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PRACTICE TEST 1

I. LISTENING (50 points)


Part 1: Questions 1-5
Complete the notes below. Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.

SEMINAR ON ROCK ART


Preparation for fieldwork trip to Namibia in (1)_____.
Rock art in Namibia may be
 paintings
 engravings
Earliest explanation of engravings of animal footprints
They were used to help (2) _____learn about tracking.
But:
 Why are the tracks usually (3) _____?
 Why are some engravings realistic and others unrealistic?
 Why are the unrealistic animals sometimes half (4) _____.
More recent explanation:
Wise men may have been trying to control wild animals with (5) _____.
Comment:
Earlier explanation was due to scholars over-generalising from their experience of a
different culture.

Questions 6-10
Complete the sentences below. Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.
6. If you look at a site from a _____, you reduce visitor pressure.
7. To camp on a site may be disrespectful to people from that _____.
8. Undiscovered material may be damaged by _____.
9. You should avoid _____ or tracking rock art as it is so fragile.
10. In general, your aim is to leave the site _____.

Write your answers here:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Part 2: You will hear part of an interview with the comedian Kevin Burke. For questions 11-16, choose the
answer (A, B, C, or D) which fits best according to what you hear.
11. When it is suggested that he is not as happy as he appears, Kevin
A. admits that he conforms to a stereotype.
B. explains why people might assume that.
C. accepts that he is an untypical comedian.
D. confirms that depression can be aproblem.
12. What does Kevin value most about the book entitled Laughter?
A. It was written with comedians in mind.
B. It helps him see why some comedians fail.
C. It shows him why audiences react as they do.
D. It aims to show what makes certain jokes funny.
13. What does Kevin say about his time at university?
A. He regrets his choice of degree subject.
B. He is proud of his academic achievements.
C. He enjoyed getting involved in a range of activities.
D. He had a lot in common with other students on his course.
14. After leaving university, Kevin
A. was determined to build a career as a journalist.
B. didn’t really enjoy the type of work he was doing.
C. set his sights on getting work as a television presenter.
D. took the opportunity to develop his skills as a performer.
15. What does Kevin say about his television career?
A. It’s not where he does his best work.
B. He wishes he hadn’t accepted certain offers.
C. It’s not as demanding as working on stage with a live audience.
D. He feels most comfortable doing a range of different programmes.
16. Kevin believes that he is successful on stage because
A. he is able to make audiences feel sorry for him.
B. he can convince audiences that he is in control.
C. he is able to laugh at his own appearance.
D. he can appeal to people’s sense of logic.

Write your answers here:


11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Part 3: You will hear part of a radio programme in which food historian Andrew Dalford talks about pepper,
one of the commonest spices. For questions 17- 25, complete the sentences with a word or short phrase.
Andrew Dalford’s recently published book about the history of spices is entitled (17)_____. The colour of the
pepper is related to when the (18)_____ takes place. In the past, dishonest dealers would add cheaper plant
materials such as seed and (19)_____ to sacks of pepper. Andrew uses the term (20)_____ to describe the
social importance of pepper throughout history. Peppercorns could be used in financial transactions, like paying
(21)_____ and clearing debts. Together with ivory and (22)_____, pepper was regarded as a luxury item in the
Roman Empire. In medicine, both pepper and (23)_____ were used to treat certain conditions. Made into an
ointment, pepper was used to treat irritated (24)______ and to relieve pain. Pepper in solution or as a powder
was used to keep (25)_____ away.

Write your answers here:


17. 18. 19. 20. 21.
22. 23. 24. 25.

