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December 1998 1

December 1998

Volume 46

Number 10

“Song of the Wind,” 39 inches

in height, stoneware with
colored slips, fired to Cone 6,
by Makoto Yabe, Boxford,

31 The Marketing Dance by Richard Selfridge Installation view of sculpture
How to choose the right partners inspired by a pre-Columbian
figure by Peruvian-born artist
36 Salt and Refractory Coatings by Mel Jacobson Kukuli Velarde; at the Clay Studio
Thwarting corrosion of brick and fiber in Philadelphia.

43 Fifth Porcelain Triennial 44

International competition in Switzerland
44 Isichapuitu by Kukuli Velarde
Sculptural work rooted in antiquity
46 An Alternative Approach to Teaching Ceramics
by Erik Bright
Emphasizing visual communication
51 Unaffected
Vessels and Sculpture by Emerging Artists
52 Interactive Tile Mural Illustrates Human Skin
by Ann Patterson
Arizona artist combines science and clay
Results from a salt kiln
protected by refractory 55 An Interview with Makoto Yabe by Joan Evelyn Ames
Beginning with a feeling, then resolving the technique
36 61 Additives for Glazes and Clay Bodies by JeJfZamek
Improving suspension and handling strength
“Double Spiral Weave,” 19½ inches in
The cover: Arizona artist diameter, thrown stoneware with
Garry Price works on a tile 63 Julia Galloway
sgraffito decoration, by Erik Bright;
for a ceramic wall mural Solo exhibition of functional ceramics Fulbright artist at the National Institute
installed recently at the new of Art and Design in Oslo, Norway.
Arizona Science Center; see 64 Bernard Dejonghe
page 52. Photo: Rick Odell Natural elements reflected in sculptural work 46

December 1998
8 Free Summer Workshops Listing
Deadline for April issue announced
8 Susan Whalen Editor Ruth C. Butler
First place in national competition Associate Editor Kim Nagorski
8 Crafts Competition in Tennessee Assistant Editor Connie Belcher
Southeastern artists at Arrowmont School of Arts and Crafts, Gatlinburg
Assistant Editor H. Anderson Turner III
10 Mary Kay Botkins and Mark Burleson Editorial Assistant Renee Fairchild
New works at Odyssey Gallery in Asheville, North Carolina
Production Specialist Robin Chukes
10 From the Ground Up Advertising Manager Steve Hecker
Juried exhibition at Los Paisanos Gallery in El Paso, Texas
12 It’s in the Mail Customer Service Mary R. Hopkins
Vase made by Hinau and Peter Owen illustrates a Tahitian stamp Circulation Administrator Mary E. May
12 Ed Oshier Publisher Mark Mecklenborg
Vessels at Sun Cities Museum of Art in Sun City, Arizona
Editorial, Advertising and Circulation Offices
12 Annual Exhibition in Florida 735 Ceramic Place
Traveling Florida Craftsmen member show Post Office Box 6102
14 Contemporary European Ceramics Westerville, Ohio 43086-6102
Exhibition at the Plymouth Arts Centre in Plymouth, England Telephone: (614) 523-1660
14 Sumi Maeshima Fax: (614) 891-8960
Vessels by resident artist at the Clay Studio in Philadelphia E-mail:
14 Contemporary Crafts Market in Santa Monica
Juried sale at the Santa Monica California Civic Auditorium
16 Stefani Gruenberg
Decorated vases at Gallery Eight in La Jolla, California Website:
16 Rupert Spira Ceramics Monthly (ISSN 0009-0328) is published monthly,
Functional stoneware at Oxford Gallery in Oxford, England except July and August, by The American Ceramic Society, 735
16 Teapot Exhibition in Iowa Ceramic Place, Westerville, Ohio 43081. Periodicals postage
Works by 21 ceramists at Iowa Artisans Gallery in Iowa City paid at Westerville, Ohio, and additional mailing offices.
18 Jack M. Neulist-Coelho Opinions expressed are those of the contributors and do not
Sculpture at FireHouse Gallery at Rogue Community College in Grants Pass, Oregon necessarily represent those of the editors or The American
Ceramic Society.
18 Stephen Rodriguez Subscription Rates: One year $26, two years $49, three years
Pottery at the Klay Gallery in Nyack, New York
$70. Add $ 12 per year for subscriptions outside North j^merica.
18 Exhibition of Israeli Crafts In Canada, add GST (registration number R123994618).
Independence celebration at Sternberg Centre for Judaism in London, England Change of Address: Please give us four weeks advance notice.
18 A Workshop with Ah Leon by Shelley Schreiber Send the magazine address label as well as your new address to:
Taiwanese artist visits the Castle Clay Co-op in Denver, Colorado Ceramics Monthly, Circulation Department, PO Box 6102,
Westerville, OH 43086-6102.
20 Gwen Heffner
Retrospective at Contemporary Artifacts Gallery in Berea, Kentucky Contributors: Writing and photographic guidelines are avail­
able on request. Mail manuscripts and visual support (photo­
20 Richard Aerni and Malcolm Davis graphs, slides, transparencies, drawings, etc.) to Ceramics Monthly,
Functional ware at the Creative Arts Center in Dallas, Texas 735 Ceramic PL, PO Box 6102, Westerville, OH 43086-6102.
We also accept unillustrated texts faxed to (614) 891-8960, or
e-mailed to

DEPARTMENTS Indexing: An index of each year’s feature articles appears in

the December issue. Feature articles are also indexed in the
6 Letters Art Index and daai (design and applied arts index), available
through public and university libraries.
24 New Books
66 Call for Entries Copies and Reprints: Searchable databases and document
delivery are available through Information Access Company,
66 International Exhibitions
362 Lakeside Dr., Foster City, CA 94404; and through Univer­
66 United States Exhibitions
sity Microfilms, 300 N. Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48106.
68 Regional Exhibitions
Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal
68 Fairs, Festivals and Sales
use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted
72 Suggestions
by The American Ceramic Society, provided the base fee of
76 Calendar
$5.00 per copy, plus $0.50 per page, is paid directly to the
76 Conferences
Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Dr., Danvers, MA
76 Solo Exhibitions
01923. Prior to copying items for classroom use, please contact
76 Group Ceramics Exhibitions
the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Dr., Danvers,
78 Ceramics in Multimedia Exhibitions MA 01923; (978) 750-8400. The code for users of the Trans­
80 Fairs, Festivals and Sales actional Reporting Service is 0009-0328/97 US$5.00 + $0.50.
82 Workshops
Back Issues: When available, back issues are $7 each, includes
83 International Events
shipping and handling; $10 each outside North America.
92 Questions
Postmaster: Send address changes to Ceramics Monthly, PO Box
99 Classified Advertising
6102, Westerville, OH 43086-6102. Form 3579 requested.
102 Ceramics Monthly Annual Index
Copyright © 1998
104 Comment:
The American Ceramic Society
Young Upstarts and Old Stick-in-the Muds by Brad Sondahl
All rights reserved
104 Index to Advertisers

December 1998 5
self-esteem can show up in aloof booth be­ The magazine has come a long way from
Letters havior and can be misinterpreted as not a few years ago with only a few color pictures
caring. Self-confidence in the merit of the to almost all color. Kudos!
work is crucial to marketing, and lack of it Louise McEvoy, Delta, B.C., Canada
Traditional Guild of Potters can be detrimental to one’s art career.
Has anyone ever brought up the idea of The gratification of working in the clay More on Kiln Wiring
establishing a traditional guild of potters? can be a joy beyond words, but this over­ Regarding the letter from Joseph
The idea may be a little outside the interestswhelming joy is often overturned by the Catanzaro in the November CM:
of CM as a whole, but I wonder if some ofnecessity of successfully marketing one’s In the answer to K.D.C. that was pub­
the magazine’s readers have ever wonderedwares. The emotional stress can be enoughlished in the September CM, I attempted to
the same. In the U.K. a hundred years ago,to it tempt any artist to throw in the towel, provide a description of possible wiring
was seven and one-half years apprenticeship Van Gogh style. configurations that would be likely in the
and seven and one-half years journeymanship Market demand has nothing to do with case where shelhe was dealing with a used
to be a guild member—a potter—and moreour artistic statement’s worth, yet it can kiln. Except for one place where I said incor­
to be a master. I consider myself a traditional compel us to feel a rejection beyond what rectly that the voltage between a hot leg and
potter, but I wonder if the pottery families we’re
in capable of handling. Perhaps this is neutral was 240VAC and meant to say
Seagrove, North Carolina, or north Georgiahow it was with Vincent Van Gogh. 120VAC (which I had stated correctly in an
would consider me one, not being from their The love affair we artists have with public earlier paragraph), Mr. Catanzaro’s descrip­
tradition. So what makes a traditional potter? sentiment can seriously affect our stability. tion of three-phase wiring and my own are
My father was an abstract expressionist To survive, it is crucial for us as artists to no different except for technical jargon. He
and cofounder of the Chicago School of separate our work ethic from the motiva­ goes into a detail that I tried to avoid in the
Design back in the late 1930s. He once tional desires of the market, which fluctuates interest of clarity.
wrote:“Tradition is not a form to be imi­ daily within a tide of populist whim and To be fair to Mr. Catanzaro’s contention
tated, but the discipline that gives integrity circumstance. Although I know the purpose, that I answered with a number of misleading
to the new.” function, achievement and merit of my work, statements, I erred in calling the white lead a
I think the thing that makes a traditionalit may not be comprehended in the same ground neutral; it is just neutral. In the third
craftsman is that he wants the material he ismanner by others. Hiding at the festival paragraph, I again referred to the white as
working with to be everything it can be— behind my booth display only serves to ground neutral instead of neutral.
that the material is allowed its inherent po­alienate me from my buying clientele. Neutral may or may not carry current.
tential. Like any love affair, you must respect Nancy Thompson’s advice is somethingIf the connection is hot plus neutral, neutral
the potential of the loved one. that I definitely needed to take in, and re­ will carry current. If it is hot plus hot, no
Guy Wolff New Preston, Conn. minds me of something my grandmother neutral current. Again, there are variable
once admonished me: “Anything worth factors and no standards.
Free Expression of Art doing is worth doing well.” Thanks for the The initial question is actually difficult to
In response to Ralph Lacey’s suggestionadvice, Nancy. completely answer except in general terms,
(October 1998 Letters) to separate ceramic Emotionally, it’s hard marketing my because there are variable factors involved. I
art into type camps, I want to ask if, as youceramic work. Writing this letter has been said this kiln was probably wired for
state, “I am aware that art is in the eye of thesomewhat therapeutic in helping me get my240VAC single phase. I used the word prob­
beholder,” why propose a fascist division on focus back. ably, because, in this country, hobby kilns are
the richly diverse and pluralistic pursuit of Evelyn Carnes, Willis, Mich. rarely wired for three-phase current (30),
ceramic art? As even history shows, black- except for commercial installations. Less than
and-white exclusionist thinking (however Adding Additions 1% of hobby kilns are wired for 30 current.
well intentioned) will be hysterically boring I was pleased to see more instructional No two kiln manufacturers wire their
and defiantly unsuccessful. Let’s encompasspieces a in CM, and would like to see more kilns in the same way. If one is in doubt, the
full spectrum of light on the free expressionon the finishing techniques on additions toessential element to look for is the cord set,
of art, in any form. pottery. How to put additions on a piece which will have a NEMA configuration
Darryl Wally, Pittsboro, N.C. eludes me, even though I know an additiondefining whether the kiln was wired for 10
of something would enhance it. or 30 current.
Self-Confidence Bonnie Norrod, Rapid City, S.D. Prong sizes will differ as well. The best
M. A. Malinowski’s Comment and solution is to have a licensed electrician set
Nancy S. Thompson’s letter (September Color Kudos everything up correctly. Of course, if there is
1998) both address marketing at fairs and I have been receiving CM for almost sixno cord set supplied and the wires are de­
festivals, and seem to emphasize somewhatyears now, and have recently been poring signed for a set screw terminal, it is even
the merit of the work as being as significantover back issues. Though an amateur in themore important to get competent advice.
as our inner feelings and attitudes. This is aceramics world, mostly throwing functional As Mr. Catanzaro correctly pointed out,
profound truth. Lack of self-confidence and ware, I have come to appreciate the wide there is no difference in cost of power be­
spectrum that the art envelops. With my first tween 30 and 10. What I meant was the
In keeping with our commitment to provide few years of magazines, I was somewhat 30 wiring is less expensive because the wires
an open forum for the exchange of ideas dissapointed to find so much emphasis putcan be smaller, the conduit smaller, thie is
and opinions, the editors welcome letters on nonfunctional and funky creations, but less insulation required, smaller (cheaper)
from all readers. All letters must be signed, now enjoy viewing the “other” side of the fuses are needed and installation is generally
but names will be withheld on request. Mail coin, and even extract a few ideas for incor­less expensive.
to Ceramics Monthly, PO Box 6102, poration into my work. I appreciate the points made in the inter­
Westerville, OH 43086-6102, e-mail to The October issue has a great cover. I, too,
est of providing the best and most accurate or fax to am one who likes to see a pot or sculpture answers
on to questions submitted.
(614) 891-8960. the front and read about the artist inside. Nils Lou, McMinnville, Ore.

December 1998 7
Up Front

Free Summer Workshops Listing

The 1999 “Summer Workshops” listing will appear in the April
issue of Ceramics Monthly. Potters, craft schools, colleges/
universities or other art/craft institutions are invited to submit
information about summer ceramics programs (regularly
scheduled classes are excluded) by February 1. Simply provide
the workshop name and/or a synopsis of what will be covered,
location, opening and closing dates, level of instruction,
instructors name, languages spoken, fee(s), contact address, plus
a telephone number that potential participants may call for
Nicholas Joerling’s “Fruit Bowl,” 14 inches in
details. Captioned slides from last years workshops are welcome width, stoneware, $160; at the Arrowmont School
and will be considered for publication in this listing. of Arts and Crafts, Gatlinburg, Tennessee.
Please mail information and slides to Summer Workshops,
Ceramics Monthly, Post Office Box 6102, Westerville, Ohio the competition were clayworks by Fong Choo, Sarah Frederick,
43086-6102. Announcements may also be e-mailed to both of Louisville, Kentucky; and Nicholas Joerling, Penland, or faxed to (614) 891-8960. North Carolina.
Believing that “there is something enriching about having
Susan Whalen well-made pots and using them,” Joerling produces pieces “that
A spherical vessel by Horse Shoe, North Carolina, artist Susan are intended to give pleasure to the user. They are made and
Whalen received the first-place award in the three-dimensional designed with people in mind.”
category of the “July 4th National Exhibition” at Franklin Fong Choos signature pieces are teapots. “Though meticu­
Square Gallery in Southport, North Carolina. Whalen produces lous in nature to create, they remain one of my most rewarding
challenges. The assemblage requires patience and discipline in
order to achieve an aesthetically pleasing piece,” Choo notes.
“For the desired results, the glazes are airbrushed in an overlap­
ping manner. The an artform in itself that also requires

Susan Whalen vessel, 8 inches in height; at Franklin

Square Gallery, Southport, North Carolina.

“simple, strong and round shapes. For me,” she says, “this shape Sarah Frederick’s “Nude,” 16 inches in
is an exploration of ritual and repetition in different sizes, not an length, porcelain, NFS.
attempt to reproduce identical pots. It also provides a canvas for
the dramatic and unpredictable markings from the fire; the
yellow, unrefined clay responds with an array of subtle variation
in color. The resultant markings suggest drifting continents,
gaseous rings, weather masses, interplanetary lines, shadows,
night and day.”

Crafts Competition in Tennessee

“Spotlight ’98,” a juried exhibition of crafts by artists in 11
Southeastern states, opened at the Main Gallery of Arrowmont
School of Arts and Crafts in Gatlinburg, Tennessee. Included in
Submissions are welcome. We would be pleased to consider
press releases, artists' statements and photos/slides in con­
junction with exhibitions or other events of interest for publi­
cation in this column. Mail to Ceramics Monthly, Post Office
Fong Choo’s “AC-2 Stretched,” to 3½ inches
Box 6102, Westerville, Ohio 43086-6102. in height, porcelain, $250.

December 1998 9
Up Front recording of my ideas and observations. My surface decoration
processes include painting, drawing, silk-screen printing on clay
and experimental surface decoration.
considerable attention. These teapots many times suffer the “The images generated through my process are records of my
rigors of flame.” thoughts, experiences, observations and research (Internet) on
When Sarah Frederick began to make figurative ceramics, life in the age of technology,” he explained. “The organization
she “relied greatly on some life drawings 1 had made. My pieces of my records makes reference to browsing the Internet, receiv­
went from drawings on slabs to front-and-back female vessels to ing and processing information, fragments of ideas, puzzles and
this brick of clay. It reminded me of the Chinese clay pillows,’ quilts. I strive to create visually rich, abstract narratives from
and the back side took care of itself by slumping into one!” images, colors and surfaces. Most of the repeated images that I
After closing at Arrowmont in October, the show traveled to use are icons of historical significance, which represent move­
the Venice Art Center in Venice, Florida, where it will appear ment in new directions.”
from December 14 through January 25, 1999.
From the Ground Up
Mary Kay Botkins and Mark Burleson “Since the explosion of ceramic art that began in the 1960s
New works by North Carolina artists Mary Kay Botkins and when universities started ceramics programs as a part of their art
Mark Burleson was on view recently at Odyssey Gallery in curriculum, ceramics artists now are regarded on an equal status
Asheville, North Carolina. For the exhibition, Botkins coil built with painters and sculptors,” observed Jeanne Otis, juror of the
exhibition “From the Ground Up,” which was presented at Los
Paisanos Gallery in El Paso, Texas. “The work today reflects its
rich history as well as its involvement with the contemporary
explosion of scientific and technical knowledge of materials and

Mary Kay Botkins’ “Honey Drip,” 18 inches in

height, coil-built earthenware, $400; at
Odyssey Gallery, Asheville, North Carolina.

large earthenware pots, concentrating on simple round forms.

For decoration, she likes “using line...and am interested in Robert Mueller’s “Brown Apple Set,” 10 inches in
surface textures that are subtle, uniform and thick. The contrast height, stoneware, $250; at Los Paisanos Fine Arts
between the clay and glaze surface appeals to me.” Gallery, El Paso, Texas.
Concerned with “frontiers in modern life,” Burlesons
handbuilt ceramic panels and teapots “become a canvas for the

Mark Burleson’s “Ghost,” 15 inches long, cast earthenware Pat Allen’s “Untitled,” 10 inches in height, pit-fired
cubes with ceramic decals, glazes and luster, $450. stoneware, $200.

December 1998 11
Up Front

process. There is little mystery left for the ceramics artist;

anything and everything can be done in clay.”
When selecting the 40 works by 25 artists for the show, Otis
looked for “vitality of personal expression. This means freshness,
invention and exploration, which allows the power of play to
take place for a work to evolve into an effective statement that
contains conviction.
“A work should be obvious that it is complete in its presenta­
tion, whether functional or sculptural in approach, abstract or
narrative in content, small or monumental in scale,” she contin­
ued. “However, in the final analysis, it is the quality of the
presentation that determines its artistic merit.”

It’s in the Mail

As part of their “Artists in Polynesia” series, the Tahitian Post Ed Oshier vessel, 12 inches in height; at Sun Cities
Office selected a vase by Hinau and Peter Owen (see Museum of Art, Sun City, Arizona.
“Polynesian Paradise” in the May 1991 issue of CM) to depict
on a postage stamp; 70,000 stamps were issued. “The message that I try to convey in all of my work is the
interest in experimentation with all the elements of art and the
media,” he continued. “I strive for simplicity of form and to
bring out the inherent nature of the materials.”

Annual Exhibition in Florida

The “45th Florida Craftsmen Exhibition,” a juried show of
crafts by members, opened at the Art and Culture Center of
Hollywood, then traveled to the DeLand Museum of Art,

Tahitian postage stamp depicting a white stoneware pot

wheel thrown by Peter Owen, with sgraffito decoration by
Hinau Owen.

Standing about 22 inches in height, the white stoneware pot

was thrown by Peter, then brushed with a brown slip (made
from iron oxide and rutile, and a local clay found in the bottom
of the lagoon in front of Owens house). His wife, Hinau, then
carved the design through the slip.

Ed Oshier
Vessels by Sedona, Arizona, potter Ed Oshier were featured
recently at Sun Cities Museum of Art in Sun City, Arizona.
Focused on producing “interesting forms that are decorated,
glazed and fired with a feeling of honesty,” Oshier hopes that
viewers will “see and feel some of my life’s experiences that are Susan M. Shapiro’s “Skyscraper Box,” 14 inches in height;
expressed in the making of these forms. at the Art and Culture Center of Hollywood, Florida.

December 1998 13
Up Front with the boundaries of the material,” he comments. “My objects
have a very intensive surface process.”
Surface color is produced by metal salts and soda, as well as
where it remained on view through August 30. Juror Bruce W. colored slips. “It is my intention to create beautiful shapes that
Pepich, director of Charles A. Wustum Museum of Fine Arts in radiate power with an interesting surface.”
Racine, Wisconsin, selected 60 works by 44 artists, including 20
clayworks by 11 ceramists. He awarded best of show to Miami Sumi Maeshima
clay artist Peter Kuentzel. Ceramic vessels by resident artist Sumi Maeshima were exhib­
When evaluating the entries, Pepich looked for “those ited recently at the Clay Studio in Philadelphia. Through her
demonstrating a mastery of materials and techniques employed work, Maeshima addresses dualities and contradictions. After
to express an idea. Each method of working carries differing
levels of craftsmanship, and each art material and medium has
its own set of requirements,” he noted in the accompanying
catalog. “No matter how interesting the work may be, if it is
poorly fashioned or assembled, it misses its mark.
“Today’s rapid communication creates a general consistency
across the country in the kinds of artworks created, as informa­
tion about styles and materials is instantly communicated
through the art press and travel,” Pepich continued. “However,
each region of America retains some degree of uniqueness in the
artworks produced there. I found subtle references to tropical
flora and fauna in figurative and representational works, along
with color schemes influenced by Florida’s climate and sense of
light. However, many of these artworks, particularly the abstract
pieces, could have been made anywhere.” Sumi Maeshima’s “Soma No. 3,” 14 inches in diameter,
thrown and altered; at the Clay Studio, Philadelphia.
Contemporary European Ceramics
Works by some 20 artists from France, Austria, Germany, the adding a raised plane to the inside of her forms, she may carve
Netherlands, Poland, Spain and Sweden were featured in the lines and circular drawings into it. For her, the surface of the
recent exhibition “Contemporary European Ceramics” at the piece becomes a record of events, revealing various traits, such
as brutality, tenderness, courage and uncertainty.
“Pottery exists closely to us in our everyday life,” Maeshima
comments. “It is an effort to resolve the contradictions in the
condition of our society: the alienation from our own experi­
ence and from our humanity.”
Contemporary Crafts Market in Santa Monica
Over 240 artists from across the United States participated in
the “Contemporary Crafts Market,” a juried sale held annually
at the Santa Monica (California) Civic Auditorium. To help the
participating craftspeople attract customers, Contemporary

Siegfried Gorinskat’s “Vase, boat object,” approximately

15 inches in height, £150 (approximately US$250); at
Plymouth Arts Centre, Plymouth, England.

Plymouth Arts Centre in Plymouth, England. Techniques and

styles varied from functional pottery to abstract sculpture.
Netherlands artist Siegfried Gorinskat, whose work is shown Gil Harrison platter, 20 inches in diameter, stoneware; at
here, is interested in surface decoration. “I like experimenting the Contemporary Crafts Market, Santa Monica, California.

Up Front and then just petered
out altogether, and I
left the bowl white.
Crafts producer Roy Helms, along with artists Glenn Dizon, “It wasn’t a fash­
John Howell and Rick Sherman, came up with the following ionable consideration;
ten tips for adapting to changes in the marketplace: 1. Balance it was just one more
good design with detail; 2. Watch economic trends; 3. Con­ step in a process that
stantly introduce new products and drop older ones; 4. Identify began 20 years ago,”
the appropriate market for your work; 5. Keep up with technol­ he says, “and yet this
ogy, trends and fashions; 6. Educate the public on a one-to-one too, when measured
basis; 7. Focus on quality craftsmanship; 8. Read business against nature,
books; 9. Plan for the next year; 10. Keep in mind your artistic seemed inadequate
purpose and goals. and has given way in
A successful career in crafts, they concluded, combines the relentless cycle of
creativity and good business techniques. looking and making.
So shapes became
Stefani Gruenberg starker and I started
Stoneware vases with pastoral relief imagery by Los Angeles using monochrome
artist Stefani Gruenberg were exhibited this summer at Gallery colors—intense,
luminous, like those
in Indian miniature
Rupert Spira bottles, to
approximately 18 inches in painting.
height, wheel-thrown stoneware “For a while these
with copper red glaze; at Oxford new colors and new
Gallery, Oxford, England. cleaner shapes seemed
to hold something of
the essence of what I saw, but soon that horribly familiar feeling
of having to move on but not knowing where to go crept over
me again. New shapes are changing and losing their former
associations, and again there is that sense of being on the
edge of a discovery.”
Teapot Exhibition in Iowa
“Tea or Poetry: Artists and the Teapot,” an exhibition of func­
tional teapots by 21 ceramists from across the United States, was
on view through November 14 at Iowa Artisans Gallery in Iowa

Stefani Gruenberg’s “Disk Vase with Sheep,” 19 inches

in width; at Gallery Eight, La Jolla, California.

