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Department of Civil Engineering

Introduction to Environmental Engineering (Fall 2018 - F18 ENVT 0002)

Course Work project

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Submitted by: Aisha khalfan Al-tubi…….. (15F14949)

Summited to: Mr. shalin prince

Spring 2018

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Contents
1. Abstract: ................................................................................................................................. 3
2. Introduction: .......................................................................................................................... 4
3. Methodology: ......................................................................................................................... 5
〈Wastewater treatment system〉 ............................................................................................... 5
Types of pollutants produce: ................................................................................................... 5
Stages of wastewater treatment: .............................................................................................. 6
Water Quality by the international standard: ........................................................................... 9
Controlling sources of pollution and reduce it: ..................................................................... 10
〈Air pollution from transportation〉....................................................................................... 12
Emission control strategies for the transport: ........................................................................ 12
Controlling sources of pollution: ........................................................................................... 13
Controlling emissions related to transportation from vehicles and use of cleaner fuels: ...... 14
Discuss stakeholder engagement and public participation: ................................................... 15
Strategy benefited both the environment and society: ........................................................... 16
4. Conclusion: .............................................................................................................................. 16
5. References:............................................................................................................................... 17
6. Appendix:................................................................................................................................. 18

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1. Abstract:

1.1 Recently, the quantities of wastewater have increased significantly and the types of
contaminants also vary with the development of the global industry continuously. In
terms of quantity and composition, treated wastewater is recorded as the most polluted
source among all industrial sectors. This report explains the primary and secondary
treatment of wastewater in Seeb and some problems that work on the negative effects
and solutions to the treatment method.

1.2 Recently, the world faces many difficult challenges and problems in the man-made
atmosphere. Where these exist in the atmosphere such as solid particles, gases, and
liquid droplets. Air quality has deteriorated due to human activities, natural phenomena
and some chemical pollutants from vehicles that have negatively impacted the
environment. Air pollution has been the main environmental threat to human health in
many towns and cities. The objective of this task is to analyze air pollution in the state of
Seeb and to know the extent of impact by vehicles and find solutions to reduce this
problem. In this report, explain the percentage of emissions from cars and the industrial
area and the impact of emissions to the environment and how they can be reduced and
overcome and provide appropriate solutions such as train and large buses.

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2. Introduction:

2.1 Recently, the quantities of sewage water are increasing significantly and the types of
contaminants vary with the development of international industries continuously. The
treatment of different operations will be discussed in this study. Al-Seeb has a sewage
collection network in many different places. Company Haya provides us with some
information about this mission. In terms of quantity and composition, industrial
wastewater is listed as the most polluted source among all industrial sectors. Wastewater
is treated before it is returned to the environment, tables or lakes. Where discharge
standards require the installation of facilities that perform what is now called the basic
treatment of wastewater. This includes the use of sediment tanks and screens to remove
most of the material in the wastewater that settles or drains. As subsequent discharge
criteria become more stringent, secondary treatment is necessary where secondary
treatment is performed by collecting waste, oxygen and bacteria in the tunnel filters or
the activated sludge process. Conventional wastewater treatment consists of a range of
chemical, physical and biological processes to remove organic, solid and sometimes
nutrient materials from wastewater to increase the level of treatment, which is an
advanced wastewater treatment. The aim of this treatment is to reduce contaminants to
remove pathogens and to make the water useful for the environment to be used for
agriculture in irrigation.
2.2 The world has witnessed rapid development in many fields, the most important of which
is the automobile industry which has spread rapidly in the world. But the use of gas and
oil in automotive engines has contributed significantly to the pollution of the
environment and the rising temperatures of this car would pose a major threat to the
surface of the earth. So people in the world should look for other alternatives in reducing
the emission of automotive gases that mix with the air to produce gases such as the
second carbon dioxide that is dangerous to the environment and human health. After
conducting a lot of research to preserve the environment, it is possible to make cars that
reduce the emission of gas through fuel and stop the car when standing and pressing the
bricks through the use of modern technologies and reduce the tools used in
manufacturing to be environmentally friendly. As a result of scientific research, it is

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possible to develop the world in an accelerated manner and to search for alternatives to
preserve the environment and human health. Scientists and researchers have been able to
use modern, environmentally friendly technologies in vehicles that prevent pollution
from developing alternative cars that are not used in oil, gas, and coal, such as using
solar energy and electric power to reduce emissions but are not widely distributed. These
vehicles become environmentally friendly and use modern and sophisticated technology
to spread rapidly in the world. This report will examine in the state of Seeb and study
this problem and find out the sources of the problem so he suggested some strategies and
solutions that work to reduce emissions on air by granting statistics of the number of cars
and industry.