II. LEXICO-GRAMMAR (40 points)


Part 1: For questions 26-35, choose the best answer (A, B, C or D) to each of the following questions and
write your answers (A, B, C or D) in the corresponding numbered box.
26. Her parents always tried to _____ a sense of integrity and decency in her.
A. infuse B. instill C. inlay D. inset
27. Rather than take his time to think about the questions, the interviewee _____ out the first answer that came
into his head.
A. blundered B. blurted C. bungled D. botched
28. I tried to make him change his mind, but he remained_________ .
A. vibrant B. dissonant C. adamant D. flamboyant
29. The company has locked _____ with the unions over proposed pay cuts.
A. tusks B. spines C. paws D. horns
30. Tom is _____ intelligent as his eldest brother.
A. also much B. just so much C. rather as D. every bit as
31. That woman sees nothing _____ in letting her children run around as they wish.
A. awry B. amiss C. afraid D. alike
32. The inspector reported that the office staff were rather _____ in their attitude to security.
A. lenient B. limp C. loose D. lax
33. _____ workers found accidentally while constructing a new subway line in London yielded new information
about previous civilizations in the area could be well-documented.
A. Relics that B. That relics that C. It was relics that D. Not until relics that
34. The police asked him to give a ______ description of the accident that he had witnessed.
A. blow by blow B. word for word C. up and down D. in and out
35. Tom’s normally very efficient but he’s been making a lot of mistakes _______.
A. of late B. for now C. in a while D. shortly
Write your answers here:
26. 27. 28. 29. 30.
31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

Part 2: For questions 36-43, read the text below. Use the word given in capital at the end of some of the lines
to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. Write your answers in the numbered table below.

In January 2001 the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change (IPCC)


issued its latest report on climate change. Climate models worked out by giant 36. PRAISE
super-computers had become far more reliable since the previous report in
1995 and allowed them to (36)_______ the earlier projections for global
warming. Their conclusions were that something very serious is happening and
that it can not be a natural process. The 1990s was the hottest decade for 1,000
years and the Earth is warming faster than at any time in the last 10,000 years.
According to the report, human activities are (37)_______ to balme for the 37. VOICE
temperature rise. The burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide and, due
to (38)_______, there are fewer trees to absorb this gas and recycle it back into 38. FOREST
oxygen. Methane concentrations have also gone up dramatically because of
increases in rice culture and (39)_______, both of which generate methane 39. CATTLE
from (40)_______ vegetation. These greenhouse gases trap heat in the Earth’s 40. POSE
atmosphere and cause the temperature to rise.
The IPCC reported that, in the worst case, the average temperature could
rise by 5.8°C this century, 2°C higher than their original predictions. The
resulting melting of ice-caps and glaciers would cause sea levels to rise by up
to 88cm, endangering the home and (41)_______ of tens of millions of people 41. LIVE
who live in low-lying regions.
Unfortunately, there is far greater unanimity among the world’s scientists
over the issue than among politicians. As long ago as 1990, the IPCC
recommended a 60% reduction in carbon dioxide (42)______, as the basic 42. EMIT
level required to return the planet’s climate to a healthy level.
Governments globally failed to (43)_______ these proposals. Now that the 43. ACT
dangers have been (44)_______ by the latest report, it is high time that 44. FIRM
governments took an active interest in exploring alternative, (45)______ 45. NEW
energy resources.

Write your answers here:


36. 37. 38. 39 40.
41. 42. 43. 44. 45.
Part 3: The passage below contains 10 errors. Underline the errors in the passage and write your correction
in the box provided.

Most children with healthy appetites are ready to eat almost anything that is offering them and a child rarely
dislikes food unless it is badly cooked. The way a meal is cooked and served is most important and an
attractive served meal will often improve a child’s appetite. Never ask a child whether he likes or dislikes a
food and never discuss likes and dislikes in front of him or allow nobody else to do so. If the father says he
hates fat meat or the mother refuses vegetables under the child’s hearing, he is likely to copy this procedure.
Take it for grant that he likes everything and he probably will. Nothing healthful should be omitted out the
meal because of a supposing dislike. At meal times, it is a good idea to give a child a small portion and let
him come back for a second helping other than give him as much as he is likely to eat all at once. Do not
talk too much to the child during meal times, but let him get on with his food and do not allow him to leave
the table immediately after a meal nor he will soon learn to swallow his food so that he can hurry back to his
toys. Under no circumstance must a child be coaxed or forced to eat.