Eight in La Jolla, California. Working primarily with slab-

building techniques, Gruenberg creates the relief images par­
tially with press molds. These are then enhanced with carving
and painterly techniques, including sgraffito and layered,
multifired glazes.
Rupert Spira
Functional stoneware by British potter Rupert Spira was exhib­
ited recently at Oxford Gallery in Oxford, England. Spira wants
his work “to touch that moment in which the distilled essence
of my experience is held. A pot should be like that moment,
cutting through our experience, not necessarily by using shock
tactics or flouting the known in obvious, exaggerated gestures,
but by intensifying the known to a point where it becomes
abstract and yet strikes one as being still strangely familiar.”
Influenced by nature, Spira’s response to it in the past was
“earthy, immediate, full of vigor and movement, and I wanted
to show this in my pots. But whenever I measured the finished
pot against nature, I nearly always seemed to have missed the
essential thing,” he explains. “As the years go by, my work has
become plainer, more severe and less emotional. The pigment Marilyn Andrews’ “Candy Dish,” teapot with sugar
I painted with became thinner and thinner until fishes had and creamer, to 12 inches in height; at Iowa
become pale unrecognizable washes, plants became fine lines Artisans Gallery, Iowa City.

December 1998 17
Up Front Exhibition of Israeli Crafts
To celebrate the 50th anniversary of Israeli independence, the
Sternberg Centre for Judaism in London, England, presented
City. While several of these artists concentrate primarily on “Designer Crafts of Israel.” Approximately 100 works by
form, others stress surface decoration. For example, Marilyn contemporary Israeli craftspeople were on display, including
Andrews’ teapot (on page 16) uses a figurative sculptural ap­
proach to create work that explores human relationships.

Jack M. Neulist-Coelho
“Drinker of Light,” an exhibition of ceramic sculpture by
Medford, Oregon, artist Jack M. Neulist-Coelho, was on view
recently at FireHouse Gallery at Rogue Community College in
Grants Pass, Oregon. His
latest work has taken two
different directions—
architectural ceramics, as
well as “in-the-round”
Inspired by travels to
Mexico, the surfaces of
these in-the-round sculp­
tures are enhanced by
paints, stains, chall^s, wax
and bamboo. Yael Novak box, approximately 12 inches in height,
In some cases, Neulist- thrown and altered stoneware, with underglazes and
Coelho has also added up to glazes, fired to approximately 2282°F; at the
Sternberg Centre for Judaism in London, England.
40% paper pulp to his
Jack M. Neulist Coelho’s original clay body: “All this
“Hue Hue Teotl at Home mixing of unlikely compo­ ceramics by Tanya Engelstein, Monica Hadari, Magdalena
in SMA,” 12 inches in Hefetz, Amnon Israeli, Hannah Miller, Yael Novak, Lea Sheves,
height; at FireHouse
nents to express my im­
Gallery, Rogue pressions of Mexico seems Rachel Tzamir and Meira Unna.
Community College, quite appropriate to the
Grants Pass, Oregon. topic,” he says. A Workshop with Ah Leon
by Shelley Schreiber
Stephen Rodriguez Last spring, Castle Clay Co-op in Denver, Colorado, had the
Pottery by New Haven, Connecticut, ceramist Stephen good fortune to have Taiwanese ceramist Ah Leon in its studio
Rodriguez was exhibited recently at the Klay Gallery in Nyack, for a demonstration of Yixing teapot making. The session
New York. Although he makes a lot of porcelain dinnerware,
Rodriguez’ real love is ash glazes. Because he couldn’t afford a

Stephen Rodriguez stoneware basin, 18 inches in Taiwanese artist Ah Leon throwing the body of a
diameter; at the Klay Gallery, Nyack, New York. Yixing teapot during a workshop at Castle Clay
Co-op in Denver, Colorado.
wood-fired kiln, he began putting ash directly onto the work.
The piece is dipped in glaze, the ash is then sieved directly onto included information on throwing and altering teapots, as well
the surface. as a teapot-dissection discussion.
Influenced by ancient Chinese glazing as well as pottery from Ah Leon talked about the placement of handles and spouts,
medieval Japan, Rodriguez also enjoys working with Chun water pressure, the “last drop,” the “X-spot” (where the last
glazes. Although he doesn’t reproduce these old forms, he wants drop would fall on the underside of the spout if it dripped),
his pots to have the same texture, weight and physical presence. fitting lids, etc.—in essence, everything one needs to know to
December 1998 19
Up Front

make a “serious” teapot, as he would say. He defined teapot

making as science, technique and art.
Tools used for the important finishing of the pot were also
discussed. Ah Leon used polished agate and an animal horn
soaked in water to burnish, sharpened bicycle spokes to make
the water pressure and strainer holes, a plastic pointed “knob”
to hold the shape of the spout while cutting it, and various
Chinese cutting tools.
Among the many techniques he demonstrated were: forming
a spout by inserting a tool that resembled a long, refined chop-
stick into a cylinder and rolling, then shaping it to form three
distinct angles (he mentioned that it takes him 6-8 hours to
make a good spout); taking the torque out of a thrown spout
and improving the water flow by using a sharp-edged tool,
similar in shape to a fettling knife, to smooth out the inside; and
rolling the rim of the teapot while throwing to create a thick­
ened edge for the lid gallery.
Gwen Heffner
A retrospective exhibition of functional ware by Kentucky
potter Gwen Heffner was on view through October 15 at
Contemporary Artifacts Gallery in Berea, Kentucky. As Heffner
noted, her work “has always been balanced within an asym-
Gwen Heffner working in her Berea, Kentucky, studio.

maker and user. In today’s world of global communication, this

one-on-one connection is necessary more than ever.”
Richard Aerni and Malcolm Davis
Clayworks by Richard Aerni (Bloomfield, New York) and
Malcolm Davis (Washington, D.C.) were exhibited at the
Creative Arts Center in Dallas, Texas. Inspired by Oriental folk
pottery, Davis alters and manipulates his porcelain forms, using

Gwen Heffner’s "Double White Bowl,” 14 inches in

length, porcelain, oxidation fired to Cone 9; at
Contemporary Artifacts Gallery, Berea, Kentucky.

metrical vein and intrinsic to nature. The ideas and forms that
I love are intentionally and unconsciously integrated into the
work of my hands.
“The things that I love, such as shells, rocks and especially
flowers, always find their way into my pots,” she added. “Forms, Richard Aerni casserole, 14 inches in diameter, ash-
glazed stoneware; at the Creative Arts Center, Dallas.
curves, surfaces, textures, colors and the movement of the things
in life that I find beautiful are all a subtle part of my work in
clay. The whiteness of porcelain provides me with a three- Shino glazes “for their wide range of surface textures that I feel
dimensional canvas, which I can carve, alter, change color, make are compatible with the forms.”
translucent and smooth like beach rocks, or leave soft and as Aerni produces what he calls “fine functional work. These
fragile as eggshells. are pieces that can be used in the kitchen and around the
“Pots offer a unique human connection, for they are an house.” He also places “a premium on good design and crafts­
inevitable extension of the potters inner force and sense of manship. I enjoy the communion with the material that single
beauty,” Heffner maintained. “Their intimate use continues a firing produces, and treasure the infinite variability of the wood
long-standing tradition and unspoken communication between ash glazes.”
December 1998 21
ferent fabrication methods used in Europe and ceramic markets,
New Books from the 16th through the 20th century: and the various facto­
faience—which is earthenware and is itself ries. The remainder of
divided into two categories, grand feu and the book catalogs the
Terre et Feu
petit feu; and soft-paste porcelain, known in pieces in the exhibi­
Four Centuries of French Ceramics French as pate tendre. tion, including such
from the Boone Collection “Exploring the development of these ce­information as tech­
by MaryLou Boone ramic methods and examining the differentnique used, where and
Published in conjunction with an exhibi­markets and centers of production of French when it was made, and
tion of 85 objects at Scripps College in ceramics provide insight, particularly into dimensions with each
Claremont, California, this nicely illustratedthe lives of the populations of the 17th andphoto; there also is a short paragraph about
catalog/book begins with an article about 18th centuries,” she observes. the decoration on each piece. 103 pages,
French ceramics. According to Boone, her She goes on to describe the two tech­ including selected bibliography and glossary.
collection features “objects made by two dif­ 112 color and 8 black-and-white photographs;
niques in detail, then looks at royal patronage
3 sketches. $24.95, softcover. University of
Washington Press, Post Office Box 50096, Se­
attle, Washington 98145-5096.

Pottery & Ceramics

by Liza Gardner
Intended for beginning and intermediate
potters, this how-to guide focuses on simple
handbuilding and decorating ideas. After a
very brief look at historical examples and an
introduction to the various materials and
equipment needed,
Gardner touches on
basic techniques—
wedging, throwing,
slab building, coiling,
pulling a handle, plas­
ter casting and mod­
eling. “The technique
utilized in the mastery
of pottery is unlike the
discipline of learning to drive,” she notes.
“There are no rules, no correct way to do it,
just a few conventions laid down by old men
with beards, bellies and smocks. Ignore them
and break any given rules with impunity.”
The majority of the book focuses on
instructions for 12 elementary (mostly hand-
building!decorating) projects, including a
salad bowl, night light, clock, mirror and wall
fountain, illustrated by step-by-step photos.
96 pages, including list of suppliers and in­
dex. 148 color photographs. $14.95, soft-
cover. New Holland Ltd. Distributed by the
American Ceramic Society, Post Office Box
6136, Westerville, Ohio 43086-6136; tele­
phone (614) 794-5890, fax (614) 794-5892
or e-mail

Mexican Brick Culture in the

Building of Texas, 18OOs-198Os
by Scott Cook
A historical overview of the brick-making
industry along the border between Mexico
and Texas, this book’s “primary concern is
understanding how and why handmade-brick
production disappeared in Texas just as it
commenced explosive growth in Mexico—a
process that ran its course from the 1950s to

December 1998 25
New Books

the 1980s.” Based on oral testimonies and

fieldwork done at surviving sites, the text is
broken down into four sections, with the first
part discussing the beginnings and spread of
the Mexican brick
culture on both
sides of the border.
Through case
studies, part two de­
scribes the develop­
ment, highpoint
and demise of brick
manufacturing in
Texas, while part
three looks at the
rise, consolidation and decline of the Mexi­
can export industry. “The push of undocu­
mented Mexican labor out of the Texas labor
market in the early 1950s hastened the disap­
pearance of Mexican brick culture north of
the river,” notes Cook. “On the other hand,
once the Mexican labor supply was repatri­
ated, with the Texas brick market still hungry
for handmade Mexican brick, and with inter­
mediary capitalists in Texas and a host of
Mexican capitalists ready to take advantage of
available business opportunities, it was inevi­
table that production would expand on the
Mexican side of the border.”
The final section addresses class and eth­
nic factors. “Underlying specific business
practices and attitudes in the transborder
economy is an ideological posture regarding
the Other, that is, a set of fundamental views
that businesspeople hold about their coun­
terparts in Mexico or Texas.” 368 pages,
including appendix on the theory and method
in the Border Brick Project, references cited
and index. 123 black-and-white photographs.
$44.95. Texas A&M University Press, Drawer
C, College Station, Texas 77843-4354; tele­
phone (800) 826-8911.

Ash Glazes
by Robert Tichane
First published in 1987, this revised edi­
tion concentrates “to a large extent on a long
series of in an effort to
confirm or refute some of the claims that are
made for ash glazes,” states the author. “A
happy consequence of any piece on ash glazes
is that someone read­
ing about them and
experimenting with
them should have a
very high degree of
success... .This relative
ease in making classi­
cal ash glazes is in itself
a snare, however, be-

New Books including bibliography, ash glaze recipes, glos­After a brief look at the history of the
sary of terms and index. 17 color and 79 extruder, he discusses the principles of clay
black-and-white photographs; 50 sketches. extrusion; for example, clay movement pat­
cause the artist attempting to make items thatSoftcover, $24.95, plus $3.25 shipping for terns, the force of clay, and cleaning and
are unique to himself will be plagued by thethe first book; $2 for each additional copy. maintenance. Types of extruders—from the
problem that many ash glazes are very similar Krause Publications, Book Department GMR8, very simple (pastry tube, cookie press, garlic
in appearance to one another.” 700 East State Street, Iola, Wisconsin 54990- press) to the more complex (wall or table
After a brief historical look at ash glazes,0001; telephone (800) 258-0929, Depart­ mounted, power extruder and handmade)—
Tichane examines their makeup, then talks ment GMR8, or see website at www. krause. com are covered, as are dies.
about approaches and variations, such as “The pressure of the clay is a major consid­
washed ash glazes and glazes with both highCeramic Extruder for the Studio Potter eration in the choice of die material and its
and low ash. Substitutions—synthetic and by John W. Conrad thickness,” Conrad explains. “Two hundred
fake ash glazes, as well as cement—are con­ “The introduction of extrusion processes pounds per square inch (psi) is not uncom­
and devices is relatively recent,” notes the mon extruder pressure. Weak materials will
sidered next. “It is not often that we are able
to find an inexpensive and useful material to author of this how-to guide. “Ceramic tech­break, split, shatter or bend under such pres­
use as a glaze component when ashlike glazes nology developed both the processes and the sure. Thus, it is important to have soft-
are desired, but portland cement (not con­ machinery to extrude clay at the turn of theenough clay, sufficient die hole space and
crete) is such a material,” he asserts. “The century, thus meeting the needs of indus­ strong die material to enable extruding.”
similarity of the percentage of lime in cementtrial production society. Only during the The following chapter provides examples
(62.5%) to the percentage in limestone (56%) past 25 years has the extruder been available of various die shapes for different uses of the
and to the percentage of alkalinity in an to the studio potter.” extruder, such as creating boxes, tubes, jew­
average wood ash (66%) means that one-for- Although “the most elry, buttons and wind chimes; the final
one substitutions (cement for whiting) are common use of the sections describe the making of test bars, tile
reasonable for...many glaze formulations.” ceramic extruder is to and kiln furniture, and large structures (like
The final sections discuss several areas of make handles and the expansion box, larger die formats, pug
concern or interest regarding ash glazes; for coils,” Conrad contin­ mill and sectional clay constructions). 160
example, ash-only glazes and salt washes, ues, “with experi­ pages. 227 black-and-white photographs; 431
glaze thickness, ash/body interactions, deco­ menting, many addi­ sketches. $19.80, softcover. John W. Conrad,
rating with ash, X-ray analysis of wood ash, tional possible uses Falcon Company, Publishing, Post Office Box
and the durability of ash glazes. 224 pages, will emerge.” 22569, San Diego, California 92192.

December 1998 29
The Marketing Dance
by Richard Selfridge

“Dog Day Afternoon Teacup,” 8 inches high, slab-built terra cotta with majolica decoration,
fired to Cone 04, $300, by Richard and Carol Selfridge, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

wenty-five years ago, we would usually sell. If we only had to wrap up fired pots at a music festival. He thought

T go just about anywhere to try to half the stock at days end, we were this was his target audience because “they
sell our work. Yes, you could say laughing all the way to the grocery store. liked the same music.” In retrospect, he
we were hippies; we would sell our func­
We thought we could identify our wished he had sold the food that day.
tional pots off a tie-dyed bedspread in a customers. They looked like us (head Selling good work requires the right
Friday flea market at the university or bands and bell bottoms); they liked the context. Just because it looks earthy
a folk festival, even in the middle of a same things (music and handmade art); doesn’t mean it will sell well on a blan­
shopping mall. We really liked the di­ and they considered our inexpensive ket on the ground. It’s hard to dance
rect contact with the end users and the work a “consumer durable” (like an old like Ginger Rogers if you’re partnered
“attaboys” that we got when passing car or stereo system). Of course, our with Bozo the Clown. The real nadir of
over our latest, fresh-from-the-kiln ex­ most expensive item was about $40. my mistaking our audience came on a
periments to an appreciative public. But things changed—us, our work, our snowy winter weekend (I only lasted
In those golden granola days, you audience and our marketing approach. one day) at an antique and gun show,
could live on $300 a month (who Our first “reality check” came in the where I sold nothing and was fright­
needed a dental plan or childrens col­ mid 1970s at a Calgary ceramics semi­ ened by the “gun nuts” in the bargain.
lege fund?), and anything with a matt nar, where Randy Johnston recalled how Why did I do it? My friend, who
glaze and a splash of decoration would he had tried to sell his subtle wood- sold leather goods, was going; besides,

December 1998 31
The front porch of the Selfridge’s home/studio serves as a showroom
for functional stoneware and porcelain.

we both liked antiques and thought With the hard economic realities of America, fund-raising has become an
that at least half the crowd would be cutbacks and governmental off-loading activity for citizens at all levels of soci­
“our people.” of public services, especially for those ety. Whether its a bake sale to send
I also remember the remark of a pan­ on the economic bottom in North preschoolers on a field trip or to sup­
handling wino with a proper British port a new cancer facility, we don’t want
accent. He assured me at a farmers mar­ for worthy causes.
ket on Mothers Day that “things may As artists, we are inundated with re­
be slow now” (people were only buying quests for donated work. Often those
flowers, house plants, chickens and veg­ who do the asking, especially for up­
etables), but “when our crowd gets here, market celebrity events, are our patrons
sales will be much better.” and buyers. These past customers and
What follows is a description of some their fellow benefit attendees are a sig­
of our principles for selling work in this nificant part of our target audience in
post-Thatcher/Reagan global economy. our city of 850,000.
First, a brief note on what our work An instructive example of our com­
is: Carol and I work collaboratively, munity involvement occurred when
making stoneware and porcelain (gas Carol and I participated in a fund-rais­
reduction fired or wood fired to Cone ing dinner at the request of two of our
10-11) and illusionistic majolica-glazed regular customers. This was for the
terra cotta (fired in an electric kiln to Minerva Foundation, which funds ABC
Cone 04). Most of the stoneware and Headstart, Hope Foundation, Kids
porcelain is sold from our studio show­ Kottage, Kids with Cancer and many
room (the front porch and yard of our other worthwhile endeavors.
Victorian house) and at two open-house Usually, people ask us for a donation
events (900 mailed invitations). The il­ of our work for a benefit auction (more
lusionistic majolica is sold in about 15 about that later), but this time the
galleries across North America. Whole­ Minerva request was different. They
sale represents at most 35% of our in­ were having a fancy dinner with an
come. We have lived solely from our inspirational speaker talking about over­
work for the last 25 years; although we coming adversity. The speaker was Silken
are not rich, we own a home and travel “Eve’s Red Apple Amphora,” 30 inches Laumann, Canadas two-time Olympic
a little and help our three kids with in height, slab-built terra cotta with rowing medalist, who persevered de­
university expenses. brushed majolica pigments, $1400. spite a career-threatening leg injury in­

“Japanese Geisha Teapot,” 21 inches high,
terra cotta with majolica decoration, $900.

“Cubist Mixed Floral Vase,” 20 inches in height, majolica-decorated

terra cotta, fired to Cone 04, $550.

curred in a boat crash just before the of “the gypsy pottery caravan hits the (as good as any local gallery), with the
Barcelona Olympics. road” of 25 years ago: added twist that, even though they were
Two hundred thirty people paid $350 1) As an artist, you want to control not used to serve the meal, many of the
per couple to dine in the Empire room your life as much as possible; other pieces suggested the possibility. The
of the Macdonald Hotel in Edmonton. people’s ASAP deadlines and artificially work was presented in such a way that
The hotel is a palatial chateau-style land­ enforced themes are a quick way to kill it was the center of attention, some­
mark—the place for visiting royalty; e.g., creativity. The organizers asked us to thing that the diners discussed, espe­
the Queen of England and the Rolling participate ten months before the ban­ cially after the master of ceremonies
Stones. Instead of the traditional flow­ quet, so we had plenty of time to set acknowledged our presence as the mak­
ers for centerpieces, they wanted to bor­ aside work. We merely postponed by a ers. Yes, we attended as guests, mingled
row, for the evening, one piece or an week or two some of our regular gallery and dined. It was not seen as a selling
ensemble of our majolica pots for each shipments. And the event itself took situation, but as an opportunity to view
of the 27 tables. only about a day of our time. our work, more like the way we see
The reasons why we accepted illus­ 2) You want to present your work in things in a museum or in someone’s
trate some of the important marketing the best possible appropriate context. home. Although we were mentioned in
principles we’ve learned since those days This venue was elegant and up-market the program, there were no prices or

December 1998 33
promotional materials present, reinforc­ good corporate citizens, this event was hol comes to mind), the amount that
ing the idea that this was our contribu­ very cost effective. anyone (or two with no assistants in
tion to the event. 4) If you can, it is usually a good ideaour case) can make in a lifetime is really
3) Controlling the costs of public to show solo rather than with a lot of very little. Ideally, you should have a
relations, or knowing when to say yes competing goods. It seems counterpro­ path from a sale of your work back to
and when to say not this year is crucial. ductive to us to advertise and draw a you, either directly or through a con­
We are asked about twice a week for crowd so that others can make the sales. tinuing relationship with a store or gal­
contributions of our work, and like ev­ Fairly early on, we decided that it was lery. If you concentrate on quality, your
eryone else, we frequently are solicited better for us to stage an event, bring out past work should sell your present. Un­
by telephone for funds. Money is some­ our loyal clientele, and sell to them in like the guy selling “Rolex” wristwatches
thing we don’t have a lot of, so we have an environment that we could control on the street corner, you want your
decided to only give goods to causes we to some degree, rather than to be in the customers to be able to find you again.
support. This also lets us deal with the “scrum” of a sort of juried crafts fair. It The people who come to our studio
problem of worthy charities that use may be that, as a buyer, it is nice to find showroom see it as a destination. They
professional fund-raisers who often keep a “bargain” hidden among the dross of come to buy “homecraft” in a historic
more than 80% of the funds they raise. a craft fair, overrun with beginner work residential neighborhood, not a com­
The delightful thing about the that was “juried in” because of the mercial shopping area. Although they
Minerva event was that we only lent organizer’s greed for fees and admission don’t usually throw their wallets in from
our work. These pieces actually took receipts. But as a seller, it can be dis­ the street, very few are tire kickers or
the place of about $ 1800 worth of flow­ couraging, even without the gratuitous only looking for entertainment.
ers, which might have been contributed insults of people who think it’s easy. We might not have done the Minerva
by some benevolent florist. Our costs (“My aunt took pottery once.” She bet­ event if we were among 30 other artists
were in lost time for planning and trans­ ter not have taken any of mine.) asked to loan work. The impact of our
portation. Fortunately, the hotel is only I am sure there are some excellent pieces being the visual stars of the
ten minutes from our home/studio, and juried craft shows, both retail and whole­ evening, and not playing merely a sup­
the work was transported without much sale. However, the idea of sending out porting role, was important. Sometimes
packing in two minivans and set up invitations to your former clients to meeta secondary role at a fund-raising auc­
with the help of one of the volunteer/ you in a large hall where they will be tion can be valuable, particularly if the
customers who asked us to participate. confronted with the work of200 others other items are more up-market than
When you compare this with the enor­ selling goods never made much sense to yours. But it all depends on the audi­
mous amounts paid by corporations to me. Our philosophy has been that, un­ ence, their affluence, and their familiar­
publicists to present their companies as less you run some kind of factory (War­ ity with your work.

“Persephone’s Fruit Platter,” 28 inches in length, thrown and altered terra cotta, with majolica pigments brushed
onto white base glaze, fired to Cone 04, $620, by Carol and Richard Selfridge.

5) Sometimes it is important to show these older pieces are perfect for repre­
your work again to your target audi­ senting you to the grateful fund-raising
ence. Our experience has been that the community.
way for your customer base to grow is Saying “no” can be difficult because
by letting past customers “sell” your you may be disappointing valued cus­
work for you. Even if you donate a tomers. Sometimes it is easier to just
piece to be sold as a fund-raiser, the give them a couple of mugs and some
person who buys it at the event will postcards, especially if you think the
usually display it prominently or give it event will be “thin” on your target audi­
as a gift. The high bidders become your ence. If the request is to back a sensitive
new customers, and they bring new or partisan organization or a controver­
blood to your mailing list. On our open- sial issue that divides your clientele, or
house invitations, we always tell our from an art association that you know
clients to bring a friend, and these new would never show the kind of work you
friends are then our new regulars. The do, then it is not too hard to say “not
Minerva event had a liberal sprinkling this year.” It is particularly galling when
of our regulars, almost one or two at other visual artists ask us to help them
each table. They were reminded about raise money for their installation or per­
us and enthused about our work to Carol and Richard Selfridge outside their formance when they only want to asso­
home/studio gallery.
their dinner companions. ciate with lowly craft media on the one
6) Projecting the image that your day of the year when they have a fund­
work is valued, changing for the better dignitary will certainly enhance your raiser. Unfortunately, too many artists
and in demand by a growing audience works value to your normal clientele. went to art school where they had a
is necessary for continued success as an You do, however, have to let them know pottery sale of beginner works (candi­
artist. Unfortunately, the only constant about it. dates for the recycle bin), sold so that
in contemporary society is change and 7) If you are careful, sometimes what they could bring in a “real artist,” sel­
a demand for novelty. People always you give away comes back double. When dom a lowly potter. All of us want our
want to know what is new and unique, you let people know you donate your work to be taken seriously, certainly not
and what important “success” you have work for worthy causes, you have to to feel used or gratuitously insulted. We
had lately. expect that more will ask you. How you do, however, support theater and dance
It is also a truism that you are sel­ answer is a public-relations dance where groups, and in return, often receive
dom valued in your own hometown you have to be fast on your feet. complimentary tickets to events we
until some consensual validation comes First, be sure to reserve the “yes” for would pay to attend anyway. In the
from outside. Although they may seem an event that will be attended by your end, these are really decisions about how
like a lottery where the tickets are good target audience. It can be a benefit for we will distribute our goods as a form
slides, we enter juried exhibitions (only the indigent womens shelter, provided of advertisement.
a few are open to Canadians) and we at least some of those attending are not We try to dance with the folks who
have had some success. We let our regu­ indigent women and they know of your brought us, to pay back the community
lar customers know about these minor work and appreciate it. Don’t expect that has bought, collected, praised and
triumphs by making postcards of these the bidding to go through the roof at a valued our work. We are now getting a
pieces with the info about the show, picnic or rummage sale. Black tie usu­ lot of wedding-present business from
then send them out with invitations for ally means they bring their wallets. the children of our aging hippie cus­
our open-house events. They also pro­ Even more important is the way the tomers of 20 years ago. These kids grew
vide validation of the gift givers “good work gets there. Don’t drop it off your­ up using our pots and see them as the
taste” when they accompany the gifts self or send it by courier. When previ­ kind of things they want to give and
we sell from the studio. ous or potential customers ask you for a use. We are part of their community.
Along with these cards, our invita­ donation, you should arrange for them At the Minerva banquet, Carol sat
tions also include a “brag sheet” about to pick it up at your studio/showroom. next to the heart surgeon who replaced
our recent new work, our exhibition Usually, they bring a friend and often her mitral valve 12 years ago. (When he
successes and distant gallery representa­ they decide to buy something for them­ says he wishes he were talented like us,
tion, and some of our donations to wor­ selves or remember that they need a gift we laugh and say we think hes pretty
thy causes. The Minerva dinner and the for someone else. good with his hands.) His wife has
photo of me pouring tea for Carol and Provided that you only give away brought scores of people to our studio.
Silken Laumann provided an interest­ work you are proud of, not seconds or They, like many of our customers, have
ing visual for our winter open-house inferior pieces, this can be an opportu­ become our friends. It is a pleasure to
letter, extending the scope of our con­ nity to clear the decks of older inven­ support their fund-raising endeavors, to
tribution to our larger audience. The tory. Sometimes the best pieces are the nurture that voice in them that says
cachet of having your work collected by last to sell, especially if they have been individual people can still make a dif­
a celebrity or given as a gift to a visiting in the dark at a distant gallery. Often ference in this complicated world. ▲

December 1998 35
To test the effectiveness of protective coatings, a salt kiln was built
from a variety of new and used refractory materials.