3. Methodology:

〈Wastewater treatment system〉

Types of pollutants produce:


 natural pollution
Is pollution that changes the natural properties of water so that water cannot be used
because it contains harmful substances and increases the suspended organic or inorganic
substances. Moreover, the salinity of water in dry places increases without renewal, as it
changes the taste, color, smell and becomes unsuitable for people, animals, and plants.

 Chemical pollution
Is one of the most dangerous things facing human beings nowadays. It is the pollution
caused by the chemical elements and the most dangerous to the health of the environment
caused by humans on living organisms. This chemical pollution has many species,
including pollution with pesticides, mercury, lead, arsenic and many elements of
substances thrown into the water that affect and greatly threaten aquatic organisms.

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 Oil Pollution
 It is one of the largest sources of contaminated water. What happens not only in coastal
areas, but also extends to the surface of ocean waters and deep water layers caused by
accidents of oil tankers and their products and incidents of oil extraction from marine
wells, especially during the separation of water from oil, a difficult process or as a result
of the leakage of oil wells from beaches near the sea.

 Biological pollution
This contamination is caused by the increase of pathogenic microorganisms such as
bacteria, viruses, algae, and parasites in the water. These pollutants often result from the
mixing of human and animal waste, where the presence of this type of contamination
leads to many diseases. Therefore, this water should not be used for drinking, washing or
bathing unless it is treated with several types of sterilization, such as filtration with
mechanical filters and other treatment systems such as chlorine.

Stages of wastewater treatment:


Wastewater Collection from Waliyit Seeb:

The elimination of wastewater that needs sanitary means is very necessary to provide a healthy
environment for the community and provide the latest technologies and scientific and
engineering methods to maintain the health of the environment and free from wastewater
contaminants. Wastewater is collected in the Al-Seeb state by the Al Hayah Company through
the use of underground drainage systems. This network connects most of the houses in Seeb.
This process is used to avoid underground discharges and has a diameter of approximately 1
meter. Haya Company works to inspect this drainage every month and does not rely solely on
discharge, but uses a large tank truck to drain the wastewater. The discharge criteria require the
installation of facilities that perform primary treatment and secondary treatment

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 Primary treatment

The primary treatment is the removal of organic and inorganic substances by sedimentation and
removal of substances that will float by skimming. Mechanical Separation by a physical and/or
chemical settlement of suspended solids, in which (BOD5) of the incoming wastewater is
reduced by at least 20% before discharge and (TSS) is reduced by at least 50%. Primary
treatment is the minimum level of re-use of treatment required to irrigate wastewater and can be
considered adequate treatment if wastewater is used to irrigate crops that are not consumed by
humans or irrigate orchards and some processed food crops. However, to prevent potential
adverse conditions in warehouses or reservoirs equivalent to flow. The primary sediment basins
or marshes may be rectangular or round basins with a depth of 3 to 5 meters. Stabilized solids
(primary sludge) are removed from the bottom of the tanks by sludge presses to a central well
pumped to sludge treatment units. Scum is swept across the tank surface by water jets or
mechanical means from which it is also pumped to sludge processing units.. Primary treatment
includes:

1. Screening- to remove large objects, such as stones or sticks that could plug lines or block
tank inlets.
2. Grit chamber- slows down the flow to allow grit to fall out
3. Sedimentation tank (settling tank or clarifier) - settle able solids settle out and are
pumped away, while oils float to the top and are skimmed off.
 Secondary treatment

P๐st-primary treatment ๐f wastewater by a pr๐cess generally inv๐lving bi๐l๐gical treatment


with a sec๐ndary settlement, resulting in (BOD5) rem๐val ๐f at least 70% and (COD) rem๐val
๐f at least 75%.Is the sec๐nd stage ๐f wastewater treatment that takes place after the initial
treatment. The process consists of removing or reducing the contaminants or residual products in
the wastewater from the primary treatment process. Biological therapy is sometimes used to treat
water in this step because it is one of the most effective treatments for contaminants and bacteria.
Initial treatment processes can remove up to 90 percent of organic matter in wastewater through
the use of bioremediation processes. The traditional method is the most commonly used to
achieve secondary treatment are the outstanding growth processes and attached growth

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processes. Secondary treatment uses biological treatments where microorganisms convert non-
rust solids into stable solids. Allowing the solids of stability to stabilize. Includes 3 options:

1. Activated sludge is the most common use of microorganisms in the treatment process to
destroy organic matter. Then allow soluble solids containing bacteria (activated sludge)
containing bacteria continuously into the ventilated tub to increase the rate of organic
degradation.
2. Trickling Filters- These are beds of coarse media (often stones or plastic) 3-10 ft. deep.
Wastewater is sprayed into the air (aeration), and then allowed to trickle through the
media. Microorganisms attached to and growing on the media, break down organic
material in the wastewater. Trickling filters drain at the bottom; the wastewater is
collected and then undergoes sedimentation.
3. Lagoons- These are slow, cheap, and relatively inefficient, but can be used for various
types of wastewater. They rely on the interaction of sunlight, algae, microorganisms, and
oxygen (sometimes aerated). After primary and secondary treatment, municipal
wastewater is usually disinfected using chlorine (or other disinfecting compounds, or
occasionally ozone or ultraviolet light). An increasing number of wastewater facilities
also employ tertiary treatment, often using advanced treatment methods. Tertiary
treatment may include processes to remove nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus,
and carbon adsorption to remove chemicals. These processes can be physical, biological,
or chemical. Settled solids (sludge) from primary treatment and secondary treatment
settling tanks are given further treatment and undergo several options for disposal.

The objective of secondary treatment is the further treatment of the effluent from primary
treatment to remove the residual organics and suspended solids.

 Tertiary Treatment
Filtrati๐n system f๐r further rem๐val and p๐lishing ๐f TE. The treatment rem๐val
efficiency is at least 95% f๐r BOD and 85% f๐r COD, 80% f๐r TN, and 99% f๐r
micr๐bi๐l๐gical.

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Figure1.2 shows the types of wastewater treatment. Figure1.2 shows the tertiary
treatment implemented in Haya water.

Table1.1: Classificati๐n ๐f C๐mm๐n Wastewater Treatment Pr๐cesses

Water Quality by the international standard:


The water after the treatment must match the intentional standard since water uses it for many
things and if the quality of the water is not good, it produces a negative effect. For the freshwater
standard, consider parameters such as chlorides, dissolved oxygen, and fecal bacteria.
Wastewater after treatment also becomes good quality, but not in the same quality of fresh water,
the standard for water after treatment depends on the MECA standard. The haya company
produces very good quality for water treatment and combines it with MECA. The international
check made by an organization called MBR is 98%, 85%, and 98%, respectively, for TSS, TN,
and BOD.

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Table1.2: Treated effluent compliance for Haya Company

Controlling sources of pollution and reduce it:


The source of this problem is the human who performs many activities. All Haya sewage
treatment plants currently generate an average volume of 84,144 cubic meters per day of liquid
waste, which will rise to 327,854 cubic meters per day by 2025. Sewage treated wastewater will
be used to treat the landscape on roads, golf courses, irrigation, agriculture, recharge of the
aquifer, drinking water and industrial reuse. Haya Water has implemented a project to introduce
organic fertilizer called Cala Compost which is used for agricultural activities. It is a by-product
of water reuse treatment. 100% ‫ ؜‬of all sewage sludge from the company's plants is being
processed and converted into fertilizer that is commercially sold in the market as reported by the
Times of Oman offering Haya fertilizer to the environment-friendly farmers. Two laws were
passed to ensure proper management of municipal wastewater, environmental protection and
public health.

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The first law is the law ๐f “the C๐nservati๐n ๐f the Envir๐nment and Preventi๐n ๐f P๐lluti๐n,”
issued under R๐yal Decree RD 114/2001; article 20 ๐f this law states that “it is pr๐hibited t๐
discharge hazard๐us waste and substance and ๐ther envir๐nmental p๐llutants in wadis,
waterc๐urses, gr๐undwater recharge areas, rainwater, fl๐๐d drainage system ๐r aflaj and their
channels discharge systems.” It is als๐ pr๐hibited t๐ reuse ๐r discharge treated wastewater
with๐ut ๐btaining a permit fr๐m MRMEWR.

In compliance with the law just described, a second significant law, “The Law on Protection of
Sources of Drinking Water from Pollution,” was issued under Royal Decree number 115/2001.
This includes regulations for secure management of sewage wastewater and protection of
groundwater against contamination (Table 6 and Table 7). In addition, this provides citizens with
the best level of health and aims to protect land, soil, and water resources; however, MD145/93
became an appendix of this law.

Table1.3: Wastewater maximum quality limits in Oman.