Write your answers here:


46. 47. 48. 49. 50.
51. 52. 53. 54. 55.

Part 4: For questions 50-55, fill in the gaps in the following sentences with suitable particles. Write your
answer in the corresponding numbered boxes.
56. After about ten minutes it was obvious that we no longer had much to say to each other and our
conversation began to peter _____.
57. The president ascribes his party’s victory _____ his leadership.
58. Uncle Walter can flare _____ if you say the wrong thing.
59. The meeting was going well until we got bogged _____ in the details of the sales conference party.
60. I don’t hold _____ people smoking in restaurants and other public places.
61. The way he can take _____ anyone’s accent is really quite entertaining.
62. He’s a reserved person. He keeps himself _________ himself.
63. The children were late and had to make a dash _________ the school bus.
64. The woman exulted _________ her son’s success as a guitarist.
65. Kim put my name down for a sponsored parachute jump but I chickened ______ at the last moment.

Write your answers here:


56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65.

III. READING (50 points)

Part 1: For questions 66 - 75, read the following passages and decide which answer (A, B, C, or D) best fits
each gap. Write your answers (A, B, C, or D) in corresponding numbered boxes.

LEADERSHIP QUALITIES
Do you think you've got what it takes to make a leader? It is becoming more and more common for office
workers to lead project teams at work. As leader of the team, it will be your job to ensure that members of the
team are happy and productive. By (66)______ on a leadership role you can acquire greater job (67)______ and
create a better working partnership with your own boss. Leadership qualities include enthusiasm, integrity,
humility and confidence. Fairnessis an essential quality and you must be seen to treat all the membersof the
team in the sameway If you are too quick to point the finger or to (68)______ some people's mistakesunder the
carpet, the restof the staffwill not (69)_____ up to you If you are a good leader, you should be big enough to
(70)_____ to your own mistakestoo. You should be prepared to ask for feedback on your own performance, as
well as giving your team feedback on theirs.
66. A. taking B. putting C. getting D. standing
67. A. confidence B. adequacy C. satisfaction D. fulfilment
68. A. put B. tuck C. hide D. sweep
69. A. match B. look C. measure D. give
70. A. answer B. admit C. give D. own

THE HISTORY OF PACKAGING


The appearance of a product has always affected what people think of it. The Romans recognised wine and
water from the shape of their earthware containers. In the sixteenth century, goods in paper wrappers with their
producer’s signature on the outside became a way of authenticating the quality of the product. Then a
nineteenth-century tea merchant did a (71)_____ trade when he began putting his tea into sealed bags rather
than selling it (72)_____. With technology and changing lifestyles, packaging has (73)______. First, it became
more sophisticated – canning in mid nineteenth-century America, the mass production of cardboard later in the
century, and the cheap manufacture of plastics in the last century – (74)_____ ensuring more widespread use.
Then changing social conditions guaranteed its place in our culture. The rise of the self-service supermarket, for
example, meant that goods needed to (75)_____ more for themselves, with no jolly Mr Cornershop to help the
housewife make her choice.
71. A. blazing B. roaring C. ripping D. glowing
72. A. loose B. free C. alone D. untied
73. A. intensified B. duplicated C. protracted D. proliferated
74. A. thereby B. therewith C. thereupon D. therein
75. A. cope B. look C. speak D. show

Write your answers here:


66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75.

Part 2: For questions 66-77, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only
ONE word in each gap. Write your answers in corresponding numbered boxes.

THE TROUBLE WITH SCHOOL


In the first few years at school all appears to (76) ______ very well. There is much concern, (77)______ the part
of the teachers, with high educational standards, and the children, even those who are (78)_____ from being
socially privileged in other ways, seem eager and happy. However, by the (79)______ the children reach
adolescence, the promise of the early years frequently remains unfulfilled. Many leave school (80)_____ having
mastered those basic skills which society demands, let (81)______ having developed the ability to exercise any
sort of creative intelligence.
There is (82)______ denying that, in spite of the enlightened concern of our primary schools with happiness,
schooling (83)______ or other turns into a distinctly unhappy experience for many of our children. Large
(84)_____ of them emerge from it well (85)______ that they are ill-equipped (86)______ life in our society. So
then they either regard (87)______ as stupid for failing or else, quite understandably, they regard the activities
at (88)______ they have failed as stupid. In (89)______ event they want no (90)______ of them. How can we
justify a long period of compulsory education which ends like that?