Salt and Refractory Coatings

by Mel Jacobson

ne of the most destructive forces scrap fiber materials and the coatings. I was based on the theory that a kiln
O in firing is salt. It melts bricks, would supply a variety of brick, steel must breathe air on all sides; in his
collapses arches, destroys flues and ports,
support, shelves and posts, a new stack words, “Do not build it on a solid con­
and is generally a killer of kilns. with thermal liners and a shelter to housecrete or block base.”
During a conversation at the 1998 the kiln. This was a challenge, and the final
NCECA (National Council on Educa­ Feriz asked for “design” rights, to solution was to build a loose concrete
tion for the Ceramic Arts) conference, which I agreed, as long as we used the block base with expanded metal on top
Feriz Delkic, owner of International Nils Lou double-venturi downdraft of the block, anchored with ½-inch steel
Technical Ceramics, assured me that system and propane burners. I also strap. The hardbrick base leveled very
his “products will resist the effects of wanted my long-time friend, potter/ well on this system. We sandwiched a
salt corrosion in a kiln.” I was skeptical. educator Kurt Wild, to be brought into course of softbrick between two layers
After several days of discussion, he the project. of hardbrick.
came up with the idea of building a kiln Originally, we wanted a kiln that We proceeded to build a standard
at my farm in Wisconsin to test the would be a changeable updraft/down- flat top kiln, 36 inches square by 34
effects of salt on ITC refractory coat­ draft combined in one kiln. That be­ inches high (inside dimensions), with a
ings. But it seemed to me that the only came a venting nightmare for us and doorway of 9x27x34 inches. The ca­
fair test would entail the sharing of ex­ was disregarded. The idea still has merit, pacity of nearly 32 cubic feet is in keep­
penses, so I would not feel obligated in as an updraft kiln will generally fire ing with other kilns that Kurt and I
any way to give answers that were not faster than a downdraft, but speed was have been building—small, compact
proven. Feriz agreed and said he would not our most pressing issue. and easy to fire, with very fast turn­
supply several small fiber modules, some One of Feriz s most emphatic requests around time.

The brickwork was framed with 1/4x4x6-inch angle iron.

Laying the floor brick on expanded metal over a loose

concrete block base to allow the kiln to “breathe.”

Raising the roof, a folded-fiber module.

All exposed surfaces were sprayed with ITC 100.

December 1998 37
Ceiling module after six firings; the
refractory coating not only provided
protection from the corrosive salt, but
prevented fiber fragments from
becoming airborne.

was built for the door module and

hinged to the kiln frame; a cast-iron
wheel was also added to the lower out­
side corner of the door frame to help
support the weight and facilitate open­
ing and closing.
ITC 100 HT was applied to all inner
surfaces of the kiln, using a sandblaster
gun with about 60 pounds of constant
A cast-iron wheel at the bottom corner of the angle-iron framed fiber door pressure. We followed the normal pro­
helps support the weight, and facilitates opening and closing. cedure of cleaning and wetting all sur­
faces. Feriz also advised us to give extra
heavy coatings to the modules.
It had been decided that the back
Kurt wanted to use a variety of brick by rebar and wired together. It was very wall of the kiln was to be laminated, so
inside the kiln so we could see which wet when delivered, and because of we used 1-inch fiber blanket soaked in
kind did or did not fail. We had several spring storms, did not dry, so it was ITC 100 HT and pounded it lightly
hundred used softbrick from Thermal another challenge to put the roof in onto the already wet wall of brick coated
Ceramics, and purchased K2300 and place because of the water weight. Fi­ with ITC 100 HT. Only the hot faces of
K2600 softbrick from A. P. Green. The nally, we (six strong people with one the modules were sprayed.
silicon carbide shelves were used: eight person underneath for support) just We also took care to spray the entire
14x16 inches and four 4x16 inches. “picked it up” one day, then simply length of the stack riser sleeves with
The roof module was 56 inches walked it into place and set it down. ITC 100 HT. The stack was built of two
square, made of ceramic fiber folded A 1/4x4x6-inch angle iron frame was lengths of 24-gauge, galvanized 10-inch
onto itself to 10 inches thick, supported placed around the kiln. A similar frame pipe, 5 feet long, joined with sheet metal

After four firings, corrosion on the flame way wall was patched with fiber soaked in
refractory coating; the patch held perfectly during the next two firings.

tion temperature of 1800°F within two Our old salt kiln fired in about 7
hours from a dead start, and Cone 9 hours, with the same burners and pres­
After six firings, one salt port showed was down in four hours. We began salt­ sure, and was about 40% smaller. The
some corrosion on the lower edge. ing with about 15 pounds of salt and K2500 bricks in it started to deteriorate
completed it in less than an hour. Cone badly on the first firing, and were unus­
11 was flat over. able after only 30 firings—the inner
We cracked the door the next morn­ layer of bricks had mostly melted, with
screws. The risers were from Fire Brick ing at 6 o’clock, and the results were some turning to dust.
Supply of St. Paul, Minnesota. The com­ wonderful, perfect light salt and not a Kurt and I insisted on firing the new
pleted stack was placed on the standard reject pot in the entire load. kiln fast, wide open, with heavy salt­
flat top flue-box with its double ven­ We unloaded at 8 AM, began reload­ ing—throwing in a mixture of three
turi. Trowel-eze mortar was used to as­ ing at 10 AM and lit the kiln again at quarters rock and a quarter table salt. In
semble the flue box. 11:30 AM. The second load fired in less the final analysis, the kiln held up
Next, the kiln was fired empty to than five hours. amazingly well—in fact, far beyond
about 2000°F to dry the coating mate­ We continued this schedule for six what we expected. There was no dam­
rials and set it against the brick and straight days. On the fourth firing, we age to the modules or the lamination;
modules. I then sprayed the kiln inside noticed some melting of brick in the however, there was some small melting
with a second coat of ITC 100 HT, giv­ flame way wall. I decided to make a at the fire port walls, which were later
ing heavy applications to the lamina­ patch in the area with ITC 200 EZ fill patched. One salt port had some brick
tion and modules. I used at least five material and ITC 100 HT, laminating a melting on the lower edge, and we lost
coats on the fiber surfaces. All kiln 4-inch by 12-inch piece of rigid ½-inch the face of one brick in the doorway.
shelves and posts were also sprayed with fiber soaked with ITC 100 HT. The patchThe kiln shelves did not gather salt where
ITC 100 HT, and after the initial glaze held perfectly and this hot spot did not they were sprayed with ITC 100 HT
firing, I sprayed the entire kiln with an recur during the final two firings. (“smart pills” just fell off) and did not
even layer of ITC 296A top coat. The fourth, fifth and sixth firings need cleaning between firings; no posts
The first salt firing was amazingly were almost identical, with heavy salt stuck to shelves.
fast; we used our Nils Lou propane burn­buildup on the pots. We were more Six firings gave us a great deal of
ers with about 18 pounds of pressure. A than pleased with the results. There were information, but 60 more will give us
25-foot copper line from the 500-gal­ no rejects from the hundreds of pots an answer. I am sure that heavy salting
lon tank and 20 feet of high-pressure that were fired, and the kiln fired to will ultimately break down this kiln,
rubber hose from the connector to the near perfection, in record time, with an but the ITC products have slowed this
burners were used. We reached reduc­ amazing 50% savings in fuel. process considerably.

December 1998 39
Wheel-thrown stoneware bowl, 7 inches in height, mixed glazes with heavy salt,
by Tara Simpson, Minneapolis; fired in a test kiln protected by refractory coatings.

Small stoneware vase, 5 inches in height, Salt-glazed tumbler, 6 inches in height,

glazed and salt glazed, by Kurt Wild, underglaze brushwork, by David Hendley,
River Falls, Wisconsin. Rusk, Texas.

Strontium-green-glazed teapot, 10 inches in height,
salt glazed, with handmade handle,
by Dannon Rhudy, Paris, Texas.

December 1998 41
I have since sprayed refractory coat­
ings on six kilns that I own, including a
small electric kiln that is 35 years old.
In all cases, I have experienced fuel sav­
ings, faster firings and better pots. None
of the coatings have spalled off the kilns.
Additionally, ITC 100 HT stabilizes the
surface of fiber and does not allow the
small fragments to be airborne. This
attribute alone makes fiber kilns stron­
ger and safer to use.
Without question, we have built a
good kiln, but it was not a bargain kiln;
in fact, it was expensive, but well worth
it. Kurt and I feel that this kiln will
serve us well for many years to come.

The author Potter/teacher Mel Jacobson

resides in Minnetonka,, Minnesota; see his
autobiographical story Look unto Others
Teabowl, 4 inches in height, wheel-thrown stoneware, with Shino and orange and into Yourself in the December 1997
glazes, salt glazed, by Mel Jacobson, Minnetonka, Minnesota. issue of Ceramics Monthly.

Materials and Costs

Altogether, the kiln used nearly Galvanized stove pipe: $30
800 bricks. We estimated used
insulating firebrick (IFB) at $ 1 Shelves (used): $400
each. New IFBs were about $4
each (three cases of 24 were Posts (new and used): $150
$290). The hardbrick were
worth about $0.50 each. Metal and welding (we did our
own): $300
Floor: 3 courses (2 hardbrick,
1 soft) = 216 bricks Fiber modules: $1000 each
($100 per square foot, plus
Teapot, 7 inches in height, with thin Three walls: 14 courses x 34 shipping)
Shino glaze, salt glazed, by Doug Gray, = 476 hardbrick
Florence, South Carolina.
ITC spray: $450 (3 gallons at
Flue box: 96 hardbrick $150 per gallon)

Riser sleeves: $83 Pole building: $1200 (includes


Fifth Porcelain Triennial

The “Fifth Triennial of Contemporary

Porcelain” was on view through Octo­
ber 12 at the Castle ofNyon in Switzer­
land. From over 250 submissions, jurors
Roland Blaettler, curator, Musee Ariana,
Geneva; Tony Franks, artist/professor,
Edinburgh, Scotland; Vincent Lieber,
curator, Musee Historique et des
Porcelaines, Nyon; Janet Mansfield, art-
ist/journalist, Paddington, N.S.W., Aus­
tralia; and Setsuko Nagasawa, artist/
professor, Paris and Geneva, selected
works by 24 artists.
“Jurying as a means of evaluating
any artform is open to question, and
the choices of a five-person selection
team lead at best to compromise, at “Rhombus,” slip-cast porcelain, fired to 1280°C (2336°F),
worst to democratic mediocrity,” Franks by Shigekazu Nagae, Japan; winner of the Poisson d’Or.
commented. “As a jury, we were given
no criteria and set no targets beyond
selecting the best work in the medium able a word, as each of us had a few nations represented, but also in style,
of porcelain....After the first rather po­ reservations about some work included theme, process and scale.”
lite round, we retained any work that and some excluded, but we had agreed The jury went on to choose the
had the support of more than one ju­ to disagree,” Franks noted. “A final competition’s winners, unanimously
ror; less than one third of all entrants. round was undertaken to gain a feeling awarding Shigekazu Nagae of Japan
“The second round stimulated con­ for the likely nature of the exhibition the top prize for “Rhombus.” Other
siderable animated discussion. What did that would result from selection. The awards went to British artist Michael
each of us mean by ‘best5? How did we outcome based on the slides was grati­ Flynn, Japanese artist Kaoru Ojio, Swiss
consider an exquisite piece in a tradi­ fying, as it demonstrated wide-ranging artist Caroline Andrin and Czech artist
tional genre against a contemporary work, not only geographically with 14 Pavel Knapek. ▲
work struggling to define new criteria
within the medium? Should we use this
exhibition as an opportunity to intro­
duce an audience to the broad range of
possibilities in the use of porcelain, figu­
rative, utilitarian, abstract?
“On completion of the third round,
we had agreed on a list of 24 submis­
sions; agreed is perhaps too comfort-

“Le Palais de cette etrange Bouche” by

Caroline Andrin, Switzerland; winner of the “Auf dem Punkt” by Pavel Knapek, Czech Republic;
Association des Muse es de Nyon prize. winner of the Prize Pro Novioduno.

December 1998 43
Once upon a time, there was a priest ing like me, then I imagined myself
who was wildly in love with a woman making the piece some 2000 years ago.
who had died. In his despair, he pro­ With the series of figures made dur­
cured a “vessel of death,” which sum­ ing my fellowship residency at the Clay
moned her spirit, and he was able to Studio in Philadelphia, I continued
love her one last time. something I had begun long ago. I re­
This story is from the oral tradition made the Huastecan piece again and
of Cusco, Peru, where human-shaped again. I did not want to depart from it,
manchaypuitu (male) and isichapuitu as if it were possible to prolong the
(female) “vessels of death” were known moment of creation and continue an
to be powerful tools for embodying the eternal labor of love.
spirits from the past. The multiple variations of the figure
Clay has served as one of the most were presented on the floor next to each
important mediums for art in Peru from other as a metaphor for wholeness. They
pre-Columbian times to the present. I were placed on the floor rather than on
am happy to be working within this pedestals because I wanted them to in­
ageless tradition, and embrace its antiq­ vade our realm.
uity, its humble connotations and ubiq­ Despite carrying different messages,
uitous folk stories, as well as the pre­ they belong next to one another, be­
dominance of craftsmanship. For me, cause they are the organs of a single
clay connects my Peruvian background body. After all, aren’t we all the sum of
with my Western reality, providing me viscera and flesh, expectations and dis­
with a voice to speak about life, its con­ appointments, generosities, pettiness,
tradictions, its bitterness and its won­ longings and desires? They were not “Garden of Eden,” approximately
derful gifts. 24 inches in height, terra cotta
created to be observed and understood
with white slip and underglazes,
The interaction between a viewer and as objects. Their value lies not in my fired to Cone 02, accented with clear
an artwork is similar to a conversation. skills, but in what they represent, the glaze, fired to Cone 06, by Kukuli
My work is a dialogue from the heart, a story they are here to tell. ▲ Velarde, Philadelphia.
conversation with no shame, in which
nothing is hidden. I do not believe in
subtlety, but regardless of how obvious
I believe the narrative is, people will
always have their own interpretations.
No matter how much two people talk,
neither will ever have a complete and
precise idea of what the other meant.
Memories, impressions, beliefs, fears
and desires are imprinted deeply on my
psyche, following me, tormenting me
or sweetening my path. At this stage of
my life, I wanted to summon their pres­
ence, thank them for being, and make
peace with each of them. I was not sure
how, until I saw a photograph of a pre-
Columbian Huastecan statue in the
Rockefeller Collection at the Metropoli­
tan Museum of Art in New York. The
figure represents an obese male child
with his arms up. Somebody made this
piece 2000 years ago...yet I believe it
looks like me.
It is said that every artwork is a
self-portrait. I imagined the Huastecan Installation of “Isichapuitu,” terra-cotta and whiteware figures, with slips, underglazes,
artist modeling the clay—giving it his glazes and china paints, at the Clay Studio in Philadelphia.
or her eyes, full cheeks, and protruding
upper jaw. I imagined him or her look­

December 1998 45
An Alternative Approach to
by Erik Bright

It would be fair to say of “craft” was silenced as

that Norway is a country ceramics, textiles and
with minimal traditions jewelry began to take
in ceramics, compared to their place in art galler­
much of the world, if not ies. By 1997, the Acad­
only to its neighbors Swe­ emy of Visual Arts and
den and Denmark. Edu­ SHKS had joined to­
cation in the field of clay gether as one school.
was first established in During the 1996-97
1939 at the National In­ academic year, a Ful-
stitute of Art and Design bright Grant enabled me
(SHKS) in Oslo, then in to travel to Norway as a
1954 at the art college in visiting artist at the Na­
Bergen. It is important tional Institute of Art
to note that during this and Design. One after­
time, the main goals were noon during my first
primarily centered month in Oslo, the head
around the task of train­ of the ceramics program,
ing designers for ceramic Arne Ase, invited me to
industry, not providing his office in order to ex­
an education in fine art. plain “how this ceramic
However, at the end of department is unlike
the 1960s and into the most others.” He talked
early 70s, there was not with a quiet passion
much need for such de­ “Urn for Freny Khurshed Mehta,” 30 inches in height, with
about its commitment to
signers. At this point, sgraffito decoration, by Erik Bright, Providence, Rhode Island. training fine artists.
Scandinavian ceramic de­ “This department is
sign was familiar in a glo­ geared toward creating
bal sense, but one would be hard pressed to work full time in their medium with­ ceramics artists, not ceramics design­
to say the same for its handcraft, or out looking elsewhere to make a living. ers,” he said. “We do this by not mak­
even much less so for ceramic art. Not only did this support open doors ing a pottery school.”
Fortunately, during this time there for changes in the direction of contem­ “And what’s a pottery school?” I
was a large-scale government investment porary Norwegian ceramics, but it also asked.
into the arts, both in the form of sub­ brought about an official political rec­ “A pottery school,” he explained with
sidy and the availability of grants and ognition of clay as an accepted part of some amusement, “follows, for example,
commissions. This was the result of the the art community. The same could be the Bernard Leach modernistic approach
Artists Campaign of 1974, where artists said for other “craft” media, which to of teaching process
demanded increased public use of art, that point had been regarded as irrel­ Having concluded the thought with
and confronted the government with evant within fine arts. his hands, he continued, “We remove
the place and relevancy of art in Nor­ To understand this, one need only ourselves from that by focusing on com­
way. In short, working artists were able look so far as the Academy of Visual munication. If one has the attitude of
to negotiate a system of guaranteed Arts in Oslo, which to this day does not communication within art, one finds
minimum income and scholarships. For offer courses outside of painting and two paths: the two-dimensional and the
many artists, this meant they were able sculpture. Its voice against the relevancy three-dimensional. But, for the sake of

our educational system, we have draw­
ing, painting and sculpture. Our ce­
ramics department integrates these
media to achieve the fullest visual com­
munication. Communication is the
main theme as opposed to process or
function. No matter what, one needs to
have visual communication.”
Drawing remains integral to the
SHKS ceramics program, as it is the
most common form of visual commu­
nication in the world, a language in the
same sense that math is a language, a
foundation for other art forms in the
same sense that math is the foundation
for physics and economics.
“Drawing is more important than
experience in ceramics [for admitting
students to the program],” said Ase. “If
we accept students on the criterion of
ceramics experience, maybe we have
them for the wrong reasons. Drawing
forms the foundation for artistic devel­
opment with any process or media.”
I had already noticed an emphasis “Long Journey, Lissabon,” approximately 32 inches in height,
on conceptual communication, rather porcelain tiles in wood frame, by Arild S. Berg, Oslo.
than process. Ase underlined for me the
contrast between the Oslo approach and
that of most European ceramics schools, cess on the clay. of Design (RISD), and that much could
using the example of Norway’s other At SHKS, Ase has used his 25 years be learned from the Oslo model.
ceramics school in Bergen, which his­ in the department to remove the tradi­ Ase sees technology as a liberating
torically centered its program around tional, process-oriented approach from tool for the artist; if a machine can
traditional processes. the curriculum. Both he and the increase the efficiency of the process,
During the 1970s and ’80s, the department’s other two professors, Ole then it allows the artist to focus on
Bergen department, influenced by the Lislerud and Haiko Nitzsche, have made creation. Every ceramics student in Oslo
Leach tradition, based its curriculum a commitment to separating ceramics has an e-mail address and 24-hour ac­
on the classic forms of ceramic art and from the constant debate of art versus cess to the Internet, allowing frequent
function, such as the vase and the plat­ craft by emphasizing the use of technol­ use of the World Wide Web. The entire
ter. The department further emphasized ogy, self-determined curriculum, col­ department is also linked with a voice
the processes of the clay, reflecting not laborative learning, and integrating other intercom, and the studios, labs and kiln
only the interaction of the clay with the artistic mediums into ceramics. It was rooms are equipped with a state-of-the-
hands and the tools, but also in using clear early on that this program con­ art ventilation system that rivals most
such techniques as wood firing, which trasted sharply with my undergraduate health-conscious industries.
emphasizes the effect of the firing pro­ experience at the Rhode Island School For 25 years, the Oslo ceramics de­

December 1998 47
partment has used computerized kilns, own creative exploration, preparing really you are learning an artistic expres­
allowing students more studio time, as them for the self-motivation and direc­ sion. It is at this point that we have to
opposed to wasting valuable hours kiln tion required of them in the post- question the relevancy of clay as a fine-
sitting. The department also encour­ graduation art world. Choosing classes arts medium. Is it even necessary to
ages students to take advantage of tech­ allows students to think for themselves, open this door? We can get rid of this
nical resources available on the Web to determine their own paths, and to tiresome debate by simply changing our
and de-emphasizes the traditional chem­ direct their own development as ceram­ teaching approach.”
istry-intensive ceramics education. ics artists. At every level, the students’ Giving me a wry smile, he added,
In the past, for example, when pub­ responsibility for their curriculum “When students come to ask me ques­
lications on recipes and desired quali­ reflects in their work. tions, we make sure we understand each
ties in glazes were limited, glaze Many ceramics departments struc­ other. I ask them, Ts this a technique
formulation was a necessary skill for all ture requirements around the tradi­ question or an artistic question?’ I then
ceramics artists. However, in todays in­ tional curriculum encompassing hand- tell them I only answer technical ques­
formation age, with the answer to every building, throwing and slip-casting tions on Tuesdays and Thursdays.”
possible question at our fingertips, ce­ techniques, which leaves little room It did not surprise me to find out
ramics artists no longer need to spend for exploration. The Oslo department, later that Ase was half-serious in his
frustrating hours on clay and glaze for­ however, uses its few requirements as a comment. By insisting that students
mulation, as they are readily available jumping-off point for the students’ own maintain this distinction, the faculty
through the use of calculation programs exploration, dividing its foundation elevates the department’s basic require­
or over the Internet. courses into the technical-oriented and ments to the level of artistic dialogue,
As Ase put it, “Why do we have to the idea-oriented. With this approach, forcing the students to struggle con­
waste time teaching ceramics artists to the possibility for both artistic and tech­ stantly with the tension between cre­
be ceramics engineers, instead of focus­ nical development improves, because, ativity and technique.
ing on creative development? Only stub­ as Ase told me, “you don’t have to use This philosophy of struggle and
born tradition. Why do parents teach technique as an excuse for art. self-determination has myriad ramifi­
their children the same way they were “Within the arts, there is a danger of cations throughout the learning pro­
taught: Is it because their way is best?” discussing creative ideas and technique cess. The minimal number of require­
The SHKS emphasis on self-deter­ as if the two are inseparable,” he contin­ ments pushes the students to find their
mination within the curriculum allows ued. “There is a history of technique’; own directions as ceramics artists, learn­
students to take responsibility for their teachers say you are learning an art, but ing about the subjects that interest

“Little Black Spot,” approximately 18 inches in height, stoneware and wax,

by Andrew Barton, Oslo.

them. For example, throwing on the
wheel is not offered as a course, but
should a student have an interest, both
the tools and faculty are available to
pursue this skill.
Each student is required to select an
adviser with whom he or she will meet
regularly to shape the direction of his or
her studies. The diversity of Ase’s,
Lisleruds and Nitzsches artistic styles
ensures each student can find a profes­
sor with whom he or she can identify.
One elective class offered each year is
Ole Lisleruds architectural installation
class, which gives students hands-on ex­
perience in applying for commissions.
In this class, he teaches students how to
work with architects and architectural
plans to render three-dimensional pro­
posals, a skill vital to their future ca­
reers. The department further maintains
the commitment to its students after
graduation by offering them scholar­
“Domino Walls,” to approximately 6 feet in height, part of an ongoing
ships to return and use the department s “Portal Series,” by Ole Lislerud, Alesund, Norway.
facilities, until they can establish their
own working studios.
The scarcity of requirements in the
Oslo program represents one of many
elements that help create an environ­
ment in which students learn collabora-
tively, rather than competitively. A
student working on a handbuilding
project, rather than taking a course in
that area, may learn the technique from
another student who took an elective in
handbuilding the previous year. This is
encouraged by placing students of mixed
experience within the same studio.
Knowledge becomes shared, rather than
hoarded; engaged in an ongoing pro­
cess of teaching each other, students
integrate new techniques and ideas into
their work, gaining inspiration and en­
couragement from one another. The stu­
dents are free to choose from all the
courses offered within the department
each semester, regardless of class level.
One of the things that had always
bothered me during my education was
that despite the richness of talented stu­
dents the school had attracted, there
was very little emphasis on learning from
one another. In the studio situation,
where each student is working on a
separate project as opposed to the same “The Threshold to Paradise,” approximately 56 inches
one, there is less competition, and per­ in height, low-fire tiles with phototransfers and alkaline
haps, ironically, more room for indi­ glazes, by Anita Hauge, Hummelvik, Norway.
vidual expression. I use the word
“ironically,” because I do recognize the

