsection. Click Add Linear.
8 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set x to x_support1.
9 Find the Added segments subsection. Click Add Linear.
10 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set x to x_pulley.
11 Find the Added segments subsection. Click Add Linear.
12 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set x to x_support2.

BEAM ROTOR (ROTBM)


1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1) click Beam Rotor (rotbm).
2 Select Edges 1 and 2 only, representing the cantilevered rotor.
3 In the Settings window for Beam Rotor, locate the Rotor Speed section.
4 In the associated text field, type Ow.

Set the Linear Elastic Material to use the Young’s modulus and shear modulus as the elastic
properties.

Linear Elastic Material 1


1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Beam Rotor (rotbm) click
Linear Elastic Material 1.
2 In the Settings window for Linear Elastic Material, locate the Linear Elastic Material
section.
3 From the Specify list, choose Young’s modulus and shear modulus.

BEAM ROTOR 2 (ROTBM2)


On the Physics toolbar, click Beam Rotor (rotbm) and choose Beam Rotor 2 (rotbm2).

1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1) click Beam Rotor 2 (rotbm2).
2 Select Edges 3–5 only, representing the simply supported rotor.

9 | ROTORS CONNECTED BY A SPLINE COUPLING


3 In the Settings window for Beam Rotor, locate the Rotor Speed section.
4 In the associated text field, type Ow.
Change the name of the displacement dependent variable to that in the first Beam Rotor
node to establish the spline coupling.
5 Click to expand the Dependent variables section. Locate the Dependent Variables section.
In the Displacement field text field, type u.
Set the Linear Elastic Material to use the Young’s modulus and shear modulus as the
elastic properties.
6 In the Model Builder window, click Linear Elastic Material 1.
7 In the Settings window for Linear Elastic Material, locate the Linear Elastic Material
section.
8 From the Specify list, choose Young’s modulus and shear modulus.

MATERIALS

Material 1 (mat1)
1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1) right-click Materials and
choose Blank Material.
2 In the Settings window for Material, locate the Material Contents section.
3 In the table, enter the following settings:

Property Name Value Unit Property group


Young’s modulus E E_shaft Pa Basic
Shear modulus G G_shaft N/m² Bulk modulus and
shear modulus
Density rho rho_shaft kg/m³ Basic

BEAM ROTOR (ROTBM)

Rotor Cross Section 1


1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Beam Rotor (rotbm) click
Rotor Cross Section 1.
2 In the Settings window for Rotor Cross Section, locate the Cross Section Definition section.
3 In the do text field, type d_shaft.
4 In the Model Builder window, click Beam Rotor (rotbm).

10 | ROTORS CONNECTED BY A SPLINE COUPLING


Disk 1
1 On the Physics toolbar, click Points and choose Disk.
2 Select Point 2 only.
3 In the Settings window for Disk, locate the Disk Properties section.
4 In the m text field, type m_disk.
5 In the Ip text field, type Ip_disk.
6 In the Id text field, type Id_disk.

Disk 2
1 On the Physics toolbar, click Points and choose Disk.
2 Select Point 3 only.
The mass of the spline couling is equally distributed between both rotors. Enter only
half of the mass of the coupling.
3 In the Settings window for Disk, locate the Disk Properties section.
4 In the m text field, type m_coupling/2.

Journal Bearing 1
1 On the Physics toolbar, click Points and choose Journal Bearing.
2 Select Point 1 only.

BEAM ROTOR 2 (ROTBM2)

Rotor Cross Section 1


1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Beam Rotor 2 (rotbm2) click
Rotor Cross Section 1.
2 In the Settings window for Rotor Cross Section, locate the Cross Section Definition section.
3 In the do text field, type d_shaft.
4 In the Model Builder window, click Beam Rotor 2 (rotbm2).

Journal Bearing 1
1 On the Physics toolbar, click Points and choose Journal Bearing.
2 Select Points 4 and 6 only.
3 In the Settings window for Journal Bearing, locate the Bearing Properties section.
4 Clear the Constrain bending rotation check box.

Disk 1
1 On the Physics toolbar, click Points and choose Disk.

11 | ROTORS CONNECTED BY A SPLINE COUPLING


2 Select Point 3 only.
3 In the Settings window for Disk, locate the Disk Properties section.
4 In the m text field, type m_coupling/2.

Disk 2
1 On the Physics toolbar, click Points and choose Disk.
2 Select Point 5 only.
3 In the Settings window for Disk, locate the Disk Properties section.
4 In the m text field, type m_pulley.

STUDY 1
Add a parametric step to sweep the rpm from 0 to 50000 in steps of 2000.

Parametric Sweep
1 On the Study toolbar, click Parametric Sweep.
2 In the Settings window for Parametric Sweep, locate the Study Settings section.
3 Click Add.
4 Click to select row number 1 in the table.
5 In the table, enter the following settings:

Parameter name Parameter value list Parameter unit


Ow range(0,2000,50000) rpm

Step 1: Eigenfrequency
1 In the Model Builder window, under Study 1 click Step 1: Eigenfrequency.
2 In the Settings window for Eigenfrequency, locate the Study Settings section.
3 Select the Desired number of eigenfrequencies check box.
4 In the associated text field, type 10.
5 On the Study toolbar, click Compute.

RESULTS

Whirl (rotbm)
Follow the steps below to generate the whirl plot shown in Figure 2.

1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click Whirl (rotbm).


2 In the Settings window for 3D Plot Group, locate the Data section.

12 | ROTORS CONNECTED BY A SPLINE COUPLING


3 From the Eigenfrequency (Hz) list, choose 312.3.

Whirl 1
Select both the rotors for the whirl plot.

1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Whirl (rotbm) node, then click Whirl 1.
2 In the Settings window for Whirl, locate the Selection section.
3 Select the Active toggle button.
4 Click in the Graphics window and then press Ctrl+A to select all edges.
5 Locate the Coloring and Style section. In the Number of planes text field, type 6.
6 In the Number of rings text field, type 10.
7 From the Color ring list, choose Black.
8 On the Whirl (rotbm) toolbar, click Plot.
9 Click Go to Default View.
10 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

Follow the steps below to generate the mode shape shown in Figure 3.

3D Plot Group 3
1 On the Home toolbar, click Add Plot Group and choose 3D Plot Group.
2 In the Settings window for 3D Plot Group, type Mode Shape in the Label text field.
3 Locate the Data section. From the Data set list, choose Study 1/
Parametric Solutions 1 (sol2).
4 From the Parameter value (Ow (rpm)) list, choose 8000.
5 From the Eigenfrequency (Hz) list, choose 420.7.

Line 1
1 Right-click Mode Shape and choose Line.
2 In the Settings window for Line, locate the Coloring and Style section.
3 From the Line type list, choose Tube.
4 In the Tube radius expression text field, type rotbm.re.

Deformation 1
1 Right-click Results>Mode Shape>Line 1 and choose Deformation.
2 In the Settings window for Deformation, locate the Scale section.
3 Select the Scale factor check box.
4 In the associated text field, type 0.3.

13 | ROTORS CONNECTED BY A SPLINE COUPLING


Line 2
1 Right-click Line 1 and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Line, locate the Expression section.
3 In the Expression text field, type rotbm2.disp.
4 Locate the Coloring and Style section. In the Tube radius expression text field, type
rotbm2.re.

5 Click to expand the Inherit style section. Locate the Inherit Style section. From the Plot
list, choose Line 1.
6 Click the Go to XY View button on the Graphics toolbar.
7 On the Mode Shape toolbar, click Plot.
8 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

To generate the Campbell plot, shown in Figure 4, follow to the steps below.

1D Plot Group 4
1 On the Home toolbar, click Add Plot Group and choose 1D Plot Group.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, type Campbell Plot in the Label text field.
3 Locate the Data section. From the Data set list, choose Study 1/
Parametric Solutions 1 (sol2).
4 From the Eigenfrequency selection list, choose Manual.
5 In the Eigenfrequency indices (1-10) text field, type range(1,1,8).

Global 1
1 Right-click Campbell Plot and choose Global.
2 In the Settings window for Global, locate the x-Axis Data section.
3 From the Axis source data list, choose Outer solutions.
4 From the Parameter list, choose Expression.
5 In the Expression text field, type Ow.
6 From the Unit list, choose RPM.
7 Locate the y-Axis Data section. In the table, enter the following settings:

Expression Unit Description


freq RPM Frequency

8 Click to expand the Coloring and style section. Locate the Coloring and Style section. In
the Width text field, type 3.

14 | ROTORS CONNECTED BY A SPLINE COUPLING


9 Find the Line style subsection. From the Line list, choose Dashed.
10 From the Color list, choose Blue.
11 Click to expand the Legends section. Clear the Show legends check box.

Global 2
1 In the Model Builder window, under Results right-click Campbell Plot and choose Global.
2 In the Settings window for Global, locate the Data section.
3 From the Data set list, choose Study 1/Parametric Solutions 1 (sol2).
4 From the Eigenfrequency selection list, choose Last.
5 Locate the y-Axis Data section. In the table, enter the following settings:

Expression Unit Description


Ow RPM Angular speed of the shaft

6 Locate the x-Axis Data section. From the Axis source data list, choose Outer solutions.
7 From the Parameter list, choose Expression.
8 In the Expression text field, type Ow.
9 From the Unit list, choose RPM.
10 Locate the Coloring and Style section. From the Color list, choose Red.
11 In the Width text field, type 3.
12 Locate the Legends section. Clear the Show legends check box.
13 On the Campbell Plot toolbar, click Plot.

Campbell Plot
1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click Campbell Plot.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, locate the Plot Settings section.
3 Select the y-axis label check box.
4 In the associated text field, type Natural frequency (RPM).
5 Click to expand the Title section. From the Title type list, choose Manual.
6 In the Title text area, type Whirl Speed Map.
7 Locate the Axis section. Select the Manual axis limits check box.
8 In the y maximum text field, type 50000.
9 On the Campbell Plot toolbar, click Plot.

15 | ROTORS CONNECTED BY A SPLINE COUPLING


Annotation 1
1 Right-click Results>Campbell Plot and choose Annotation.
2 In the Settings window for Annotation, locate the Annotation section.
3 In the Text text field, type \\\ω =Ω.
4 Locate the Position section. In the X text field, type 40000.
5 In the Y text field, type 40000.
6 Locate the Coloring and Style section. Select the LaTeX markup check box.
7 From the Color list, choose Red.
8 On the Campbell Plot toolbar, click Plot.

16 | ROTORS CONNECTED BY A SPLINE COUPLING


Created in COMSOL Multiphysics 5.3

Rotors Connected Through Helical Gears

This model is licensed under the COMSOL Software License Agreement 5.3.
All trademarks are the property of their respective owners. See www.comsol.com/trademarks.
Introduction
This example illustrates the modeling of multiple rotors connected through helical gears.
The presence of gears in the system induces lateral as well as torsional vibration in the
rotors. An eigenfrequency analysis is performed for different speeds of the driver shaft in
order to compute the critical speeds. The frequency response of the system is also
computed for a range of frequencies, assuming the speed of the driver shaft to be the same
as the excitation frequency. A transient analysis is performed for the given speed and load
to compute the orbit and the dynamic transmission error of the gears as well as the forces
acting on the bearings.

Model Definition
The model consists of three shafts connected through two pairs of helical gears. The helical
gear on the first (driver) shaft transfers rotation to the larger helical gear of the second
(intermediate) shaft. The smaller helical gear of the second (intermediate) shaft transfers
rotation to the helical gear of the third (driven) shaft. All three shafts are simply supported
at both the ends using journal bearings.

The geared rotor geometry is shown in Figure 1 below.

Driven shaft

Intermediate shaft
Fixed axial
rotation

Load torque

Journal bearings

Helical gear pair Driver shaft

Figure 1: Geared rotor geometry.

2 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


SHAFTS
All the shafts are of the same dimensions and made of structural steel. The shafts’ diameter
and length are 40 mm and 600 mm, respectively.

In the time-dependent analysis, the angular speed of the driver shaft is assumed to be
1500 rpm. In the eigenfrequency, it is varied from 0 to 9000 rpm whereas in the frequency
domain analysis, it is assumed to be the same as the excitation frequency. The angular
speed of the other two shafts is computed using the gear ratio.

BEARINGS
Each shaft is supported by journal bearings at both the ends. All the bearings are assumed
to have constant isotropic stiffness with a value of 107 N/m.

GEARS
The properties of the helical gears are given in the Table 1.
TABLE 1: GEAR PROPERTIES.

PROPERTY VALUE

Number of teeth (Gear-1) 20


Pitch diameter (Gear-1) 100 mm
Number of teeth (Gear-2) 30
Pitch diameter (Gear-2) 150 mm
Pressure angle 25º
Helix angle 30º
Gear ratio 1.5
Gear mesh stiffness 2·106 N/m

The density of the gears, used to compute the inertial properties, is same as the shaft
density.

CONSTRAINTS AND LOADS


• The axial rotation is constrained at one end of the driver shaft.
• In the time dependent analysis, a resisting load torque of 102 Nm is applied at the
opposite end of the driven shaft.

CRITICAL SPEEDS OF A ROTOR


The angular speeds of a rotor that match its natural frequencies are known as the critical
speeds. Approximate values of the critical speeds of a rotor can be obtained as the rotor’s
eigenfrequencies computed while neglecting rotating frame forces. However, to predict

3 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


the eigenfrequencies accurately, the rotating frame forces for a range of angular speeds
must be included in the computations. The Campbell diagram, showing the variation of
eigenfrequencies with angular speed, can be drawn and accurate critical speeds can be
computed.

Results and Discussion


There are three critical speeds of the rotor below 9000 rpm and they are listed in the
Table 2.
TABLE 2: CRITICAL SPEEDS OF THE ROTOR.

Mode Accurate speed (RPM) Approximate speed (RPM)


(with rotating frame forces) (without rotating frame forces)
First 5270 5425
Second 7933 9583
Third 8517 13477

As can be seen from the table, the error in the approximate critical speed increases for
higher modes. The error for the critical speed corresponding to the third mode is
approximately 60% when rotating frame forces are ignored.

Figure 2: The second mode of the geared rotors at 9000 rpm.

4 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


Figure 2 shows the second mode (f = 122.1 Hz) of the geared rotors at 9000 rpm. The
Campbell diagram, showing the variation of eigenfrequencies with the rotational speed, is
shown in Figure 3. The three critical speeds of the rotor, where the straight line (ω = Ω)
intersects the eigenfrequency curves, can be seen.

Figure 3: Campbell diagram.

The frequency response curves for the gear displacement and rotation are shown in
Figure 4 and Figure 5. It can be seen that both the displacement and rotation of all gears
have a peak around the critical speeds computed using the Campbell diagram.

5 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


Figure 4: Frequency response of the x-direction displacement of all the gears.

Figure 5: Frequency response of the z-direction rotation of all the gears.

6 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


Figure 6 shows the von Mises stress distribution in the shafts. It can be observed that the
twisting of different shafts start from the end of the driven shaft, where the load is applied,
to the opposite end of the driver shaft, where the axial rotation is constrained. The
remaining parts of the shafts experience mostly the bending load generated due to gearing
action.

Figure 6: von Mises stress distribution in the shafts at a particular instance.

Figure 7 and Figure 8 show the orbits of the gear centers in the rotating and the fixed
frame of reference, respectively. It can be observed that in the rotating frame of reference,
all the gears are settled in different directions except gear-2 and gear-3, as they are both
mounted on the intermediate shaft.

The gear mesh is assumed to be elastic, which causes an error while transferring rotation
from one shaft to another. This error, known as the dynamic transmission error (DTE), is
shown in Figure 9.

Finally, Figure 10 shows the time variation of the bearing loads on one of the journal
bearings.

7 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


Figure 7: Orbits of gear center in the rotating frame of reference.

Figure 8: Orbits of gear center in the fixed frame of reference.

8 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


Figure 9: Time variation of the dynamic transmission error (DTE) of both gear pairs.

Figure 10: Time variation of the bearing forces.

9 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


Notes About the COMSOL Implementation
The Solid Rotor physics interface is used to model multiple rotors connected through gears.

To model multiple rotors, use Rotor Axis and Change Rotor Speed features to define the axis
of rotation and speed of each rotor. In cases where two shafts are connected through gears,
the shaft speeds are related through the gear ratio.

The gear mesh stiffness is assumed constant. However, in general it is a function of gear
rotation. The varying gear mesh stiffness causes additional sustained vibration in the
system.