Write your answers here:


76. 77 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83.
84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90.

Part 3: Read the following text carefully and decide which sentence (A-F) best fits each gap (91-95). There is
one sentence that you do not need.
THE END OF THE WORLD
The Sun is now half-way through its life span. It is in a ‘dynamic equilibrium’- there is gravity on one hand and
the fusion process that ‘fuels’ the Sun on the other hand. 91.______ Astronomers still don’t know all the exact
details but they know that the Sun will start to swell up and turn into a red giant with a diameter about 100 times
greater than its current size. 92._____ The Earth will be scorched at this point, leaving the planet unsuitable for
life. Pluto, in fact, would be the only place suitable for any life in the solar system. At the very end of its life
cycle, the Sun is likely to blow off its outermost layers. It will then shrink to the size of the Earth, surrounded
by a glowing bubble of gas called ‘planetary nebulae’. 93._____ Astronomers have observed many Sun-like
stars in their final stages, before becoming white dwarfs. The images of planetary nebulae are spectacular and
each looks like no other. The expelled gas has intriguing symmetrical patterns as well as more chaotic
structures. A white dwarf derived from a star as massive as the Sun will be roughly the same size as the Earth.
94.______ The gravity on the surface will be over 100,000 times what we experience on Earth! Once the white
dwarf has reached its minimum size, it will have a temperature of over 100,000 Kelvin and shine through
residual heat. 95._____ Because the Universe is only 13.7 billion years old, there are no black dwarfs yet. One
thing is for sure: if the human race hasn’t migrated to another solar system within the next five billion years, it
is sure to become extinct.

A. The star will gradually cool and eventually, after hundreds of billions of years of radiating, it will no longer
be visible, becoming a black dwarf.
B. The gases will eventually disperse in the course of several thousand years leaving behind a white dwarf.
C. It will be so dense that a teaspoon of white dwarf material will weigh several tonnes.
D. It will continue to burn in this stable condition for a further five billion years, when it will start to change.
E. This means that the radiation, which initially will be very high, will lessen with time.
F. It will be so big that it will engulf Mercury, while Venus will probably orbit just outside the Sun’s surface.

Write your answers here:


91. 92. 93. 94. 95.

Part 4: For questions 96-101, choose the best answer (A, B, C, or D) according to the text. Write your
answers (A, B, C, or D) in the corresponding numbered boxes.