December 1998 49
regard, I have found success in Lislerud s
plaster-printing technique, with which
I can produce multiple images from the
same carving.
While at SHKS, I worked in studios
side by side with students of all grade
levels, exploring a variety of media in
connection with ceramics. I saw under­
graduates and M.FA. candidates help­
ing each other integrate new techniques
and ideas into their work, gaining in­
spiration and encouragement from one
another. The students are free to choose
from all the courses offered within the
department each semester, regardless of
class level.
A further component of the depart­
ment s philosophy that allows students
to mature artistically involves the in­
tegration of other fine-arts media into
the ceramics process. The students are
free to take classes in other depart­
ments, receiving ceramics credits if
these classes are integral to the direc­
tion of their work.
The department also emphasizes the
connection between ceramics and other
arts with two of its required courses:
Drawing and Ceramic Expressions and
Painting and Ceramic Expressions.
These courses explore new ways to think
about and talk about clay, to manipu­
late the language we use in describing
the process of clay, to emphasize art
over technique. For the faculty and their
students, glazes become “colors that
melt.” Slips become “colors that don’t
melt.” Perhaps this issue of language
“Mirror,” 73 inches in height, stoneware and concrete, seems insignificant, but the way we talk
by Oyvind Suul, Oslo.
about the artistic process influences the
way we think about the artistic process,
positive side of competition to establish was responsible for my invitation as a which influences the art we create.
as solid work ethic, as well as diversity visiting artist at SHKS. For me, this When I consider the impact that the
and innovation. However, competition time was important in getting to know Oslo department’s philosophy and
can also be destructive to individual his work on a personal level and also in teaching has on the students—on ce­
expression when it compromises feel­ terms of my developing an understand­ ramics artists—I ask myself, “How can
ings of talent. ing of the Norwegian ceramic commu­ ceramics institutions continue to base
Shortly after arriving at SHKS, I spentnity and the relationship to its their curricula on process and tradition,
a week working with Ole Lislerud in counterpart in the U.S. and expect a place in the fine-arts
Alesund. There I assisted him with the The experience of sharing in the world?” If we are going to eliminate the
assembly of the pieces used in his many innovative techniques being used medium-based hierarchy that exists
“Domino Walls” exhibition at the Na­ within the ceramics department at SHKS within fine arts, we must emphasize
tional Museum of Decorative Arts in has proved invaluable to my work. Be­ visual communication in our teaching.
Trondheim. The installation was part fore arriving in Norway, I had antici­ Only by letting go of the emphasis on
of an ongoing “Portal Series,” on which pated a change in the subject matter of tradition and process when they be­
he has worked in the U.S., Japan, Mali my patterns and stories told on func­ come debilitating to creativity, can we
and most notably for a recent commis­ tional forms, but the thought of chang­ eliminate the divisions of media in how
sion at the Oslo Tinghus (court house). ing the tools and limitations of my we talk about fine art. ▲
Lislerud, a Fulbright alumni himself, process was far from my mind. In this

Vessels and Sculpture by Emerging Artists

“Unaffected: The New Naturalism of turned away from the Bernard Leach such self-consciously correct’ sculpture
Four Emerging Women Ceramists,” in­ tradition of ‘brown pots and the Peter with no resonance for the viewer.”
cluding vessels and sculptures by Jessica Voulkos tradition of abstract pots in Schulze’s work, for instance, is “rooted
Bohus, Glenn, Michigan; Adelaide Paul, favor of celebrating nature and womens in Louisiana images, such as plants,
Lubbock, Texas; Angelica Pozo, Cleve­ experience of it. flowers, reptiles and birds. I usually start
land; and Tanya Nehrbass Schulze, Grand “Why, then, do I consider this work with a thrown piece, then add imagery
Coteau, Louisiana, was presented recendyunaffected when it is so rooted in our and/or alter the piece in some way,” she
at Gallery 1021: Lill Street in Chicago. natural world and reflects a very con­ comments. “Each piece is different.
Each of these artists portrays the natu­scious rejection of two powerful 20th- Once I start, one thing leads to another.
ral world in her work, depicting such century ceramic traditions?” asks Sive. I like certain images for their shapes,
elements as horses, magnolias, corn fields“Simply because this work is so frank in such as the symmetry of petals or the
and water. According to curator Rebecca its representation of intimate human long slender shape of snakes and lizards.
Anne Sive, they “are among a group of responses to the natural world at a time Vivid color and detailed texture are also
contemporary ceramists who have when so many other ceramists produce important elements of my work.” ▲

“Black Eyed Susan Platter,” 12 inches in

diameter, whiteware with layered
underglazes and clear glaze, fired to
Cone 05, $280, by Tanya Nehrbass Schulze,
Grand Coteau, Louisiana.

“Horse and Figure Pouring Vessel,” 13½ inches in height, “White Oak Tree Temple Box,” 18 inches
white stoneware, soda fired, accented with lusters, $495, in height, clay and glass on wood, $1425,
by Adelaide Paul, Lubbock, Texas. by Angelica Pozo, Cleveland.

December 1998 51
Interactive Tile Mural
hey say beauty is only skin that would be visually attractive to that B.FA. in ceramics from Arizona State

T deep, but just what is beneath age group. From the perspective of older University in 1984, has long been a
the surface of a persons skin? A kids and adults, I had to pay attention student of human physiology. He had
ceramic wall mural installed re­ to the science and to be biologically prepared for the competition by read­ make sure, for example, ing materials describing sebaceous
cently at the Arizona Science Center
illustrates a cross section of these depths that the scale was right and that when a glands, hair papilla, and the epidermis
in precise three-dimensional, scientifi­ vein and an artery met, they connected and dermis layers of mammalian skin.
cally correct detail. through a series of capillaries. And fi­ His first big challenge in creating the
Artist Garry Price won an invita­ nally, the colors had to go well mural was in mixing glazes that could
tional competition to create the 8-foot- look good aesthetically.” produce the necessary colors, such as
high, 19-foot-long mural for downtown While the design concept of a cross the reds for the blood, arteries and veins.
Phoenix’s dramatic new 120,000-square- section of human skin was predeter­ “I did line blends. I did combinations
foot center. To earn the commission, he mined, “it was a matter of how much of stains and oxides to come up with
had to meet three distinct needs: detail to put in, then magnifying the different values,” Price recalls. “In all, I
“For children eight and younger,” image 1000 times and figuring in an did more than 100 tests for color and
Price explained, “the design had to in­ 8% shrinkage factor for the clay.” used 24 different glazes. I wound up
clude bright colors with a punchy look Fortunately, Price, who received a using 5 different base glazes.

Illustrates Human Skin by Ann Patterson
“Then I made 10x16-inch carved Price, who believes in doing his realized then that he could utilize the
sections to show the folks at the Science homework, said he double-checked the L-hooks later to hang large clay slabs.
Center what the colors would look like proposed suspension system with the Despite all the careful preparation,
together. It took me three months to Phoenix Fire Department and the city’s not everything went according to plan,
develop the right glazes and home in on Building Safety Department. They ap­ Price admitted. The first tiles that he
the design.” proved. The system consists of steel studsand assistant Michael Costello carved
The next challenge was developing a encasing wooden 2x4s mounted 22 and bisque fired cracked and separated
trustworthy wall support system to hold inches-on-center. Over the studs, Price during the glaze firing.
the tiles in place. The finished mural placed ¾-inch Sheetrock and expanded “It was really scary,” Price said. “We
contains 33 tiles, each measuring 22 metal mesh topped with a mud set. lost nine tiles. I could have panicked,
inches square and up to 5 ¾ inches thick. Each tile was attached independently but I told myself to settle down and just
In addition, there are three tiles on each using L-hooks screwed into the metal solve the problem.” After all, he had
end, each measuring 3x3x22 inches. studs. Price, who once made a living as surmounted tension-producing situa­
The tiles weigh between 35 and 55 a construction worker, happened upon tions before:
pounds each, which brings the total the L-hook suspension technique while A few years ago, he was awakened
mural weight to about 1500 pounds, dismantling 5-foot marble slabs that had from sleep by lightning striking his
not including the grouting. been part of a commercial building. He house and studio in Tempe, Arizona.

December 1998 53
After transferring images drawn on paper by scribing Garry Price completed carving the more intricate designs
with a blunt tool, assistant Michael Costello began carving and in some cases added raised shapes; the tiles were then
the larger design elements. dried carefully, bisqued, brushed with glazes and low fired.

He and his family escaped safely from The tile-making process went some­ 250°F. This made a total bisque firing
the building, but it was declared a total thing like this: First, Price and Costello time of 54 hours.
loss. The lightning had burned a 1 Ox 18-fed clay into a pug mill to form 3-inch- Up to three coats of glaze were ap­
inch hole in the roof. “I could see fire in diameter extrusions. Then the two fed plied using soft-bristle brushes. The glaze
the attic. I could see there was no put­ joined extrusions into a slab roller. Be­ firing was to Cone 06, again adhering
ting it out.” cause of the anticipated shrinkage, they to a very slow firing schedule. In some
In March 1996, Price and his family cut the slabs 8% larger than the fin­ cases, the tiles were fired as many as
moved into a new 2000-square-foot ished tiles would measure, or a little three times to achieve the desired color.
house with a 400-square-foot studio more than 2 feet square. The installation was done by profes­
built on his original home site. He had Next, Costello transferred the paper sional tile setter Eric Krause.
acted as the general contractor/builder image to the wet clay by scribing with a Today, although he still sells vessels
for the construction project. blunt tool. The still-wet slabs were then and platters through galleries, Price finds
Armed with this same take-it-as-it- placed on ¾-inch plywood trays and he is concentrating more on acquiring
comes attitude, Price set about identify­ slid into a rack to dry somewhat. public art projects, in part because he
ing precisely why the tiles had been lost, “We let each sit 24 hours, then cov­ enjoys working collaboratively. “I’ve
then deciding what to do about an im­ ered it with plastic and let it sit another learned the value of the team approach,
pending deadline. 24 hours so the moisture would even how to be able to explain the ceramic
“We had a compressed date to get out through the tile,” Price said. process to the lay person, give people
this done. It was March and the center After that, Costello started carving design choices and sample materials so
was opening in April. As it happened, the larger design elements, while Price they don’t have to wonder so much. A
the wife of my assistant worked as a completed the more intricate elements. lot of suggestions that don’t seem so
visual manager for Dillards department In a few instances—such as the form­ great at the time often end up contrib­
stores. We came up with the idea of ing of the bulging oil glands—Price uting something really valuable to the
reproducing the mural on Centrex plas­ scored the surface and attached the ap­ finished product.”
tic panels and temporarily screwing propriate raised shape. Recent projects have included a tran­
them in place. We could then install the To pique the interest of young chil­ sit shelter for the City of Tempe, a tiled
tiles as they were done. A sign would dren, an important audience at the entryway floor for a Tempe medical cen­
say something like, ‘Watch the skin hands-on Science Center, a pullout ter, and a hummingbird garden for a
grow...Installation in process.’ Fortu­ drawer showing the four layers of hu­ local grocery store. A pair of ceramic
nately, the folks at the Science Center man hair follicles was incorporated. tables and benches is promised for a
felt comfortable with that. And Dillards “All the way along, we really paid nearby elementary school as well.
made an additional contribution to the attention to detail. We decided up front At the Arizona Science Center, where
Science Center.” that we were never going to rush the approximately 500,000 visitors are ex­
Later, after considerable investigation, process,” Price said. pected each year, Price’s ceramic essay
Price discovered that the botched firing The tiles were bisque fired slowly celebrating the skin has scored a hit.
had resulted from a batch of clay that (34 hours) to Cone 04 in computer- People praise the mural’s rich colors and
was not mixed properly. He had no controlled electric kilns, then cooled 20 interesting surfaces, as well as the op­
trouble firing the replacement tiles. hours to a temperature of 200°F to portunity to look “skin deep.” ▲

An Interview with Makoto Yabe
by Joan Evelyn Ames

“Deko Boko Vase,” 39 inches in height, stoneware with colored slips.

Massachusetts potter Makoto Yabes Interviewer: How did you decide to was a white bowl, just a simple sphere
work is a remarkable combination of become a potter? with a few color streaks on it. That
the finest classical Japanese forms—a Yabe: Many years ago, when I was 17,1 piece is still vivid in my memory.
sake cup or a teabowl—and imagina­ went to see an art show sponsored by Interviewer: Ah, a simple white bowl...
tive experimental pieces—a set of six the Japan Art Association. I went Yabe: With a few colors. And somehow
handbuilt figures whose tall zigzag through the rooms: from Western-style it hit my heart, so beautiful. I can’t
shapes dance together between positive painting to Japanese-style sculpture. The describe the feeling, especially because
and negative space. He often favors forms last room was all crafts: pottery, bas­ the bowl was such a big contrast to all
that suggest nature: trees, flowers or ketry, lacquerware, silversmith, the intellectual paintings and the ugly
human gestures. fabrics....At the end of this room there abstract art—so much that didn’t inter­

December 1998 55
“Neriage Teabowl,” 5 inches in diameter, wheel thrown from colored clays.

est me. But at the end of that room, just that I always keep in my mind now realized that just being a potter was not
a simple when I’m teaching. I was singing a song enough. I thought I should study with
When I was 18 years old, I had to not appropriate in school, some song the other side of the brain also, so I
decide my future. Because I was born in that adult people who are drunk usually chose to go to college. I found a school
1947, part of the baby boom after World sing. The music teacher heard me sing­ with a pretty good reputation that was
War II, there was a lot of competition ing; he became so mad that he took me not too expensive. During the daytime,
with other Japanese youths for entering to the principal’s office. After that expe­ I went to vocational school to study
college. Also, my father died three rience, I hated music. Now when I teach pottery, and I went to college at night.
months before I was born, so my sister people, I don’t want to be like that When I finished potter’s school, I
and I were raised by my mother. My teacher. I try to be nice. If you don’t like decided to go to another school where
mother worked from 9 to 5, Monday a teacher, you don’t like the subject. they taught chemistry and more techni­
through Saturday, only resting on Sun­ Our visual-arts teacher was very cal things like physics, because you must
day. I didn’t want to be too much warm and kind, so I sensed art was have some background in chemistry to
financial burden to her with my college better than music. He encouraged my make glazes. After that, I decided I
education. Also, I didn’t like the com­ drawing. He was a very good painter, should apprentice with a potter.
petition. And then, I remembered the but he couldn’t be a professional painter Interviewer: How did you find your
bowl I had seen at the museum the year so he taught high school. I could feel teacher?
before. That beautiful bowl—why his sense of frustration because he had Yabe: I went to shows to see all the
shouldn’t I become a potter? I thought, tried a lot of things but couldn’t “make potters’ work, to feel which appealed to
“That’s it!” it” as an artist. Perhaps that’s why he me. Sango Uno’s work is traditional with
So, I told my high-school art teacher said “no” to my becoming a potter. modern momentum and feeling. It was
that I wanted to become a potter. He Still, I wanted to make the bowl that very appealing, very attractive to me.
said, “No.” In Japan, potters come from I had seen in the art show. So I talked He lived in Kyoto, where my college
potters’ families, and doctors come from the idea over with my mother for about was. I knocked on his door, introduced
doctors’ families. That’s the tradition, five days. At first she discouraged me, myself and told him I’d like to be his
and my father was a businessman. because she had no idea about being a assistant. He said, “Okay, come tomor­
Interviewer: Had you done any pottery potter. But somehow she accepted my row.” The timing was perfect because
in school? request and said she would support me. he had just lost his apprentice. He
Yabe: I remember one experience when Then, after seeing my determination, needed somebody to sweep the house.
I was about 11 years old. The art teacher my high-school teacher also supported At first, I went just to sweep. He
brought clay to all the students, and we me. He introduced me to a potter friend didn’t tell me what to do, so I had to
made things. Then he built a bonfire on who advised me about different schools. find jobs for myself. The next day, he
the field in the middle of the campus. So I started going to a vocational asked me to prepare the clay. So I wedged
There was another event in school school to study pottery. After a while I the clay as I had learned it in school. He

Plate, 15 inches in diameter, stoneware, Cone 10 reduction fired.

told me it was a little hard, and asked good for me because I had two teachers Yabe: Most of them. Centuries ago, pot­
me to make it softer. The next day, he at the same time. They came from the tery became a very valuable object in
asked me to prepare, to wedge, 600 same family, but they were very differ­ Japan. Aristocrats sometimes gave tea-
pounds of clay. ent—like oil and water. The younger bowls and tea caddies, instead of land,
Interviewer: He was making big pieces? brother, my first teacher, was very am­ as rewards to loyal workers. So pottery
Yabe: No, he was just testing me, I bitious about promoting his work and itself was very valuable, and if a potter
guess. The consistency of clay is very was also a well-known author. On the created some special object, he didn’t
important to making certain shapes. other hand, the older brother didn’t like share the technique.
One day he saw me making my own to be publicized. He was like a hermit. Interviewer: So did the brothers share
pots. He said, “Your pot is dead.” I He would make pots and give them the family secrets with you?
didn’t know what that meant. away. He had many followers. The Japa­ Yabe: No. But that was good, because
So, then I thought maybe the way I nese government appointed him a “Na­ when my teacher was mixing glazes, I
learned was very ordinary. In school we tional Living Treasure,” but he gave the had no idea what was going on. That
made everything precisely the same size, title to his young brother. made me think more about the materi­
shape, same weight, and so when you Interviewer: You can pass that honor als. If I got a recipe directly from him, I
concentrate on those things, you lose along? wouldn’t be able to create my own. It’s
the feelings. Yabe: There were three brothers in the like cooking: if you follow a recipe ex­
Interviewer: You had learned the craft, family—all potters. Their father was veryactly, the food will always taste the same,
but not yet the art? well known and had done a big busi­ but you never create new tastes.
Yabe: Right. So it took me about three ness exporting to Europe. At one time Interviewer: So by not receiving this
years to relearn. After about three they had 50 workers producing pottery knowledge directly from your teachers,
months, he sent me to his older brother’sfor export. The father was a genius at you were forced to be more attentive
house to work, producing things under reproducing Chinese copper reds and and creative.
Sango Uno’s name. My first teacher’s other difficult glazes such as turquoise Yabe: Yes, exactly. Also, my first teacher
studio was not big enough and he had and celadon. All these techniques were had a good eye for old objects, and
some family problems, so he gave me handed on to the three children. many people brought things for him to
space with his older brother. Interviewer: Were those techniques kept identify. He would look at a piece and
It was a weird situation but it was secret in the family? say how old it was, where it was made

December 1998 57
“Deko Boko Vase,” 39 inches in height, stoneware with colored slips, reduction fired to Cone 7-8.

and who made it. He always called me make pieces by feeling, not just by using Interviewer: That’s a wonderful range.
to serve tea for the guests, and he al­ techniques and researching different Yabe: I made a urinal for someone who
lowed me to sit and watch him deter­ techniques. That’s not the right way to had a compost toilet. The bathroom
mine what the object was. So although make forms. It is better to first have a was a simple square room with Mexi­
he didn’t teach me how to make pots— feeling or an idea and then search for can tile. I visualized a simple form, a
because he was never in the studio—he the right technique. That makes the sort of calla lily shape in brown. It was
taught me how to see objects and how pieces different. my first experience to do this kind of
to think about them. So it was a struggle to get to this new commission, but actually it was a very
While my first teacher was busy writ­ stage, because working with clay has so fun project. After that, I started to find
ing books, I was preparing the clay, many technical parts to resolve. tall, cylinder forms very appealing.
making the pots, firing them, copying Interviewer: WTiat are the qualities that Interviewer: Can you describe what it’s
his name and selling them. People usu­ allow a potter to become masterful? like when everything is coming together
ally came to buy his things at the stu­ Yabe: I think it’s having a lot of curios­ for you?
dio. Once I went to a department store ity and being childlike—keeping the Yabe: It takes a long time for everything
where they carried famous potters’ excitement alive. It’s also always doing to come together. You can’t force clay to
works. My first teacher had a display of new things. If you become satisfied with do things. You have to wait until the
small sake cups there. I was looking at your work, you’re just repeating the sameright time to take the next steps.
other people’s work when the person stuff; you don’t go forward. First, I have a vision about what I
next to me picked up one of the sake Interviewer: Are those qualities natural would like to make. When I plan a
cups that I’d made under my teacher’s to you, or do you have to work at it? piece, I make lots of sketches to get a
name and said, “This piece isn’t great!” Yabe: I think both. I have the curiosity, sense of the height and the width, and
Interviewer: When did you begin work­ but I also have to work at it. Like some­ how different parts of the piece fit to­
ing on your own? body once said, “If you empty your gether. I like to have things come to­
Yabe: I apprenticed with my teachers cup, then you can have more, you can gether to create negative space.
for six years. Then I was able to borrow fill the cup with something new.” Also, Then I organize the whole process
some studio space from one of their I don’t want to be too relaxed and and find the proper order—like when
nephews, who was also a potter. I pro­ confident. When I’m working or teach­ you have dinner guests: you have a shop­
duced night and day, and after six ing [currently at the Radcliffe College ping list, go to market, prepare food.
months I had my first show in a gallery Ceramic Studio and the DeCordova So, first you have a vision and then
in Osaka. I don’t know if it was ludcy or Museum School], I try to hold that you start working with clay. Of course,
unlucky, but the show went pretty well, attitude of newness and excitement. Ev­ what you can make depends on the size
and the gallery asked me to show again. ery semester my class is two-thirds the of your kiln; there are limitations. If
Then there was a very important same faces, but I’m very nervous on the you have a small kiln you can’t fire big
show for young potters, and I discov­ first day, even if I know who’s coming. pieces. So you balance your feelings and
ered my teacher was a judge. I thought, But I like to be nervous, because then your vision with the limitation of what
“That’s good luck!” I made a pot, en­ I’m more fresh and alive. I like to work will fit into the kiln.
tered it, and I was rejected. I was very under pressure because otherwise some Then second, what kind of effect
upset and angry for a few days. Then I part of me becomes lazy. do you want to have? You have to
started to settle down and think about Interviewer: WTiat makes a great stu­ figure out what chemicals to use for
why I was rejected. dent? the glazes, how much to use and when
My piece looked like my teacher’s Yabe: Great students are always willing to apply them.
work, because I spent so many years to do new things and take risks. They It is challenging for me to keep a
trying to copy his style. I realized I also must have a strong curiosity. I like balance between the emotional side and
didn’t have any style of my own. I was students who ask lots of questions. If the technical side of making pottery.
just making pots like his pots. So that they don’t have questions, they are not But once I start working, I forget every­
was actually a wonderful experience, thinking much. I have questions myself thing else!
because I started to think for myself all the time. Interviewer: WTiat is your favorite part
about how to create my own style. It Interviewer: Some of your work is very of the whole process?
took me three years to unlearn the style classical and some is so experimental Yabe: My favorite part is firing and open­
I’d spent six years learning. and modern. ing the kiln. Each time the anxiety
I started to do more experimenting. Yabe: Yes. I try not to have one style. I builds, because you spend so much time
I went back and looked at the history of like to do things for simple daily use, making and preparing a piece. You are
pottery. I was interested in the Song and I love classical forms. On the other expecting certain things, and very often
dynasty. I tried combining various tech­ hand, I like experimenting to express it doesn’t work out. Most of the time it’s
niques. I would succeed in one area and my own feelings. I make everything fromdisappointing.
try another. Then I realized that I should sake cups to urinals. Interviewer: What do you see as the

December 1998 59
“Song of the Wind,” 39 inches in height, stoneware with colored slips,
reduction fired to Cone 6, by Makoto Yabe, Boxford, Massachusetts.

major dangers that keep your work from same pattern. Then another of my pieces new things. Anyway, I’m not a master.
growing? went to the museum, and I had to I’m just a potter.
Yabe: How to explain this! When the change again.
Museum of Fine Arts in Boston chose Interviewer: So if you produce some­ Excerptedfrom Mastery: Interviews with
one of my pieces, I was very honored. thing great and you keep mass-produc­ 30 Remarkable People, published by
Then I decided I wouldn’t make the ing it, your creativity will dry up? Rudra Press, 541 Northeast 20th Avenue,
same piece again. I wouldn’t repeat the Yabe: I think so. Better to stop and try Suite 108, Portland, Oregon 97232.