It is possible to visualize results in both the rotating as well as the fixed frame of reference.
In this model, the fixed frame of reference is used when animating the results.

Application Library path: Rotordynamics_Module/Automotive_and_Aerospace/


geared_rotors

Modeling Instructions
From the File menu, choose New.

NEW
In the New window, click Model Wizard.

MODEL WIZARD
1 In the Model Wizard window, click 3D.
2 In the Select Physics tree, select Structural Mechanics>Rotordynamics>Solid Rotor (rotsld).
3 Click Add.
4 Click Study.
5 In the Select Study tree, select Preset Studies>Eigenfrequency.
6 Click Done.

GLOBAL DEFINITIONS

Parameters
1 On the Home toolbar, click Parameters.
2 In the Settings window for Parameters, locate the Parameters section.

10 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


3 Click Load from File.
4 Browse to the model’s Application Libraries folder and double-click the file
geared_rotors_parameters.txt.

DEFINITIONS

Step 1 (step1)
1 On the Home toolbar, click Functions and choose Global>Step.
2 In the Settings window for Step, locate the Parameters section.
3 In the Location text field, type t_end/12.
4 Click to expand the Smoothing section. In the Size of transition zone text field, type
t_end/6.

GEOMETRY 1

Import 1 (imp1)
1 On the Home toolbar, click Import.
2 In the Settings window for Import, locate the Import section.
3 Click Browse.
4 Browse to the model’s Application Libraries folder and double-click the file
geared_rotors.mphbin.
5 Click Import.

Form Union (fin)


1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Geometry 1 click
Form Union (fin).
2 In the Settings window for Form Union/Assembly, locate the Form Union/Assembly section.
3 From the Action list, choose Form an assembly.
4 Clear the Create pairs check box.
5 On the Home toolbar, click Build All.

MATERIALS
Click Windows and choose Add Material from Library.

ADD MATERIAL
1 Go to the Add Material window.
2 In the tree, select Built-In>Structural steel.

11 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


3 Click Add to Component in the window toolbar.
4 On the Home toolbar, click Add Material to close the Add Material window.

SOLID ROTOR (ROTSLD)


This model has multiple rotors having different axis of rotation as well as different speeds.
So first set the axis of rotation and speed for all three rotors.

1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1) click Solid Rotor (rotsld).
2 In the Settings window for Solid Rotor, locate the Rotor Speed section.
3 In the associated text field, type omega.

First Support 1
1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Rotor Axis 1 node, then click First Support 1.
2 In the Settings window for First Support, locate the Point Selection section.
3 Click Paste Selection.
4 In the Paste Selection dialog box, type 97-98 in the Selection text field.
5 Click OK.

Second Support 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Solid Rotor (rotsld)>
Rotor Axis 1 click Second Support 1.
2 In the Settings window for Second Support, locate the Point Selection section.
3 Click Paste Selection.
4 In the Paste Selection dialog box, type 119-120 in the Selection text field.
5 Click OK.

Rotor Axis 2
1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Solid Rotor (rotsld) and choose Rotor Axis.
2 Select Domains 5–7 only.

First Support 1
1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Rotor Axis 2 node, then click First Support 1.
2 In the Settings window for First Support, locate the Point Selection section.
3 Click Paste Selection.
4 In the Paste Selection dialog box, type 744, 756 in the Selection text field.
5 Click OK.

12 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


Second Support 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Solid Rotor (rotsld)>
Rotor Axis 2 click Second Support 1.
2 In the Settings window for Second Support, locate the Point Selection section.
3 Click Paste Selection.
4 In the Paste Selection dialog box, type 749, 761 in the Selection text field.
5 Click OK.

Rotor Axis 3
1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Solid Rotor (rotsld) and choose Rotor Axis.
2 Select Domains 3 and 4 only.

First Support 1
1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Rotor Axis 3 node, then click First Support 1.
2 In the Settings window for First Support, locate the Point Selection section.
3 Click Paste Selection.
4 In the Paste Selection dialog box, type 355, 363 in the Selection text field.
5 Click OK.

Second Support 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Solid Rotor (rotsld)>
Rotor Axis 3 click Second Support 1.
2 In the Settings window for Second Support, locate the Point Selection section.
3 Click Paste Selection.
4 In the Paste Selection dialog box, type 358, 366 in the Selection text field.
5 Click OK.

Change Rotor Speed 1


1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Solid Rotor (rotsld) and choose
Change Rotor Speed.
2 Select Domains 5–7 only.
3 In the Settings window for Change Rotor Speed, locate the Rotor Speed section.
4 In the associated text field, type -omega/gr.

Change Rotor Speed 2


1 Right-click Solid Rotor (rotsld) and choose Change Rotor Speed.
2 Select Domains 3 and 4 only.

13 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


3 In the Settings window for Change Rotor Speed, locate the Rotor Speed section.
4 In the associated text field, type omega/gr^2.

Fixed Axial Rotation 1


1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Solid Rotor (rotsld) click
Fixed Axial Rotation 1.
2 Select Boundary 57 only.
Now define helical gears to connect the three rotors.

Helical Gear 1
1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Solid Rotor (rotsld) and choose Gears>
Helical Gear.
2 Select Domain 1 only.
3 In the Settings window for Helical Gear, locate the Gear Properties section.
4 In the n text field, type n1.
5 In the dp text field, type d1.
6 In the α text field, type alpha.
7 In the β text field, type beta.
8 Locate the Center of Rotation section. From the list, choose Centroid of selected entities.
9 From the Entity level list, choose Point.

Center of Rotation: Point 1


1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Helical Gear 1 node, then click
Center of Rotation: Point 1.
2 In the Settings window for Center of Rotation: Point, locate the Point Selection section.
3 Click Paste Selection.
4 In the Paste Selection dialog box, type 101, 115 in the Selection text field.
5 Click OK.

Helical Gear 2
1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Solid Rotor (rotsld) right-
click Helical Gear 1 and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Helical Gear, locate the Domain Selection section.
3 Click Clear Selection.
4 Select Domain 5 only.
5 Locate the Gear Properties section. In the n text field, type n2.

14 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


6 In the dp text field, type d2.
7 In the β text field, type -beta.

Center of Rotation: Point 1


1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Helical Gear 2 node, then click
Center of Rotation: Point 1.
2 In the Settings window for Center of Rotation: Point, locate the Point Selection section.
3 Click Clear Selection.
4 Click Paste Selection.
5 In the Paste Selection dialog box, type 747, 760 in the Selection text field.
6 Click OK.

Helical Gear 3
1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Solid Rotor (rotsld) right-
click Helical Gear 1 and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Helical Gear, locate the Domain Selection section.
3 Click Clear Selection.
4 Select Domain 6 only.

Center of Rotation: Point 1


1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Helical Gear 3 node, then click
Center of Rotation: Point 1.
2 In the Settings window for Center of Rotation: Point, locate the Point Selection section.
3 Click Clear Selection.
4 Click Paste Selection.
5 In the Paste Selection dialog box, type 745, 758 in the Selection text field.
6 Click OK.

Helical Gear 4
1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Solid Rotor (rotsld) right-
click Helical Gear 2 and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Helical Gear, locate the Domain Selection section.
3 Click Clear Selection.
4 Select Domain 3 only.

15 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


Center of Rotation: Point 1
1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Helical Gear 4 node, then click
Center of Rotation: Point 1.
2 In the Settings window for Center of Rotation: Point, locate the Point Selection section.
3 Click Clear Selection.
4 Click Paste Selection.
5 In the Paste Selection dialog box, type 357, 364 in the Selection text field.
6 Click OK.

Gear Pair 1
1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Solid Rotor (rotsld) and choose Gear Pair.
2 In the Settings window for Gear Pair, locate the Gear Selection section.
3 From the Wheel list, choose Helical Gear 1.
4 From the Pinion list, choose Helical Gear 2.
5 Locate the Gear Pair Properties section. Select the Include gear elasticity check box.

Gear Elasticity 1
1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Gear Pair 1 node, then click Gear Elasticity 1.
2 In the Settings window for Gear Elasticity, locate the Mesh Stiffness section.
3 From the Specify list, choose Total stiffness of gear pair.
4 In the kg text field, type kg.

Gear Pair 2
1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Solid Rotor (rotsld) and choose Gear Pair.
2 In the Settings window for Gear Pair, locate the Gear Selection section.
3 From the Wheel list, choose Helical Gear 3.
4 From the Pinion list, choose Helical Gear 4.
5 Locate the Gear Pair Properties section. Select the Include gear elasticity check box.

Gear Elasticity 1
1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Gear Pair 2 node, then click Gear Elasticity 1.
2 In the Settings window for Gear Elasticity, locate the Mesh Stiffness section.
3 From the Specify list, choose Total stiffness of gear pair.
4 In the kg text field, type kg.
Now define journal bearings to provide the support for the rotors on both ends.

16 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


Journal Bearing 1
1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Solid Rotor (rotsld) and choose Journal Bearing.
2 Select Boundary 52 only.
3 In the Settings window for Journal Bearing, locate the Bearing Orientation section.
4 Specify the Orientation vector defining local y-direction vector as

1 x
0 y
0 z

5 Locate the Bearing Properties section. From the Bearing model list, choose
Total spring and damping constant.
6 In the ku table, enter the following settings:

kb 0
0 kb

Journal Bearing 2
1 Right-click Component 1 (comp1)>Solid Rotor (rotsld)>Journal Bearing 1 and choose
Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Journal Bearing, locate the Boundary Selection section.
3 Click Clear Selection.
4 Select Boundary 57 only.
5 Locate the Bearing Properties section. In the ku table, enter the following settings:

kb 0
0 kb

6 Clear the Constrain axial motion check box.

Journal Bearing 3
1 Right-click Component 1 (comp1)>Solid Rotor (rotsld)>Journal Bearing 2 and choose
Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Journal Bearing, locate the Boundary Selection section.
3 Click Clear Selection.
4 Select Boundary 397 only.

17 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


5 Locate the Bearing Properties section. In the ku table, enter the following settings:

kb 0
0 kb

6 Select the Constrain axial motion check box.

Journal Bearing 4
1 Right-click Component 1 (comp1)>Solid Rotor (rotsld)>Journal Bearing 3 and choose
Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Journal Bearing, locate the Boundary Selection section.
3 Click Clear Selection.
4 Select Boundary 406 only.
5 Locate the Bearing Properties section. In the ku table, enter the following settings:

kb 0
0 kb

6 Clear the Constrain axial motion check box.

Journal Bearing 5
1 Right-click Component 1 (comp1)>Solid Rotor (rotsld)>Journal Bearing 4 and choose
Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Journal Bearing, locate the Boundary Selection section.
3 Click Clear Selection.
4 Select Boundary 191 only.
5 Locate the Bearing Properties section. In the ku table, enter the following settings:

kb 0
0 kb

Journal Bearing 6
1 Right-click Component 1 (comp1)>Solid Rotor (rotsld)>Journal Bearing 5 and choose
Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Journal Bearing, locate the Boundary Selection section.
3 Click Clear Selection.
4 Select Boundary 196 only.

18 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


5 Locate the Bearing Properties section. In the ku table, enter the following settings:

kb 0
0 kb

6 Select the Constrain axial motion check box.

Applied Torque 1
1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Solid Rotor (rotsld) and choose Applied Torque.
2 Select Boundary 191 only.
3 In the Settings window for Applied Torque, locate the Torque section.
4 In the Tax text field, type Text*step1(t[1/s]).

MESH 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1) click Mesh 1.
2 In the Settings window for Mesh, locate the Mesh Settings section.
3 From the Element size list, choose Coarse.
4 Click Build All.

STUDY 1
In the Settings window for Study, type Study 1: Eigenfrequency in the Label text field.

Parametric Sweep
On the Study toolbar, click Parametric Sweep.

STUDY 1: EIGENFREQUENCY

Parametric Sweep
1 In the Settings window for Parametric Sweep, locate the Study Settings section.
2 Click Add.
3 In the table, enter the following settings:

Parameter name Parameter value list Parameter unit


omega range(0,500,9000) rpm

Step 1: Eigenfrequency
1 In the Model Builder window, under Study 1: Eigenfrequency click Step 1: Eigenfrequency.
2 In the Settings window for Eigenfrequency, locate the Study Settings section.
3 Select the Desired number of eigenfrequencies check box.

19 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


4 In the associated text field, type 10.
5 On the Study toolbar, click Compute.

RESULTS
Use the following instructions to plot the mode shape and Campbell diagram as shown in
Figure 2 and Figure 3 respectively.

Mode Shape (rotsld)


1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click Mode Shape (rotsld).
2 In the Settings window for 3D Plot Group, locate the Data section.
3 From the Eigenfrequency (Hz) list, choose 122.2.
4 On the Mode Shape (rotsld) toolbar, click Plot.
5 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

1D Plot Group 3
1 On the Home toolbar, click Add Plot Group and choose 1D Plot Group.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, locate the Data section.
3 From the Data set list, choose Study 1: Eigenfrequency/Parametric Solutions 1 (sol2).

Global 1
1 Right-click 1D Plot Group 3 and choose Global.
2 In the Settings window for Global, locate the y-Axis Data section.
3 In the table, enter the following settings:

Expression Unit Description


freq rpm Frequency

4 Locate the x-Axis Data section. From the Axis source data list, choose Outer solutions.
5 From the Parameter list, choose Expression.
6 In the Expression text field, type omega.
7 From the Unit list, choose RPM.
8 Click to expand the Coloring and style section. Locate the Coloring and Style section.
Find the Line style subsection. From the Line list, choose Dashed.
9 From the Color list, choose Blue.
10 In the Width text field, type 3.

20 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


Global 2
1 Right-click Results>1D Plot Group 3>Global 1 and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Global, locate the y-Axis Data section.
3 In the table, enter the following settings:

Expression Unit Description


omega rpm Angular speed of driver shaft

4 Locate the Coloring and Style section. Find the Line style subsection. From the Line list,
choose Solid.
5 From the Color list, choose Magenta.

Annotation 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Results right-click 1D Plot Group 3 and choose
Annotation.
2 In the Settings window for Annotation, locate the Annotation section.
3 In the Text text field, type \\\ω[[]] =Ω.
4 Locate the Position section. In the X text field, type 2500.
5 In the Y text field, type 2500.
6 Locate the Coloring and Style section. Select the LaTeX markup check box.
7 From the Color list, choose Magenta.

1D Plot Group 3
1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click 1D Plot Group 3.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, type Campbell diagram in the Label text
field.
3 Click to expand the Title section. From the Title type list, choose Manual.
4 In the Title text area, type Campbell diagram.
5 Locate the Plot Settings section. Select the x-axis label check box.
6 In the associated text field, type omega (RPM).
7 Select the y-axis label check box.
8 In the associated text field, type Frequency (RPM).
9 Locate the Legend section. Clear the Show legends check box.
10 On the Campbell diagram toolbar, click Plot.
11 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

21 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


ROOT
On the Home toolbar, click Windows and choose Add Study.

ADD STUDY
1 Go to the Add Study window.
2 Find the Studies subsection. In the Select Study tree, select Preset Studies>
Frequency Domain.
3 Click Add Study in the window toolbar.
4 On the Home toolbar, click Add Study to close the Add Study window.

STUDY 2

Step 1: Frequency Domain


1 In the Model Builder window, click Study 2.
2 In the Settings window for Study, type Study 2: Frequency Domain in the Label text
field.
3 Locate the Study Settings section. Clear the Generate default plots check box.

Parametric Sweep
On the Study toolbar, click Parametric Sweep.

STUDY 2: FREQUENCY DOMAIN

Parametric Sweep
1 In the Settings window for Parametric Sweep, locate the Study Settings section.
2 Click Add.
3 In the table, enter the following settings:

Parameter name Parameter value list Parameter unit


omega range(1000,1000,4000) range(5000, rpm
50,9000)

Step 1: Frequency Domain


1 In the Model Builder window, under Study 2: Frequency Domain click
Step 1: Frequency Domain.
2 In the Settings window for Frequency Domain, locate the Study Settings section.
3 In the Frequencies text field, type omega.

22 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


4 Locate the Physics and Variables Selection section. Select the
Modify physics tree and variables for study step check box.
5 In the Physics and variables selection tree, select Component 1 (comp1)>
Solid Rotor (rotsld)>Applied Torque 1.
6 Click Disable.
7 On the Study toolbar, click Compute.

RESULTS
Use the following instructions to plot the frequency response curves as shown in Figure 4
and Figure 5 respectively.