New ways of looking at history


Though few modern readers are familiar with LP Hartley’s novel The Go-Between, many will know the
novel’s often quoted opening line: ‘The past is a foreign country: they do things differently there.’ In Hartley’s
novel, published in 1953, the remark indicates the distance that separates an elderly narrator from the dramatic
events of his youth. But the phrase has since been gleefully adopted by historians hoping to dramatise the gulf
between present and bygone ages. This remoteness makes the past both alluring and incomprehensible. It is the
natural hurdle all historians must overcome to shed lights on earlier times. Since the days of Herodotus, the
father of history who lived 2500 years ago, it has had them scrambling for new ways to acquaint today’s
audiences with yesterday’s events.
Amid the current mass of works of popular historical non-fiction, the question of how to bring history to life
seems more pressing than ever. The historian Ian Mortimer takes a literal approach: if the past is a foreign
country, then a foreigner’s guidebook might help. His book The Time Traveller’s Guide to Medieval England is
exactly that, offering ‘an investigation into the sensations of being alive in different times’. The resulting
portrait of the era is as lively and entertaining as it is informative. Yet it is worth considering his claims about
his own approach. ‘In traditional history, what we can say about the past is dictated by the selection and
interpretation of evidence.’ It would be foolish, however, to suppose that Mortimer’s own text has not relied on
precisely this kind of selection. Mortimer presents events as if they were unfolding, putting the facts in the
present tense. Yet the illusion of first-hand historical experience is shattered the moment we are thrown 50 years
backwards or forwards in order to provide context. Mortimer’s refusal to commit to a temporal point of view
undermines the immediacy he attempts to convey.
Unlike Mortimer, Philip Matyszak, author of Ancient Rome on Five Denarii a Day, does not claim to tread
new historiographical ground. His aim is to inform and amuse, and in this he succeeds. The light-hearted
approach pays off, though it occasionally descends into juvenile and anachronistic humour: Oedipus is
referredto as ‘he of the complex’. This raises the question of what readership the book is really aimed at. Also,
the problem with time-travellers’ guides is that they often say more about the people who wrote them than about
the people they describe. Mortimer’s avowal that ‘climate change is another factor affecting the landscape’ in
14th-century England reflects concerns more modern that medieval. While Matyszak’s assertion that ‘it is a
common misconception among visitors that the Acropolis is the Parthenon’ sounds more like a complaint about
the ignorance of today’s tourists.
‘Understanding the past is a matter of experience as well as knowledge,’ Mortimer declares. This may well
be the manifesto for those who, not satisfied with virtual tours of history, take history into their own hands.
Historical re-enactors – yes, those individuals whose idea of fun is to dress up and stage mock battles – provide
the most literal interpretation of history as experience. Humorist Tim Moore set out to explore this world in his
book I Believe in Yesterday. In Berne, Switzerland, he suffers in the name of ‘utter authenticity’ during the
restaged siege of Grandson, circa 1474. In the US he endures a stint of ‘relentless and uncompromising
immersion with re-enactment’s seasoned elite,’ revisiting 1864’s battle of Red River during the American Civil
War.
Moore’s quest for ‘my inner ancient’ is fuelled by his anxieties about our modern inability to deploy the
skills that came naturally to our ancestors. More often, he finds, it is a ‘refreshingly simple impulse to get away
from it all’ that gets people into period attire. Many civil war re-enactors seek redress: ‘History is written by the
winners but re-enactment gives the losers a belated chance to scribble in the margins.’ For others it’s ‘a simple
and truly heart-warming quest for gregarious community’.
Perhaps re-enactment is the closest we can get to Mortimer’s ideal of what history should be: ‘A striving to
make spiritual, emotional poetic, dramatic and inspirational connections with our forebears’. Interestingly,
Mortimer quotes the poet WH Auden, who remarked that to understand your own country it helps to have lived
in at least two others. Perhaps the same applies to historical eras. The central question, for popular historians
and historical re-enactors alike, is not how to animate the past but how to make it cast light on us today.

96. For the writer, a well-known quote from a novel


A explains the strange attitude of some historians.
B has been somewhat misinterpreted by historians.
C epitomises what historians have always tried to do.
D indicates the problems in trying to popularise history.
97. The writer refers to being ‘thrown 50 years backwards or forwards’ (lines 17–18) as an example of
Mortimer
A doing what he claims he is not doing.
B choosing to ignore certain evidence.
C sticking closely to historical fact.
D succeeding in doing something different.
98. In the fourth paragraph, the writer implies that
A Matyszak’s defence of his book is rather overstating the case.
B Matyszak and Mortimer have more in common than they acknowledge.
C Matyszak’s own opinions could have been more to the fore in the book.
D Matyszak’s book may actually have little appeal for those interested in histor
99. With regard to historical re-enactors, the writer shares with author Tim Moore
A a desire to see at first hand what motivates them.
B a sense of scepticism about what they are doing.
C doubts about the historical authenticity of their actions.
D concerns that the battles they choose are given undue prominence.
100. What does Tim Moore say is the appeal of historical re-enactment for some?
A imagining that they are famous historical figures
B the possibility of proving something to themselves
C investigating what life would be like if history could be changed
D the chance to pretend that they’re influencing historical outcomes
101. The writer concludes that history as Mortimer, Matyszak and the historical re-enactors see it
A has more in common with literary writing.
B is a new development that will have a limited life.
C can help us learn things about modern society.
D may well be the way forward for historians in general.
Write your answers here:
96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101.