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Table1.4: Reuse of sludge in agriculture: Conditions for application to land.

〈Air pollution from transportation〉

Emission control strategies for the transport:


 Technical strategies

Use new technologies to reduce the gases produced by cars and use them in the system and
reduce the use of fuel that burns.

 Vehicle technology

Develop and improve the technology used in vehicles by introducing new and modern systems in
vehicles that reduce emissions.

 Fuel technology

It is very important to improve and use fuel used in vehicles and look for other changes in fuel to
reduce emissions of pollutants such as volatile organic compounds, lead, sulfate or Sox.

 Systemic strategies

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During driving, a person must set a constant speed to reduce the emission of gases less than the
speed limit where the speed must be consistent with the traffic.

 Behavioral strategies

Behavioral strategies are very important in life that can be used alternative means such as public
transport or the participation of working people if they are in one area using one bus rather than
more than one car to reduce pollution. If places are close to work, it is preferable to use walking
or riding a bicycle using legs, which is a very good solution to human health so as to reduce the
pollution of the environment significantly. See for figure1.4

Controlling sources of pollution:


Transport is a very important factor in our daily lives, contributing significantly to air pollution
that we breathe and pollute the environment such as cars whose fuel turns into toxic gases due to
fuel combustion. Therefore, we should look for alternatives to reduce pollution and the strategy
of environmental control more than ever before, as the increase in the population has contributed
significantly to the increase in the number of cars in the world and increased pollution from cars
that cause fuel combustion and turn into toxic gases. With the advancement of modern
technology and its development in the manufacture of cars to control the combustion of fuel
from engines. Carbon dioxide emissions result from environmental pollution and cause global
warming and climate change so it is essential to preserve and control our environment through
the use of transportation such as cars. So we should take important steps to be environmentally
friendly and far from the serious pollution caused by cars:

o Periodic maintenance of any fault in the vehicle, which includes maintenance of fuel
combustion, burning of the brake and change the oil filter, air filter, car oil and other
maintenance.
o Changing the car oil system and buying high-quality oils.
o Cleaning the carburetor is a tool that introduces fuel after mixing the air and gasoline
into the cylinder to start the combustion process.

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o You should speed up the engine repair if there is a defect in it where black smoke
indicates a large part of it.
o If two people work in the same place is advised to take one car or the use of buses or
airways and other means and thus fewer cars and the environment becomes clean and if
the short distance to prefer walking practice, which reduces pollution.

Car pollution has been reduced for decades because of higher emission standards while
improving the quality of fuel use as well as the installation of modern equipment and
technologies in cars due to the progress of modern technology to reduce pollution, such as the
new technologies applied to the exhaust cars used in new cars. There are options that seem to be
applied to reduce emissions from land transport and use in vehicles with a small internal motor,
auto electric light, and rechargeable battery that are assembled in a way that reduces fuel
consumption. In ordinary cars that burn fuel through the internal engine to be able to obtain
kinetic energy but when using the brakes of cars contribute significantly to the loss of energy that
produces toxic gases to the environment while hybrid cars use oil in engine operation, but when
using the brakes have the necessary energy is derived Of its charged battery, saving fuel and
reducing exhaust emissions for vehicles. The hybrid engines are small and lighter in
manufacturing and the engine is less fuel efficient. When the correct path of the hybrid vehicles
is adopted on its movement on the battery and the electric motor only when driving at a constant
speed, the engine is completely closed.

Controlling emissions related to transportation from vehicles and use of cleaner fuels:
With the advance of technology, scientists in the world have been able to make cars with solar
energy and clean, environmentally friendly electric cars that do not emit toxic gases and do not
contain exhaust in burning fuel. Electric cars use an electric motor that is stored in battery power
and connected to a charged electrical source. Scientists predict electric cars are of great
importance in the world because governments in the world, which spend millions to develop
them, are encouraged to reduce emissions from fuel-powered vehicles while affecting the
environment and human health. But the problem with electric cars is the high cost of batteries
that are the source of electricity for cars and compare them with the prices of fuel-powered

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vehicles are high at a high rate and this is a problem faced by humans. But in some countries in
the world provide electric cars to preserve the environment and prevent the spread of pollution.

The advantages of these vehicles are environmentally friendly that do not emit harmful gases and
do not generate noise when operated. Governments are encouraged to buy such vehicles that help
the world achieve targets, reduce emissions and reduce environmental pollution. In the future,
electric cars and solar powered vehicles are expected to spread in our streets following the
development of new technologies and technologies, increase the distance traveled by car and
lower prices and improved performance.

