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BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS PROBLEMS FOR ASSIGNMENT

Problem 1:

It

may be noted from above that the size of the sample is directly proportional to the variability

in

the population and the value of Z for a confidence interval. It varies inversely with the size of

the error. It may also be noted that the size of a sample does not depend upon the size of population. Below are given some worked out examples for the determination of a sample size.

An economist is interested in estimating the average monthly household expenditure on food

items by the households of a town. Based on past data, it is estimated that the standard deviation

of the population on the monthly expenditure on food item is Rs. 30. With allowable error set at

Rs. 7, estimate the sample size required at a 90 per cent confidence.

Problem 2:

You are given a population with a standard deviation of 8.6. Determine the sample size needed

to estimate the mean of the population within ± 0.5 with a 99 per cent confidence.

Problem 3:

It is desired to estimate the mean life time of a certain kind of vacuum cleaner. Given that the

population standard deviation o = 320 days, how large a sample is needed to be able to assert

with a confidence level of 96 per cent that the mean of the sample will differ from the population mean by less than 45 days?

Problem 4:

Let us consider a few examples for determining a sample size while estimating the population proportion.

A market researcher for a consumer electronics company would like to study the television

viewing habits of the residents of a particular, small city. What sample size is needed if he wishes to be 95 per cent confident of being within ± 0.035 of the true proportion who watch the evening news on at least three weeknights r no previous estimate is available?

Problem 5:

A manager of a department store would like to study women's spending per year on cosmetics.

He is interested in knowing the population proportion of women who purchase their cosmetics primarily from his store. If he wants to have a 90 per cent confidence of estimating the true proportion to be within ± 0.045, what sample size is needed?

Problem 6:

To determine the effectiveness of the advertising campaign for a new Plasma TV, the management would like to know what percentage of the household is aware of the new brand.

The advertising agency thinks that this figure is as high as 70%. The management would like a 95% confidence interval and a margin of error not greater than plus or minus 2%. a) What sample should be used for the study?

b) Suppose the management wanted 99% confidence interval with a error of plus or minus 3%,

how would the sample size change? ( Note: For 95% area covered within ±1.96 standard deviations in a normal distribution and for 99% it is ±2.58)

Problem 7:

A consumer electronics company wants to determine the job satisfaction levels of its employees.

For this, they ask a simple question, 'Are you satisfied with your job?' It was estimated that no

more than 30 per cent of the employees would answer yes. What should be the sample size for this company to estimate the population proportion to ensure a 95 per cent confidence in result, and to be within 0.04 of the true population proportion?

Problem 8:

On a typing test, a random sample of 36 graduates of a secretarial school averaged 73.6 words with a standard deviation of 8.10 words per minute. Test an employer’s claim that the school's graduates average less than 75.0 words per minute using the 5 per cent level of significance.

Problem 9:

It is known from past studies that the monthly average household expenditure on the food

items in a locality is Rs.2,700 with a standard deviation of Rs.160. An economist took a random sample of 25 households from the locality and found their monthly household expenditure on food items to be Rs.2,790.0. At 0.01 level of significance, can we conclude

that the average household expenditure on the food items is greater than Rs.2,700?

Problem 10:

A sample of 16 graduating engineering students of a college was taken and the information

was obtained on their starting salary. The mean monthly starting salary was found to be Rs.30,200 with a standard deviation of Rs.960. The past data on the starting salary has given a mean value of Rs.30,000. Using a 5 per cent level of significance, can we conclude that the

average starting salary is different from Rs.30,000?

Problem 11:

Prices of share (in ) of a company on the different days in a month were found to be 66, 65, 69, 70, 69, 71, 70, 63, 64, and 68. Examine whether the mean price of shares in the month is different from 65. You may use 10 per cent level of significance.

Problem 12:

The results of a household survey indicated that a sample of 20 households bought an average of 75 litres of milk per month with a standard deviation of 13.0 litres. Test the hypothesis that the value of the population mean is 70 litres against the alternative that it is more than 70 litres. Use 0.05 level of significance.

Problem 13:

Past records indicate that a golfer has averaged 82 on a certain course. With a new set of clubs, he averages 7 over five rounds with a standard deviation of 2.65. Can we conclude that at 0.025 level of significance, the new club has an adverse effect on the performance?

Problem 14:

An officer of the health department claims that 60 per cent of the male population of a village

comprises smokers. A random sample of 50 males showed that 35 of them were smokers. Are these sample results consistent with the claim of the health officer? Use a level of significance

of 0.05.

Problem 15:

A food processing company wants to know whether the proportion of customers who prefer the

new packaging to the old one is 0.65. What can be concluded at the level of significance a = 0.05 if 74 of the 100 randomly selected customers prefer the new kind of packaging and alternative hypothesis is p ≠ 0.65.

Problem 16:

Calculate coefficient of correlation from the data given below by the direct method, i.e., without taking the deviations of items from actual or assumed mean.