Part 5: Read the following passage then answer the questions below.
HOW DOES THE BIOLOGICAL CLOCK TICK?
A Our life span is restricted. Everyone accepts this as ‘biologically’ obvious. “Nothing lives for ever!”.
However, in this statement we think of artifically produced, technical objects, products which are
subjected to natural wear and tear during use. This leads to the result that at some time or other the
object stops working and is unusable (‘death’ in the biological sense). But are the wear and tear and
loss of function of technical objects and the death of living organisms really similar or comparable?
B Our ‘dead’ products are ‘static’, closed systems. It is always the basic material which constitutes the
object and which, in the natural course of things, is worn down and become ‘older’. Ageing in this case
must occur according to the laws of physical chemistry and of themodynamics. Although the same law
holds for a living organism, the result of this law is not inexorable in the same way. At least as long as
a biological system has the ability to renew itself it could actually become older without ageing; an
organism is an open, dynamic system through which new material continuously flows. Destruction of
old material and formation of new material are thus in permanent dynamic equillibrium. The material
of which the organism is formed changes constinuously. Thus, our bodies constinuously exchange old
substance for new, just like a spring which more or less maintains its form and movement, but in which
the water molecules are always different.
C Thus ageing and death should not be seen as inevitable, particularly as the organism possesses many
mechanisms for repair. It is not, in principle, necessary for a biological system to age and die.
Nevertheless, a restricted life span, ageing, and then death are basic characteristics of life. The reason
for this is easy to recognise: in nature, the existent organisms either adapt or are regularly replaced by
new types. Because of changes in the genetic material ( mutations) these have new characteristics and
in the course of their individual lives they are tested for optimal or better adaptation to the
environmental conditions. Immortality would disturb this system – it needs room for new and better
life. This is the basic problem of evolution.
D Every organism has a life span which is highly characteristic. There are striking differences in life span
between different species, but within one species the parameter is relatively constant. For example, the
average duration of human life has hardly changed in thousands of years. Although more and more
people attain an advanced age as a result of developments in medical care and better nutrition, the
characteristic upper limit for most remains 80 years. A further argument against the simple wear and
tear theory is the observation that the time within which organisms age lies between a few days ( even a
few hours for unicellular organisms) and several thousand years, as with mammoth trees.
E If a life span is a genetically determined biological characteristic, it is logically necessary to propose
the existence of an internal clock, which in some way measures and controls the ageing process and
which finally determines death as the last step in a fixed programme. Like the life span, the metabolic
rate has for different organisms a fixed mathematical relationship to the body mass. In comparison to
the life span this relatinship is ‘inverted’: the larger the organism, the lower its metabolic rate. Again
this relationship is valid not only for birds, but also, similarly on average within the systematic unit, for
all other organisms ( plants, animals, unicellular organisms).
F Animals which behave ‘frugally’ with energy become particularly old, for example, crocodiles and
tortoises. Parrots and birds of prey are often held chained up. Thus they are not able to ‘experience life’
and so they attain a high life span in captivity. Animals which save energy by hibernationor lethargy
(e.g. bats or hedgehogs) live much longer than those which are always active. The metabolic rate of
mice can be reduced by a very low consumption of food (hunger diet). They then may live twice as
long as their well fed comrades. Women become distinctly ( about 10 per cent) older than men. If you
examine the metabolic rates of the two sexes you establish that the higher male metabolic rate roughly
accounts for the lower male life span. That means that they live life ‘energetically’ – more intensively,
but not for as long.
G It follows from the above that sparing use of energy reserves should tend to extend life. Extreme high
performance sports may lead to optimal cardiovascular performance, but they quite certainly do not
prolong life. Relaxation lowers metabolic rate, as does adequate sleep and in general an equable and
balanced personality. Each of us can develop his or her own ‘energy saving programme’ with a little
self-observation, critical self-control and, above all, logical consistency. Experience will show that to
live in this waynot only increases the life span but is also very healthy. This final aspect should not be
forgotten.