1D Plot Group 4
1 On the Home toolbar, click Add Plot Group and choose 1D Plot Group.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, locate the Data section.
3 From the Data set list, choose Study 2: Frequency Domain/Parametric Solutions 2 (sol23).

Global 1
1 Right-click 1D Plot Group 4 and choose Global.
2 In the Settings window for Global, locate the y-Axis Data section.
3 In the table, enter the following settings:

Expression Unit Description


abs(rotsld.hlg1.u) m
abs(rotsld.hlg2.u) m
abs(rotsld.hlg3.u) m
abs(rotsld.hlg4.u) m

4 Locate the x-Axis Data section. From the Axis source data list, choose Outer solutions.
5 From the Parameter list, choose Expression.
6 In the Expression text field, type omega.
7 From the Unit list, choose RPM.
8 Select the Description check box.
9 In the associated text field, type omega.
10 Locate the Coloring and Style section. Find the Line style subsection. From the Line list,
choose Cycle.
11 In the Width text field, type 3.

23 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


12 Click to expand the Legends section. From the Legends list, choose Manual.
13 In the table, enter the following settings:

Legends
Gear-1
Gear-2
Gear-3
Gear-4

1D Plot Group 4
1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click 1D Plot Group 4.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, type Frequency response: x-
displacement in the Label text field.

3 Locate the Title section. From the Title type list, choose Manual.
4 In the Title text area, type Frequency response: x-displacement.
5 Locate the Plot Settings section. Select the y-axis label check box.
6 In the associated text field, type x-displacement (m).
7 Locate the Axis section. Select the y-axis log scale check box.
8 Locate the Legend section. From the Position list, choose Upper left.
9 On the Frequency response: x-displacement toolbar, click Plot.
10 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

Global 1
1 Right-click Results>Frequency response: x-displacement and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Model Builder window, expand the Frequency response: x-displacement 1 node,
then click Global 1.
3 In the Settings window for Global, locate the y-Axis Data section.
4 In the table, enter the following settings:

Expression Unit Description


abs(rotsld.hlg1.thz) rad
abs(rotsld.hlg2.thz) rad
abs(rotsld.hlg3.thz) rad
abs(rotsld.hlg4.thz) rad

24 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


Frequency response: x-displacement 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click Frequency response: x-displacement 1.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, type Frequency response: z-rotation in
the Label text field.
3 Locate the Title section. In the Title text area, type Frequency response: z-
rotation.

4 Locate the Plot Settings section. In the y-axis label text field, type z-rotation (rad).
5 On the Frequency response: z-rotation toolbar, click Plot.
6 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

ROOT
On the Home toolbar, click Windows and choose Add Study.

ADD STUDY
1 Go to the Add Study window.
2 Find the Studies subsection. In the Select Study tree, select Preset Studies>
Time Dependent.
3 Click Add Study in the window toolbar.
4 On the Home toolbar, click Add Study to close the Add Study window.

STUDY 3

Step 1: Time Dependent


1 In the Model Builder window, click Study 3.
2 In the Settings window for Study, type Study 3: Time Dependent in the Label text
field.

STUDY 3: TIME DEPENDENT

Step 1: Time Dependent


1 In the Model Builder window, under Study 3: Time Dependent click
Step 1: Time Dependent.
2 In the Settings window for Time Dependent, locate the Study Settings section.
3 In the Times text field, type range(0,t_end/150,t_end).
4 On the Home toolbar, click Compute.

25 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


RESULTS
Use the following instructions to plot the von-Mises stress and gear orbits as shown in
Figure 6, Figure 7, and Figure 8 respectively.

Study 3: Time Dependent/Solution 109 (sol109)


In the Model Builder window, expand the Results>Data Sets node.

Selection
1 Right-click Study 3: Time Dependent/Solution 109 (sol109) and choose Duplicate.
2 On the Results toolbar, click Selection.
3 In the Settings window for Selection, locate the Geometric Entity Selection section.
4 From the Geometric entity level list, choose Domain.
5 Select Domains 1, 3, 5, and 6 only.

Surface
In the Model Builder window, expand the Results>Stress (rotsld) node.

Deformation
1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Surface node, then click Deformation.
2 In the Settings window for Deformation, click Replace Expression in the upper-right
corner of the Expression section. From the menu, choose Component 1>Solid Rotor>
Displacement>rotsld.us_fix,...,rotsld.ws_fix - Displacement field,
fixed frame (spatial frame).
3 Locate the Scale section. Select the Scale factor check box.
4 In the associated text field, type 1.

Surface 2
1 In the Model Builder window, under Results>Stress (rotsld) right-click Surface and choose
Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Surface, locate the Data section.
3 From the Data set list, choose Study 3: Time Dependent/Solution 109 (6) (sol109).
4 Locate the Expression section. In the Expression text field, type 1.
5 Locate the Coloring and Style section. From the Coloring list, choose Uniform.
6 From the Color list, choose Gray.

Surface
1 In the Model Builder window, under Results>Stress (rotsld) click Surface.
2 In the Settings window for Surface, click to expand the Range section.

26 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


3 Select the Manual color range check box.
4 In the Maximum text field, type 1e7.
5 On the Stress (rotsld) toolbar, click Plot.
6 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

Cut Point 3D 1
1 On the Results toolbar, click Cut Point 3D.
2 In the Settings window for Cut Point 3D, locate the Data section.
3 From the Data set list, choose Study 3: Time Dependent/Solution 109 (5) (sol109).
4 Locate the Point Data section. In the X text field, type rotsld.hlg1.xcx,
rotsld.hlg2.xcx, rotsld.hlg3.xcx, rotsld.hlg4.xcx.

5 In the Y text field, type rotsld.hlg1.xcy, rotsld.hlg2.xcy, rotsld.hlg3.xcy,


rotsld.hlg4.xcy.
6 In the Z text field, type rotsld.hlg1.xcz, rotsld.hlg2.xcz, rotsld.hlg3.xcz,
rotsld.hlg4.xcz.

1D Plot Group 7
1 On the Results toolbar, click 1D Plot Group.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, locate the Data section.
3 From the Data set list, choose Cut Point 3D 1.

Point Graph 1
1 Right-click 1D Plot Group 7 and choose Point Graph.
2 In the Settings window for Point Graph, locate the y-Axis Data section.
3 In the Expression text field, type w.
4 Locate the x-Axis Data section. From the Parameter list, choose Expression.
5 In the Expression text field, type u.
6 Click to expand the Coloring and style section. Locate the Coloring and Style section.
Find the Line style subsection. From the Line list, choose Cycle.
7 In the Width text field, type 3.
8 Click to expand the Legends section. Select the Show legends check box.
9 From the Legends list, choose Manual.

27 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


10 In the table, enter the following settings:

Legends
Gear-1
Gear-2
Gear-3
Gear-4

1D Plot Group 7
1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click 1D Plot Group 7.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, type Gear orbits, rotating frame in the
Label text field.
3 Locate the Title section. From the Title type list, choose Manual.
4 In the Title text area, type Gear orbits, rotating frame.
5 Locate the Axis section. Select the Preserve aspect ratio check box.
6 Locate the Legend section. From the Position list, choose Lower left.
7 On the Gear orbits, rotating frame toolbar, click Plot.
8 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

Point Graph 1
1 Right-click Results>Gear orbits, rotating frame and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Model Builder window, expand the Gear orbits, rotating frame 1 node, then click
Point Graph 1.
3 In the Settings window for Point Graph, locate the y-Axis Data section.
4 In the Expression text field, type rotsld.ws_fix.
5 Locate the x-Axis Data section. In the Expression text field, type rotsld.us_fix.

Gear orbits, rotating frame 1


1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click Gear orbits, rotating frame 1.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, type Gear orbits, fixed frame in the Label
text field.
3 Locate the Title section. In the Title text area, type Gear orbits, fixed frame.
4 On the Gear orbits, fixed frame toolbar, click Plot.
5 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

28 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


1D Plot Group 9
Use the following instructions to plot the gear transmission errors and bearing forces as
shown in Figure 9 and Figure 10 respectively.

1 On the Home toolbar, click Add Plot Group and choose 1D Plot Group.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, locate the Data section.
3 From the Data set list, choose Study 3: Time Dependent/Solution 109 (5) (sol109).

Global 1
1 Right-click 1D Plot Group 9 and choose Global.
2 In the Settings window for Global, locate the y-Axis Data section.
3 In the table, enter the following settings:

Expression Unit Description


rotsld.grp1.th_el deg Transmission error (elasticity)
rotsld.grp2.th_el deg Transmission error (elasticity)

4 Locate the Coloring and Style section. Find the Line style subsection. From the Line list,
choose Cycle.
5 In the Width text field, type 3.
6 Locate the Legends section. From the Legends list, choose Manual.
7 In the table, enter the following settings:

Legends
Gear-1
Gear-2

1D Plot Group 9
1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click 1D Plot Group 9.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, type Gear DTEs in the Label text field.
3 Locate the Title section. From the Title type list, choose Manual.
4 In the Title text area, type Dynamic Transmission Errors.
5 Locate the Legend section. From the Position list, choose Lower left.
6 On the Gear DTEs toolbar, click Plot.
7 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

Cut Point 3D 2
1 On the Results toolbar, click Cut Point 3D.

29 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


2 In the Settings window for Cut Point 3D, locate the Data section.
3 From the Data set list, choose Study 3: Time Dependent/Solution 109 (5) (sol109).
4 Locate the Point Data section. In the X text field, type 0.
5 In the Y text field, type 1.25*d1.
6 In the Z text field, type 0.
7 Select the Snap to closest boundary check box.

1D Plot Group 10
1 On the Results toolbar, click 1D Plot Group.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, locate the Data section.
3 From the Data set list, choose Cut Point 3D 2.

Point Graph 1
1 Right-click 1D Plot Group 10 and choose Point Graph.
2 In the Settings window for Point Graph, locate the y-Axis Data section.
3 In the Expression text field, type rotsld.jrb2.f2.
4 Locate the Coloring and Style section. Find the Line style subsection. From the Line list,
choose Cycle.
5 In the Width text field, type 3.
6 Locate the Legends section. From the Legends list, choose Manual.
7 Select the Show legends check box.
8 In the table, enter the following settings:

Legends
x-component

Point Graph 2
1 Right-click Results>1D Plot Group 10>Point Graph 1 and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Point Graph, locate the y-Axis Data section.
3 In the Expression text field, type rotsld.jrb2.f3.
4 Locate the Legends section. In the table, enter the following settings:

Legends
z-component

30 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


1D Plot Group 10
1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click 1D Plot Group 10.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, type Bearing forces in the Label text field.
3 Locate the Title section. From the Title type list, choose Manual.
4 In the Title text area, type Bearing forces.
5 Locate the Plot Settings section. Select the y-axis label check box.
6 In the associated text field, type Force (N).
7 Locate the Legend section. From the Position list, choose Lower left.
8 On the Bearing forces toolbar, click Plot.
9 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

Animation 1
1 On the Results toolbar, click Animation and choose Player.
2 In the Settings window for Animation, click Show Frame.
3 Locate the Scene section. From the Subject list, choose Stress (rotsld).
4 Locate the Frames section. In the Number of frames text field, type 50.

31 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS


32 | ROTORS CONNECTED THROUGH HELICAL GEARS
Created in COMSOL Multiphysics 5.3

Comparison of Different Hydrodynamic Bearings

This model is licensed under the COMSOL Software License Agreement 5.3.
All trademarks are the property of their respective owners. See www.comsol.com/trademarks.
Introduction
This example compares the load bearing abilities of different hydrodynamic bearings. The
simulation is performed using the Rotordynamics Module’s Hydrodynamic Bearing
interface. This interface solves the Reynolds equation to compute the pressure developed
in a thin fluid film for different bearing types. The bearings included in this example are of
plain, elliptic, split-halves, and multilobe type (2, 3, and 4 lobes).

Model Definition
Eight bearings are compared: One each of plain, elliptic, and split-halves type, and five
different multilobe bearings. The latter are one two-lobe bearing and two three-lobe and
four-lobe bearings. The two three-lobe bearings differ from each other in their relative
orientation with respect to the applied load direction, as do the two four-lobe bearings.

The journals rotate inside the bearing with an angular speed Ω (rad/s). The static position
of the journal is obtained such that the net force due to the fluid film in the horizontal
direction is zero whereas that in the vertical direction balances the journal weight, W.

The bearing configuration is shown in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1: Bearing configuration. Top row: Plain, elliptic, split halves, two-lobe. Bottom row:
Three-lobe (LOP), three-lobe (LBP), four-lobe (LOP), four-lobe (LBP).

On the fluid side, the parameters needed for the computation are the dynamic viscosity,
the density at cavitation pressure, and the compressibility. The fluid parameters, whose

2 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


values are summarized in Table 1, are close to those of lubricating oils used in real
bearings.
TABLE 1: FLUID PROPERTIES.

PROPERTY VALUE

Density ρ 1000 kg/m3


Dynamic viscosityμ 0.072 Pa·s
Compressibility β 10-7 Pa-1

BEARING DATA
The maximum and minimum clearance, Cmax and Cmin, respectively, of all the bearings
are set to the same values in order to make them equivalent.

The initial clearance, hb, assuming that the journal is located at the center of the bearing,
is listed in Table 2.
TABLE 2: INITIAL FILM THICKNESS.

BEARING INITIAL FILM THICKNESS

Plain hb = C
Elliptic h b = C min + ( C max – C min ) cos θ

Split halves h b = C + sign ( sin θ )d cos θ

Multilobe π 2π
h b = C + d cos ( θ – α m ) ,α m = ---- + ------ θN
--------
N N 2π

The objective is to obtain various parameters in Table 2 for different bearings by setting
maximum and minimum values to Cmax and Cmin respectively. Following sections provide
these expressions.

Plain Bearing
Because the initial thickness is uniform, the best choice of C for the plain bearing is
C = (Cmin + Cmin)/2.

Elliptic Bearing
The maximum and minimum clearance Cmax and Cmin are known.

Split-halves Bearing
For split-halves bearings, Cmin = C − d, Cmax = C + d, from which one finds C = (Cmax +
Cmin)/2 and d = (Cmax − Cmin)/2.

3 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


Multilobe Bearings
For multilobe bearings, Cmax = C + d and Cmin = C + dcos(π/N).

Hence, one obtains C = (Cmin − cos(π/N)Cmax)/(1 − cos(π/N)), and d = (Cmax − Cmin)/


(1 − cos(π/N)).

Results and Discussion


Figure 2 below shows the fluid pressure profile on the bearing.

Figure 2: Fluid film pressure profile.

Several results from the simulation provide valuable information about bearing
performance. Figure 3 shows a plot of journal eccentricity versus load. The journals that
exhibit lower eccentricity are the better ones. From the plot, it seems that the split-halves
and 3-lobe LBP (load between pad) bearings have optimum eccentricity in the operating
range. For loads higher than 5000 N, the 4-lobe bearing with load on pad (LOP) has the

4 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


largest eccentricity, while the 4-lobe LBP has the smallest one. The performances of the
other bearings lie somewhere in between.

Figure 3: Eccentricity vs. load.

The equilibrium position of the journals is shown in Figure 4 with increasing load W. The
y-coordinate of the journal position is plotted on the x-axis, and the z-coordinate is plotted
on the y-axis. When the load W is small, all journals tend to move more in the y direction

5 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


while the movement in the z direction is small. However, as the load increases, they move
significantly in the negative z direction and touch the bottom part of the bearing.

Figure 4: Journal position.

Figure 5 shows the plot of the fluid thickness profile when the journal is concentric with
the bearing. The geometric parameters of bearings are set in such a way that the minimum

6 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


and maximum clearances are the same for all bearings except for the plain bearing, which
is kept at the mean position.

Figure 5: Initial thickness profile.

Figure 6 shows a plot of the steady-state (current) thickness profile of the fluid.

Figure 6: Current thickness profile.

7 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


Notes About the COMSOL Implementation
The position of the journals is computed using the Global Equations interface in COMSOL
Multiphysics. It computes the y and z positions of the bearing such that load balance is
achieved in all directions.

In the computation, use an Auxiliary sweep study extension on the load applied by the
journal on the bearing to automatically run a loop over the parameter. The Auxiliary sweep
functionality is activated in the study step settings.

Application Library path: Rotordynamics_Module/Tutorials/


hydrodynamic_bearings_comparison

Modeling Instructions
From the File menu, choose New.