X :

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Y :

15

16

14

13

11

12

10

8

9

Problem 17:

The ranking of 10 students in two subjects A and B are as follows:

A

B

A

B

6

3

4

6

5

8

9

10

3

4

7

7

10

9

8

5'

2

1

1

2

Calculate rank correlation coefficient

Problem 18:

Two ladies were asked to rank 7 different types of lipsticks. The ranks given by them are as follows:

Lipsticks

:

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

Neelu

:

2

1

4

3

5

7

6

Neena

:

1

3

2

4

5

6

7

Calculate Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient.

Problem 19:

The table below shows the ranks assigned which were assigned to ten artists:

Sl. No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Judge A

5

7

4

1

3

2

9

8

10

6

Judge B

4

8

3

2

7

1

10

6

9

5

Judge C

8

6

2

10

4

1

3

9

5

7

Compute spearman’s rank order correlation coefficient for each pair of ranking and decide:

a) Which of the two judges are most alike in their opinions about these artists?

b) Which two judges are different in their opinions about these artists?

Problem 20:

Ten competitors in a beauty contest are ranked by three judges in the following order :

1 st judge

:

1

6

5

10

3

2

4

9

7

8

2 nd judge

:

3

5

8

4

7

10

2

1

6

9

3 rd judge

:

6

4

9

8

1

2

3

10

5

7

Use the rank correlation coefficient to determine which pair of judges has the nearest approach to common tastes in beauty

Problem 21:

From the following data obtain the two regression equations:

X 6

2

10

4

8

Y 9

11

5

8

7

Problem 22:

The manufacturer of a certain make of electric bulbs claims that his bulbs has a mean life of

25 months with a standard deviation of 5 months. A random sample of 6 such bulbs gave the

following values.

Life of months 24, 26, 30, 20, 20, 18.

Can you regard the producer’s claim to be valid at 1% level of significance? (Given that the

table values of the appropriate test statistics at the said level are 4.032, 3.707 and 3.499 for 5, 6

and 7 degrees of freedom respectively.)

Problem 23:

Two brands of LED bulbs are quoted at the same price. A buyer tested a random sample of 100 LED bulbs of each brand and found the following:

Brand

Mean life (hrs.)

Standard deviation

Brand I

1300

82

Brand II

1248

83

Is there a significant difference in the quality of two brands of LED bulbs 5% level of

significance?

Problem 24:

The sum of the squares of the deviations taken

from mean is 135. Can this sample be regarded as taken from the population having 56 as mean?

Obtain 95% and 99% confidence limits of the mean of the population, (for v = 15, t 0.05 = 2.13

for v = 15, t 0.01 = 2.95)

A random sample of size 16 has 53 as mean.

Problem 25:

The life time of electric bulbs for a random sample of 10 from a large consignment gave the

following data:

Item

:

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Life in ‘000 hours:

4.2

4.6

3.9

4.1

5.2

3.8

3.9

4.3

4.4

5.6

Can we accept the hypothesis that the average life time of bulbs is 4,000 hours?

Problem 26:

A certain drug is claimed to be effective in curing cold. In an experiment on persons with cold,

half of them were given the drug and half of them were given the 'sugar pills. The patients’

reactions to the treatment are recorded in the following table:

 

Helped

Harmed

No effect

Total

Drug

150

30

70

250

Sugar Mills

130

40

80

250

Total

280

70

150

500

On the basis of the data can it be concluded that there is a significant difference in the effect

of the drug and sugar pills?

Problem 27:

1,000 students at college level are graded according to their l.Q. and their economic conditions.

Use chi-square test to find out whether there is any association between economic conditions

and the level of I.Q.

Economic

I.Q

Conditions

High

Medium

Low

Total

Rich

160

300

140

600

Poor

140

100

160

400

Total

300

400

300

1,00

Problem 28:

A cigarette company interested in the relation between gender of a person and the type of

cigarettes smoked has collected the following data from a random sample of 150 persons.

Cigarette

Male

Female

Total

A

25

30

55

B

40

15

55

C

30

10

40

Total

95

55

150

Test whether type of cigarette smoked and the gender are independent?

Problem 29:

To assess the significance of possible variation in performance in a certain test between the

convent schools of a city, a common test was given to a number of students taken at random

from the senior fifth class of each of the four schools concerned. The results are given below.

Make an analysis of variance of data.

are given below. Make an analysis of variance of data. Schools A B C D 8

Schools

A B C D
A
B
C
D

8

12

18

13

10

11

12

9

12

9

16

12

8

14

6

16

7

4

8

15

9 16 12 8 14 6 16 7 4 8 15 Problem 30: The three samples

Problem 30:

The three samples below have been obtained from normal populations with equal variances. Test

the hypothesis that the sample means are equal:

8

7

12

10

5

9

7

10

13

14

9

12

11

9

14

The table value of Fat 5% level of significance for v 1 = 2 and = v 2 is 3.88.