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Advanced Materials Research Online: 2012-05-14

ISSN: 1662-8985, Vols. 512-515, pp 965-968


doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.512-515.965
© 2012 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland

Piping Stress Analysis of Low Temperature Storage Tank for LNG

Huainian XING 1, a, Xiaopeng ZHANG1,b, Zengli LIU 1,c , Liqiang JIN1,d


1
Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, China
a
xinghuainian@sina.com.cn, bzxp@dlut.edu.cn, czengli@dlut.edu.cn, dwaitking@163.com.cn

Keywords: Low Temperature Storage Tank, LNG, Pipe stress

Abstract. Finite element method has been used to analysis the stress of inner pipes of low
temperature storage tank for LNG caused by temperature, pressure and weight. Filling liquid state,
storing liquid state and unloading liquid state are considered in this paper. The results show that the
stress of the top pipes would be the largest under filling liquid state which is only little larger than
storing liquid state. The stress of the bottom pipes would be the largest under storing liquid state. The
deformation of the inner container of the tank would influence the stress distribution. Choosing a
flexible structure as designing the bottom pipes is reasonable.

Introduction
LNG as a clean and efficient energy has been widely using. The LNG storage tank endures low
temperature[1,2]. Low temperature storage tank (CFL-80/1.6) is designed as a LNG storage tank, as
shown in figure 1. It consists of inner wall, outer wall, perlite packing and piping. The perlite packing
and piping are located between the outer wall and the inner wall which is in vacuum. The length of the
outer wall is 13.2m, and the diameter is 3.5m. The length of the inner wall is 12.5m, and the diameter
is 3.0m. The inner working temperature of the storage tank is -196℃. The external environment
temperature of the storage tank is 20℃. The piping includes 9 pipes. The material of those pipes is
0Cr18Ni9 steel. The modulus of elasticity is 210GPa. The poisson's ratio is 0.3. The coefficient of
thermal conductivity is 28.47W/(m·℃). The line thermal expansion coefficient is 1.65 ×10-5/℃. The
allowable stress of 0Cr18Ni9 steel is 137MPa. The ends of those pipes have been fixed in the outer
wall and the inner wall by bolts or welding. The sizes of those pipes are listed in table 1. The shapes of
pipes are show in figure 2 to figure 10.
inner pipe

inner wall
LNG storage tank outer wall

Fig.1 Low temperature storage tank profile map

Table 1 The sizes of pipes


No. Name Size(mm) Material
A Top filling pipe Φ 48×3.0×12585 0Cr18Ni9 steel
B Bottom filling pipe Φ 48×3.0×3079 0Cr18Ni9 steel
C Extraction liquid pipe Φ 60×3.0×3296 0Cr18Ni9 steel
E Bottom gauging pipe Φ 13×1.5×3760 0Cr18Ni9 steel
F Top gauging pipe Φ 13×1.5×12190 0Cr18Ni9 steel
G Inspection liquid pipe Φ 16×1.5×12460 0Cr18Ni9 steel
H Pressure relief pipe Φ 60×3.0×13002 0Cr18Ni9 steel
J Pump gas return pipe Φ 48×3.0×12770 0Cr18Ni9 steel
Z Outlet pipe Φ 22×1.5×2500 0Cr18Ni9 steel

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966 Renewable and Sustainable Energy II