NEW
In the New window, click Model Wizard.

MODEL WIZARD
1 In the Model Wizard window, click 3D.
2 In the Select Physics tree, select Structural Mechanics>Rotordynamics>
Hydrodynamic Bearing (hdb).
3 Click Add.
4 Click Study.
5 In the Select Study tree, select Preset Studies>Stationary.
6 Click Done.

GLOBAL DEFINITIONS

Parameters
1 On the Home toolbar, click Parameters.
2 In the Settings window for Parameters, locate the Parameters section.

8 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


3 In the table, enter the following settings:

Name Expression Value Description


Rj 0.1[m] 0.1 m Radius of journal
H 0.1[m] 0.1 m Height of journal
C 0.001[m] 0.001 m Mean bearing clearance
d 0.1*C 1E-4 m Pad center offset
Cmax C+d 0.0011 m Maximum bearing clearance
Cmin C-d 9E-4 m Minimum bearing clearance
Ow 200[rad/s] 200 rad/s RPS
W 100[N] 100 N Load on bearing, z component
mu 0.072[Pa*s] 0.072 Pa·s Dynamic viscosity

GEOMETRY 1

Cylinder 1 (cyl1)
1 On the Geometry toolbar, click Cylinder.
2 In the Settings window for Cylinder, locate the Size and Shape section.
3 In the Radius text field, type Rj.
4 In the Height text field, type H.
5 Locate the Axis section. From the Axis type list, choose x-axis.
6 Locate the Object Type section. From the Type list, choose Surface.
7 Click Build Selected.

Array 1 (arr1)
Replicate 7 more cylinders along x direction by executing the following commands.

1 On the Geometry toolbar, click Transforms and choose Array.


2 Select the object cyl1 only.
3 In the Settings window for Array, locate the Size section.
4 In the x size text field, type 8.
5 Locate the Displacement section. In the x text field, type 2*H.

Form Union (fin)


1 On the Geometry toolbar, click Build All.
2 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

9 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


DEFINITIONS

Explicit 1
1 On the Definitions toolbar, click Explicit.
2 In the Settings window for Explicit, type Plain bearing in the Label text field.
3 Locate the Input Entities section. From the Geometric entity level list, choose Boundary.
4 Select Boundary 1 only.
5 In the Settings window for Explicit, locate the Input Entities section.
6 Select the Group by continuous tangent check box.
Selecting this checkbox allows automatic selection of multiple surfaces across which
tangent is continuous.

Plain bearing 1
1 Right-click Plain bearing and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Explicit, type Elliptic bearing in the Label text field.
3 Locate the Input Entities section. Click Clear Selection.
4 Select Boundary 5 only.

Explicit Selections
1 Repeat above sequence of commands to add more Explicit selections using the
information given in the following table:

Name Selection
Split halves bearing 9, 10, 11, 12
Two lobe bearing 13, 14, 15, 16
Three Lobe bearing (LOP) 17, 18, 19, 20
Three lobe bearing (LBP) 21, 22, 23, 24
Four lobe bearing (LOP) 25, 26, 27, 28
Four lobe bearing (LBP) 29, 30, 31, 32

In above table we display the entire selection for each bearing. But to create for example
the Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (Split halves) selection, selecting surface 9 is enough.
This is so because you duplicate the existing selection to create the new ones and the
checkbox Group by continuous tangent is already selected within the old.
2 In the Model Builder window, collapse the Definitions node.

10 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


HYDRODYNAMIC BEARING (HDB)
1 In the Model Builder window’s toolbar, click the Show button and select
Advanced Physics Options in the menu.
2 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1) click
Hydrodynamic Bearing (hdb).
3 In the Settings window for Hydrodynamic Bearing, click to expand the Cavitation section.
4 Select the Cavitation check box.
You can change the compressibility β inside the bearing node.

Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing 1


1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Hydrodynamic Bearing (hdb)
click Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing 1.
2 In the Settings window for Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing, type Hydrodynamic Journal
Bearing (Plain) in the Label text field.

3 Locate the Bearing Properties section. In the C text field, type C.


4 Locate the Journal Properties section. In the Ω text field, type Ow.
5 Locate the Fluid Properties section. From the μ list, choose User defined. In the
associated text field, type mu.

Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (Plain) 1


1 Right-click Component 1 (comp1)>Hydrodynamic Bearing (hdb)>
Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (Plain) and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing, type Hydrodynamic Journal
Bearing (Elliptic) in the Label text field.

3 Locate the Boundary Selection section. From the Selection list, choose Elliptic bearing.
4 Locate the Bearing Properties section. From the Bearing type list, choose Elliptic.
5 In the Cmin text field, type Cmin.
6 In the Cmax text field, type Cmax.

Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (Elliptic) 1


1 Right-click Component 1 (comp1)>Hydrodynamic Bearing (hdb)>
Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (Elliptic) and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing, type Hydrodynamic Journal
Bearing (Split halves) in the Label text field.

3 Locate the Boundary Selection section. From the Selection list, choose
Split halves bearing.

11 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


4 Locate the Bearing Properties section. From the Bearing type list, choose Split halves.
5 In the C text field, type C.
6 From the Preload factor list, choose Compute from offset.
7 In the d text field, type d.

Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (Split halves) 1


1 Right-click Component 1 (comp1)>Hydrodynamic Bearing (hdb)>
Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (Split halves) and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing, type Hydrodynamic Journal
Bearing (2-lobe) in the Label text field.
3 Locate the Boundary Selection section. From the Selection list, choose Two lobe bearing.
4 Locate the Bearing Properties section. From the Bearing type list, choose Multilobe.
5 In the C text field, type Cmax.
6 From the Preload factor list, choose Compute from offset.
7 In the d text field, type 2*d.

Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (2-lobe) 1


1 Right-click Component 1 (comp1)>Hydrodynamic Bearing (hdb)>
Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (2-lobe) and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing, type Hydrodynamic Journal
Bearing (3-lobe LOP) in the Label text field.

3 Locate the Boundary Selection section. From the Selection list, choose
Three Lobe bearing (LOP).
4 Locate the Bearing Properties section. In the C text field, type 2*Cmax-Cmin.
5 In the d text field, type 4*d.
6 In the N text field, type 3.

Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (3-lobe LOP) 1


1 Right-click Component 1 (comp1)>Hydrodynamic Bearing (hdb)>
Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (3-lobe LOP) and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing, type Hydrodynamic Journal
Bearing (3-lobe LBP) in the Label text field.
3 Locate the Boundary Selection section. From the Selection list, choose
Three lobe bearing (LBP).

12 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (3-lobe LBP) 1
1 Right-click Component 1 (comp1)>Hydrodynamic Bearing (hdb)>
Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (3-lobe LBP) and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing, type Hydrodynamic Journal
Bearing (4-lobe LOP) in the Label text field.

3 Locate the Boundary Selection section. From the Selection list, choose
Four lobe bearing (LOP).
4 Locate the Bearing Properties section. In the C text field, type (sqrt(2)*Cmax-Cmin)/
(sqrt(2)-1).

5 In the d text field, type sqrt(2)*(Cmax-Cmin)/(sqrt(2)-1).


6 In the N text field, type 4.

Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (4-lobe LOP) 1


1 Right-click Component 1 (comp1)>Hydrodynamic Bearing (hdb)>
Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (4-lobe LOP) and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing, type Hydrodynamic Journal
Bearing (4-lobe LBP) in the Label text field.

3 Locate the Boundary Selection section. From the Selection list, choose
Four lobe bearing (LBP).

Next set the orientation of the bearings using following instructions.

Bearing Orientation 2
1 On the Physics toolbar, click Boundaries and choose Bearing Orientation.
2 In the Settings window for Bearing Orientation, type Bearing Orientation
Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (3-lobe LOP) in the Label text field.
3 Locate the Boundary Selection section. From the Selection list, choose
Three Lobe bearing (LOP).
4 Locate the Bearing Orientation section. In the φ text field, type -pi/6.

Bearing Orientation Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (3-lobe LOP) 1


1 Right-click Bearing Orientation Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (3-lobe LOP) and choose
Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Bearing Orientation, type Bearing Orientation
Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (3-lobe LBP) in the Label text field.

3 Locate the Boundary Selection section. From the Selection list, choose
Three lobe bearing (LBP).

13 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


4 Locate the Bearing Orientation section. In the φ text field, type pi/6.

Bearing Orientation Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (3-lobe LBP) 1


1 Right-click Component 1 (comp1)>Hydrodynamic Bearing (hdb)>
Bearing Orientation Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (3-lobe LBP) and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Bearing Orientation, type Bearing Orientation
Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (4-lobe LOP) in the Label text field.
3 Locate the Boundary Selection section. From the Selection list, choose
Four lobe bearing (LOP).
4 Locate the Bearing Orientation section. In the φ text field, type pi/4.

Global Equations 1
Add a Global equation node.

1 On the Physics toolbar, click Global and choose Global Equations.


2 In the Settings window for Global Equations, locate the Units section.
3 Find the Dependent variable quantity subsection. From the list, choose
Displacement field (m).
4 Find the Source term quantity subsection. From the list, choose Force load (N).
5 Locate the Global Equations section. In the table, enter the following settings:

Name f(u,ut,utt, Initial value Initial value Description


t) (N) (u_0) (m) (u_t0) (m/
s)
u1y - 0 0 Plain bearing journal
hdb.hjb displacement, y component
1.Fjy
u1z W- -0.1*C 0 Plain bearing journal
hdb.hjb displacement, z component
1.Fjz
u2y - 0 0 Elliptic bearing journal
hdb.hjb displacement, y component
2.Fjy
u2z W- -0.1*C 0 Elliptic bearing journal
hdb.hjb displacement, z component
2.Fjz
u3y - 0 0 Split halves bearing journal
hdb.hjb displacement, y component
3.Fjy

14 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


Name f(u,ut,utt, Initial value Initial value Description
t) (N) (u_0) (m) (u_t0) (m/
s)
u3z W- -0.1*C 0 Split halves bearing journal
hdb.hjb displacement, z component
3.Fjz
u4y - 0 0 Two lobe bearing journal
hdb.hjb displacement, y component
4.Fjy
u4z W- -0.1*C 0 Two lobe bearing journal
hdb.hjb displacement, z component
4.Fjz
u5y - 0 0 Three lobe (LOP) bearing
hdb.hjb journal displacement, y
5.Fjy component
u5z W- -0.1*C 0 Three lobe (LOP) bearing
hdb.hjb journal displacement, z
5.Fjz component
u6y - 0 0 Three lobe (LBP) bearing
hdb.hjb journal displacement, y
6.Fjy component
u6z W- -0.1*C 0 Three lobe (LBP) bearing
hdb.hjb journal displacement, z
6.Fjz component
u7y - 0 0 Four lobe (LOP) bearing
hdb.hjb journal displacement, y
7.Fjy component
u7z W- -0.1*C 0 Four lobe (LOP) bearing
hdb.hjb journal displacement, z
7.Fjz component
u8y - 0 0 Four lobe (LBP) bearing
hdb.hjb journal displacement, y
8.Fjy component
u8z W- -0.1*C 0 Four lobe (LBP) bearing
hdb.hjb journal displacement, z
8.Fjz component

Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (Plain)


1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Hydrodynamic Bearing (hdb)
click Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (Plain).
2 In the Settings window for Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing, locate the Journal Properties
section.

15 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


3 Specify the uj vector as

0 x
u1y y
u1z z

Journal Displacements
Write similar expressions in the Journal displacement field of other bearings using the
information given in the following table:

Name Journal displacement


Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (Elliptic) (0,u2y,u2z)
Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (Split halves) (0,u3y,u3z)
Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (2-lobe) (0,u4y,u4z)
Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (3-lobe LOP) (0,u5y,u5z)
Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (3-lobe LBP) (0,u6y,u6z)
Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (4-lobe LOP) (0,u7y,u7z)
Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing (4-lobe LBP) (0,u8y,u8z)

MESH 1

Mapped 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1) right-click Mesh 1 and choose
More Operations>Mapped.
2 In the Settings window for Mapped, locate the Boundary Selection section.
3 From the Selection list, choose All boundaries.

Distribution 1
1 Right-click Component 1 (comp1)>Mesh 1>Mapped 1 and choose Distribution.
2 In the Settings window for Distribution, locate the Edge Selection section.
3 From the Selection list, choose All edges.
4 Locate the Distribution section. In the Number of elements text field, type 15.
5 In the Model Builder window, click Mesh 1.
6 In the Settings window for Mesh, click Build All.

16 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


STUDY 1

Step 1: Stationary
1 In the Settings window for Stationary, click to expand the Study extensions section.
Use following instructions to add an Auxiliary sweep on load W.
2 Locate the Study Extensions section. Select the Auxiliary sweep check box.
3 Click Add.
4 In the table, enter the following settings:

Parameter name Parameter value list Parameter unit


W range(1000,200,10000)

5 On the Home toolbar, click Compute.

RESULTS

Fluid Pressure (hdb)


1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click Fluid Pressure (hdb).
2 In the Settings window for 3D Plot Group, click to expand the Title section.
3 From the Title type list, choose Manual.
4 In the Title text area, type Fluid Pressure (Pa), W = 10,000 N.

Contour 1
1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Fluid Pressure (hdb) node, then click Contour 1.
2 In the Settings window for Contour, locate the Coloring and Style section.
3 Clear the Color legend check box.
4 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

Fluid Pressure (hdb)


In the Model Builder window, collapse the Results>Fluid Pressure (hdb) node.

Use the following instructions to plot eccentricity of the journals against load as shown in
Figure 3.

1D Plot Group 2
1 On the Home toolbar, click Add Plot Group and choose 1D Plot Group.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, type Eccentricity vs. Load in the Label
text field.
3 Click to expand the Title section. From the Title type list, choose Manual.

17 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


4 In the Title text area, type Relative eccentricity vs Load.
5 Locate the Plot Settings section. Select the x-axis label check box.
6 In the associated text field, type W (N).
7 Select the y-axis label check box.
8 In the associated text field, type e/C (1).

Global 1
1 Right-click Eccentricity vs. Load and choose Global.
2 In the Settings window for Global, locate the y-Axis Data section.
3 In the table, enter the following settings:

Expression Unit Description


sqrt(u1y^2+u1z^2)/C 1 Plain
sqrt(u2y^2+u2z^2)/C 1 Elliptic
sqrt(u3y^2+u3z^2)/C 1 Split halves
sqrt(u4y^2+u4z^2)/C 1 2-lobe
sqrt(u5y^2+u5z^2)/C 1 3-lobe (LOP)
sqrt(u6y^2+u6z^2)/C 1 3-lobe (LBP)
sqrt(u7y^2+u7z^2)/C 1 4-lobe (LOP)
sqrt(u8y^2+u8z^2)/C 1 4-lobe (LBP)

4 Click to expand the Coloring and style section. Locate the Coloring and Style section.
Find the Line style subsection. From the Line list, choose Cycle.
5 In the Width text field, type 3.

Eccentricity vs. Load


1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click Eccentricity vs. Load.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, locate the Legend section.
3 From the Position list, choose Lower right.
4 On the Eccentricity vs. Load toolbar, click Plot.
5 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.
6 In the Model Builder window, collapse the Eccentricity vs. Load node.

Use the following instructions to plot attitude angle against load as shown in Figure 3.

1D Plot Group 3
1 On the Home toolbar, click Add Plot Group and choose 1D Plot Group.

18 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, type Attitude Angle vs Load in the Label
text field.
3 Click to expand the Title section. From the Title type list, choose Manual.
4 In the Title text area, type Attitude angle vs Load.
5 Locate the Plot Settings section. Select the x-axis label check box.
6 In the associated text field, type W (N).
7 Select the y-axis label check box.
8 In the associated text field, type \phi (degree).

Global 1
1 Right-click Attitude Angle vs Load and choose Global.
2 In the Settings window for Global, locate the y-Axis Data section.
3 In the table, enter the following settings:

Expression Unit Description


atan2(u1z,u1y) deg Plain
atan2(u2z,u2y) deg Elliptic
atan2(u3z,u3y) deg Split halves
atan2(u4z,u4y) deg 2-lobe
atan2(u5z,u5y) deg 3-lobe (LOP)
atan2(u6z,u6y) deg 3-lobe (LBP)
atan2(u7z,u7y) deg 4-lobe (LOP)
atan2(u8z,u8y) deg 4-lobe (LBP)

4 Click to expand the Coloring and style section. Locate the Coloring and Style section.
Find the Line style subsection. From the Line list, choose Cycle.
5 In the Width text field, type 3.