Additives for Glazes and Clay Bodies
by Jeff Zamek

lazes that settle fast in the con­ they actually need additives. Many rect suspension agent or binder with
tainer and that dry to a dusty, glaze and clay body recipes work well the glaze or clay body.
flaky condition are among the most without the addition of any suspen­
common problems confronted by stu­ sion or binder components. Cellulose Gum
dio potters. Most are familiar with A suspension agent might be CMC (sodium carboxymethylcellu-
the glaze that refuses to stay in sus­ needed if the wet glaze sinks to the lose or cellulose gum) has been used
pension, settling to a rock-hard mass bottom of the container, or if the ap­ by industry for 50 years; a biodegrad­
at the bottom of the glaze bucket. plied glaze is dusty or flakes off. In able water-soluble polymer, it is gener­
Then there is the problem of the ap­ this situation, a binder is required to ally considered nontoxic. In fact, it is
plied glaze becoming very soft and hold the loose, soft glaze in place. used as the primary thickener for a
fragile as it dries. Handling the pot at Binders can also be used to vast array of everyday products, in­
this point can significantly damage strengthen underglaze or overglaze me­ cluding toothpaste, syrup, lotions and
the dry glaze surface. tallic oxide washes. The addition of a adhesives, to name a few. It is also
Traditionally, Epsom salts and ben­ binder also allows these washes to be commonly used to inhibit the forma­
tonite have been added to glazes to applied smoothly, without drying too tion of ice crystals in ice cream and to
keep them in suspension. Starch, pan­ quickly. When a glaze or wash dries impart body and “mouth feel” to pow­
cake syrup and other organic prod­ nearly immediately on contacting a dered beverages, such as hot chocolate.
ucts also have been used to bind dusty, surface, it can result in “chattering” CMC is derived from pure cellulose,
soft raw glaze to a bisque surface. or grabbing of the brush. Adding with wood pulp and/or chemical cot­
However, water- ton (from cotton
soluble organic linters) as the raw
binders follow the “Old technology" organic and inorganic binders feedstock. First,
drying characteris­ work; however, more effective and easier to use the cellulose is
tics of the glaze chopped and re­
and might not agents are available and have been used in the acted with sodium
cause a binding ceramics industry for some time. monochloroace-
action throughout tate in an alkaline
the glaze layer environment un­
cross section. Just the upper layer of binders can enable smoothly flowing der rigidly controlled conditions.
glaze is tacked down. Alternatively, brushstrokes, whether working on a Subsequent purification and drying
inorganic binders or glaze hardeners bisque surface or a raw glaze, as in yields the white granular powder
(such as sodium silicate and potas­ majolica decoration. known as CMC.
sium silicate) cause the raw glaze to All commercial glazes contain bind­ Over 100 different grades of CMC
harden throughout the entire glaze ers to prevent the glaze from settling are commonly available; they differ
layer. A disadvantage of sodium sili­ and aid in smooth brush application; primarily based on degree of substitu­
cate and potassium silicate is their ten­ however, if the glaze contains a higher tion (or “DS”), viscosity (i.e., molecu­
dency to deflocculate the glaze. percentage of binder than needed for lar weight or chain length), particle
To a limited extent, both types of a particular glazing operation, it can size and regulatory status (technical,
“old technology” organic and inor­ lead to other problems, such as longer food or pharmaceutical). Common
ganic binders work; however, more time periods for drying. The amount grades of CMC that are used in glazes
effective and easier to use agents are of binder in a glaze can also mean the are 7L or 7M. CMC is also commonly
available and have been used in the glaze will work well for brushing but used as a binder in clays as well, with
ceramics industry for some time. For not for dipping applications. 7L or 7LIT being typical choices. Sev­
any clay body or glaze additive to work One of the major advantages in eral different functions are performed
effectively, it must be easy to use and mixing your own glazes is the precise by CMC in glazes, notably that of a
precise in its result without disrupt­ control over additives. Each recipe will thickener, suspension agent and dry­
ing the glaze surface. The additive require a specific type and an exact ing rate inhibitor.
should also burn off, leaving little resi­ amount in order to produce good re­
due so as not to affect the fired result. sults. Many additives are essentially Mixing CMC in Glazes
Many of the remedies used in the past the same chemically, but are produced CMC is soluble in cold or hot wa­
simply do not meet such standards. by different companies. However, ter and is not affected by the pH level
The first step in optimizing your some are distinctly different and care of the glaze; however, it disburses more
clays and glazes is to decide whether should be taken in matching the cor­ readily in hot water. It can be weighed

December 1998 61
out and mixed into water with a When used in a glaze to harden or on dry weight), CMC again allows for
blender or with a spoon. All of the “tack” a loose raw glaze in place, CMC smooth, easy application over raw-
mixture is then used in the glaze to can be added in percentages of 0.1% glazed surfaces, or to bisque or leather-
maintain the correct percentage of to 2% (based on the dry weight of the hard surfaces. Using CMC in the base
CMC to glaze ratios. glaze). To test, start with the lowest glaze to develop a nondusty raw glaze
Adding CMC directly to the dry amount, then apply the glaze over a for overglaze painting is also some­
glaze batch is also an option; how­ wide test area, as small application times necessary. In engobes, CMC en­
ever, after water is added to the glaze, areas produce inconclusive results. Af­ hances the plasticity of the engobe in
it must be passed through an 80-mesh ter the glaze has dried, note if the the wet state, allowing for improved
sieve three times to ensure that the dusty, loose, fragile quality has been application and adherence to leather-
CMC is thoroughly integrated into eliminated. The glaze should have in­ hard surfaces.
the mix. creased durability and remain in place Thorough dispersion of raw mate­
If a glaze is to be ball milled, CMC when rubbed. If not, try increasing rials is an important factor in mixing
can be added before or after the mix­ the CMC by 0.1% increments until any glaze, underglaze or overglaze, and
ing process. The primary goal, what­ the dry glaze remains intact. stains or metallic oxides are the most
ever the blending system, is to get the critical ingredients to be spread evenly
CMC mixed completely into the wet Glaze Suspension throughout the wet batch, as even
glaze in the correct amount. CMC will also keep a glaze in sus­ color depends on even dispersion of
If CMC levels exceed about 1%, pension. Visualize CMC as a bundle coloring pigments. A glaze with CMC
the wet glaze might look thicker in of long strings or rope that slowly in the water system aids in the sus­
the glaze bucket than it will actually unwinds when thrown into a swim­ pension of the heavier metallic oxides
apply to the piece. Excess glaze water ming pool (water in a glaze bucket), throughout the glaze mixture.
has to be removed until the correct forming a net that entangles and
glaze thickness is built up on the crosses itself in the water. When solid Clay Bodies
bisque or raw clay surface. objects are thrown into the water (feld­ CMC can be added to increase the
A high level of CMC also delays spar, dolomite, whiting, flint, clay, plasticity of moist clay bodies as well.
the drying time of the glaze. Addi­ zinc, etc.), the CMC net keeps them When it is mixed with water, a gel­
tions above 1.5% might cause the ap­ from settling to the bottom. An ex­ like substance is formed, which in­
plied glaze to form “rivers,” and result ception to this “netting” principle oc­ creases the binding properties of the
in excessively long drying time. curs when soluble materials are used clay/water structure. Clay recipes that
(the most common are Gerstley bo­ are traditionally “short” or nonplastic
Glaze Binder rate, colemanite, soda ash, borax and are affected the most when CMC is
The primary function of CMC in pearl ash), as they are dissolved into present; however, it can also function
glazes is one of increasing the me­ the water system of the glaze. in a throwing body with good results.
chanical strength of the raw glaze once For glaze suspension, CMC can be Acting as a lubricant, it can decrease
it has dried on the bisque- or green­ used in 0.1% to 2% amounts (based the resistance generated by clay in a
ware surface. Often glazes with high on the dry weight of the glaze). Each clay mixer and improve extrusion
clay content and/or high amounts of glaze will require a different amount properties when the clay body is pro­
low-density materials, such as magne­ of CMC to achieve proper suspension cessed through a pug mill. Green
sium carbonate, will form loose pow­ of the solids in water due to inherent strength, which is the unfired clay’s
der when drying. Handling the work suspension properties. Start at 0.1% ability to be moved around the studio
for decoration or stacking in a kiln CMC, then if the glaze still sinks to or loaded into kilns without being
often mars the glaze. Once in the kiln, the bottom of the bucket, increase damaged, is also aided by CMC.
the glaze also has a greater chance of the level by 0.1% increments until The addition of CMC to the clay
crawling, due to the low-mechanical- the glaze stays in suspension. body can cut down on the amount of
bonding action of the glaze to the The greater the percentage of CMC ball clay needed. Lower amounts of
clay body. used in a glaze, the longer the glaze ball clay will diminish warping and
A binder added to the glaze will will take to dry. CMC will also aid in cracking in the drying stage.
“tack” down loose glaze particles, al­ achieving smooth and uniform brush To experiment, add CMC incre­
lowing for overglaze decorations by application. The correct amount is mentally, starting at 0.1% up to 2%
creating a harder raw glaze surface. determined by the specific glaze for­ (based on the dry weight of the clay).
The binder can also keep the raw glaze mulation and method of application
in contact with the underlying clay (spraying, brushing or dipping), as Veegum T, Veegum Pro, Veegum Cer
body until sintering or the first stages well as the relative absorbency of the The various Veegum products, pro­
of melting take place. A major cause clay body surface. duced by R. T. Vanderbilt Company,
of crawling is raw glaze becoming de­ Inc., serve different functions in glazes
tached from the clay body and rolling Underglazes/Overglazes/Engobes and clay bodies. They are inorganic,
back on itself during firing, leaving When used in underglaze/overglaze complex, colloidal, magnesium alu-
exposed areas of clay. washes and engobes (3%—4% based Please turn to page 86

Julia Galloway
“Little Confluence,” an exhibition of A cruet set reminds us of close con­
functional ceramics by Helena, Mon­ versations. A teapot with a gestured
tana, artist Julia Galloway, was on view spout specializes our tea drinking. A
recently at the Clay Art Center in Port mug with slight texture inside the
Chester, New York. Interested in pot­ handle allows our fingers to discover
tery that is “joyous to use and decorates uniqueness. Beauty is as valid as func­
our living spaces with character and el­ tion; over time and use, pottery sup­
egance,” Galloway is currently combin­ ports our intimate rituals of nourish­
ing wheel-thrown and handbuilt ment and celebration.” A
elements “to expose the sculptural na­
ture of pottery, and the seductive nature
of porcelain.”
Influenced by Minoan ceramics,
Sung and Tang dynasty court ware, as
well as Persian miniature paintings, Gal­
loway prefers atmospheric kiln firing
“for its skin surface qualities and layer­
ing of decoration. With form, I refer­
ence human form and domestic
architecture; with surface, I recall floral
Porcelain pitcher, 10 inches in height,
patterning and organic decoration. wheel thrown and altered, glazed and
“Beautiful objects are essential to my soda fired.
domestic and working places,” she ex­
plains further. “A pitcher decorates the “Salt & Pepper Pot,” 4 inches in height,
mantel when it’s not full of lemonade. glazed porcelain, soda fired.

“Cream & Sugar Set,” 6 inches high, soda-fired, glazed porcelain, by Julia Galloway, Helena, Montana.

December 1998 63
Bernard Dejonghe
eramics and glass by French artist

Bernard Dejonghe were exhibited

recently at Galerie Besson in London,
England. Dejonghes work, says critic
David Whiting, “connects strongly with
the rugged Alpine landscape near Nice,
where he lives and works. Here is a
place where forms are brought into fo­
cus by a searching light and where the
bright mirror of mountain streams adds
to the air s clarity. The elemental nature
of his art—the sense of a terrain and a
light abstracted and concentrated—is
the works most essential quality.
“Until 1986, he was working exclu­
sively in clay, producing simple disks
and columns, which, made in series,
seemed to be both a 20th-century re­
sponse to, and conversation with, the
landscape around him. Spare and se­
vere, such forms appeared to be the
outcome of a process of elimination
and honing down. Yet here too were the
color variations, the marks and the blis­
ters that gave the surfaces spontane­
ity—the imprints of the creative process.
“Dejonghes forms seem to be as
much about continually changing
“Meule dormante,” approximately 32 inches in diameter, glazed stoneware. rhythms and movement, as of stasis and
permanence,” he concludes. His “treat­
ment of what is inside—its perceptible
inferiority—and of surface, creates re­
markably varied sensations of space and
density. He uses virtuoso combinations
of the optical and the opaque—rich
seams and sections devitrified by com­
plex firing and cooling processes—prob­
ing ever deeper with a reduced repertoire
and a monochromatic eye.” ▲

“Dent de requin,” approximately 33 inches in height, glazed

stoneware, by Bernard Dejonghe, St. Auban, France.
Works at various stages of production
in Dejonghe’s studio.

Call for Entries open to works in all media that include a dog as
part of the subject matter. Juried from slides.
Awards: $9500 in cash prizes; one $ 1250 purchase
Application Deadlines for Exhibitions, award. For further information, contact Mrs. Pat
Fairs, Festivals and Sales Deshler, 4300 N. Edgemoor, Wichita 67220;
telephone (316) 744-0057, fax (316) 744-0293 or
January 16, 1999, entry deadline
Chicago, Illinois, and Oconomowoc, Wisconsin
International Exhibitions “10th Anniversary Teapot Show” (February 28—
January 15, 1999, entry deadline March 29, 1999, in Oconomowoc; April 4-May
Rochester, New York “Porcelain ’99” (March 10, 1999, Chicago). Juried from slides. Entry
26-April 30, 1999), open to functional porce­ fee: $20. For prospectus, send business-size
lain forms by artists residing in the United States, SASE to A. Houberbocken, Inc., PO Box 196, /
Canada or Mexico. Juror: Richard Zakin, profes­ Cudahy, WI 53110. (
sor of ceramics, State University College, Os­ Galesburg, Illinois “GALEX 33” (March 13- s
wego, New York. Juried from up to 2 slides per April 10, 1999), open to all media. Juried from
entry (with SASE); up to 5 entries. Fee: $20 for up slides. Entry fee: $20 for 4 slides. Awards: $2000.
to 5 entries. For prospectus, contact Esmay Fine For prospectus, contact Galesburg Civic Art Cen­
Art, 1855 Monroe Ave., Rochester 14618. ter, 114 E. Main St., Galesburg 61401; or tele­
June 1, 1999, entry deadline phone (309) 342-7415.
Carouge, Switzerland “Prix de la Ville de January 22, 1999, entry deadline
Carouge 1999” (October 2-November 28,1999), Boston, Massachusetts “National Prize Show”
competition theme is the functional teapot; works (April 2-May 29, 1999), open to all media. Juried
must be no more than 35 cm (approximately 14 from slides. Juror: Peter Rathbone, vice president,
inches) in height. Juried from 2 slides plus a short Sotheby’s, New York. Awards: best of show, $2000;
resume (30 lines maximum). Awards: 7500 SFr plus 10 other awards. Location: Federal Reserve
(approximately US$5000), 1000 SFr (approxi­ Gallery, Boston. For prospectus, send SASE to
mately US$665) and 500 SFr (approximately Cambridge Art Association, National Prize Show,
US$330). For further information, contact the 25 Lowell St., Cambridge, MA 02138.
Musee de Carouge, Mairie de Carouge, Case January 24, 1999, entry deadline
postale, CH-1227 Carouge. Chico, California “Chico Art Center’s 1999
‘All Media’ Juried National Exhibition” (May 7-
June 13,1999). Juried from slides. Fee: $25 for up
United States Exhibitions to 2 slides. Awards: $500 best of show; four $250
December 31 entry deadline awards. For prospectus, send #10 SASE to Chico
Northampton, Massachusetts “Erotica in Ce­ Art Center, 1999 All Media Juried National Exhi­
ramic Art” (April 17-May 31, 1999), open to clay bition, 450 Orange St., Ste. 6, Chico 95928.
artists using erotic imagery in their work. Juried January 29, 1999, entry deadline
from 5 slides, resume and artist’s statement (with Lancaster, Pennsylvania “National Crafts”
SASE). No entry fee. For further information, send (April 23-June 13,1999), open to ceramics, fiber,
SASE to Ferrin Gallery, 179 Main St., North­ metal, paper, glass and wood. Juried from slides.
ampton 01060. Entry fee: $25 for up to 3 entries. Juror: Joanne
January 4, 1999, entry deadline Rapp, owner, Joanne Rapp Gallery/The Hand
Tampa, Florida “10th Annual Black and and the Spirit, Scottsdale, Arizona. Awards: $2000.
White” (February 13-March 26, 1999), open to For prospectus, send SASE to National Crafts,
works in all media in black and white or gray; no Lancaster Museum of Art, 135 N. Lime St.,
color. Juried from 3 slides. Fee: $25; members, Lancaster 17602; or telephone (717) 394-3497.
$ 18. For further information, contact Artists Un­ January 30, 1999, entry deadline
limited, 223 N. 12th St., Tampa 33602; or tele­ Ephrata, Pennsylvania “Seventh Annual Strictly
phone (813) 229-5958. Functional Pottery National” (May 8-30, 1999).
January 8, 1999, entry deadline Juried from slides. Juror: Warren MacKenzie.
Riverside, California “National Collegiate Ce­ Fee: $20 for up to 3 entries. Awards: more than
ramics Competition” (February 22-March 19, $3500 in cash and merchandise. For prospectus,
1999), open to ceramic-art students who have send business-size SASE to Jean B. Lehman, Direc­
been enrolled during the 1998—99 academic year tor SFPN, Market House Craft Center, PO Box
in a 2- or 4-year college program, or a graduate- 204, East Petersburg, PA 17520.
level program. Juried from slides. Juror: Sang February 12, 1999, entry deadline
Roberson. Fee: $20 for up to 2 entries. Awards: Carbondale, Illinois “Clay Cup VII” (April
$2000. Contact NCCC ’99, c/o Judy Bronson, 23-May 13, 1999). Juried from slides. Juror:
Riverside Community College, 4800 Magnolia Sandy Simon. Contact the School of Art and
Ave., Riverside 92506-1299; or telephone (909) Design, SIUC, Carbondale 62901-4301, Attn:
222-8275. Clay Cup; telephone Kate Nelson, (618) 453-
January 15, 1999, entry deadline 4315, or e-mail
Wichita, Kansas “Art Show at the Dog Show” February 15, 1999, entry deadline
(March 1—April 7, 1999, and April 9-11, 1999), Northampton, Massachusetts “China Painting
Today” (July 31-August 29, 1999), open to ce­
For a free listing, please submit informa­ ramics artists using china-painting techniques.
tion on juried exhibitions, fairs, festivals Juried from 5 slides, resume and artist’s statement
and sales at least four months before the (with SASE). No entry fee. For further informa­
event’s entry deadline (add one month for tion, send SASE to Ferrin Gallery, 179 Main St.,
listings in July and two months for those in Northampton 01060.
August). Regional exhibitions must be February 16, 1999, entry deadline
open to more than one state. Mail to Call Boulder, Colorado “Celestial Seasonings: A
for Entries, Ceramics Monthly, PO Box Loose Interpretation IV” (June 24-September
6102, Westerville, OH 43086-6102, e-mail 11, 1999), open to teapots inspired by Celestial
to or fax to Seasonings’ (herbal tea manufacturer) imagery,
products, packaging or history. Juried from writ­
(614) 891-8960.
ten or drawn proposals for original works plus

December 1998 67
Call for Entries booth. Booth fee: $425. No commission. For
application, send 3 loose first-class stamps for
postage to Sugarloaf Mountain Works, Inc., 200
Orchard Ridge Dr., #215, Gaithersburg, MD
slides of current work. For prospectus, send SASE 20878; or telephone (800) 210-9900.
to Leslie Ferrin, 163 Teatown Rd., Croton on Somerset, New Jersey “Sugarloaf Crafts Festi­
Hudson, NY 10520. val” (October 1-3, 1999). Juried from 5 slides,
February 27, 1999, entry deadline including 1 of booth. Booth fee: $425. No com­
Lincoln, California “Feats of Clay XII” (May mission. For application, send 3 loose first-class
1-22, 1999), open to sculpture, functional and stamps for postage to Sugarloaf Mountain Works,
nonfunctional works. Juried from slides. Juror: Inc., 200 Orchard Ridge Dr., #215, Gaithersburg,
Michael Lucero. Over $9000 in place, purchase MD 20878; or telephone (800) 210-9900.
and merit awards. For prospectus, send legal-size Ft. Washington, Pennsylvania “Sugarloaf Crafts
SASE to Lincoln Arts, PO Box 1166, Lincoln Festival” (October 29-31, 1999). Juried from 5
95648. slides, including 1 of booth. Booth fee: $450. No
March 24, 1999, entry deadline commission. For application, send 3 loose first-
Youngwood, Pennsylvania “Westmoreland Art class stamps for postage to Sugarloaf Mountain
Nationals—25th” (May 30-June 13, 1999, in Works, Inc., 200 Orchard Ridge Dr., #215, Gaith­
Youngwood; traveling to Greensburg, Pennsylva­ ersburg, MD 20878; telephone (800) 210-9900.
nia from July 2-5, 1999). Juried from slides. Manassas, Virginia “Sugarloaf Crafts Festival”
Awards. Send legal-size SASE to Westmoreland Art (September 17-19, 1999). Juried from 5 slides,
Nationals—25th, RD 2 Box 355 A, Latrobe, including 1 of booth. Booth fee: $395-$475. No
Pennsylvania 15650; telephone (724) 834-7474 commission. For application, send 3 loose first-
or e-mail class stamps for postage to Sugarloaf Mountain
Works, Inc., 200 Orchard Ridge Dr., #215, Gaith­
ersburg, MD 20878; telephone (800) 210-9900.
Regional Exhibitions January 10, 1999, entry deadline
January 31, 1999, entry deadline Dauphin IslandAlabama “Tricentennial Art
Baltimore, Maryland“D. C. Clay” (May 1999), and Craft Show” (March 6-7, 1999). J uried from
open to artists residing in Washington, D. C., as slides. Booth fee: $50. Contact Dauphin Island
well as the following Maryland/Virginia counties: Art Guild, PO Box 1422, Dauphin Island 36528;
Arlington, Fairfax, Montgomery and Prince telephone or fax (334) 861-5760.
Georges. Juried from 5 slides. For entry form, January 16, 1999, entry deadline
send SASE to Leigh Taylor Mickelson, Baltimore Indianapolis, Indiana “29th Annual Broad
Clayworks, 5706 Smith Ave., Baltimore 21209; Ripple Art Fair” (May 8-9, 1999). Juried from 3
or telephone (410) 578-1919. slides of work plus 1 of display (with business-size
February 10, 1999, entry deadline SASE). Entry fee: $20. Booth fee: $140 for a
Las Cruces/Santa Fe, New Mexico “From the 12x12-foot space. For entry form, contact the
Ground Up XXIII” (April 10-June 15, 1999), Indianapolis Art Center, 820 E. 67th St., India­
open to clay artists residing in Airzona, New napolis 46220; telephone (317) 255-2464 or see
Mexico, Texas and Northern Mexico. Juried from website at
slides. For entry form, send SASE to Kathy Story, January 22, 1999, entry deadline
9880 Sallee Rd., Las Cruces, NM 88011; or Stevens Point, Wisconsin “Festival of the Arts”
telephone (505) 382-7617. (March 28, 1999). Juried from 3 slides of work
March 1, 1999, entry deadline plus 1 of display (with SASE), and resume. Entry
Indianapolis, Indiana “Clayfest XI” (April 19- fee: $ 10. Booth fee: $60. Cash awards. For further
May 14, 1999), open to current and former resi­ information, contact Festival of the Arts, PO Box
dents of Indiana. Juried from slides. Entry fee: 872, Stevens Point 54481-0872; or telephone
$10. For prospectus, send SASE to Clayfest XI, Lora Hagen (715) 366-4377.
University of Indianapolis, Dept, of Art, 1400 E. January 31, 1999, entry deadline
Hanna Ave., Indianapolis 46227. Frederick, Maryland“¥Yzdzv\c\t Festival of the
Arts” (June 5-6, 1999). Juried from slides. Cash
awards. For application, send SASE to the Frederick
Fairs, Festivals and Sales Festival of the Arts, PO Box 3080, Frederick
January 8, 1999, entry deadline 21701; or telephone (301) 694-9632.
Atlanta, Georgia “Sugarloaf Crafts Festival” February 1, 1999, entry deadline
(November 26-28, 1999). Juried from 5 slides, Baltimore, Maryland“2n& Harbor Lights Fes­
including 1 of booth. Booth fee: $425. No com­ tival of the Arts” (December 10-12, 1999). Juried
mission. For application, send 3 loose first-class from 5 slides of work and 1 of display, plus resume
stamps for postage to Sugarloaf Mountain Works, for new exhibitors. Entry fee: $10. Booth fee:
Inc., 200 Orchard Ridge Dr., #215, Gaithersburg, $450-$675. No commission. Contact National
MD 20878; or telephone (800) 210-9900. Crafts Ltd., 4845 Rumler Rd., Chambersburg,
Gaithersburg, Maryland" Sugarloaf Crafts Fes­ PA 17201; telephone (717) 369-4810, fax (717)
tival” (November 18-21,1999, or December 10— 369-5001 or e-mail
12, 1999). Juried from 5 slides, including 1 of Frederick, Maryland “25th Annual Frederick
booth. Booth fee: $450-$550. No commission. Art and Craft Festival” (May 7-9, 1999). Juried
For application, send 3 loose first-class stamps for from 5 slides of work and 1 of display, plus resume
postage to Sugarloaf Mountain Works, Inc., 200 for new exhibitors. Entry fee: $10. Booth fee:
Orchard Ridge Dr., #215, Gaithersburg 20878; $300-$400. No commission. Contact National
or telephone (800) 210-9900. Crafts Ltd., 4845 Rumler Rd., Chambersburg,
Timonium, Maryland" Sugarloaf Crafts Festi­ PA 17201; telephone (717) 369-4810, fax (717)
val” (October 8-10, 1999). Juried from 5 slides, 369-5001 or e-mail
including 1 of booth. Booth fee: $495. No com­ Gaithersburg, Maryland “24th Annual Na­
mission. For application, send 3 loose first-class tional Art and Craft Festival” (October 15-17,
stamps for postage to Sugarloaf Mountain Works, 1999). Juried from 5 slides of work and 1 of
Inc., 200 Orchard Ridge Dr., #215, Gaithersburg, display, plus resume for new exhibitors. Entry
MD 20878; or telephone (800) 210-9900. fee: $10. Booth fee: $340-$425. No commis­
Novi, Michigan “Sugarloaf Art Fair” (October sion. Contact National Crafts Ltd., 4845 Rumler
22—24, 1999). Juried from 5 slides, including 1 of Rd., Chambersburg, PA 17201; telephone (717)