Constraint conditions and loads


The loads include pressure, weight and temperature difference.
The working pressure is 1.7MPa.
The weight loads are divided into two kinds of conditions. Pipes A, H, G, F, J which are located on
the top of the low temperature storage tank only have pipe weight with no LNG liquid weight. But
pipes B, C, E, Z which are located on the bottom of the low temperature storage tank have both pipe
weight and LNG liquid weight.
There are three working temperature conditions.
Condition one: The pipes are full of LNG liquid but the tank is empty. The internal temperature of
the tank is 20℃. But the temperature of the pipe is -196℃. And the temperature difference is 216℃.
Condition two: The tank is full of LNG liquid but the pipes are empty. The internal temperature of
the tank is -196℃. But the temperature of the pipe is 20℃. No temperature difference is loaded to the
pipes. The temperature difference of the inner container of the tank is 216℃. The joints between the
tank and the pipes would cause displacement due to the deformation of the inner container of the tank.
The bottom pipes does not exist this condition because those pipes are always full of LNG liquid.
Condition three: Both the tank and the pipes are full of LNG liquid with the same temperature
-196℃. The temperature difference is 216℃. The joints between the tank and the pipes would cause
displacement due to the deformation of the inner container of the tank and pipes.
The pipe ends have been fixed to the low temperature storage tank. The pipes would deform when
temperature changes. The fixed constraints would restrict the deformation. So the temperature stress
occurs.
The radius-thickness ratio of the pipes is less than 1.2. So the temperature stresses along the pipe
wall thickness direction have been ignored. The dynamic stress and fluid flow influence are not
considered because the design velocity is very low.
The inner container of the tank has axial constraints at the centre of gravity position and the hoop
constraints of both ends up and down are zero.
Calculation analysis
ANSYS software has been used in structure stress finite element analysis[3]. And shell elements have
been used to the pipe finite element model. The distribution of von-mises equivalent stress can be
obtained. Structure stress and temperature stress are caused by weight, pressure and temperature load.
Those stresses include tensile stress, compressive stress, bending stress and torsion stress.
The von-mises equivalent stress distributions of pipes are shown in figure 2 to figure 10. The
maximum stress would happen in condition one for the top pipes such as pipes A, H, G, F, J but in
condition three for the bottom pipes such as pipes B, C, E, Z. The maximum von-mises equivalent
stresses of pipes are shown in figure 11. The maximum value of all is 72MPa which cause in
condition one and pipe A.
1
NODAL SOLUTION ANSYS 10.0
STEP=1
SUB =1
TIME=1
SEQV (AVG)
DMX =12.664
SMN =.804048
SMX =63.817

MX
MN

Z X

.804048 14.807 28.81 42.812 56.815


7.805 21.808 35.811 49.814 63.817

Fig.2 Stress distribution of pipe A Fig.3 Stress distribution of pipe B


Advanced Materials Research Vols. 512-515 967

1 1
NODAL SOLUTION ANSYS 10.0 NODAL SOLUTION ANSYS 10.0
STEP=1 STEP=1 Y
SUB =1 Y Z SUB =1 Z
TIME=1 TIME=1 X
SEQV (AVG) X SEQV (AVG)
DMX =6.141 DMX =11.845
SMN =.476274 SMN =.058723
SMX =57.792 SMX =30.66
MX
MN MN

MX

.476274 13.213 25.95 38.687 51.423 .058723 6.859 13.659 20.46 27.26
6.845 19.581 32.318 45.055 57.792 3.459 10.259 17.06 23.86 30.66

Fig.4 Stress distribution of pipe C Fig.5 Stress distribution of pipe E

Fig.6 Stress distribution of pipe F Fig.7 Stress distribution of pipe G

Fig.8 Stress distribution of pipe H Fig.9 Stress distribution of pipe J


968 Renewable and Sustainable Energy II

1
NODAL SOLUTION ANSYS 10.0
STEP=1
SUB =1
TIME=1
SEQV (AVG)
DMX =4.898
SMN =.07433
SMX =34.291

MX
MN

Z
Y
X

.07433 7.678 15.282 22.886 30.489


3.876 11.48 19.084 26.688 34.291

Fig.10 Stress distribution of pipe Z Fig.11 Max von-mises stress of pipes contrasting

Conclusions
The stress of the top pipes would be the largest under filling liquid state which is only little larger than
storing liquid state. The stress of the bottom pipes would be the largest under storing liquid state.
The deformation of the inner container of the tank which reducing the deformation for top pipes
and increasing deformation for bottom pipes is good for the top pipes but is harmful for the bottom
pipes. Therefore choosing a flexible structure as designing the bottom pipes is reasonable.

Acknowledgements
This work was financially supported by the China National Science and Technology Major Projects
(2009ZX04008-011-004).

References
[1] SHU Mingshui. Effect of the effective thermal conductivity on the evaporativity of cryogenic
tank [J]. Gryogenics, Vol.1 (1995),p.50-52.
[2] LIU Yanfeng, SU Deguang. Low stress condition design for pressure vessel in low temperature
and low temperature [J]. Chlor-Alkali Industry, Vol.3 (2007),p.44-45.
[3] DING Chang, WANG Rongshun. Application of ANASYS in stress analysis and optimization
design of cryogenic pressure vessels[J]. Cryogenics and Superconductivity, Vol.35 (2007),
p.455-457.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy II
10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.512-515

Piping Stress Analysis of Low Temperature Storage Tank for LNG


10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.512-515.965