Attitude Angle vs Load


1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click Attitude Angle vs Load.
2 On the Attitude Angle vs Load toolbar, click Plot.
3 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.
4 In the Model Builder window, collapse the Attitude Angle vs Load node.

Use the following instructions to plot journal position versus load as shown in Figure 4.

1D Plot Group 4
1 On the Home toolbar, click Add Plot Group and choose 1D Plot Group.

19 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, type Journal Position in the Label text
field.
3 Click to expand the Title section. From the Title type list, choose Manual.
4 In the Title text area, type Journal position.
5 Locate the Plot Settings section. Select the x-axis label check box.
6 In the associated text field, type u<sub>y</sub>/C (1).
7 Select the y-axis label check box.
8 In the associated text field, type u<sub>z</sub>/C (1).

Global 1
1 Right-click Journal Position and choose Global.
2 In the Settings window for Global, type Plain in the Label text field.
3 Locate the y-Axis Data section. In the table, enter the following settings:

Expression Unit Description


u1z/C 1

4 Locate the x-Axis Data section. From the Parameter list, choose Expression.
5 In the Expression text field, type u1y/C.
6 Click to expand the Coloring and style section. Locate the Coloring and Style section.
Find the Line style subsection. From the Line list, choose Cycle.
7 In the Width text field, type 3.
8 Click to expand the Legends section. From the Legends list, choose Manual.
9 In the table, enter the following settings:

Legends
Plain

Plain 1
1 Right-click Results>Journal Position>Plain and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Global, type Elliptic in the Label text field.
3 Locate the y-Axis Data section. In the table, enter the following settings:

Expression Unit Description


u2z/C 1

4 Locate the x-Axis Data section. In the Expression text field, type u2y/C.

20 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


5 Locate the Legends section. In the table, enter the following settings:

Legends
Elliptic

Global Display Nodes


Similarly add more Global display nodes using the information given in the following table:

Name y axis Data x axis Data Legends


Split halves u3z/C u3y/C Split halves
Two lobe u4z/C u4y/C Two lobe
Three lobe LOP u5z/C u5y/C Three lobe LOP
Three lobe LBP u6z/C u6y/C Three lobe LBP
Four lobe LOP u7z/C u7y/C Four lobe LOP
Four lobe LBP u8z/C u8y/C Four lobe LBP

Journal Position
1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click Journal Position.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, locate the Legend section.
3 From the Position list, choose Upper left.
4 On the Journal Position toolbar, click Plot.
5 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.
6 In the Model Builder window, collapse the Journal Position node.

Use the following instructions to plot the initial thickness profile of the fluid film as shown
in Figure 5.

Polar Plot Group 5


1 On the Home toolbar, click Add Plot Group and choose Polar Plot Group.
2 In the Settings window for Polar Plot Group, type Polar: Initial Thickness
Profile in the Label text field.

3 Locate the Data section. From the Parameter selection (W) list, choose First.
4 Click to expand the Title section. From the Title type list, choose Manual.
5 In the Title text area, type Initial thickness profile.
6 Locate the Axis section. Select the Manual axis limits check box.
7 In the r minimum text field, type 0.6.
8 In the r maximum text field, type 1.2.

21 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


Line Graph 1
1 Right-click Polar: Initial Thickness Profile and choose Line Graph.
2 Select Edges 1, 2, 4, and 6 only.
3 In the Settings window for Line Graph, locate the r-Axis Data section.
4 In the Expression text field, type hdb.hB1/C.
5 Select the Description check box.
6 In the associated text field, type Plain.
7 Locate the θ Angle Data section. From the Parameter list, choose Expression.
8 In the Expression text field, type hdb.Th+hdb.ang_bearing.
9 Click to expand the Coloring and style section. Locate the Coloring and Style section.
Find the Line style subsection. From the Line list, choose Cycle.
10 In the Width text field, type 3.
11 Click to expand the Legends section. Select the Show legends check box.
12 From the Legends list, choose Manual.
13 In the table, enter the following settings:

Legends
Plain

14 In the Label text field, type Plain.

Plain 1
1 Right-click Results>Polar: Initial Thickness Profile>Plain and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Line Graph, type Elliptic in the Label text field.
3 Locate the Selection section. Click Clear Selection.
4 Select Edges 13, 14, 16, and 18 only.
5 Locate the r-Axis Data section. In the Description text field, type Elliptic.
6 Locate the Legends section. In the table, enter the following settings:

Legends
Elliptic

22 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


Line graph Nodes
Similarly add more Line Graph nodes using the information given in the following table:

Name Selection r-Axis Data: Legends


Expression
Split halves 25, 26, 28, 30 Split halves Split halves
Two lobe 37, 38, 40, 42 Two lobe Two lobe
Three lobe LOP 49, 50, 52, 54 Three lobe LOP Three lobe LOP
Three lobe LBP 61, 62, 64, 66 Three lobe LBP (As is)
Four lobe LOP 73, 74, 76, 78 Four lobe LOP Four lobe LOP
Four lobe LBP 85, 86, 88, 90 Four lobe LBP Four lobe LBP

Polar: Initial Thickness Profile


1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click Polar: Initial Thickness Profile.
2 On the Polar: Initial Thickness Profile toolbar, click Plot.
3 In the Model Builder window, collapse the Polar: Initial Thickness Profile node.
Finally, plot the initial thickness profile of the fluid film as shown in Figure 6 using the
following instructions.

Polar: Initial Thickness Profile 1


1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Polar: Initial Thickness Profile and choose
Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Polar Plot Group, type Polar: Current Thickness
Profile in the Label text field.
3 Locate the Title section. In the Title text area, type Thickness profile, W = 2800 N.

Line graph Nodes


1 Edit the existing Line Graph nodes under Polar: Current Thickness Profile using the
information given in the following table:

Name r-Axis Data: Expression theta angle data: Expression


Plain hdb.h/C mod(hdb.Th+
hdb.ang_bearing,2*pi)
Elliptic hdb.h/C mod(hdb.Th+hdb.ang_bearing,
2*pi)
Split halves hdb.h/C mod(hdb.Th+hdb.ang_bearing,
2*pi)

23 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


Name r-Axis Data: Expression theta angle data: Expression
Two lobe hdb.h/C mod(hdb.Th+hdb.ang_bearing,
2*pi)
Three lobe LOP hdb.h/C mod(hdb.Th+
hdb.ang_bearing,2*pi)
Three lobe LBP hdb.h/C mod(hdb.Th+hdb.ang_bearing,
2*pi)
Four lobe LOP hdb.h/C mod(hdb.Th+hdb.ang_bearing,
2*pi)
Four lobe LBP hdb.h/C mod(hdb.Th+hdb.ang_bearing,
2*pi)
2 In the Model Builder window, expand the Results>Polar: Current Thickness Profile node,
then click Polar: Current Thickness Profile.
3 In the Settings window for Polar Plot Group, locate the Data section.
4 From the Parameter selection (W) list, choose Manual.
5 In the Parameter indices (1-46) text field, type 15.
6 Locate the Axis section. In the r minimum text field, type 0.0.
7 In the r maximum text field, type 2.0.
8 On the Polar: Current Thickness Profile toolbar, click Plot.
9 In the Model Builder window, collapse the Polar: Current Thickness Profile node.

24 | COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS


Created in COMSOL Multiphysics 5.3

Rotordynamic Analysis of a Crankshaft

This model is licensed under the COMSOL Software License Agreement 5.3.
All trademarks are the property of their respective owners. See www.comsol.com/trademarks.
Introduction
A crankshaft of a 3-cylinder reciprocating engine is studied in a vibration analysis. Due to
the eccentricity of the crank-pin and balance masses on the crankshaft, it undergoes self-
excited vibration under rotation. The crankshaft is modeled using solid elements to
capture the effects of the eccentricity of the crank-pin and balance masses accurately.

Model Definition
The crankshaft of a three cylinder reciprocating engines is shown in Figure 1. Four bearing
locations are also highlighted.

Flywheel

Bearings

Figure 1: Crankshaft geometry.

The load on the crank-pin due to the piston is neglected in the analysis, and the rotor
undergoes only the self-excited vibration due to the eccentric masses. Material damping is
used in the rotor to reduce high frequency vibrations. The angular speed of the crankshaft
in the steady state is 3000 rpm, but it is ramped initially for a smooth startup. The duration
of the ramp is chosen so that rotor completes one revolution with the linearly increasing
speed from 0 to Ω and subsequently continues with the constant angular speed Ω.
Assuming that the ramp duration is t0 it then follows that

t0
t Ω0 t0
2π = 0 Ω0 ----t0 dt = ------------
2

2 | ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A CRANKSHAFT


Therefore,

4π 2 120
t 0 = ------- = --- = ----------
Ω0 f N

where f is the frequency corresponding to the angular speed and N is the rpm. Therefore,
equation for the angular speed is

t t 
Ω = Ω 0  ----  ---- ≤ 1 +  ---- > 1  = Ω 0 ramp  ----
t t
 t0 t0 t0  t0

The Rayleigh coefficients for the damping are chosen such that the damping factor is close
to 0.1 for the given angular speed of the rotor. The proportionality constants chosen for
the analysis are

–4
α = 6.04 β = 5 ⋅ 10

3 | ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A CRANKSHAFT


Results and Discussion
Figure 2 shows the plot of the stress profile in the crankshaft. It is can be seen that the
bearing near the flywheel takes the maximum load so that the stress has a maximum in the
corresponding journal.

Figure 2: Stress in the crankshaft.

4 | ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A CRANKSHAFT


The pressure profile in the bearings is shown in Figure 3. From this plot it is clear that the
maximum pressure is generated in the bearing near the flywheel.

Figure 3: Pressure in the bearings.

5 | ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A CRANKSHAFT


The orbits of the center of the journals are shown in Figure 4. The orbits of all the journals
are stable and the journals finally attain their respective equilibrium positions in the steady
state.

Figure 4: Journal orbits.

6 | ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A CRANKSHAFT


The lateral displacement components of the third journal are shown in Figure 5. The plot
indicates that the lateral displacements of the journal undergo damped vibration and settle
to a equilibrium value in the steady state as seen in the orbit plot in Figure 4.

Figure 5: Lateral displacement components at journal 3.

Notes About the COMSOL Implementation


A Solid Rotor with Hydrodynamic Bearing multiphysics coupling is used to model the
crankshaft-bearing assembly. This multiphysics coupling consists of a Solid Rotor physics
node, a Hydrodynamic Bearing node, and a Solid Rotor Bearing Coupling multiphysics
coupling node. The Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing feature of the Hydrodynamic Bearing
physics interface is used to model the thin fluid-film flow in the journal bearing. You need
one such node per bearing.

Application Library path: Rotordynamics_Module/Automotive_and_Aerospace/


reciprocating_engine_rotor

7 | ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A CRANKSHAFT


Modeling Instructions
From the File menu, choose New.

NEW
In the New window, click Model Wizard.

MODEL WIZARD
1 In the Model Wizard window, click 3D.
2 In the Select Physics tree, select Structural Mechanics>Rotordynamics>
Solid Rotor with Hydrodynamic Bearing.
3 Click Add.
4 Click Study.
5 In the Select Study tree, select Preset Studies for Selected Physics Interfaces>
Time Dependent.
6 Click Done.

GEOMETRY 1

Import 1 (imp1)
1 On the Home toolbar, click Import.
2 In the Settings window for Import, locate the Import section.
3 Click Browse.
4 Browse to the model’s Application Libraries folder and double-click the file
reciprocating_engine_rotor.mphbin.

5 Click Import.

GLOBAL DEFINITIONS

Parameters
1 On the Home toolbar, click Parameters.
2 In the Settings window for Parameters, locate the Parameters section.
3 In the table, enter the following settings:

Name Expression Value Description


Ow 3000[rpm] 50 1/s Angular speed of the rotor
C 1e-4[m] 1E-4 m Bearing clearance

8 | ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A CRANKSHAFT


Name Expression Value Description
mu_l 0.072[Pa*s] 0.072 Pa·s Lubricant viscosity
rho_l 864[kg/m^3] 864 kg/m³ Lubricant density

ADD MATERIAL
1 On the Home toolbar, click Add Material to open the Add Material window.
2 Go to the Add Material window.
3 In the tree, select Built-In>Structural steel.
4 Click Add to Component in the window toolbar.
5 On the Home toolbar, click Add Material to close the Add Material window.

DEFINITIONS
Define the ramp function for the angular speed of the rotor to get a smooth start-up of
the simulation.

Ramp 1 (rm1)
1 On the Home toolbar, click Functions and choose Global>Ramp.
2 In the Settings window for Ramp, locate the Parameters section.
3 Select the Cutoff check box.
4 Click to expand the Smoothing section. In the Size of transition zone text field, type 0.2.
5 Select the Smooth at start check box.
6 Select the Smooth at cutoff check box.

SOLID ROTOR (ROTSLD)


1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1) click Solid Rotor (rotsld).
2 In the Settings window for Solid Rotor, locate the Rotor Speed section.
3 In the associated text field, type Ow*rm1(Ow*t/2).
4 Locate the Spin Softening section. Clear the Include spin softening check box.
Set the discretization to linear for the displacement to reduce the simulation time. For
more accurate results you can use the quadratic discretization.
5 In the Model Builder window’s toolbar, click the Show button and select Discretization in
the menu.
6 Click to expand the Discretization section. From the Displacement field list, choose
Linear.

9 | ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A CRANKSHAFT


Linear Elastic Material 1
Add damping in the rotor to reduce the high frequency vibrations and stabilize the
transient solver.

1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Solid Rotor (rotsld) click
Linear Elastic Material 1.

Damping 1
1 On the Physics toolbar, click Attributes and choose Damping.
2 In the Settings window for Damping, locate the Damping Settings section.
3 In the αdM text field, type 6.04.
4 In the βdK text field, type 0.0005.

First Support 1
1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Rotor Axis 1 node, then click First Support 1.
2 Select Points 1 and 2 only.

Second Support 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Solid Rotor (rotsld)>
Rotor Axis 1 click Second Support 1.
2 Select Points 232 and 241 only.

Fixed Axial Rotation 1


Suppress the axial rotation of the rotor at the flywheel end bearing.

1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Solid Rotor (rotsld) click
Fixed Axial Rotation 1.
2 Select Boundary 128 only.

Suppress the axial displacement of the rotor using the thrust bearings.

Thrust Bearing 1
1 On the Physics toolbar, click Boundaries and choose Thrust Bearing.
2 Select Boundary 11 only.

Thrust Bearing 2
1 On the Physics toolbar, click Boundaries and choose Thrust Bearing.
2 Select Boundary 131 only.

HYDRODYNAMIC BEARING (HDB)


Select only the surfaces corresponding to the bearing locations.

10 | ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A CRANKSHAFT


1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Thrust Bearing 2 node, then click
Component 1 (comp1)>Hydrodynamic Bearing (hdb).
2 In the Settings window for Hydrodynamic Bearing, locate the Boundary Selection section.
3 Click Clear Selection.
4 Select Boundaries 12, 13, 50, 51, 88, 89, 126, and 127 only.

Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing 1


1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Hydrodynamic Bearing (hdb)
click Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing 1.
2 In the Settings window for Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing, locate the Bearing Properties
section.
3 In the C text field, type C.
4 Locate the Fluid Properties section. From the μ list, choose User defined. In the
associated text field, type mu_l.
5 From the ρ list, choose User defined. In the associated text field, type rho_l.
Add more Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing nodes; one for each bearing.

Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing 2


1 Right-click Component 1 (comp1)>Hydrodynamic Bearing (hdb)>
Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing 1 and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing, locate the Boundary Selection
section.
3 Click Clear Selection.
4 Select Boundaries 50 and 51 only.

Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing 3


1 Right-click Component 1 (comp1)>Hydrodynamic Bearing (hdb)>
Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing 2 and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing, locate the Boundary Selection
section.
3 Click Clear Selection.
4 Select Boundaries 88 and 89 only.

Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing 4


1 Right-click Component 1 (comp1)>Hydrodynamic Bearing (hdb)>
Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing 3 and choose Duplicate.

11 | ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A CRANKSHAFT


2 In the Settings window for Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing, locate the Boundary Selection
section.
3 Click Clear Selection.
4 Select Boundaries 126 and 127 only.

MESH 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1) click Mesh 1.
2 In the Settings window for Mesh, locate the Mesh Settings section.
3 From the Element size list, choose Fine.