Call for Entries

369-4810, fax (717) 369-5001 or e-mail
February 5, 1999, entry deadline
Ann Arbor, Michigan “The Ann Arbor Street
Art Fair” (July 21-24, 1999). Juried from 5 slides
ofwork. Entry fee: $25. Ten awards of excellence,
$300 each. For application, send SASE to Shary
Brown, The Ann Arbor Street Art Fair, PO Box
1352, Ann Arbor 48106; telephone (734) 994-
5260 or fax (734) 994-0504.
February 12, 1999, entry deadline
Beaver Creek, Colorado “Beaver Creek Arts
Festival 11” (August 14-15, 1999). Juried from 3
slides of work plus 1 of booth. Entry fee: $25.
Booth fee: $245 for a 1 Ox 10-foot space. For applica­
tion, send SASE to Cristina Campa, Vail Valley Arts
Council, PO Box 1153, Vail, CO 81658.
Vail, Colorado “Vail Arts Festival 16” (July
10-11, 1999). Juried from 3 slides ofwork plus 1
of booth. Entry fee: $25. Booth fee: $245 for a
10x10-foot space. For application, send SASE to
Cristina Campa, Vail Valley Arts Council, PO
Box 1153, Vail 81658.
February 19, 1999, entry deadline
Salem, Oregon “Salem Art Fair and Festival”
(July 16-19, 1999). Juried from 5 slides ofwork.
For application, send name and address to Sa­
lem Art Fair and Festival, 600 Mission St., SE,
Salem 97302.
February 28, 1999, entry deadline
Clinton, Iowa “Art in the Park” (June 19,
1999). Juried from 5 slides, including 1 of display.
Entry fee: $5. Booth fee: $65 for a 12x 12-foot
space. No commission. Cash awards. For applica­
tion, send SASE to Art in the Park, PO Box 2164,
Clinton 52733; or telephone Carol Glahn, (319)
March 1, 1999, entry deadline
Salina, Kansas “Smoky Hill River Festival:
Fine ArtlFine Craft Show” Qune 12-13, 1999).
Juried from 6 slides. Entry fee: $15. Booth fee:
$175 for a 10x10-foot space. No commission.
Awards: $5800 in merit and purchase; $55,000
art patron program. Contact Smoky Hill River
Festival, Salina Arts and Humanities Commis­
sion, PO Box 2181, Salina 67402-2181; tele­
phone (785) 826-7410 or fax (785) 826-7444.
Salina, Kansas “Smoky Hill River Festival:
Four Rivers Craft Market” (June 11-13, 1999).
Juried from 6 slides. Entry fee: $15. Booth fee:
$100 for a 10x10-foot space or 10% of earnings,
whichever is greater. Awards: $1300 in merit
awards. Contact Smoky Hill River Festival, Salina
Arts and Humanities Commission, PO Box 2181,
Salina 67402-2181; telephone (785) 826-7410 or
fax (785) 826-7444.
March 5, 1999, entry deadline
Winnetka, Illinois “American Craft Exposi­
tion” (August 26-29, 1999). Juried from 5 slides.
Contact American Craft Exposition, PO Box
25, Winnetka 60093-0025; or telephone (847)
April 5, 1999, entry deadline
Chautauqua, New York “Crafts Festivals ’99”
(July 9-11 and August 13-15,1999). Juried from
3 slides ofwork plus 1 of booth. Jury fee: $10 per
show. Entry fee: $175 per show. For prospectus,
send business-size SASE to Devon Taylor, Festivals
Director, Chautauqua Crafts Alliance, PO Box
89, Mayville, NY 14757-0089.
April 15, 1999, entry deadline
Evergreen, Colorado “33rd Annual Evergreen
Arts Festival” (August 21-22, 1999). Juried from
slides. Contact Danna Cuin, PO Box 3931, Ever­
green 80437; or telephone (303) 674-5521.

December 1998 71
Suggestions many tools can be fashioned from the longer
pieces of this fine, seasoned maple.
too, and can be found at American Indian
powwows at reasonable prices.
From Readers The corners of the frame are bolted and You can polish bone on a clean buffing
easily taken apart Just be careful of the spring wheel, using Tripoli compound. It will pol­
tension when doing so. You can then custom ish to a glasslike finish. Finer grits of sandpa­
Hardwood for Tools shape the wood with a saw, rasp and sandpa­ per can be used as well.—Dave Weaver,
I am a cabinetmaker and restorer of period per. I finish the tools with hot beeswax or Quarryville, Pa.
antiques. I also have worked in clay as a carnauba wax (available through many wood­
profession in the past, and still dabble in it working catalogs). Estimating Plaster Needs
when I can. If you are in an area where there Another great source for wood is the Not having much experience with mak­
are a lot of public sales, look for old wire-mesh forest, where many hard, dry pieces of root ing plaster molds, I did not know how to
bed springs. In most cases, these consist of and limb lay waiting to be fashioned into estimate the amount of plaster required. Af­
2x4-inch maple framing, and cost next to tools. Bone is also a great tool material. ter blocking the form, I filled the volume with
nothing. There will be some nails driven into Though harder to work, it can be cut and Styrofoam peanuts, then transferred these
the short pieces where the mesh attaches, but shaped just like wood. Deer antler is good peanuts to a bucket to give an almost exact
measurement of the plaster needed.—-John
Rosen, Sarasota, Fla.

Removing Excess Water

Instead of a sponge-on-a-stick tool to
mop up excess water from the bottom of a
large wheel-thrown pot, try using a long-
handled brush. Not only does it do as good a
job, but it’s easier to control.—Lynn Wood,
Petaluma, Calif.

Carving Window
When carving very delicate forms andlor
images that are detailed and time consuming,
I have found that the clay has a tendency to
dry out too quickly. This can be solved by
cutting a window in a plastic bag with an
X-acto knife. The bag can then be slipped
over the form and the window shifted to the
area to be worked on. The plastic helps slow
the rate of evaporation while you’re working
and the opening can be secured with a twist
tie whenever you want to take a break.—
Dwain Naragon, Westfield, III.

Wax with Glue

One of the biggest problems with using
paraffin or wax-resist to make designs is that
mistakes are permanent, unless you are pre­
pared to sand through the wax or rebisque.
I have started to use Elmer’s glue as an
alternative to waxing. WTien dried, it pro­
vides a good barrier against moisture from
glazes, but can easily be removed with water
(before it dries) if mistakes are made. It also
burns out easily in firings, leaving no residue.
Most importantly, it is cheap, and comes in
a convenient bottle with a lovely applicator
tip, just perfect for applying thin lines. It is
also nontoxic and there is no risk of burns
when applying it.—Arlene Dent, Indianapo­
lis, Ind.

Wad Tool
During the loading of a salt/soda kiln and
the subsequent placement of wads on every
piece, the comment was made that wadding
does not allow plates and platters to always

December 1998 73
Suggestions Upon unloading the fired ldln, each and pages and stretch out the wire until you
every plate/platter was removed easily fromachieve the height of grooves you want your
the kiln shelves and not one of them was cut to be.—Jill Lawley, River Falls, Wis
fire flat. I remembered a tool that is used towarped.—Bob Pearson, Redondo Beach, Ca-
spread adhesive when setting tile. At the local Judging Glaze Thickness
hardware store, we found a small plastic University ceramics programs (and other
version of this tool and decided to give it a Texturing
try. with Wire studios) usually throw away quite a bit of
We then mixed a dry batch of Edgar Plastic It is interesting to use a coiled cutoff wire unglazed bisque at the end of each semester.
Kaolin and alumina hydrate, and placed a for a different foot surface or for faceted wallsBreak the bisque into 1- to 3-inch pieces and
small pile on a kiln shelf. We used the tool and use them the next semester to judge glaze coat
to lids. A great source for a wire is the spiral
carefully spread the dry mixture over the binding from notebooks. Any size notebook thickness. To do this, just dip the bisque into
shelf; once we were satisfied with the patternworks—from small memo pads to large five- a well-stirred glaze, hold it for as long as you
produced, we sprayed water over all, whichsubject notebooks, and they come in all would dip a pot and remove it. When the coat
solidified the wadding mixture, and then different lengths and widths. When you arehas stiffened, scratch through it with a sharp
loaded the plates and platters in the kiln. finished with a notebook, simply rip out theimplement to judge the thickness.—Louis
Katz, Corpus Christi, Tex.

Remember the Newspaper

Newspaper is a great surface on which to
dry pots. A 6- to 10-sheet layer acts as an ideal
wick. Even more useful: When in doubt that
a pot is fully dry, place it on newspaper and
leave it a few hours in a warm place. Even a
slightly damp pot will leave a ring!—Lili
Krakowski, Constableville, N. Y

Old Socks
Don’t throw away old socks, especially
men’s athletic socks. When cut in half at the
heel, a sock makes two ideal wrappers for
small burnished pieces that might be scratched
by paper. The elasticized upper portion is
especially good for small boxes, as it will hold
the two halves firmly together.—Sumi Von
Dassow, Golden, Colo.

Wire Whisk Drill Bit

For years, I have been using small wire
whisks to mix glazes in small jars. Available at
most Idtchen-supply stores, these whisks can
also be inserted into an electric drill.—Kay
Herbold, Denver

Grit Be Gone
After firing, some pots have a rough, gritty
surface where the flange and lid meet. To
smooth, mix silicon carbide powder (400
mesh) with a water-based hand lotion, and
spread the resulting paste on the flange. The
lid can then be rotated in place to smooth out
any rough areas. Once the lid and flange are
smooth, the paste can be easily washed off. —
JeffZamek, Southampton, Mass.
Share your ideas with others. Ceramics
Monthly will pay $10 for each one published.
Suggestions are welcome individually or in
quantity. Include a drawing or photograph to
illustrate your idea and we will add $10 to the
payment. Mail to Ceramics Monthly, PO Box
6102, Westerville, Ohio 43086-6102, e-mail
to or fax to
(614) 891-8960.

December 1998 75
the Duncan Gallery of Art, Foyer Gallery, Stetson
Calendar University, 421 N. Woodland Blvd., Unit 8252.
Florida, Tallahassee through February 5, 1999
Events to Attend—Conferences, Barbara Sorensen, sculpture; at the Florida State
Exhibitions, Workshops, Fairs Capitol.
Georgia, Macon January 24-March 14, 1999
“The Stonewares of Charles Fergus Binns: Father
of American Studio Ceramics”; at the Museum of
Arts and Sciences, 4182 Forsyth Rd.
Illinois, Chicago through December 30 Beverly
Conferences Mayeri, figure sculpture; at Perimeter Gallery,
Alabama, Florence February 16-19, 19991‘14th 210 W. Superior St.
Alabama Clay Conference,” featuring David Michigan, Ferndale through December 5 Tony
Gamble, Patrick Horsley and Pete Pinnell, will Hepburn, “Text (Rhopography Series)”; at Revo­
include demonstrations, slide presentations, some lution, 23257 Woodward Ave.
hands-on, plus exhibitions. Contact M. C. Jer­ Michigan, Royal Oak through December 5 Philip
kins, 1809 N. Wood Ave., Florence 35630; e-mail Cornelius, sculpture; at the Sybaris Gallery, 202 or E. Third St.
telephone (256) 766-4455 (Tues.-Sat., 10 AM— Nevada, Las Vegas through December ^Kevin M.
5 PM CST). Bays, “Splendid Eye Torture,” sculpture and mural
Arizona, Yuma February 25-27, 1999 “YUMA drawings; at the Grant Hall Gallery, University of
Symposium XX” with slide presentations, lectures Nevada, Las Vegas.
and demonstrations by well-known as well as New York, Larchmont December 1—January 3,
emerging artists, including slide lecture with ce­ 1999 Grace Powers Fraioli, “Evolutions,” sculp­
ramist Stan Welsh. Contact Neely Tomkins, 90 ture and watercolors; at Oresman Gallery, 121
W. Second St., Yuma 85364; or telephone (520) Larchmont Ave.
782-1934. New York, New York through December 12 Kukuli
Florida, Tallahassee January 22-24, 1999 “46th Velarde, “Isichapuitu,” 35 ceramic variations of a
Florida Craftsmen Statewide Conference” will 2000-year-old figure. December 19—February 13,
include slide lectures, clay workshops with Ron 1999 Arnold Zimmerman sculpture; at John Elder
Meyers and Deborah Groover, and exhibitions. Gallery, 529 W. 20th St.
Contact Florida Craftsmen, 501 Central Ave., St. throughJanuary2,1999Steven Montgomery; at OK
Petersburg, FL 33701; telephone (813) 821-7391. Harris Gallery, 383 W. Broadway.
Iowa, Iowa City September 29-October 2, 1999 December 1-January 9 Anthony Caro. January 12-
“Different Stokes,” international wood-fire con­ 30 Carme Collell. Karen Karnes; at Garth Clark
ference. Contact Chuck Hindes, School of Art, Gallery, 24 W. 57th St.
University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242; fax (319) December 3-January 1, 1999 Steve Dixon, teapots,
335-1774 or e-mail vessels and plates; at Nancy Margolis Gallery, 560
Ohio, Columbus March 17-20, 1999 “Passion Broadway, Ste. 302.
and Process,” National Council on Education for North Carolina, Charlotte through May 2, 1999
the Ceramic Arts (NCECA) conference, will in­ “William Littler: An 18th-Century English
clude demonstrations, slide presentations, panel Earth Potter”; at the Mint Museum of Art, 2730
discussions, exhibitions. Contact Regina Brown, Randolph Rd.
Executive Secretary, NCECA, PO Box 1677, Oregon, Portland January 2-31, 1999Joe Wed­
Bandon, OR 97411; telephone (800) 99-NCECA. ding. Marty Kendall; at Contemporary Crafts
China, Tongchuan (Xian) May25-June 17,1999 Gallery, 3934 S.W. Corbett Ave.
“First Yao Ware Ceramic Art Conference” will Pennsylvania, Doylestown through January 17,
include lectures, workshops on topics relating to 1999 “‘Machinery Can’t Make Art’: The Pottery
the history of Yao Ware and its current produc­ and Tiles of Henry Chapman Mercer”; at James
tion. Also includes tours of various cultural sites. A. Michener Art Museum, 138 S. Pine St.
Contact China Ceramic Cultural Exchange: In­ Pennsylvania, Philadelphia through December 12
ternational Office, Zhou Ying, 14 Courtwright Mark Burns, “Malice in Kinderland”; at Helen
Rd., Etobicoke, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5L Drutt: Philadelphia, 1721 Walnut St.
4B4; telephone (416) 695-3607 or e-mail Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh through December 9 Kirk Mangus functional pottery; at the Clay Place,
Netherlands, Amsterdam July 13-17, IiW “Ce­ 5416 Walnut St.
ramic Millennium,” the 8th international ceram­ South Carolina, Columbia through December 19
ics symposium of the Ceramic Arts Foundation, “‘I made this jar...’ The Life and Works of the
will include over 50 papers presented by educa­ Enslaved African-American Potter, Dave”; at the
tors, artists, critics, writers and historians; ceram­ McKissick Museum, University of South Carolina.
ics resources fair, film festival and exhibitions. Fee Texas, Dallas through December 4 Fred Herbst,
(before December 15): US$295/Dfl 540; after “New Forms/Same Functions,” functional works;
December 15: US$395/Dfl 720. For further in­ at Corwin Fine Arts, 6337 Anita St.
formation, contact the Ceramic Arts Foundation, Texas, Houston through December 3 Peter
666 Fifth Ave., Ste. 309, New York, NY 10103; Beasecker; at North Harris College, 2700 W. W.
fax (212) 489-5168 or e-mail Thorne Dr.
January 3-February 13, 1999V. Chin, pottery; at
Solo Exhibitions Archway Gallery, 2013 W. Gray.
Texas, Lancaster through December 19 Elmer
California, San Francisco December 1-January 2, Taylor, “Pots”; at Cedar Valley College Ceramics
1999 Robert Brady; at Braunstein/Quay Gallery, Gallery, 3030 N. Dallas Ave.
250 Sutter St.
D. C., Washington through January3, 1999“T\\e Group Ceramics Exhibitions
Stonewares of Charles Fergus Binns: Father of
American Studio Ceramics”; at the Renwick Gal­ California, Claremont January 16—March 21,
lery, National Museum of American Art, Smith­ 1999 “55th Ceramic Annual,” works by Wouter
sonian Institution. Dam, John deFazio, Kim Dickey, Doug Jeck,
Florida, DeLand through December 11 “Close Charles Krafft, Beverly Mayeri, Richard Millet,
Relations,” figurative sculpture by Cheryl Tall; at Joseph Siegenthaler and Janis Mars Wunderlich;

by 22 Puerto Rican ceramists, through December
Calendar ramics in Bloom,” porcelain, earthenware and
stoneware from the late 17th century to the early 2^“Winterfest ’98,” works by 20 artists; at Balti­
20th century; at the Society of Winterthur Fel­ more Clayworks, 5706 Smith Ave.
lows Gallery. Massachusetts, Ipswich through December 31
at Ruth Chandler Williamson Gallery, Scripps D. C., Washington through January 18, 1999 “Holiday Traditions”; at Ocmulgee Pottery and
College, 11th and Columbia sts. “Bernini’s Rome: Italian Baroque Terra Cottas Gallery, 317 High St.
California, Del Mar through January 31, 1999 from the State Hermitage Museum, St. Peters­ Massachusetts, Northampton through January 3,
Works by members of Ceramic Artists of San burg”; at the National Gallery of Art, Sixth St. and 1999“All Decked Out,” holiday decorations and
Diego; at Signature Gallery, 1110 Camino. Constitution Ave., NW. ornaments; at Ferrin Gallery, 179 Main.
California, Los Angeles December 10-January Georgia, Atlanta throughJanuary5,1999“ Women Michigan, Allentown January 11—February 12,
14, 1999 “A Quintessential Vessel Competition Working in Clay,” with works by Barb Doll, 1999 “Michigan Ceramics ’98”; at Calder Gal­
of Function, Ritual and Metaphorical Works”; at Debra Fritts and Jeri Hollister; at Trinity Gallery, lery, Grand Valley State University.
Earthen Art Works, 7960 Melrose Ave. 315 E. Paces Ferry Rd. Minnesota, Minneapolis through December 30
Connecticut, New London through December 11 Illinois, Chicago through December31 “Kentucky “1998 Holiday Invitational Exhibition.” January
Sculpture by Nancy Blum and Sadashi Inuzuka; Clay,” functional and sculptural work; at Gallery 15-February 20, 1999 “Jerome Artists Exhibi­
at Cummings Art Center, Connecticut College, 1021: Lill Street, 1021 W. Lill. tion,” works by Kelly Connole, Sarah Heimann
270 Mohegan Ave. Maryland, Baltimore through December 20 and Maren Kloppmann; at Northern Clay Cen­
Delaware, Winterthur through July 1, 1999“Ce­ “Ceramica Puertorrfquena Hoy/Today,” works ter, 2424 Franklin Ave., E.
New York, Albany through September 13, 2000
“From the Collections: The Weitsman Stoneware
Collection”; at the New York State Museum,
Empire State Plaza.
New York, Alfred through February 4, 1999“Pre­
meditated Function: The Corsaw Collection of
American Ceramics”; at the International Mu­
seum of Ceramic Art at Alfred, Ceramic Corridor
Innovation Center, Rte. 244.
New York, New York December 15-January 10,
1“National Ceramics Invitational,” works by
Vincent Burke, Syd Carpenter, Patrick Shia Crabb,
Pete Gourfain, Ron Kovatch, Carol Martin and
Brad Schwieger; at Denise Bibro Fine Art, 529 W.
20th St., 4th FI.
January 7-February 6, 1999 “Artists on Their
Own”; at Jane Hartsook Gallery, Greenwich House
Pottery, 16 Jones St.
January 12-30,1999“Yixing Ceramics”; at Garth
Clark Gallery, 24 W. 57th St., #305.
North Carolina, Charlotte through February 14,
1999 “Earth, Fire and Spirit: African Pottery and
Sculpture”; at the Mint Museum of Art, 2730
Randolph Rd.
December 1-January 16, 1999 “Six Approaches:
Clay With Content,” with works by Dan Ander­
son, Linda Arbuckle, Bob Archambeau, Peter
Beasecker, Ron Meyers and Mark Pharis; at gal­
lery W. D. O., Ste. 610 at Atherton Mill, 2000
South Blvd.
Oregon, Portland through December 24 Exhibi­
tion of clayworks; at Essence of Fire: A Holiday
Gallery of Clayworks, 7035 S.W. Macadam.
Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh through December 30
Catharine Hiersoux and Jack Troy. December 11—
January 13, 1999 A benefit exhibition for Karen
Karnes and Ann Stannard; at the Clay Place, 5416
Walnut St.
Texas, Austin through December 2 Ceramics by
Dorothy Carroll, Cindy Phillips and Mary
Wolcott; at Artists’ Coalition of Austin at Artplex,
1705 Guadalupe.
Vermont, Waterbury Center through December
31 “Masterful Mugs and Holiday Ornaments”; at
the Vermont Clay Studio, 2802 Waterbury-Stowe
Rd. (Rte. 100).
Virginia, Alexandria December2-January 3,1999
“The Holiday Show,” works by Ceramic Guild
members; at Scope Gallery, Torpedo Factory, 105
N. Union St.
Virginia, Richmond through January31, 1999“A
Fire for Ceramics: Contemporary Art from the
Daniel Jacobs and Derek Mason Collection”; at the
Hand Workshop Art Center, 1812 W. Main St.

Ceramics in
Multimedia Exhibitions
Alabama, Huntsville through February 7,1999“A
Taste for Splendor: Russian Imperial and Euro­
pean Treasures from the Hillwood Museum”; at the

Huntsville Museum of Art, 700 Monroe St., SW. Massachusetts, Mashpee through December 31 “From the Collections: Treasures from the Wunsch
Arizona, Surprise through December £Two-per- “Memories ’98”; at Signature, Mashpee Com­ Americana Foundation”; at the New York State
son exhibition with pottery and sculpture by mons, 10 Steeple St. Museum, Empire State Plaza.
Susan Hearn; at West Valley Art Museum, 17425 Michigan, Royal Oak through December 31 “Put New York, Rochester through January 17, 1999
N. Avenue of the Arts. a Lid on It,” exhibition of lidded containers in “Living with Art: Rochester Collects”; at the
Arizona, Tucson January 2-31, 1999Three-per­ various media; at Ariana Gallery, 119 S. Main. Memorial Art Gallery of the University of Roch­
son exhibition with ceramic and metal sculpture Missouri, Warrensburg January 25-February 21, ester, 500 University Ave.
by Sandra Luehrsen; at Obsidian Gallery, 4340 1999 “Greater Midwest International XIV”; at North Carolina, Charlotte January 10-May 30,
N. Campbell Ave., St. Philips Plaza, Ste. 90. Central Missouri State University, Art Center 1999 “The White House Collection of American
California, Pomona January 7-February 19,1999 Gallery. Crafts”; at the Mint Museum of Craft and Design,
“Ink and Clay”; at W. Keith and Janet Kellogg Nevada, Reno through January 10,1999" A Com­ 2730 Randolph Rd.
University Art Gallery of California State Poly­ mon Thread,” craftworks by over 30 artists from Ohio, Columbus through January 1, 1999 “1998
technic University. Nevada and the Great Basin; at the Nevada Mu­ Annual Fall Juried Exhibition”; at Fort Hayes Met­
California, Rancho Palos Verdes January 15- seum of Art, 160 W. Liberty St. ropolitan Education Center, 546 Jack Gibbs Blvd.
February 21, 1999 Three-person exhibition, in­ New Jersey, Layton through January 10, 1999 through January24,1999"Head, Heart and Hands:
cluding ceramic sculpture by Barbara Hashi- “Wild Things”; at Sally D. Francisco Gallery, Native American Craft Traditions in a Contem­
moto; at the Palos Verdes Art Center, 5504 W. Peters Valley Craft Center, 19 Kuhn Rd. porary World”; at the Ohio Craft Museum, 1665
Crestridge Rd. New York, Albany through September 13, 2000 W. Fifth Ave. Continued
California, San Pedro through December 17"You
Are What You Eat With”; at Angels Gate Cultural
Center, Gate Gallery, 3061 S. Gaffey St.
Colorado, Denver through January 24, 1999 “In­
venting the Southwest: The Fred Harvey Company
and Native American Art”; at the Denver Art
Museum, 100 W. 14th Ave. Pkwy. through October
3, 1999 “White on White: Chinese Jades and
Ceramics from the Tang through Qing Dynasties.”
Connecticut, Brookfield through December 31
“The 22nd Annual Brookfield Craft Center Holi­
day Exhibition and Sale”; at the Brookfield Craft
Center, 286 Whisconier Rd.
Connecticut, New Haven through December 24
“The Celebration of American Crafts”; at the
Creative Arts Workshop, 80 Audubon St.
Connecticut, Westport through December 31
“Memories ’98,” invitational exhibition of Christ­
mas ornaments and Hanukah menorahs; at Signa­
ture, 48 Post Rd., E, at Main St.
D. C., Washington through February 15, 1999
“Edo: Art in Japan 1615-1868”; at the National
Gallery of Art, Fourth St. at Constitution Ave., NW.
through April 11, 1999 “Beyond the Legacy: An­
niversary Acquisitions for the Freer Gallery of Art”;
at Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution,
Jefferson Dr. at 12th St., SW.
Florida, Venice December 14-January 25, 1999
“Spotlight ’98,” American Craft Council South­
east Juried Exhibition; at the Venice Art Center.
Georgia, Athens through January 3, 1999 “Ele­
ments of Style: The Legacy of Arnocroft,” decora­
tive arts .January 16-March 14,1999" With These
Hands,” early African-American decorative ob­
jects; at Martha and Eugene Odum Gallery of
Decorative Arts, Georgia Museum of Art, Univer­
sity of Georgia, 90 Carlton St.
Georgia, Atlanta through January 10, 1999 “Sha­
mans, Gods and Mythic Beasts: Colombian Gold
and Ceramics in Antiquity”; at Michael C. Carlos
Museum, Emory University, 571 S. Kilgo St.
Illinois, Peoria December 1-31 “Handmade Na­
tivity Sets”; at Wonders of Wildlife Gallery, 4700
N. University.
Kansas, Topeka through January3,1999" Topeka
Competition 22”; at the Mulvane Art Museum,
Washburn University, 1700 Jewell.
Kentucky, Louisville January 31—February 17,
1999 “Dinnerworks ’99”; at the Water Tower.
Massachusetts, Boston through December31 “Toys
and Gadgets”; at the Society of Arts and Crafts,
101 Arch St.
through December 31 “Memories ’98,” Christmas
ornaments and Hanukah menorahs; at Signature,
Dock Sq., 24 North St.
through January 3, 1999"Toys and Gadgets”; at
the Society of Arts and Crafts, 175 Newbury St.
Massachusetts, Chestnut Hill through December
31 “Memories ’98,” invitational exhibition of
Christmas ornaments and Hanukah menorahs; at
Signature, the Mall at Chestnut Hill.