Questions 102- 107: Choose the correct heading for paragraphs B-G from the list of headings below.
List of Headings
i The biological clock
ii Why dying is beneficial
iii The ageing process of men and women
iv Prolonging your life
v Limitations of life span
vi Modes of development of different species
vii A stable life span despite improvements
viii Energy consumption
ix Fundamental differences in ageing of objects and organisms
x Repair of genetic material

Example: Paragraph A - v
102. Paragraph B - ……………..
103. Paragraph C - …………….
104. Paragraph D - …………….
105. Paragraph E - …………….
106. Paragraph F - …………….
107. Paragraph G - …………….

Questions 108- 111: Complete the notes below. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage
for each answer.
* Objects age in accordance with principles of (108)________ and of (109)________.
* Through mutations, organisms can (110)____________ better to the environment.
* (111) ____________ would pose a serious problem for the theory of evolution.

Write your answers here:


108. ………………………………………..
109. ………………………………………..
110. ………………………………………
111. ………………………………………..
Questions 112- 115: Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in the reading text? In
boxes 112 -115, write
YES if the statement agrees with the views of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the views of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
102. The wear and tear theory applies to both artificial objects and biological systems.
103. In principle, it is possible for a biological system to become older without ageing.
104. Within seven years, about 90% of a human body is replaced as new.
105. Conserving energy may help to extend a human’s life.

Write your answers here:


112. 113. 114. 115.
VI. WRITING (60 pts)

Part 1: Read the following extract and use your own words to summarize it (in about 90 words). You MUST
NOT copy or re-write the original.
The development of the horse has been recorded from the beginning, through all of its evolutionary stages, to
the modern form. It is, perhaps, one of the most complete and well-documented chapters of paleontological
history. Fossil finds provide us not only with detailed information about the horse itself but also with valuable
insights into the migration of herds and even evidence for the speculation about the climatic conditions that
could have instigated their migratory behaviour.
Now geologists believe that the first horses appeared on Earth about sixty million years ago as compared with
only two million years ago for the appearance of human beings. There is evidence of early horses on both the
American and European continents, but it has been documented that, almost twelve million years ago at the
beginning of the Pliocene Age, a horse about midway through its evolutionary development crossed a land
bridge where the Bering Strait is now located. It travelled from Alaska into the grasslands of Asia and all the
way to Europe. So, this early horse was a hipparion, about the size of a modern-day pony with three toes and
specialized cheek teeth for grazing. In Europe, the hipparion encountered another less advanced horse called the
anchitheres, which had previously invaded Europe by the same route, probably during the Miocene Period. Less
developed and smaller than hipparion, the anchitheres was eventually completely replaced by it.
By the end of the Pleistocene Age, both the anchitheres and the hipparion had become extinct in North America
where they orginated, as fossil evidence clearly demonstrates. In Europe, they evolved into the larger and
stronger animal that is very similar to the horse as we know it today. For many years, this horse was probably
hunted for food by early tribes of human beings. Then the qualities of the horse that would have made it good
servant were recognized – mainly its strength and speed. It was time for the horse to be tamed, used as a draft
animal at the dawning of agriculture, and then ridden as need for transportation increased. It was the descendant
of this domesticated horse that was brought back across the ocean to the Americas by European colonists.

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Part 2:
The graphs below show the percentage of adults accessing the Internet in the United Kingdom between
January 2001 and February 2006, and the percentage of households with various kinds of internet
connections during part of the same period.
Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where
relevant.
Write at least 150 words.
Your answer:
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Part 3: Write about the following topic:

Some argue younger people are not suitable for important positions in the government, while others think
this is a good idea.
Discuss both views and give your opinion.
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.
Write at least 250 words.

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