STUDY 1

Step 1: Time Dependent


1 In the Model Builder window, under Study 1 click Step 1: Time Dependent.
2 In the Settings window for Time Dependent, locate the Study Settings section.
3 In the Times text field, type range(0,1e-3,0.25).

Solution 1 (sol1)
1 On the Study toolbar, click Show Default Solver.
Set the appropriate scaling for the pressure.
2 In the Model Builder window, expand the Solution 1 (sol1) node.
3 In the Model Builder window, expand the Study 1>Solver Configurations>
Solution 1 (sol1)>Dependent Variables 1 node, then click Pressure (comp1.pfilm).
4 In the Settings window for Field, locate the Scaling section.
5 From the Method list, choose Manual.
6 In the Scale text field, type 1e5.
Use the automatic damping in the Newton sovler.
7 In the Model Builder window, expand the Study 1>Solver Configurations>
Solution 1 (sol1)>Time-Dependent Solver 1 node, then click Fully Coupled 1.
8 In the Settings window for Fully Coupled, click to expand the Method and termination
section.
9 Locate the Method and Termination section. From the Nonlinear method list, choose
Automatic (Newton).
10 On the Study toolbar, click Compute.

12 | ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A CRANKSHAFT


RESULTS

Stress (rotsld)
The stress in the crankshaft, shown in Figure 2, is a default plot. Set the appropriate scale
to highlight the deformation.

Surface
1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Stress (rotsld) node, then click Surface.
2 In the Settings window for Surface, click to expand the Range section.
3 Select the Manual color range check box.
4 In the Minimum text field, type 0.
5 In the Maximum text field, type 8e6.
6 Click the Go to XY View button on the Graphics toolbar.

Deformation
1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Surface node, then click Deformation.
2 In the Settings window for Deformation, locate the Scale section.
3 Select the Scale factor check box.
4 In the associated text field, type 500.
5 On the Stress (rotsld) toolbar, click Plot.
6 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

Fluid Pressure (hdb)


The pressure in the bearing, shown in Figure 3, is a default plot. Remove the color legend
for the contour plot to add more clarity.

Contour 1
1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Fluid Pressure (hdb) node, then click Contour 1.
2 In the Settings window for Contour, locate the Coloring and Style section.
3 Clear the Color legend check box.
4 On the Fluid Pressure (hdb) toolbar, click Plot.
5 Click Go to Default View.
6 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

Data Sets
Create the cut point data set at the center of the bearing locations. You will need this for
plotting the orbit of the crankshaft at different bearing locations as shown in Figure 4.

13 | ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A CRANKSHAFT


Cut Point 3D 1
1 On the Results toolbar, click Cut Point 3D.
2 In the Settings window for Cut Point 3D, locate the Point Data section.
3 In the X text field, type -0.16 -0.055 0.055 0.154.
4 In the Y text field, type 0 0 0 0.
5 In the Z text field, type -0.28525 -0.28525 -0.28525 -0.28525.
6 Click Plot.

1D Plot Group 3
1 On the Results toolbar, click 1D Plot Group.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, type Journal orbits in the Label text field.
3 Locate the Data section. From the Data set list, choose Cut Point 3D 1.
4 Locate the Plot Settings section. Select the x-axis label check box.
5 In the associated text field, type y-displacement.
6 Select the y-axis label check box.
7 In the associated text field, type z-displacement.
8 Click to expand the Title section. From the Title type list, choose Manual.
9 In the Title text area, type Journal orbit at different bearing locations.

Point Graph 1
1 Right-click Journal orbits and choose Point Graph.
2 In the Settings window for Point Graph, locate the y-Axis Data section.
3 In the Expression text field, type w.
4 Locate the x-Axis Data section. From the Parameter list, choose Expression.
5 In the Expression text field, type v.
6 Click to expand the Coloring and style section. Locate the Coloring and Style section. In
the Width text field, type 3.
7 Click to expand the Legends section. Select the Show legends check box.
8 From the Legends list, choose Manual.
9 In the table, enter the following settings:

Legends
Bearing 1
Bearing 2

14 | ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A CRANKSHAFT


Legends
Bearing 3
Bearing 4

Journal orbits
1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click Journal orbits.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, locate the Axis section.
3 Select the Preserve aspect ratio check box.
4 On the Journal orbits toolbar, click Plot.
5 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

To plot the lateral displacements of a point on the third bearing, shown in Figure 5, follow
the steps below.

1D Plot Group 4
1 On the Home toolbar, click Add Plot Group and choose 1D Plot Group.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, type Lateral displacements in the Label
text field.

Point Graph 1
1 Right-click Lateral displacements and choose Point Graph.
2 In the Settings window for Point Graph, locate the Selection section.
3 Select the Active toggle button.
4 Select Point 158 only.
5 Locate the y-Axis Data section. In the Expression text field, type v.
6 Click to expand the Coloring and style section. Locate the Coloring and Style section. In
the Width text field, type 3.
7 Click to expand the Legends section. Select the Show legends check box.
8 From the Legends list, choose Manual.
9 In the table, enter the following settings:

Legends
y-displacement

10 On the Lateral displacements toolbar, click Plot.

Point Graph 2
1 Right-click Results>Lateral displacements>Point Graph 1 and choose Duplicate.

15 | ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A CRANKSHAFT


2 In the Settings window for Point Graph, locate the y-Axis Data section.
3 In the Expression text field, type w.
4 Locate the Legends section. In the table, enter the following settings:

Legends
z-displacement

Lateral displacements
1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click Lateral displacements.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, locate the Plot Settings section.
3 Select the y-axis label check box.
4 In the associated text field, type Lateral displacements (m).
5 Locate the Legend section. From the Position list, choose Lower right.
6 On the Lateral displacements toolbar, click Plot.
7 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

Export
To generate the animation of the crankshaft vibration, follow the steps below.

Animation 1
1 On the Results toolbar, click Animation and choose Player.
2 In the Settings window for Animation, click Show Frame.
3 Locate the Frames section. In the Number of frames text field, type 100.
4 Right-click Animation 1 and choose Play.

16 | ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A CRANKSHAFT


Created in COMSOL Multiphysics 5.3

Whirling of Uniform Shaft Under Gravity

This model is licensed under the COMSOL Software License Agreement 5.3.
All trademarks are the property of their respective owners. See www.comsol.com/trademarks.
Introduction
In this model, you analyze the dynamics of a rotating shaft under gravity and supported
by two hydrodynamic bearings at its ends. Coupling between the rotor and the bearings
is achieved through the Beam Rotor with Hydrodynamics Bearing multiphysics interface
in the Rotordynamics Module.

Model Definition
The rotor is modeled as a beam of length L and diameter D. The material parameters of
the rotor are listed in Table 1.
TABLE 1: ROTOR MATERIAL PARAMETERS.

PARAMETER VALUE

Density 7800 kg/m3


Young’s modulus 2.05·1011 Pa
Poisson’s ratio 0.3

The rotor rotates inside the bearings with an angular speed Ω.

The bearing rotor assembly is shown in Figure 1 below.

Bearing 1

Bearing 2

Figure 1: Rotor configuration.

2 | WHIRLING OF UNIFORM SHAFT UNDER GRAVITY


This simulation considers a plain bearing. The parameters needed for the fluid-film
simulation are the dynamic viscosity, the density at cavitation pressure, and the
compressibility. The values of the parameters are summarized in Table 2 below.
TABLE 2: FLUID PROPERTIES.

PROPERTY VALUE

Density ρ 1000 kg/m3


Dynamic viscosityμ 0.072 Pa·s
Compressibility β 10-7 Pa-1

Results and Discussion


Figure 2 below shows the stress profile on the rotor with the maximum bending stress in
the middle part.

Figure 2: Rotor stress profile.

3 | WHIRLING OF UNIFORM SHAFT UNDER GRAVITY


A plot of the bearing fluid pressure is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Fluid pressure.

The orbit of the journal in the yz-plane at x = 0 is shown in Figure 4. Initially, the journal
is at the center of the bearing and is subjected to gravitational acceleration. As the journal
moves in the bearing, the pressure profile of the fluid film changes, which resists the
motion of the journal. Therefore, due to the inertia, the lateral displacement of the middle
part of the rotor is larger than that of the journal in the bearing, resulting in the bending
of the rotor. Because the rotor is also rotating about its own axis, it experiences a
gyroscopic moment due to the bending of the rotor. The gyroscopic moment causes the

4 | WHIRLING OF UNIFORM SHAFT UNDER GRAVITY


rotor to whirl about its initial axis. Hence, the journal spirals out and eventually reaches a
steady orbit.

Figure 4: Journal orbit.

A plot of the y and z components of the acceleration of the journal is shown in Figure 5.
The acceleration reaches a steady value around the time t = 0.1 s.

5 | WHIRLING OF UNIFORM SHAFT UNDER GRAVITY


Figure 5: Acceleration vs. time.

Figure 6 shows the frequency spectrum for the acceleration signal displayed in Figure 5.
For both the y and z components of the acceleration, the spectrum contains one
dominating frequency around 65 Hz which is approximately 0.43 times the rotational
frequency of the rotor. This type of whirling is often categorized as a half-frequency whirl.

Contributions of other frequencies are small except for the one around 130 Hz. This
produces some perturbations of the acceleration curve, as can be observed by the wiggles
in Figure 5.

6 | WHIRLING OF UNIFORM SHAFT UNDER GRAVITY


Figure 6: Frequency spectrum of acceleration.

Application Library path: Rotordynamics_Module/Tutorials/rotor_whirl

Modeling Instructions
From the File menu, choose New.

NEW
In the New window, click Model Wizard.

MODEL WIZARD
1 In the Model Wizard window, click 3D.
2 In the Select Physics tree, select Structural Mechanics>Rotordynamics>
Beam Rotor with Hydrodynamic Bearing.
3 Click Add.
4 Click Study.

7 | WHIRLING OF UNIFORM SHAFT UNDER GRAVITY


5 In the Select Study tree, select Preset Studies for Selected Physics Interfaces>
Time Dependent.
6 Click Done.

ROOT

Parameters
On the Home toolbar, click Parameters.

GLOBAL DEFINITIONS

Parameters
1 In the Settings window for Parameters, locate the Parameters section.
2 In the table, enter the following settings:

Name Expression Value Description


L 1.3[m] 1.3 m Length of the rotor
D 0.1[m] 0.1 m Diameter of the rotor
E0 2.05E11[Pa] 2.05E11 Pa Young’s modulus
rho0 7800 [kg/m^3] 7800 kg/m³ Density
nu0 0.3 0.3 Poisson’s ratio
Lj 0.025[m] 0.025 m Length of the bearing
C 5e-5[m] 5E-5 m Clearance
mu0 0.072[Pa*s] 0.072 Pa·s Viscosity
Ow 9000[rpm] 150 1/s Angular speed

GEOMETRY 1

Bézier Polygon 1 (b1)


1 On the Geometry toolbar, click More Primitives and choose Bézier Polygon.
2 In the Settings window for Bézier Polygon, locate the Polygon Segments section.
3 Find the Added segments subsection. Click Add Linear.
4 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set x to L.

Now you create plain surfaces at the ends of the rotor to represent bearing.

Cylinder 1 (cyl1)
1 On the Geometry toolbar, click Cylinder.

8 | WHIRLING OF UNIFORM SHAFT UNDER GRAVITY


2 In the Settings window for Cylinder, locate the Object Type section.
3 From the Type list, choose Surface.
4 Locate the Size and Shape section. In the Radius text field, type D/2.
5 In the Height text field, type Lj.
6 Locate the Axis section. From the Axis type list, choose x-axis.

Cylinder 2 (cyl2)
1 Right-click Cylinder 1 (cyl1) and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Cylinder, locate the Position section.
3 In the x text field, type L-Lj.
4 Click Build All Objects.
5 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

MATERIALS

Material 1 (mat1)
1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1) right-click Materials and
choose Blank Material.
2 In the Settings window for Material, locate the Geometric Entity Selection section.
3 From the Geometric entity level list, choose Edge.
4 From the Selection list, choose All edges.
5 In the Model Builder window, expand the Material 1 (mat1) node, then click Basic.
6 In the Settings window for Property Group, locate the Output Properties and Model Inputs
section.
7 Find the Quantities subsection. In the tree, select Output Properties>Density.
8 Click Add.
9 In the tree, select Output Properties>Poisson’s Ratio.
10 Click Add.
11 In the tree, select Output Properties>Young’s Modulus.
12 Click Add.
13 Find the Output properties subsection. In the table, enter the following settings:

Property Variable Expression Unit Size


Density rho rho0 kg/m³ 1x1

9 | WHIRLING OF UNIFORM SHAFT UNDER GRAVITY


Property Variable Expression Unit Size
Poisson’s ratio nu nu0 1 1x1
Young’s modulus E E0 Pa 1x1

BEAM ROTOR (ROTBM)


1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1) click Beam Rotor (rotbm).
2 In the Settings window for Beam Rotor, locate the Edge Selection section.
3 Click Clear Selection.
4 Select Edge 6 only.
5 Locate the Rotor Speed section. In the associated text field, type Ow.

Rotor Cross Section 1


1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Beam Rotor (rotbm) click
Rotor Cross Section 1.
2 In the Settings window for Rotor Cross Section, locate the Cross Section Definition section.
3 In the do text field, type D.

Gravity 1
1 On the Physics toolbar, click Edges and choose Gravity.
2 Select Edge 6 only.
3 In the Model Builder window’s toolbar, click the Show button and select
Advanced Physics Options in the menu.
You enable the Advanced Physics Option to add caviation in the model.

HYDRODYNAMIC BEARING (HDB)


1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1) click
Hydrodynamic Bearing (hdb).
2 In the Settings window for Hydrodynamic Bearing, click to expand the Cavitation section.
3 Select the Cavitation check box.
You can change the compressibility β inside the bearing node.

Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing 1


1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Hydrodynamic Bearing (hdb)
click Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing 1.
2 In the Settings window for Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing, locate the Bearing Properties
section.

10 | WHIRLING OF UNIFORM SHAFT UNDER GRAVITY


3 In the C text field, type C.
4 Locate the Fluid Properties section. From the μ list, choose User defined. In the
associated text field, type mu0.

You need to change the default mesh using the following sequence of commands. This is
needed for the accurate coupling between rotor and bearing.

MESH 1

Edge 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1) right-click Mesh 1 and choose
More Operations>Edge.
2 In the Settings window for Edge, type Beam Rotor in the Label text field.
3 Select Edge 6 only.

Distribution 1
1 Right-click Component 1 (comp1)>Mesh 1>Beam Rotor and choose Distribution.
2 In the Settings window for Distribution, locate the Distribution section.
3 In the Number of elements text field, type 150.

Mapped 1
1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Mesh 1 and choose More Operations>Mapped.
2 Right-click Mapped 1 and choose Rename.
3 In the Rename Mapped dialog box, type Bearing in the New label text field.
4 Click OK.
5 Click in the Graphics window and then press Ctrl+A to select all boundaries.

Distribution 1
1 Right-click Component 1 (comp1)>Mesh 1>Bearing and choose Distribution.
2 Select Edges 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 15, 17, and 19 only.
3 In the Settings window for Distribution, locate the Distribution section.
4 In the Number of elements text field, type 20.

Distribution 2
1 Right-click Bearing and choose Distribution.
2 Select Edges 8 and 20 only.
3 In the Settings window for Distribution, locate the Distribution section.
4 In the Number of elements text field, type 3.

11 | WHIRLING OF UNIFORM SHAFT UNDER GRAVITY


5 Click Build All.

STUDY 1

Step 1: Time Dependent


1 In the Settings window for Time Dependent, locate the Study Settings section.
2 In the Times text field, type range(0,5e-4,0.2).

Solution 1 (sol1)
You need to change the default scaling of the dependent variable pfilm.

1 On the Study toolbar, click Show Default Solver.


2 In the Model Builder window, expand the Solution 1 (sol1) node.
3 In the Model Builder window, expand the Study 1>Solver Configurations>
Solution 1 (sol1)>Dependent Variables 1 node, then click Pressure (comp1.pfilm).
4 In the Settings window for Field, locate the Scaling section.
5 From the Method list, choose Manual.
6 In the Scale text field, type 1.0e5.

Step 1: Time Dependent


On the Study toolbar, click Compute.

RESULTS

Stress (rotbm)
The default plots Figure 2 and Figure 3 show rotor stress and fluid pressure respectively.

1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click Stress (rotbm).