December 1998 79

Oregon, Eugene through December 24 “La. Petite

VI”; at Alder Gallery, 55 W. Broadway.
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia December 4—January
15, 1999 “Green Mountain Visions: Vermont
Crafts,” including ceramics by Natalie Blake, Ken
Pik, Elizabeth Roman, Gretchen Verplanck and
Malcolm Wright; at the Works Gallery, 303
Cherry St.
Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh through February 13,
1999 “Stop Asking/We Exist: 25 Contemporary
African-American Craft Artists”; at the Society for
Contemporary Crafts, 2100 Smallman St.
Pennsylvania, Wayne December 5—January 22,
1999 “Craft Forms ’98,” juried national; at the
Wayne Art Center, 413 Maplewood Ave.
Tennessee, Chattanooga through May 1999
“1998-99 Sculpture Garden Exhibit”; at River
Gallery, 400 E. Second St.
Texas, Houston through January 10, 1999 “A
Grand Design: The Art of the Victoria and Albert
Museum”; at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston,
1001 Bissonnet.
Texas, San Antonio through December 30“Trans­
formation: Grand Opening Exhibition”; at the
Southwest School of Art and Craft, 300 Augusta.
Washington, Seattle through January 10, 1999
“Gift of the Nile: Ancient Egyptian Art and Archi­
tecture from the University of Pennsylvania Mu­
seum”; at Seattle Art Museum, 100 University St.

Fairs, Festivals and Sales

Arkansas, Little Rock December 4-6 “Arkansas
Craft Guild’s 20th Annual Christmas Showcase”;
at the Statehouse Convention Center, downtown.
California, Berkeley December 5-6, 12-13 and
19-20“ 1998 Holiday Open Studios,” self-guided
tour of over 100 artists’ studios. For map, send
SASE to Artisans Map, 1250 Addison St. #214,
Berkeley 94702. Maps can be picked up at the
same address; for other distribution points, tele­
phone (510) 845-2612.
California, San Francisco December 5-6and 12-
13 “1998 Celebration of Craftswomen”; at Fort
Mason Center’s Herbst Pavilion, Buchanan St.
and Marina Blvd.
Connecticut, Avon through December 24 “Holi­
day Showcase”; at Farmington Valley Arts Center,
25 Arts Center Ln.
Connecticut, East Hartford December 5-6 and
12-13 “23rd Annual Open Studio”; at Greenleaf
Pottery, 686 Tolland St.
Connecticut, Guilford through December24“Art­
istry: The 20th Annual Holiday Festival of Craft”;
at the Guilford Handcraft Center, 411 Church
St./Rte. 77.
Florida, Tampa December 4-6“ACC Craft Show
Tampa Bay”; at the Tampa Convention Center.
Hawaii, Honolulu December 5-6 “Christmas
Festival” of the Pacific Handcrafters Guild; at
Thomas Square Park, across from the Honolulu
Academy of Arts.
Iowa, Sioux Center December 5“Centre Mall Arts
Festival”; at the Centre Mall.
Kentucky, Louisville through December 24 “Re­
public Bank Holidazzle”; at the Kentucky Art and
Craft Gallery, 609 W. Main St.
Maryland, Gaithersburg December 11-13
“Sugarloaf Crafts Festival”; at the Montgomery
County Fairgrounds.
Massachusetts, Boston December 2-6“Crafts at
the Castle”; at Family Service of Greater Boston,
34½ Beacon St.
Massachusetts, Ipswich January 16-31, 1999
“Annual Seconds Sale”; at Ocmulgee Pottery and
Gallery, 317 High St., Rte. 1A. Continued

December 1998 81
Washington, Vashon Island December 5-6 and
Calendar Clay”; at Greenwich House Pottery, 16 Jones St.
New York, Syracuse December 4-6“Holiday ’98 12-13 “Vashon Island Holiday Arts Tour,” self-
Art and Craft Spectacular”; at the New York State guided tour of artists’ studios. For map, send SASE
Fairgrounds. to 22402 Vashon Hwy., SW, Vashon, WA 98070-
Massachusetts, Worcester through December 6 North Carolina, Charlotte December 11—13“ACC 6526; or pick up during tour.
“Art for AIDS”; at Worcester Center for Crafts, 25 Craft Show Charlotte”; at the Charlotte Conven­
Sagamore Rd. tion Center.
Montana, Helena through January3, 1999“Win­ North Carolina, Marion December 5 “Appala­
ter Showcase Exhibition and Sale”; at Holter Mu­ chian Potters Market”; at the McDowell High Arizona, Mesa February 22—27, 1999 “Wood-
seum of Art, Sherman Gallery, 12 E. Lawrence St. School cafeteria. fired Pottery” with Randy Johnston. Fee: $300;
New Jersey, Demarest December 4-6“24th An­ Ohio, Columbus December3—6“ Winterfair”; at the due by January 16, 1999. Limited to 12 partici­
nual Pottery Show and Sale,” curated by Karen Ohio State Fairgrounds Multi-Purpose Building. pants. Contact Mesa Arts Center: telephone (602)
Karnes; at the Old Church Cultural Center School January30-31,1999“Art Studio Clearance Sale”; 644-2056, fax (602) 644-2901 or e-mail
of Art, 561 Piermont Rd. at the Columbus Veterans Memorial Exposition
New Jersey, Moorestown December 11—13 Hall, downtown. Colorado, Carbondale January29-31,1999S\ide
“Perkins Pottery Show and Sale”; at Perkins Cen­ Virginia, Chantilly January 29-31, 1999 presentation and demonstrations with Jeff Oest-
ter for the Arts, 395 Kings Hwy. “Sugarloaf s Winter Chantilly Crafts Festival”; at reich. Fee: $75. Contact the Carbondale Clay
New York, New York December 3—6 “Made in the Capital Expo Center. Center, 135 Main St., Carbondale 81623; tele­
phone (970) 963-2529, fax (970) 923-4492 or
Connecticut, Brookfield February 6, 1999 “Ma­
jolica” with Mary Lou Alberetti. For further infor­
mation, contact the Brookfield Craft Center, PO
Box 122, Rte. 25, Brookfield 06804; or telephone
(203) 775-4526.
Florida, Orlando February 11—12,1999A session
with Don Davis. Fee: $35. Limited to 30 partici­
pants. For further information, contact Mike
Lalone, Dr. Phillips High Ceramics Studio, (407)
352-4040, ext. 380.
Florida, Sopchoppy January 10-16, 1999A. ses­
sion with George Griffin, focusing on individual­
ized functional stoneware, single-fire oxidation,
fast-fire wood, and business as an art form. Fee:
$425. Limited to four participants. For further
information, contact George Griffin Pottery, (850)
Massachusetts, Stockbridge February27-28,1999
“Introduction to Plaster Mold Making for Studio
Potters” with Daniel Mehlman. March 13, 1999
“Working with Cone 6 Glazes” with Jeff Zamek.
For further information, contact Interlaken School
of Art, PO Box 1400, Stockbridge 01262; or
telephone (413) 298-5252.
Massachusetts, Worcester January 23—24, 1999
“Thrown, Altered and Decorated” with Suze Lind­
say. Contact Worcester Center for Crafts, 25
Sagamore Rd., Worcester 01605; or telephone
(508) 753-8183.
Michigan, Berrien Springs January 16—17, 1999
Slide lecture and demonstrations with Josh
DeWeese and Rosalie Wynkoop. Workshop fee:
$50, includes lunch. Contact Steve Hansen,
Andrews University, Berrien Springs 49104; or
telephone (616) 471-3281.
New Mexico, Taos January 23—24, 1999 “Mod­
em Mosaic” with Aliah Sage. Contact Taos Insti­
tute of Arts, 108 Civic Plaza Dr., Taos 87571;
telephone (505) 758-2793 or (800) 822-7183,
e-mail or see website at
New York, Port Chester February 6-7, 1999
“Pots for the Table,” altering wheel-thrown forms
with Jeff Oestreich. Fee: $135. Contact the Clay
Art Center, 40 Beech St., Port Chester 10573; or
telephone (914) 937-2047.
New York, Rosendale January 30-31, 1999 A
session with Linda Christianson, throwing pots.
Fee: $235; members, $220; includes lab fee. Con­
tact Women’s Studio Workshop, PO Box 489,
Rosendale 12472; telephone Danielle Leventhal,
Tuesdays, (914) 658-9133,
or see website at
New York, West Nyack December “Raku Firing
Workshop” with Rosemary Aiello. Fee: $85. Pre­
registration required. For further information,
contact Rockland Center for the Arts, 27 S.
Greenbush Rd., West Nyack 10994; or telephone
(914) 358-0877.

North Carolina, Durham January 8-10, 1999 Table,” table settings in ceramics, glass, metal and national de Ceramique, Place de la Manufacture.
“Innovative Handbuilding Techniques,’’slide lec­ fiber; at Crafts Council Gallery Shop, 44a December 1 “Le motif a la Berain en ceramique”
ture and workshop with Lana Wilson. Fee: $110. Pentonville Rd., Islington. lecture with Vincent 1’herrou. For further infor­
For further information, contact Pam Wardell, England, Middlesbrough through January 4,1999 mation, contact Societe des Amis du Musee Na­
9810 Gallop Ln., Bahama, NC 27503; or tele­ Bob Washington retrospective; at the Cleve­ tional de Ceramique, Place de la Manufacture,
phone (919) 471-4300. land Museum. 92310 Sevres; telephone (41) 14 04 20.
Oklahoma, Norman December 12—13 Slab-build­ England, Stoke-on-Trent through March 31,1999 India January 8-28, 1999 “South India Arts and
ing techniques with John Gill. Fee: $79, includes Bob Washington retrospective. Exhibition of Culture” with Judith Chase, James Danisch, Ray
registration fee. Contact the Firehouse Art Cen­ works made at Winchcome Pottery; at the Potter­ Meeker and Deborah Smith. All skill levels. Fee:
ter, (405) 329-4523. ies Museum. $3500, includes materials, firing, lodging and
Virginia, Alexandria December 11-13 “Hand­ France, Dieulefit through January 5, 1999 meals. Contact Anderson Ranch Arts Center, PO
building Techniques” with Lisa Naples. Contact “Ceramiques Architecturales”; at Maison de la Box 5598, Snowmass Village, CO 81615; tele­
Creative Clay Studios, 5704D General Washing­ Terre, Parc de la Beaume. phone (970) 923-3181, fax (970) 923-3871 or
ton Dr., Alexandria 22312; or telephone (703) France, Nancay through December /^Exhibition e-mail
750-9480. of ceramics by Christine Fabre; at Galerie Capazza, India, Nepal February 5-26, 1999 “Exploring
Grenier de Villatre. with the Potters of Nepal” with Doug Casebeer,
France, Sevres through December 21 Gilbert Judith Chase, James Danisch and Santa Kumar
International Events Portanier, “Un magicien des couleurs”; at Musee Prajapati. All skill levels. Fee: $3500, includes
Argentina, Buenos Aires through December 9"Can-
delabrums/2,” juried international exhibition; at the
Cultural Center General San Martin.
Brazil, Sao Paulo through December I0“Abrindo
o Forno,” exhibition of sculptures, vessels and
masks by Eliana Begara, Georgia Bruder, Calliopi,
Ci'ntia Trigo and Jo Zaragoza; at Planeta das Artes
Galeria, Rua Lourenco de Almeida, 275 Vila
Nova Concei9ao.
Canada, B.C., Vancouver (Granville Island)
through December 2 Rachelle Chinnery, “Em­
bodiment,” coiled and altered vessels; at the Gal­
lery of BC Ceramics.
Canada, Ontario, Toronto through December 23
“Holiday Collection.” “Tea Party II”; at Prime
Gallery, 52 McCaul St.
Canada, Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown
through January 10, 1999 “S.O.S.: Sources of
Support,” ceramics by Alexandra McCurdy; at the
Confederation Centre for the Arts.
England, Cambridge through December 20 Bob
Washington retrospective; at Fitzwilliam Museum.
England, Chichester January 8—10, 1999
“Throwing and Turning, with Handle Mak­
ing” with Alison Sandeman. January 24-26
“Raku and Low-fired Ceramics” with John
Dunn. February 5-7, 1999 “Surface Decora­
tion for Functional Pots” with Alison Sandeman.
February 14-19, 1999 “Handbuilding and
Throwing” with Alison Sandeman. Contact the
College Office, West Dean College, West Dean,
Chichester, West Sussex P018 0QZ; or tele­
phone (243) 811301.
England, Essex through February 7, 1999 Bob
Washington retrospective; at the Chelmsford
England, London through December 20 “100
Masterpieces of Imperial Chinese Ceramics from
the Au Bak Ling Collection, 12th to 18th Centu­
ries”; at the Royal Academy of Arts, Piccadilly.
through December 23" Christmas Spice,” sale of crafts
in various media; at the Crafts Council Shop at the
V&A, Victoria and Albert Museum, South
through December 31 Bob Washington retrospec­
tive; at the Victoria and Albert Museum.
through January 9,15*95* Ceramics by Sara Radstone;
at Barrett Marsden Gallery, 17-18 Great Sutton St.,
through January29, 1999“Seasonal Show,” includ­
ing works by Claudi Casanovas, Lucie Rie and other
gallery artists; at Galerie Besson, 15 Royal Arcade, 28
Old Bond St.
through May 31, 1999 “Rare Marks on Chinese
Porcelain” exhibition; at Percival David Founda­
tion, 53 Gordon Sq.
through Spring 1999 Reconstruction of William
and Mary’s porcelain gallery with displays of
Japanese Kakiemon and Chinese ceramics; at State
Apartments, Kensington Palace.
December 2-January 17, 1999 “An Angel at My

December 1998 83

materials, firing, lodging and meals. Contact

Anderson Ranch Arts Center, PO Box 5598,
Snowmass Village, CO 81615; telephone (970)
923-3181, fax (970) 923-3871 or e-mail
artranch@rof. net
Italy, Rome December 1—20 Two-person exhibi­
tion with ceramics by Irene “Niki” Martinelli; at
La Bottega d’Arte di Umberto D’Arceto, via dei
Cappellari, I 25.
Jamaica April 23-May 1, 1999 “Ceramics in
Jamaica: Interpreting Forms from Nature” with
David Pinto, Jeff Shapiro and guest artist Doug
Casebeer. Fee: $1450 or $1850. Contact Dawn
Ogren, Registrar, Anderson Ranch Arts Center,
PO Box 5598, Snowmass Village, CO 81615;
telephone (970) 923-3181, fax (970) 923-3871 or
Mexico, Manzanillo January 8-15, 1999 “Indig­
enous Clay in Mexico 1999.” February 27-March
11, 1999 “Clay and Fiber in Mexico 1999.” Fee:
$899-$ 1578, includes materials, lodging and most
meals. Airfare not included. Contact Judy Zafforoni
or Michele Morehouse, (541) 547-4324 or (707)
Mexico, Oaxaca December 14-19 or January 11-
16, 1999 “Oaxacan Pottery Workshop” focusing
on the San Marcos, Zapotec handbuilding tech­
niques. Includes visits to Coyotepec and Atzompa.
Limited to 6 participants. Fee: $540, includes
materials, lodging and most meals. January 25—
February 1, 1999“Six Villages Study Tour,” over­
view of indigenous Oaxacan pottery. Limited to 6
participants. Fee: $670, includes materials, lodg­
ing and most meals. For further information,
contact Eric Mindling, Manos de Oaxaca, fax
(952) 141-86 or e-mail
Netherlands, Amsterdam through December 16
Setsuko Nagasawa; at Galerie de Witte Voet,
Kerkstraat 135.
Netherlands, Arnhem through January 31, 1999
“Theepotten Steengoed”; at the Historisch Mu­
seum het Burgerweeshuis, Bovenbeekstraat 21.
Netherlands, Delft through December 31 Works
by ceramics designer Bob van Schie; at Royal
Delft, Rotterdamseweg 196.
Netherlands, Deventer through December 19
Wood-fired stoneware by Claude Champy. Janu­
ary 17-February 13, 1999 Exhibition of ceramics
by Joke Burks, Tsjerk Holtrop, Gert de Rijk and
Tjerk van der Veen; at Loes and Reinier, Korte
Assenstraat 15.
Netherlands, Leeuwarden through January 10,
1999“ The Incas: Rulers of the Andes,” exhibition
of over 200 ceramic objects plus some gold and
silver; at Keramiekmuseum het Princessehof, Grote
Kerkstraat 11.
Netherlands, Oosterbeek through December 21
Porcelain by Judith de Vries and Henk Wolvers;
at Galerie Amphora, van Oudenallenstraat 3.
Spain, Agost June 3-26, 1999 Workshop with
Marcia Selsor, includes raku, soda, wood and
electric kilns, plus visits to Barcelona, Granada
and Cordoba. Fee: $2000; deposits due in De­
cember. Contact Marcia Selsor, (406) 259-7244
or e-mail

For a free listing, submit announcements of

conferences, exhibitions, workshops and ju­
ried fairs at least two months before the
month of opening. Add one month for list­
ings in July; two months for those in August.
Mail to Calendar, Ceramics Monthly, PO Box
6102, Westerville, OH 43086-6102, e-mail to or fax to
(614) 891-8960.

December 1998 85
organic gums and will not migrate to
Additives. .. the glaze surface upon drying as with
Continued from page 62 soluble Epsom salts.

Veegum T in Glazes
minum silicates, and are often used in An addition of Veegum T will pre­
toothpaste, antiperspirants, paints, vent or retard the wet glaze from set­
pharmaceuticals and various other tling too quickly in the glaze bucket.
products. In hand lotions, they dis­ As with CMC, the actual amount of
perse pigments to give maximum color Veegum T needed will vary, depend­
value and improve spreadability. ing on the concentration of dense ma­
Used by potters for more than 25 terials in a particular glaze. Those that
years, Veegums are mined from sev­ have high amounts of frit, feldspar,
eral veins of smectite ores, which are flint, talc, whiting, dolomite or any
refined and mixed for reliability and dense material may have a tendency
consistency. Many different types of to settle.
these smectites can be found in na­ A practical first step is to learn how
ture. Bentonites are a group of much Veegum T is required for proper
smectite ores familiar to potters. glaze suspension. Start with a 0.25%
Each glaze or clay body recipe will addition of Veegum T based on the
require a specific type and amount of dry weight of the glaze batch. Mix all
Veegum to achieve optimum results. the dry glaze materials, then mix the
For the most complete dispersion of glaze water with the Veegum T sepa­
glaze binders or suspension agents, rately and add to the dry materials.
use hot water when mixing. Then use Further additions of water can then
all of the mixture in the clay body or be made to obtain the proper glaze
glaze batch. Any time spent testing consistency. Pass the wet glaze through
and adjusting additives to a recipe willan 80-mesh sieve three times. Let the
be worth the effort in solving the prob­glaze stand for one hour. If no im­
lems of glaze suspension, glaze appli­ provement in glaze suspension occurs,
cation and clay body plasticity. mix a new dry batch of glaze with
0.5% Veegum T, and follow the same
Veegum T mixing and sieving procedures. Add­
Veegum T is primarily used as a ing Veegum T to an already mixed
suspension agent in glazes due to its wet glaze will not fully hydrate the
extremely high surface area. Its small Veegum T and it will have a delayed
platelet structure helps float or sus­ effect on glaze suspension properties.
pend large dense materials that are A delayed reaction can occur over time
frequently found in glazes. and if too much Veegum is used, the
Veegum T is more potent than ben­ glaze can become as thick as Jell-o.
tonite or Epsom salts—the traditional Most glaze materials will stay in sus­
suspension additives used in glazes. pension or improve considerably at
Because Epsom salts are soluble, the some point with between 0.25% and
suspension effect can change when 2% Veegum T (based on the dry
excess glaze water is poured off or weight of the glaze).
evaporates from the glaze bucket. Ep­
som salts can also change the wet glaze Veegum T in Clay Bodies
consistency, imparting a lumpy Adding Veegum T increases the
“oatmeal” quality. Lumping or un­ plasticity in (short) nonflexible bod­
even glaze can also cause glaze appli­ ies, such as porcelain, raku, sculpture
cation problems. and high-alumina recipes. It can also
Aside from its superior suspension be used in throwing, pressing, jigger-
qualities, Veegum T will not alter the ing and extruding clay bodies.
fired color of the glaze, as can some­ Due to its high surface area (small
times happen with bentonites. Being platelet size), it physically fits into the
of uniform quality, it can be placed spaces between larger clay and nonclay
into a glaze or clay body in exact particles in the total clay body com­
amounts. It also suspends powders and position. The best clay bodies have
metallic oxides more effectively than small, medium and large particle and

platelet sizes. On a mechanical fit level,
such particle and platelet combina­
tions will improve the plasticity of
the clay body. Once water is added to
the mix containing Veegum T, long
chains of water/clay lattices will form
a plastic, pliable mass.
In amounts of 0.5%, Veegum T
can replace 5% ball clay in body reci­
pes, a beneficial attribute for those
clays where adding any ball clay will
change the fired color (e.g., white
stoneware and porcelain). Also, high
concentrations of ball clay contribute
to the “gummy/rubbery” feel of moist
clay during the forming operation.
Past a certain point, increasing the
ball clay component of a clay body
will make the clay warp and shrink
excessively during the drying and
firing stages.
Optimum results can be obtained
by adding from 0.5% to 2% Veegum T
(based on the dry weight of the clay
body ingredients). In most clay bod­
ies, it will not change the fired color,
or shrinkage or absorption rates. It
should be thoroughly mixed with
(preferably hot) water, then combined
with the dry clay batch. Additional
water can then be added to achieve
the desired consistency.

Veegum Pro
Chemically modified and designed
to mix readily with hot or cold water,
Veegum Pro disperses easily with low-
technology mixing equipment. It is
not a direct substitute for Veegum T
in its suspension properties, however,
and should be tested in the glaze batch
to arrive at the optimum amount
needed to maintain suspension. The
most important consideration besides
the correct amount is complete dis­
persion of the material in the clay or
glaze batch.

Veegum Cer
Used primarily to increase raw glaze
hardness and durability, Veegum Cer
is a mixture of Veegum (inorganic,
complex, colloidal, magnesium alu­
minum silicates) and CMC (carbo-
xyethycellulose), which acts as a
binder. As a secondary attribute, it
will keep glazes in suspension. It also
serves as a viscosity stabilizer, control­
ling the consistency of glaze mixtures.