Discuss stakeholder engagement and public participation:


The active participation of the community and raising awareness about the risks of
environmental pollution and responsibility for pollution caused by fuel combustion and high
temperatures among all members of society should be encouraged. Community involvement in
pollution control caused by cars is of great importance. The contribution of the community to the
use of environmentally friendly means of transport is an effective and successful role to reduce
the risks of pollution of the environment and contribute to its preservation, which serve the
health of the family, the individual and social communication. The participation of the public
comes in associations and society, especially in the framework of strengthening the partnership
by raising awareness of the dangers of these types of fuel used in automobiles and the
responsibility to the environment to have a kind of communication between members.

The goal is to achieve a clean and sustainable environment where the participation of the
community must be for one day only, but it must be a daily behavior cultivated in the hearts of
individuals and society to be a lover of this clean environment. It is the responsibility of every
individual to maintain a clean and sustainable environment free of pollution from cars or any
other contaminants that affect the environment and human health. Individuals in the community
also need to educate and encourage governments in countries in this regard and preserve this
secretariat so we must protect the environment and society must take care of them to be a safe
and clean environment of harmful gases that affect human health.

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Strategy benefited both the environment and society:
It is a benefit to reduce environmental pollution and protect human health from hazards this
report summarizes the problems of toxic gases that spread on the ground caused by many factors
and humans. And because cars are responsible for air pollution and the environment that helps to
increase temperature and climate change and diseases such as asthma, cancer and eyes. At
present, the environment must be maintained to be a clean and sustainable environment. Also,
there are many conferences discussing this subject to reduce pollution levels that reduce diseases
because air pollution and the environment not only affects humans as well as affects animals and
plants due to acid rain.

4. Conclusion:
4.1 This report to add knowledge about the sewage system and discusses the use of wastewater
treatment, explaining the stages of wastewater treatment and operations of a haya company and
applied to the state of Seeb. And discuss the quality of water after treatment if it meets the
international standards and what is used after the treatment of water so this report will be useful
to anyone who reads and wants to know how the sewage treatment system and explained in
detail with the problems and solutions and give data with pictures and tables.

4.2 The aim ๐f this rep๐rt is t๐ l๐๐k f๐r alternatives and ๐ther methods or to use modern
technology in the fields of reducing the pollution of the environment due to the means of
transport (cars). This report focused on emission strategies to reduce environmental pollution
caused by cars and suggest solutions. The main objective of the strategies is to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions and to choose environmentally friendly alternative gases, as well as
regular maintenance of vehicles, such as the use of modern technologies in the automotive
system, for example, the pressure on entire vehicle brakes and automatic engine shutdowns that
reduce fuel use. Scientists have been able to find new alternatives, which is the creation of
environmentally friendly cars that work with electricity and solar energy, where the government
contributes significantly in the field of community education to preserve the environment and to
reduce the spread of toxic gases produced by cars from burning fuel and this means the
participation of the individual and the community to be part of the success of the process To
become a pollution-free environment that affects the health of humans, animals, and plants.

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5. References:
1. Class Notebook
2. Lab Manual
3. Wastewater and sludge management and research in Oman: An overview (2018) [Online]
available from < URL >
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10962247.2016.1243595?scroll=top&need
Access=true&[13 December 2018]
4. Wastewater Engineering: Advanced Wastewater Treatment Systems(2018) [Online]
available from < URL >https://www.scribd.com/doc/219103542/Wastewater-
Engineering-Advanced-Wastewater-Treatment-Systems[13 December 2018]
5. Air pollution from transportation(2018) [Online] available from < URL
>https://www.scribd.com/search?content_type=tops&page=1&query=Air%20pollution%
20from%20transportation[13 December 2018]
6. Urban Transportation and Air Pollution(2018) [Online] available from < URL
>https://www.scribd.com/book/382386729/Urban-Transportation-and-Air-Pollution[13
December 2018]
7. Haya Water(2018) [Online] available from < URL
>https://www.squ.edu.om/Portals/97/Activities/Workshop/WWD2017/HayaWater.pdf[13
December 2018]

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6. Appendix:

Figure1.1: Simplified Urban Water Cycle

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Figure1.2: wastewater treatment

Figure1.3: Wastewater system

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Figure1.4: Conventional Activated Sludge

Figure1.5: Membrane Bio-Reactor

Figure1.6: Sequential Batch-Reactor + UF

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Figure1.7: Emission Sources from a Passenger Car

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