2 In the Settings window for 3D Plot Group, click to expand the Title section.
3 From the Title type list, choose Manual.
4 In the Title text area, type Time=0.2 s, von Mises stress (N/m<sup>2</sup>).
5 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

Data Sets
Duplicate the solution and select only one bearing to display the fluid pressure on it.

Study 1/Solution 1 (sol1)


In the Model Builder window, expand the Results>Data Sets node.

Selection
1 Right-click Study 1/Solution 1 (sol1) and choose Duplicate.

12 | WHIRLING OF UNIFORM SHAFT UNDER GRAVITY


2 On the Results toolbar, click Selection.
3 In the Settings window for Selection, locate the Geometric Entity Selection section.
4 From the Geometric entity level list, choose Boundary.
5 Select Boundaries 1–4 only.

Fluid Pressure (hdb)


1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click Fluid Pressure (hdb).
2 In the Settings window for 3D Plot Group, locate the Data section.
3 From the Data set list, choose Study 1/Solution 1 (2) (sol1).
4 Locate the Title section. From the Title type list, choose Manual.
5 In the Title text area, type Time=0.2 s, Pressure (Pa) .

Contour 1
Remove the color legend in the pressure contour for better clarity.

1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Fluid Pressure (hdb) node, then click Contour 1.
2 In the Settings window for Contour, locate the Coloring and Style section.
3 Clear the Color legend check box.
4 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

1D Plot Group 3
Use the following instructions to plot the y-z plane orbit of the journal at bearing as shown
in Figure 4.

1 On the Results toolbar, click 1D Plot Group.


2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, type Orbit in the Label text field.

Point Graph 1
1 Right-click Orbit and choose Point Graph.
2 Select Point 3 only.
3 In the Settings window for Point Graph, locate the y-Axis Data section.
4 In the Expression text field, type w/C.
5 Locate the x-Axis Data section. From the Parameter list, choose Expression.
6 In the Expression text field, type v/C.
7 Click to expand the Coloring and style section. Locate the Coloring and Style section.
From the Color list, choose Magenta.

13 | WHIRLING OF UNIFORM SHAFT UNDER GRAVITY


Orbit
1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click Orbit.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, click to expand the Title section.
3 From the Title type list, choose Manual.
4 In the Title text area, type Orbit of the journal at the left bearing.
5 Locate the Axis section. Select the Preserve aspect ratio check box.
6 On the Orbit toolbar, click Plot.
7 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

Use the following instructions to plot the y and z acceleration vs. time as shown in
Figure 5.

1D Plot Group 4
1 On the Home toolbar, click Add Plot Group and choose 1D Plot Group.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, type Acceleration vs. time in the Label
text field.

Point Graph 1
1 Right-click Acceleration vs. time and choose Point Graph.
2 In the Settings window for Point Graph, type y acceleration in the Label text field.
3 Select Point 3 only.
4 Locate the y-Axis Data section. In the Expression text field, type vtt.
5 Click to expand the Title section. From the Title type list, choose Manual.
6 Locate the Coloring and Style section. In the Width text field, type 3.
7 Click to expand the Legends section. From the Legends list, choose Manual.
8 Select the Show legends check box.
9 In the table, enter the following settings:

Legends
y acceleration

y acceleration 1
1 Right-click Results>Acceleration vs. time>y acceleration and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for Point Graph, type z acceleration in the Label text field.
3 Locate the y-Axis Data section. In the Expression text field, type wtt.

14 | WHIRLING OF UNIFORM SHAFT UNDER GRAVITY


4 Locate the Legends section. In the table, enter the following settings:

Legends
z acceleration

Acceleration vs. time


1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click Acceleration vs. time.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, locate the Plot Settings section.
3 Select the y-axis label check box.
4 In the associated text field, type Acceleration (m/s<sup>2</sup>).
5 Locate the Legend section. From the Position list, choose Upper left.
6 On the Acceleration vs. time toolbar, click Plot.
7 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.
Finally plot the frequency component of y and z acceleration as shown in Figure 6.

Acceleration vs. time 1


1 Right-click Results>Acceleration vs. time and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, type y acceleration spectrum in the Label
text field.
3 Locate the Plot Settings section. Select the x-axis label check box.
4 In the associated text field, type Frequency (Hz).
5 Locate the Legend section. From the Position list, choose Upper right.

y acceleration
1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Results>y acceleration spectrum node, then
click y acceleration.
2 In the Settings window for Point Graph, locate the x-Axis Data section.
3 From the Parameter list, choose Frequency spectrum.
4 Select the Scale check box.

z acceleration
1 In the Model Builder window, under Results>y acceleration spectrum click z acceleration.
2 In the Settings window for Point Graph, locate the x-Axis Data section.
3 From the Parameter list, choose Frequency spectrum.
4 Select the Scale check box.
5 On the y acceleration spectrum toolbar, click Plot.

15 | WHIRLING OF UNIFORM SHAFT UNDER GRAVITY


6 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

16 | WHIRLING OF UNIFORM SHAFT UNDER GRAVITY


Created in COMSOL Multiphysics 5.3

Simply Supported Beam Rotor

This model is licensed under the COMSOL Software License Agreement 5.3.
All trademarks are the property of their respective owners. See www.comsol.com/trademarks.
Introduction
A simply supported rotor supported by two end bearings is considered. Eigenfrequency
and transient with FFT analyses are performed to obtain the critical speed and stability
characteristics of the rotor.

Model Definition
The model consists of a rotor supported by two end bearings, with multiple disks mounted
at different locations on the rotor. The geometry of the rotor is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Rotor geometry.

Two different analyses are performed:

• An eigenfrequency analysis.
• A transient with FFT analysis for different angular speeds of the rotor. This analysis
looks at the frequency spectrum of the rotor and how it changes with the rpm.

The properties of the shaft are given in Table 1.


TABLE 1: SHAFT PROPERTIES.

PROPERTY VALUE

Young’s modulus E 2·1011 N/m2


Poisson’s ratio ν 0.33
Density ρ 7800 kg/m3
Diameter d 0.1 m
Distance between the left end of the shaft and first disk l1 0.2 m
Distance between the first and second disks l2 0.3 m
Distance between second and third disks l3 0.5 m
Distance between third disk and the right end of the shaft l4 0.3 m

2 | SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM ROTOR


CASE 1 — EIGENFREQUENCY ANALYSIS
In this case, three circular disks are mounted on the rotor without any offset. The bearings
are modeled by equivalent stiffness and damping constants. Bending stiffness and
rotational damping in the bearings are neglected. The angular speed of the rotor is varied
from 1000 rpm to 35,000 rpm in steps of 1000 rpm. The variations in natural frequencies
and logarithmic decrements with angular speed of the rotor are analyzed.

Properties of the disks and bearings used in this analysis are given in Table 2 and Table 3:
TABLE 2: DISK PROPERTIES.

PROPERTY DISK 1 DISK 2 DISK 3

Mass m (kg) 14.58 45.94 55.13


Polar moment of inertia Ip (kg m2) 0.123 0.976 1.171
2
Diametral moment of inertia Id (kg m ) 0.064 0.498 0.602

TABLE 3: BEARING PROPERTIES.

PROPERTY BEARING 1 BEARING 2

kyy (N/m) 7·107 6·107


kzz (N/m) 5·107 4·107
cyy (N-s/m) 7000 6000
czz (N-s/m) 4000 5000

C A S E 2 — TR A N S I E N T W I T H F F T A N A L Y S I S
In this case, there is only a single disk with a radial offset mounted on the rotor. The
bearings are modeled by using the nonlinear stiffness and damping constants obtained by
the short-bearing approximation of the Reynolds equation for a plain hydrodynamic
bearing. This option is in-built in COMSOL Multiphysics. Bending stiffness and
rotational damping of the bearing are neglected also in this case. Structural damping is
added to damp the high frequency vibrations of the rotor and also to stabilize the time-
dependent solver. The angular speed of the shaft is varied from 2000 rpm to 30,000 rpm
in steps of 2000 rpm. Variations in the frequency spectrum and orbits of the various points
on the rotor are studied.

In this analysis only the second disk from the first analysis is retained, and it is given an
eccentricity of 0.1 mm. The bearing properties for this analysis are given in Table 4.
TABLE 4: BEARING PROPERTIES.

PROPERTIES VALUES

Clearance C 10-4 m
Radius of the journal R d/2

3 | SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM ROTOR


TABLE 4: BEARING PROPERTIES.

PROPERTIES VALUES

Length of the journal L d


Viscosity of the lubricant μ 0.072 Pa·s
The angular velocity of the rotor is linearly ramped to give a smooth startup of the
simulation. The duration of the ramp is chosen such that the rotor completes one
revolution with linearly increasing speed from 0 to Ω before it continues with the constant
angular speed Ω. Then, assuming that the ramp duration is t0,

t0
t Ω0 t0
2π = 0 Ω0 ----t0 dt = ------------
2

Therefore,

4π 2 120
t 0 = ------- = --- = ----------
Ω0 f N

where f is the frequency corresponding to the angular speed and N is the rpm. Therefore,
the function describing the angular speed is

t t 
Ω = Ω 0  ----  ---- ≤ 1 +  ---- > 1  = Ω 0 ramp  ----
t t
t  t   t   t 
 0 0 0  0

4 | SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM ROTOR


Results and Discussion

EIGENFREQUENCY ANALYSIS
The whirl plot for the third mode is shown in Figure 2. In this mode, the gyroscopic effect
is not significant on disk 1 and disk 3 because of negligible slopes. However, disk 2 is
affected significantly by the gyroscopic effects.

Figure 2: Whirl plot.

5 | SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM ROTOR


A Campbell plot, shown in Figure 3, gives a better overview of the gyroscopic effects on
the rotor whirl.

Figure 3: Campbell plot.

The logarithmic decrement is a parameter that can be used as a measure of the damping
in the system. The expression for the logarithmic decrement in terms of eigenvalues is:

imag ( ω )
δ = 2π -----------------------
abs ( ω )

6 | SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM ROTOR


A plot of the logarithmic decrement as a function of the rotor angular speed is shown in
Figure 4. This plot shows how the damping in a particular mode changes with the angular
speed of the rotor.

Figure 4: Logarithmic decrement.

TR A N S I E N T W I T H F F T A N A L Y S I S
The waterfall plot for the absolute z-displacement at the first bearing location is shown in
Figure 5. The waterfall plot shows the variation in the frequency spectrum of the rotor
with the change in its angular speed. In this case, three dominant frequencies are observed
in the waterfall plot. A longer duration of the transient simulation will increase the
frequency resolution and with the use of smaller time step higher frequencies can be
captured too, but, it will require larger simulation time. System may vibrate at different
frequencies simultaneously due to various sources of the excitation. In such a case multiple
peaks can be observed in the waterfall plot.

7 | SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM ROTOR


Figure 5: Waterfall plot.

Figure 6 shows an orbit plot at the first bearing location. The color of the orbit changes
from blue to red as the simulation time increases. Color pattern shows that the point on

8 | SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM ROTOR


the rotor first undergoes transient motion but eventually attains the steady state with orbit
repeating itself.

Figure 6: Orbit of the journal at the first bearing.

9 | SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM ROTOR


An orbit plot at the center of the disk is shown in Figure 7. Orbit of this point also has the
similar behavior as that of the point in the bearing with a circular orbit at the steady state.

Figure 7: Orbit at the center of the disk.

Notes About the COMSOL Implementation


The Plain hydrodynamic option for the Journal Bearing feature uses the stiffness obtained
from the short-bearing approximation in the Reynolds equation for the thin film flow in
the hydrodynamic journal bearing. This option is used for the Transient with FFT analysis.

The Transient with FFT study first obtains the transient response of the rotor and
subsequently takes the Fourier transform to convert it into a frequency spectrum. Note
that using such a study sequence you lose all the transient solutions except the one for the
last parameter. If you also want the transient solutions for each angular speed parameter,
you need to store the solutions manually.

Application Library path: Rotordynamics_Module/Tutorials/


simply_supported_beam_rotor

10 | SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM ROTOR


Modeling Instructions
From the File menu, choose New.

NEW
In the New window, click Model Wizard.

MODEL WIZARD
1 In the Model Wizard window, click 3D.
2 In the Select Physics tree, select Structural Mechanics>Rotordynamics>
Beam Rotor (rotbm).
3 Click Add.
4 Click Study.
5 In the Select Study tree, select Preset Studies>Eigenfrequency.
6 Click Done.

GLOBAL DEFINITIONS

Parameters
1 On the Home toolbar, click Parameters.
2 In the Settings window for Parameters, locate the Parameters section.
3 In the table, enter the following settings:

Name Expression Value Description


Ow 0[rpm] 0 1/s Angular speed of the shaft
rho_s 7800[kg/m^3] 7800 kg/m³ Density of the shaft
E_s 2e11[N/m^2] 2E11 N/m² Young’s modulus of the
shaft
nu_s 0.33 0.33 Poisson’s ratio of the
shaft
d_s 0.1[m] 0.1 m Diameter of the shaft
l1 0.2[m] 0.2 m Distance between the left
end of the shaft and the
first disk
l2 0.3[m] 0.3 m Distance between the first
and second disk
l3 0.5[m] 0.5 m Distance between the
second and third disk

11 | SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM ROTOR


Name Expression Value Description
l4 0.3[m] 0.3 m Distrance between the
third disk and the right
end of the shaft
m_d1 14.58[kg] 14.58 kg Mass of the first disk
Jd_d1 0.064[kg*m^2] 0.064 kg·m² Diametral moment of
inertia of the first disk
Jp_d1 0.123[kg*m^2] 0.123 kg·m² Polar moment of inertia of
the first disk
m_d2 45.94[kg] 45.94 kg Mass of the second disk
Jd_d2 0.498[kg*m^2] 0.498 kg·m² Diametral moment of
inertia of the second disk
Jp_d2 0.976[kg*m^2] 0.976 kg·m² Polar moment of inertia of
the second disk
m_d3 55.13[kg] 55.13 kg Mass of the first disk
Jd_d3 0.602[kg*m^2] 0.602 kg·m² Diametral moment of
inertia of the third disk
Jp_d3 1.171[kg*m^2] 1.171 kg·m² Polar moment of inertia of
the third disk
k1yy 7e7[N/m] 7E7 N/m Stiffness of the first
bearing in local y
direction
k1zz 5e7[N/m] 5E7 N/m Stiffness of the first
bearing in local z
direction
c1yy 7000[N*s/m] 7000 N·s/m Damping constant of the
first bearing in local y
direction
c1zz 4000[N*s/m] 4000 N·s/m Damping constant of the
first bearing in local z
direction
k2yy 6e7[N/m] 6E7 N/m Stiffness of the second
bearing in local y
direction
k2zz 4e7[N/m] 4E7 N/m Stiffness of the second
bearing in local z
direction
c2yy 6000[N*s/m] 6000 N·s/m Damping constant of the
second bearing in local y
direction

12 | SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM ROTOR


Name Expression Value Description
c2zz 5000[N*s/m] 5000 N·s/m Damping constant of the
second bearing in local z
direction
mu_l 0.072[Pa*s] 0.072 Pa·s Viscosity of the lubricant
C 1e-4[m] 1E-4 m Clearance in the bearing

GEOMETRY 1

Bézier Polygon 1 (b1)


1 On the Geometry toolbar, click More Primitives and choose Bézier Polygon.
2 In the Settings window for Bézier Polygon, locate the Polygon Segments section.
3 Find the Added segments subsection. Click Add Linear.
4 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set x to l1.
5 Find the Added segments subsection. Click Add Linear.
6 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set x to l1+l2.
7 Find the Added segments subsection. Click Add Linear.
8 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set x to l1+l2+l3.
9 Find the Added segments subsection. Click Add Linear.
10 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set x to l1+l2+l3+l4.
11 Click Build All Objects.

MATERIALS

Material 1 (mat1)
1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1) right-click Materials and
choose Blank Material.
2 In the Settings window for Material, locate the Material Contents section.
3 In the table, enter the following settings:

Property Name Value Unit Property group


Young’s modulus E E_s Pa Basic
Poisson’s ratio nu nu_s 1 Basic
Density rho rho_s kg/m³ Basic

BEAM ROTOR (ROTBM)


1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1) click Beam Rotor (rotbm).

13 | SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM ROTOR


2 In the Settings window for Beam Rotor, locate the Rotor Speed section.
3 In the associated text field, type Ow.

Rotor Cross Section 1


1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Beam Rotor (rotbm) click
Rotor Cross Section 1.
2 In the Settings window for Rotor Cross Section, locate the Cross Section Definition section.
3 In the do text field, type d_s.

Disk 1
1 On the Physics toolbar, click Points and choose Disk.
2 Select Point 2 only.
3 In the Settings window for Disk, locate the Disk Properties section.
4 In the m text field, type m_d1.
5 In the Ip text field, type Jp_d1.
6 In the Id text field, type Jd_d1.

Disk 2
1 On the Physics toolbar, click Points and choose Disk.
2 Select Point 3 only.
3 In the Settings window for Disk, locate the Disk Properties section.
4 In the m text field, type m_d2.
5 In the Ip text field, type Jp_d2.
6 In the Id text field, type Jd_d2.

Disk 3
1 On the Physics toolbar, click Points and choose Disk.
2 Select Point 4 only.
3 In the Settings window for Disk, locate the Disk Properties section.
4 In the m text field, type m_d3.
5 In the Ip text field, type Jp_d3.
6 In the Id text field, type Jd_d3.

Journal Bearing 1
1 On the Physics toolbar, click Points and choose Journal Bearing.
2 Select Point 1 only.

14 | SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM ROTOR


3 In the Settings window for Journal Bearing, locate the Bearing Properties section.
4 From the Bearing model list, choose Total spring and damping constant.
5 In the ku table, enter the following settings:

k1yy 0
0 k1zz

6 In the cu table, enter the following settings:

c1yy 0
0 c1zz

Journal Bearing 2
1 On the Physics toolbar, click Points and choose Journal Bearing.
2 Select Point 5 only.
3 In the Settings window for Journal Bearing, locate the Bearing Properties section.
4 From the Bearing model list, choose Total spring and damping constant.
5 In the ku table, enter the following settings:

k2yy 0
0 k2zz

6 In the cu table, enter the following settings:

c2yy 0
0 c2zz

STUDY 1
Use a parametric step to sweep the angular speed of the rotor from 0 to 35000 rpm in the
steps of 500 rpm.

Parametric Sweep
1 On the Study toolbar, click Parametric Sweep.
2 In the Settings window for Parametric Sweep, locate the Study Settings section.
3 Click Add.
4 Click to select row number 1 in the table.

15 | SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM ROTOR


5 In the table, enter the following settings:

Parameter name Parameter value list Parameter unit


Ow range(0,500,35000) rpm

Step 1: Eigenfrequency
1 In the Model Builder window, under Study 1 click Step 1: Eigenfrequency.
2 In the Settings window for Eigenfrequency, locate the Study Settings section.
3 Select the Desired number of eigenfrequencies check box.
4 In the associated text field, type 20.
Error occurred when generating instruction for method
’XDialog.doSetCombo(eigunit, RPM, true). Cause: Index out of range in combo box
’eigunit’.
5 In the Model Builder window, click Study 1.
6 In the Settings window for Study, type Study: Eigenfrequency in the Label text field.
7 On the Study toolbar, click Compute.

RESULTS

Whirl (rotbm)
Follow the steps below to generate the whirl plot as shown in Figure 2.

1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click Whirl (rotbm).


2 In the Settings window for 3D Plot Group, locate the Data section.
3 From the Eigenfrequency (RPM) list, choose 8668+295.6i.
4 On the Whirl (rotbm) toolbar, click Plot.

Whirl 1
1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Whirl (rotbm) node, then click Whirl 1.
2 In the Settings window for Whirl, locate the Coloring and Style section.
3 In the Number of planes text field, type 6.
4 On the Whirl (rotbm) toolbar, click Plot.
5 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

To generate the Campbell plot, shown in Figure 3, follow the steps below.

1D Plot Group 2
1 On the Home toolbar, click Add Plot Group and choose 1D Plot Group.

16 | SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM ROTOR


2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, type Campbell Plot in the Label text field.
3 Locate the Data section. From the Data set list, choose Study: Eigenfrequency/
Parametric Solutions 1 (sol2).

Global 1
1 Right-click Campbell Plot and choose Global.
2 In the Settings window for Global, locate the y-Axis Data section.
3 In the table, enter the following settings:

Expression Unit Description


rotbm.freq RPM Frequency

4 Locate the x-Axis Data section. From the Axis source data list, choose Outer solutions.
5 From the Parameter list, choose Expression.
6 In the Expression text field, type Ow.
7 From the Unit list, choose RPM.
8 Click to expand the Coloring and style section. Locate the Coloring and Style section.
Find the Line style subsection. From the Line list, choose Dashed.
9 From the Color list, choose Blue.
10 In the Width text field, type 3.
11 Click to expand the Legends section. Clear the Show legends check box.
12 On the Campbell Plot toolbar, click Plot.

Campbell Plot
1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click Campbell Plot.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, locate the Data section.
3 From the Eigenfrequency selection list, choose Manual.
4 In the Eigenfrequency indices (1-20) text field, type range(1,1,10).

Global 2
1 Right-click Results>Campbell Plot and choose Global.
2 In the Settings window for Global, locate the Data section.
3 From the Data set list, choose Study: Eigenfrequency/Parametric Solutions 1 (sol2).
4 From the Eigenfrequency selection list, choose Last.

17 | SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM ROTOR


5 Locate the y-Axis Data section. In the table, enter the following settings:

Expression Unit Description


Ow RPM Angular speed of the shaft

6 Locate the x-Axis Data section. From the Axis source data list, choose Outer solutions.
7 From the Parameter list, choose Expression.
8 In the Expression text field, type Ow.
9 From the Unit list, choose RPM.
10 Locate the Coloring and Style section. In the Width text field, type 3.
11 From the Color list, choose Red.
12 Locate the Legends section. Clear the Show legends check box.
13 On the Campbell Plot toolbar, click Plot.

Campbell Plot
1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click Campbell Plot.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, click to expand the Title section.
3 From the Title type list, choose Manual.
4 In the Title text area, type Whirl Speed Map.
5 Locate the Plot Settings section. Select the y-axis label check box.
6 In the associated text field, type Natural frequency (RPM).

Annotation 1
1 Right-click Results>Campbell Plot and choose Annotation.
2 In the Settings window for Annotation, locate the Annotation section.
3 In the Text text field, type \\\ω =Ω.
4 Locate the Coloring and Style section. Select the LaTeX markup check box.
5 From the Color list, choose Red.
6 Locate the Position section. In the X text field, type 30000.
7 In the Y text field, type 30000.
8 On the Campbell Plot toolbar, click Plot.
9 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

The next instructrucions show how to plot the logarithmic decrement as function of rpm,
as shown in Figure 4.

18 | SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM ROTOR


1D Plot Group 3
1 On the Home toolbar, click Add Plot Group and choose 1D Plot Group.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, type Logarithmic Decrement in the Label
text field.
3 Locate the Data section. From the Data set list, choose Study: Eigenfrequency/
Parametric Solutions 1 (sol2).
4 From the Eigenfrequency selection list, choose Manual.
5 In the Eigenfrequency indices (1-20) text field, type range(1,1,10).

Global 1
1 Right-click Logarithmic Decrement and choose Global.
2 In the Settings window for Global, locate the y-Axis Data section.
3 In the table, enter the following settings:

Expression Unit Description


2*pi*imag(rotbm.freq)/ 1 Logarithmic decrement
abs(rotbm.freq)

4 Locate the x-Axis Data section. From the Axis source data list, choose Outer solutions.
5 From the Parameter list, choose Expression.
6 In the Expression text field, type Ow.
7 From the Unit list, choose RPM.
8 Locate the Coloring and Style section. Find the Line style subsection. From the Line list,
choose Dashed.
9 From the Color list, choose Blue.
10 In the Width text field, type 3.
11 Locate the Legends section. Clear the Show legends check box.
12 On the Logarithmic Decrement toolbar, click Plot.
13 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.
Eigenfrequency Analysis is complete now. Refer the next section for the Transient with FFT
Analysis.

Transient with FFT Analysis


Define the ramp function for the angular velocity to get a smooth start-up of the
simulation.

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DEFINITIONS

Ramp 1 (rm1)
1 On the Home toolbar, click Functions and choose Global>Ramp.
2 In the Settings window for Ramp, locate the Parameters section.
3 Select the Cutoff check box.

Add a new Beam Rotor physics node. This step is not necessary. However, to run both
Eigenfreuency and Transient with FFT studies independently, this is recommended.

ADD PHYSICS
1 On the Home toolbar, click Add Physics to open the Add Physics window.
2 Go to the Add Physics window.
3 In the tree, select Structural Mechanics>Rotordynamics>Beam Rotor (rotbm).
4 Find the Physics interfaces in study subsection. In the table, clear the Solve check box for
Study: Eigenfrequency.
5 Click Add to Component in the window toolbar.
6 On the Home toolbar, click Add Physics to close the Add Physics window.

BEAM ROTOR 2 (ROTBM2)


1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1) click Beam Rotor 2 (rotbm2).
2 In the Settings window for Beam Rotor, locate the Rotor Speed section.
3 In the associated text field, type Ow*rm1(Ow*t/2).

Linear Elastic Material 1


Add damping in the rotor to damp out the high frequency vibrations. Damping
parameters are chosen such that the minimum damping factor is 0.1.

1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Beam Rotor 2 (rotbm2) click
Linear Elastic Material 1.

Damping 1
1 On the Physics toolbar, click Attributes and choose Damping.
2 In the Settings window for Damping, locate the Damping Settings section.
3 In the αdM text field, type 109.62.
4 In the βdK text field, type 0.0001.

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Rotor Cross Section 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Beam Rotor 2 (rotbm2) click
Rotor Cross Section 1.
2 In the Settings window for Rotor Cross Section, locate the Cross Section Definition section.
3 In the do text field, type d_s.

BEAM ROTOR (ROTBM)


On the Physics toolbar, click Beam Rotor 2 (rotbm2) and choose Beam Rotor (rotbm).

Disk 2
Only disk 2 with eccentricity is considered in this analysis. Copy the feature from Beam
Rotor physics node to current physics.

1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1)>Beam Rotor (rotbm) right-
click Disk 2 and choose Copy.

BEAM ROTOR 2 (ROTBM2)


On the Physics toolbar, click Beam Rotor (rotbm) and choose Beam Rotor 2 (rotbm2).

Disk 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Component 1 (comp1) right-click
Beam Rotor 2 (rotbm2) and choose Paste Disk.
2 In the Settings window for Disk, locate the Disk Properties section.
3 From the Center of mass list, choose Offset from selected points.
4 In the zr text field, type 1e-4.

Journal Bearing 1
1 On the Physics toolbar, click Points and choose Journal Bearing.
2 Select Points 1 and 5 only.
Bearings are modeled using the equivalent dynamic coefficients for a plain
hydrodynamic bearing.
3 In the Settings window for Journal Bearing, locate the Bearing Properties section.
4 From the Bearing model list, choose Plain hydrodynamic.
5 From the μ list, choose User defined. In the associated text field, type mu_l.
6 In the C text field, type C.
7 In the R text field, type d_s/2.
8 In the L text field, type d_s.

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9 Clear the Include bending stiffness check box.

ADD STUDY
1 On the Home toolbar, click Add Study to open the Add Study window.
2 Go to the Add Study window.
3 Find the Studies subsection. In the Select Study tree, select Preset Studies>
Time Dependent with FFT.
4 Find the Physics interfaces in study subsection. In the table, clear the Solve check box for
Beam Rotor (rotbm).
5 Click Add Study in the window toolbar.
6 On the Home toolbar, click Add Study to close the Add Study window.

STUDY 2

Step 1: Time Dependent


1 In the Model Builder window, click Study 2.
2 In the Settings window for Study, type Study: Transient with FFT in the Label text
field.
3 Locate the Study Settings section. Clear the Generate default plots check box, because
you will add the desired plots manually.

Add a parametric step to sweep the rpm from 2000 to 30000 in the steps of 2000.

Parametric Sweep
On the Study toolbar, click Parametric Sweep.

S T U D Y : TR A N S I E N T W I T H F F T

Parametric Sweep
1 In the Settings window for Parametric Sweep, locate the Study Settings section.
2 Click Add.
3 Click to select row number 1 in the table.
4 In the table, enter the following settings:

Parameter name Parameter value list Parameter unit


Ow range(2000,2000,30000) rpm

5 Click to expand the Study extensions section. Locate the Study Extensions section. From
the Use parametric solver list, choose Off.

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Step 1: Time Dependent
1 In the Model Builder window, under Study: Transient with FFT click
Step 1: Time Dependent.
2 In the Settings window for Time Dependent, locate the Study Settings section.
3 In the Times text field, type range(0,5e-5,0.1).

Set the FFT solver to use the solution from the time dependent study step.

Step 2: Time to Frequency FFT


1 On the Study toolbar, click Show Default Solver.
2 In the Settings window for Time to Frequency FFT, locate the Study Settings section.
3 From the Input study list, choose Study: Transient with FFT, Time Dependent.
4 From the Solution list, choose Solution 74 (sol74).
5 From the Use list, choose Solution Store 1 (sol75).
6 In the Start time text field, type 0.
7 In the End time text field, type 0.1.
8 In the Maximum output frequency text field, type 1000.

Solution 74 (sol74)
On the Study toolbar, click Compute.

RESULTS
Follow the steps below to generate the waterfall plot as shown in Figure 5.

3D Plot Group 4
1 On the Home toolbar, click Add Plot Group and choose 3D Plot Group.
2 In the Settings window for 3D Plot Group, type Waterfall in the Label text field.
3 Locate the Data section. From the Data set list, choose Study: Transient with FFT/
Parametric Solutions 2 (sol76).

Waterfall 1
1 On the Waterfall toolbar, click More Plots and choose Waterfall.
2 In the Settings window for Waterfall, locate the Data section.
3 From the Data set list, choose Study: Transient with FFT/Parametric Solutions 2 (sol76).
4 Select Point 1 only.
5 Locate the Expression section. In the Expression text field, type min(abs(w2),5e-8).
6 Locate the x-Axis Data section. In the Expression text field, type freq.

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7 From the Unit list, choose RPM.
8 Locate the y-Axis Data section. In the Expression text field, type Ow.
9 From the Unit list, choose RPM.
10 Locate the Coloring and Style section. From the Color table list, choose TrafficLight.
11 On the Waterfall toolbar, click Plot.
12 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

Waterfall
1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click Waterfall.
2 Click Plot.
3 Click the Scene Light button on the Graphics toolbar.

To generate the orbit plot at the first bearing location, shown in Figure 6, use the
following instructions.

1D Plot Group 5
1 On the Home toolbar, click Add Plot Group and choose 1D Plot Group.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, type Orbit (bearing) in the Label text field.
3 Locate the Data section. From the Data set list, choose Study: Transient with FFT/
Solution Store 1 (sol75).

Point Graph 1
1 Right-click Orbit (bearing) and choose Point Graph.
2 Select Point 1 only.
3 In the Settings window for Point Graph, locate the y-Axis Data section.
4 In the Expression text field, type w2.
5 Locate the x-Axis Data section. From the Parameter list, choose Expression.
6 In the Expression text field, type v2.
7 Click to expand the Coloring and style section. Locate the Coloring and Style section. In
the Width text field, type 3.
Use the time in the color expression to highlight the time progress in the orbit.

Color Expression 1
1 Right-click Results>Orbit (bearing)>Point Graph 1 and choose Color Expression.
2 In the Settings window for Color Expression, locate the Expression section.
3 In the Expression text field, type t.

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4 On the Orbit (bearing) toolbar, click Plot.

Orbit (bearing)
1 In the Model Builder window, under Results click Orbit (bearing).
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, click to expand the Title section.
3 From the Title type list, choose Manual.
4 In the Title text area, type Orbit at the bearing.
5 Locate the Axis section. Select the Preserve aspect ratio check box.
6 On the Orbit (bearing) toolbar, click Plot.
7 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.
Duplicate the current plot to generate the orbit plot at the disk location, shown in
Figure 7.

Orbit (bearing) 1
1 Right-click Results>Orbit (bearing) and choose Duplicate.
2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group, type Orbit (disk) in the Label text field.
3 Locate the Title section. In the Title text area, type Orbit at the disk.

Point Graph 1
1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Results>Orbit (disk) node, then click
Point Graph 1.
2 In the Settings window for Point Graph, locate the Selection section.
3 Click Clear Selection.
4 Select Point 3 only.
5 On the Orbit (disk) toolbar, click Plot.

Orbit (disk)
Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

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