December 1998 87
A was developed in the 1950s to meet
Additives . .. the needs of housing-brick producers.
At that time, brick production
throughout the United States was an­
It is nontoxic and odorless, and will tiquated. Most bricks were fired in
not change the fired color of a glaze. periodic kilns that were slow and la­
In glazes, Veegum Cer can stop bor intensive. Due to the increased
dried glazes from becoming dusty or postwar demand for building bricks,
fragile. It also can prevent glaze from many plants automated their forming
flaking off bisque- or greenware, as processes and handling equipment for
well as crawling. Glazes containing faster production. The costs were
high percentages of low-density ma­ lower for bricks made by mechanized
terials, such as magnesium carbonate, processes; however, loss rates increased,
lithium carbonate, clay and bento­ as many bricks were cracked or dam­
nite, can cause crawling problems due aged by the high-speed machines. Be­
to their light, fluffy, fragile drying cause of the high loss rates and the
characteristics. Glazes containing high relative nonplastic characteristics of
amounts of Gerstley borate, coleman- brick clay, there was a need for a
ite, clay, bentonite, borax, pearl ash, modifier to increase its green strength
soda ash and zinc oxide can cause and plasticity.
crawling due to high-shrinkage rates. During this time of mechanization
Veegum Cer will hold a fragile raw and expansion, lignosulfonates (a by­
glaze in place until the first stages of product of paper production) were
sintering, at which point the molten shown to increase the bonding and
glaze is usually stabilized. forming characteristics of moist clay.
Veegum Cer can be added before Soon, variations of the original addi­
or after a glaze is ball milled. It can tive were tested to meet the needs of
also be added to the wet glaze; how­ brick plants around the country. In
ever, the batch must be passed three recent years, the additive has found
times through an 80-mesh sieve to its way into the clay body recipes of
thoroughly mix the material. A slight production potters and ceramics
decrease in glaze viscosity (glaze ap­ sculptors as well.
plies thinner to pot) can be noticed Produced by Lignotech USA, Ad­
when using Veegum Cer. To avoid ditive A is a blend of lignosulfonates,
too-thin applications, use less water organic and inorganic chemicals.
in the initial glaze mixing process. Vee­ When used in clay bodies, it increases
gum Cer can be added to glazes from the plastic characteristics of the clay
0.1% to 1.5% (based on the dry without the need for additional ball
weight of the glaze). clays or bentonite. It has the ability to
When used in underglazes or over- make water wetter, meaning it takes
glazes, Veegum Cer prevents surfaces less water to make a clay body more
from becoming dusty after drying. plastic. The less water used to achieve
When added to washes that are plasticity in any clay body, the less the
painted on bisque- or greenware, the risk of clay body defects. The increase
wash flows easily off the brush onto in plasticity is most noticeable in short
the clay surface without the “chatter­ or nonplastic clay bodies, such as raku,
ing,” grabbing action that sometimes sculpture and pressing clays. It can
happens when a binder is not present. also be used in soda, salt, low-fire and
Overglaze painting with metallic col­ tile bodies.
oring oxides or stains (as in majolica The plasticity of a clay body can
decoration) will also benefit from ad­ be increased with additions of ball
ditions of 1% to 3% of Veegum Cer clays and/or bentonites; however, both
(based on the dry weight of the un­ types of clay need large amounts of
derglaze or overglaze formula). water to make them plastic. And when
using large amounts of water in the
Additive A clay body, the potential for shrinkage
In the past 40 years, many clay and warping increases. Additive A can
additives or conditioners have been replace all or part of the ball clay/
used by ceramics industries. Additive bentonite component in clay bodies,

thus decreasing the amount of water
needed to make the body plastic.
Color and maturing temperature are
not changed, though, as the additive
is burned off before dull red heat (ap­
proximately 1000°F to 1100°F) is
reached in the kiln.
Additive A is also an active lubri-
cant/plasticizer in the clay mixing and
forming stages. The decreased resis­
tance in mixing will lower energy costs
and extend the life of the clay mixer
and pug mill.
Additive A also substantially in­
creases the green strength (pots that
have been formed and are still not
dry) and dry strength (pots that have
been formed and are already dry) of
clay bodies, making for less fragile
ware. It will also reduce chipping and
damage caused by handling the ware.
Increasing the durability of unfired
ware is crucial for large ceramic forms
that require movement in the studio
or loading into a kiln. One caveat,
though: reprocessing dry clay scraps
containing Additive A requires a
longer soaking time in water to break
the clay down into a plastic mass be­
cause the dry clay is more dense.

Types of Additive A
Additive A can be purchased in
liquid or dry powder form. Several
ratios of Additive A to barium car­
bonate mixtures are also available.
Type 1 contains 2-4 pounds per 2000
pounds equivalent of barium carbon­
ate, Type 3 contains 5-7 pounds
equivalent of barium carbonate, and
Type 4 contains 8-10 pounds equiva­
lent of barium carbonate. Types 1, 3
and 4 are only sold in liquid form.
The powder form, Type 2, contains
no barium carbonate.
Types 1, 3 and 4 contain barium
that is chemically linked in the poly­
meric structure of the lignosulfonate.
Because of this chemical linkage, the
hazards of dry barium powder are
largely eliminated. Type 3 reacts with
the soluble sulfates in the raw materi­
als and changes into an insoluble
barium sulfate. After firing, the ware
will be clear burned.
Types 1, 3 and 4 can be used in
any clay body, including low-fire red
clay bodies to neutralize soluble-salt
scumming. During drying, calcium

December 1998 89
used in the clay-mixing operation. potters. Any additive to a clay body
Additives .. . Complete and thorough mixing of the or glaze must reduce handling cost or
additive in the clay mixture is criticalcut the defect rate. Apart from a few
sulfate and magnesium sulfate can for getting desired results. highly expensive raw materials, such
travel to the clay body surface, caus­ The percent of Additive A to be as cobalt oxide, cobalt carbonate, tin
ing an insoluble white residue that used in a clay body is based on the oxide, synthetic red iron oxide, nickel
appears as a white fuzzy material on dry weight of the ingredients. Every oxide black, nickel oxide green, nickel
the dried clay body. In fired ware, the gallon of the liquid form of Additive carbonate, silver nitrate and commer­
soluble-salt scumming appears as a A contains 5.3 pounds water and 5.3 cial stains, most materials that go into
white flaky material that can occur pounds Additive A. When using the glaze and clay body recipes are inex­
after the firing, or days or months liquid form, always base the amount pensive. The most expensive factor is
after the clay is exposed to any mois­ of additive to be used on the dry com­ the labor/time required to produce
ture. Besides its contribution to plas­ ponent weight of the liquid. pots or sculpture.
ticity and green strength, the safe Additions of more than 5% Addi­ Clay body and glaze additives can
introduction of barium to stop scum­ tive A to the clay body will greatly range in price from $2 to $6.50 per
ming is a considerable inducement to increase green and dry strength, caus­ pound, depending on the additive,
use Additive A. ing the clay to become extremely hard and the applied cost will depend on
when dry. In some instances, the dry the amount needed to achieve the de­
Mixing Additive A clay can be dropped on the floor with­ sired result. In clay body and glaze
The most effective method of mix­ out breaking. Start by using 0.25%, recipes, the additive component is usu­
ing in Additive A is to start adding then increase the amount of Additive ally 0.1% to 2% of the total weight.
water to the dry clay mix until the A by 0.25% increments until the de­ That means for most clay bodies, the
moist clay starts to ball up, then add sired results are achieved. price per pound of additive will in­
Additive A to the mixture. Additional crease the price of the clay by only 1
water may be introduced to achieve Economic Benefits to 2 cents per pound, which is not a
the desired working consistency. Ad­ All expenditures for ceramic mate­ significant cost to the overall expense
ditive A can also be mixed in hot rials must be looked at with the knowl­ of the batch. The real savings occur
water, and when thoroughly dispersed, edge that labor is the largest cost to when the defect rate drops due to the

inclusion of the additive. If one pot is mind not all defects can be overcome for your clay or glaze problem, start
saved because of its use, it has more by additives, and other methods for a with the lowest amount suggested. If
than paid for itself. correction may be more appropriate. no change occurs, try incremental in­
While the use of clay and glaze Fixing the problem once is better than creases in amounts.
additives has increased greatly in the struggling with a partial, ineffective As with the introduction of all new
last few years, many potters often try fix on a daily basis. materials, it is always best to thor­
to work around materials problems. If you are unsure about how and oughly test the additive in each recipe.
Their solution sometimes entails de­ when to use an additive, contact the When it does not work, the major
veloping difficult causes for failures
and time-consum­ are often choosing
ing techniques, The current versions of clay and glaze an inappropriate
when solving the additive for the
problem would be a additives are potent, reliable and consistent. situation, or using
better long-term op­ They cannot make bad pots better or sculpture too much or too
tion. Such “cost-sav- little of an additive.
ing” measures may more beautiful; however, they can be used The current ver­
not even be reliable. to solve specific production problems. sions of clay and
Typically, too much glaze additives are
time and effort go potent, reliable and
into trying to make do with an inef­ manufacturers and ask for advice. De­ consistent. They cannot make bad pots
fective method that does not address scribe the problem in simple, direct better or sculpture more beautiful; how­
the problem directly. terms. Your accurate description of ever, they can be used to solve specific
Solving the problem is always bet­ what you are observing is a critical production problems.
ter and less expensive. Set aside some factor in determining the efficacy of a
time to find out exactly what is caus­ recommended additive. The author A frequent contributor to
ing the glaze or clay body defect you If you want to experiment on your Ceramics Monthly, Jeff Zamek is a
are troubled with, then see if a par­ own and are reasonably sure that an ceramics consultant residing in Southamp­
ticular additive will work. Keep in additive would be an appropriate fix ton, Massachusetts.

December 1998 91
Questions before adding to water. Keep the mixture on the
thick side and pass through an 80-mesh sieve
Answered by the CM Technical Staff twice. Don’t worry, if you need to, you can
always thin it out afterward.
It would be helpful to have some variation in
Q I am looking desperately for a white crackle thiclmess on each item, and remember there is
glaze that will mature at Cone 6 in an oxidation a possibility of this glaze running, so protect
atmosphere. Td like it smooth and glossy if possible. your shelves.
I have exhausted my sources. Can you help me with Frit 3 1 1 0 is a known deflocculant, so
a recipe?—S.D. having all that clay and bentonite is necessary.
There are a few issues to talk about here. Mixing this glaze too thin will probably make
First, expansion/contraction rates differ between it settle fast. It is also true that applying glazes
clay bodies. It is true that some glazes will craze thinly will correct crazing. That’s because, if
on some bodies but will not craze on others. It thin, the glaze can get enough silica from a clay
is also true that some glazes will craze and some body, which may stop crazing in some cases.
will not on the same body. If the glaze settles out badly in the container
What you are asking for is a glaze that after a while, you can fix it by adding some
contracts more than the clay you are using— in Epsom salts. Boil up a cup of water and add a
other words, a glaze that has a higher contrac­ few spoonfuls of Epsom salt. Make sure it is all
tion on cooling than the body. When that is the dissolved. Add a tablespoon of the solution and
case, glazes being quite weak when they are stir. If that makes the glaze “float” better, that
stretched, it would have to crack. may be enough; if not, add another spoonful
Some potters are quite particular about how and stir again. You don’t need very much and
big the spaces are between the cracks and call it the above amounts would work for a bucketful
crackle; however, it still is crazing. I should also of glaze.
add, that if the spaces between the cracks are I recommend mixing 500 grams so you can
large when the pot comes out of the kiln (called try it on pots rather then test tiles. If the spaces
primary crazing), you can be sure that later between the crazing are too small (fine crazing)
there will be more cracks. Sometimes those far- you can add silica (flint) incrementally, thereby
apart cracks are emphasized with stains right lowering the expansion and lessening the craz­
away, but if you look closely you will see the ing. For example, the first variation would have
“secondary” crazing, which can happen hours, 5% silica added, the second would have 10%
weeks or months later. silica and the third would have 15% silica.
I do not fire pots at Cone 6, but I do a lot of As I have explained, I have no idea how your
experimentation and problem solving for pot­ clay will react with any of these glazes on it.
ters working at that temperature. I don’t usually That’s why it is important for you to think of
recommend glazes unless I have had a lot of this as an experiment. Once you know where
experience with them. In this case, however, if the crazing stops, you will have a much better
you are willing to do the experimentation, I will idea of how to adjust the glaze to get the results
make a recommendation. you want.
You must understand that this is a glaze I Ron Roy
have formulated for you and that it has never Ceramics Consultant
been fired. It may run, it may be full of bubbles, Scarborough, Ontario
it may not smooth out or crawl or even pit. The
one thing I am fairly sure about is it will craze on Q “Sodium silicate: any of various water-soluble
your clay. substances obtained in theform of crystals, glasses,
I do recommend firing with large cones powders or aqueous solutions usually by melting
where you can see them at the end of the firing. silica with sodium compounds’' is the definition
Once you get the result you want, you need to given in Webster’s Dictionary, Third Edition.
be able to duplicate the firing.The following This information is confirmed in various chemis­
should craze and melt on just about any body: try text and reference books.
Experimental Crazing Glaze Without reading between the lines, this seems to
(Cone 6) accurately define the process of “soda glazing, ” be
Wollastonite............................................... 15% it through using common salt or sodium carbon­
Frit 3134 (Ferro)........................................ 12 ate, as described by practitioners of this form of
Frit 3 1 1 0 (Ferro)....................................... 30 surface finishing. Therefore, it seems reasonable to
G200 Feldspar (or Custer Feldspar)......... 22 ask if this form of glazing gives a stable product.
Edgar Plastic Kaolin................................. 21 In light of the teachings of Daniel Rhodes and
others whose admonitions about incorporating a
balance of alkali, silica and alumina into any
Add: Bentonite.......................................... 2%
glaze to achieve hard, durable, insoluble surfaces,
Measure out the bentonite at the same time it would seem doubtful that a soda-fumed surface
as the other materials and mix them up a bit ispermanent to the degree that is imagined—all of

December 1998 93
Questions form glaze. This thin layer of salt will easily wash
right off.
In short, don’t worry about salt firing. Just
which might explain the tacky, adhesive surface enjoy it!
that is sometimes felt on salt-glazed ceramics. Pete Pinnell
What are your views on this matter?—I.L. Assistant Professor of Art
University of Nebraska, Lincoln
You’re right that sodium and silica alone
will not make a durable glass. With most glazes,
we would add to those elements some alkaline Q Ihave recently been given a number ofurare ”
earth flux (usually calcium) and some alumina chemicals, and am thinking about using them
(usually from clay). Salt glazes aren’t that differ­ to fume my pots in raku and salt firings. Do you
ent, as a clay body contains both silica and know how much one should use of silver nitrate,
alumina, and in the case of most stoneware, a stannous chloride, copper sulfate, bismuth ni­
little CaO and MgO (alkaline earths). The trate, barium chloride, strontium nitrate, co­
sodium from the salt combines with the ele­ balt nitrate or ferric chloride, and what the
ments in the clay body to form the coating. outcome might be? Also, the safety factors would
Just how durable is it in practice? As a be good to know.—M.M.
personal aside, I have a small bowl I made as a These chemicals are rare, in the sense that
student that is used in our house every day. It they are not often used or even found in the
has spent the better part of the last 20 years typical studio potter’s glaze inventory. Nitrates,
going in and out of the dishwasher, and there chlorides and sulfates are soluble ionic com­
has been no change to the salt-glazed surfaces pounds, and are difficult to use with “normal”
that I can see. In contrast, many of my other glaze chemicals because they go into solution
porcelain and stoneware pots have aged. and can easily penetrate the clay body (and the
My experience is not at all unusual. Up until potter’s skin) unpredictably. Rubber gloves are
very recently, salt glazing was considered one of an essential. Nevertheless, they can be useful as
the best ways to achieve a highly durable sur­ stains, decorative “inks” and as fuming agents
face. It has been widely used in making sewer in the firing process.
pipe, and for many years was the surface of Of the chemicals you listed, four can be
choice for chemical stoneware. used as colorants: copper sulfate, cobalt ni­
Most of the technical studies done about trate, ferric chloride and silver nitrate. Stron­
this process were published early in this century tium nitrate and barium chloride will not
when salt glazing was still widely practiced in produce color, and as solubles are seldom, if
industry. One, by L. E. Barringer (from the ever, used in glazes. They can be used in hot
“Transcripts of The American Ceramic Soci­ glass formulation, however. The remaining two
ety,” 4 : 2 1 1 ) from 1902, described the best clay chemicals, stannous (tin) chloride and bis­
bodies for salting, and also provided chemical muth nitrate (subnitrate) are used both in glass
analyses from pieces of salt glaze chipped from and glaze fuming.
pots. These analyses showed that the final glazes When stannous chloride and bismuth sub­
contained only 12% to 15% alkalis, with a nitrate are heated to decomposition, they gen­
sizable amount of alumina ( 1 3 % or so), and the erate fumes that will react with the hot glassy
rest silica. surfaces, producing an iridescent effect. I have
Industry also investigated a number of ways used both separately and in combination to
to “improve” the surface of salt glazes—mean­ fume glassy surfaces on salt-fired ware. This is
ing to make them more smooth, craze-free and done safely and easily by wrapping an ounce or
blemish-free. The most successful involved so, depending on the size of the kiln, in a paper
the addition of boron compounds to the salt, packet and tossing it in one of the salting ports
such as borax and boric acid. Besides smooth­ during the cooling phase, when the tempera­
ing the glaze, boron also allows the salting ture is about 1200°F (650°C). The fumes will
process to occur at a much lower temperature. react with the hot glassy surfaces, and iridescent
On the other hand, the roughness, irregularity effects can result. By confining the reaction to
and color variations of salt glaze are what at­ the interior of the kiln, chlorine fumes are likely
tracts many potters to it, so while industry to be prevented from escaping in any harmful
may have liked the qualities that boron pro­ concentration.
vides, contemporary potters and sculptors When heated fumes react with moisture in
might not. the air, toxic acids are also produced. With
As for the stickiness evident on many pots as stannous chloride, chlorine gas is produced,
they come from the kiln, that’s most likely plain which is irritating to mucous membranes. This
salt, not salt glaze. Most potters dump salt into can even be fatal if concentrations reach 1000
the firebox, from which it would continue to ppm. It has a detectable odor at only 3.5 ppm,
vaporize long after the kiln is turned off. Salt and at 15 ppm causes immediate irritation of
vapors coming out of the firebox could con­ the throat membranes, according to “Danger­
dense on the pots at temperatures far too low to ous Properties of Industrial Materials” by

December 1998 95
Questions the silver nitrate to the glass workers. If you have materials. If you have Internet access, a simple
search via Alta Vista or Yahoo using “clip art” as
a considerable quantity, you might want to
advertise it for sale. the subject will provide links to many sites that
Copper sulfate and cobalt nitrate can be very might include images you could use.
N. Irving Sax and Richard J. Lewis. Only if
interesting as stains on porcelain. Dissolve a few Scanners are also available for use at some
protective masks, clothing and ventilation are
crystals in water and use as a watercolor on copy centers. It is quite simple to scan images,
used, can fuming be done safely.
either green or bisqued porcelain—the thinner save them in a variety of formats, then simply
Ferric chloride is used in several industries,
the better; the color can bleed through the clay drop them into your document and manipulate
such as photography and agriculture. Farm-
and stain the inside of the pot. If thin enough, them as desired. If you have Photoshop, you
supply stores can supply it in granular form,
the colored porcelain may attain a varicolored can even have photographic images of your
which is the least expensive source that I am
translucency when fired to maturity. work digitized.
aware of. Added to water, it will become an
Please be aware, however, that copper sul­ Many years ago, I found an image that
acidic solution, so wearing protective gloves is
fate and cobalt nitrate are also hazardous, and appealed to me and could be used as a basis for
imperative. If sprayed on raku pieces as they
proper precautions must be taken when han­ an identity for my business. I scanned this
are removed for cooling or postfiring reduc­
dling or using. image onto a disk, then manipulated it in a
tion, it adds very interesting coloration. Fer­
Nils Lou variety of both desktop publishing and drawing
ric chloride is also an excellent stain for
Linfield College programs. It has since become a recognized
stoneware reduction effects, yielding colors
McMinnville, Oregon image for my business.
from gray marble to black, depending on the
Jonathan Kaplan
concentration of application. The same cau­
Q Fm looking for computer clip art featuring Ceramic Design Group
tions mentioned earlier should be observed
pottery. Is there any out there? I’m especially Steamboat Springs, Colorado
when using this chloride.
Silver nitrate is commonly used in hot glass interested in black-and-white drawings or images
that are somewhat generic and adaptable to many Have a problem? Subscribers’ questions
for gold and yellow colors; it usually generates
design formats.—-J.R. are welcome, and those of interest to the
gases and bubble effects as well. Handling the ceramics community in general will be an­
crystals will stain the hands black, so gloves are While I have not used any commercially swered in this column. Due to volume,
required. It is made by dissolving silver nitric available clip art, I have seen clip art subscrip­ letters may not be answered personally.
acid, which is not recommended for anyone not tion programs that are available from many Mail to Ceramics Monthly, PO Box 6102,
properly equipped or experienced. Because of sources. Adobe produces a publication expressly Westerville, Ohio 43086-6102, e-mail to
for this purpose. Tiger Software, a major re­ or fax to
its expense and the fact that yellow stains are far
(614) 891-8960.
less expensive and easy to obtain, I would leave seller of Corel products, is another resource for

December 1998 97
December 1998 99
December 1998 101
Ceramics Monthly Annual Index
January-December 1998

Business Bennett Bean: Playing by His Rules, Chambers, To Have and to Hold, June/July, Aug., p 75
16th Annual Smithsonian Craft Show, Sept., p 54 with Making a Bean Pot, Mar., p 43 Unaffected: Ceramic Sculpture by Emerging
Marketing Dance, The, Selfridge, Dec., p 31 Carol Gouthro, Krutchkoff June/July/Aug., p 68 Artists, Dec., p 51
Niche Marketing for Beginners, Lewis, Edward Eberle, Katz, Jan., p 33 Women Who Fire with Wood, Hansen, Oct., p 45
June/July/Aug., p 116 In Pursuit of Form, Doner, Sept., p 50
North Street Potters: Twenty Years in the Life of Ordering Chaos, Rhudy, with The Process, Mar., History
a City Ceramics Collective, Hill, Sept., p 43 Conserving the World’s Largest Terra-Cotta
p57 Horses, Danisch, Sept., p 47
Oregon Potters Association, The: 18 Years of Seashell Fuming, Bradford, Jan., p 40
Growth and Change, Buskirk, May, p 62 Steve Davis-Rosenbaum, Forman, with Flashed End of an Era: Changes in Spanish Folk Pottery,
Majolica, Davis-Rosenbaum, Jan., p 89 Melville, Jan., p 63
Clay and Glazes Larry Rumble, Schaltenbrand, Sept., p 36
Additives for Glazes and Clay Bodies, Zamek, Departments Legacy of Generations, The: Pottery by American
Dec., p 61 The following departmentalfeatures appear monthly Indian Women, Peterson, June/July/Aug.,
Brad Schwieger, McCall, with Surface Effects, except as noted: p 62
Schwieger, Feb., p 53 Calendar Rowantrees Pottery, Phelan, Feb., p 61
Carol Townsend, Raffer-Beck, Apr., p 55 Call for Entries
Cary Hulin, Clark, May, p 50 Classified Advertising Miscellaneous
George Wright: Oregon Potters’ Friend and Letters Alternative Approach to Teaching Ceramics, An,
Inventor Extraordinaire, Buskirk, Mar., p 39 New Books: Jan., p 28; Mar., p 30; May, p 26; Bright, Dec., p 46
Gerstley Borate and Colemanite, Zamek, June/July/Aug., p 32; Sept., p 30; Oct., p 26; Clay Builds Community Spirit, Beall, Sept., p 110
June/July/Aug., p 73 Nov., p 26; Dec., p 24 Cyberclay: An Electronic Pottery Village,
In My Own Backyard, Ellington, Feb., p 30 Questions: Answered by the CM Technical Staff Molinaro, with Joining Clayart, Nov., p 65
Iron in the Fire, An, Thomas, Jan., p 57 Suggestions: From Readers Lessons from a City Kiln, Leuthold with Wilkins,
It’s All One Meditation, Stengel, Oct., p 53 Summer Workshops 1998, Apr., p 31 Jan., p 61
Kathleen Guss and Stephen Robison, Clintonson, Up Front New Museum and Education Center in Ecuador,
Sept., p 64 Video: Feb., p 28; June/July/Aug., p 90; Oct., p 78 Blankenship, with Paul Rivet Foundation
Lasting Impressions, Rosebrook, Feb., p 36 Residency Program, Nov., p 50
Laughing in the Dark, Lopata, Oct., p 61 Exhibitions North Street Potters: Twenty Years in the Life of a
Look at Glaze Calculation Software, A, Malmgren, Anything That Pours, Jan., p 48 City Ceramics Collective, Hill, Sept., p 43
with Using Glaze Programs, June/July/Aug., Attraction of the Intimate, The, Brown, Nov., Oregon Potters Association, The: 18 Years of
p 38 P 31 Growth and Change, Buskirk, May, p 62
Making of Giants, The, Godowsky, Apr., p 39 Bernard Dejonghe, Dec., p 64 Playing 20 Questions, Troy, Oct., p 64
Ordering Raw Materials, Zamek, Oct., p 43 Betsy Rosenmiller, Baker, Jan., p 44 Talking Tradition: A Conversation on Boundaries,
Pairing of Opposites: Eva Kwong’s Sculptural Blue Plate Special, Huebner, Apr., p 65 Snyder, Feb., p 43
Vases, Bonansinga, Nov., p 62 California Sculpture Conference, Lui, Oct., p 39
Perfect Clay Body?, The, Zamek, Mar., p 47 Ceramics USA, Sept., p 62 Potters and Pottery
Recycle That Old Kiln, Wright, Apr., p 67 Clayarters International, Ratliff, Mar., p 70 Another Season, Another Palette, Kronstadt, Oct.,
Simple Molds and Reduced Lusters, Oliver, Sept., David Atamanchuk, Perron, Mar., p 67 p 32
P 71 El Rio de la Vida: Intimations of Ecuador, Spencer, Bennett Bean: Playing by His Rules, Chambers,
Spraying Paper-Reinforced Clay, Baker, Nov., p 46 Nov., p 55 with Making a Bean Pot, Mar., p 43
Steve Davis-Rosenbaum, Forman, with Flashed EmBODYment, Joiner, Feb., p 45 Betsy Rosenmiller, Baker, Jan., p 44
Majolica, Davis-Rosenbaum, Jan., p 89 Fifth Porcelain Triennial, Dec., p 43 Brad Schwieger, McCall, with Surface Effects,
Suggestive Symbols, Benge, Mar., p 108 Fletcher Challenge’s Last Bow, Thacker, Nov., Schwieger, Feb., p 53
Totemic Sculptures of Ted Vogel, The, p 59 Carl Sheehan, Kinnaman, Sept., p 108
Bonansinga, June/July/Aug., p 51 Form and Energy: The Work of Toshiko Takaezu, Carol Gouthro, Krutchkojf, June/July/Aug., p 68
Merino, Mar., p 37 Carol Townsend, Raffer-Beck, Apr., p 55
Collecting Forms and TransFormations, May, p 48 Cary Hulin, Clark, May, p 50
Collecting Mania, Turnquist, Mar., p 54 Friends and Inspirations, Apr., p 52 Confessions of a Closet Beautician, Wheeler,
Consuming Pots: Listening to Mark Hewitt’s Friendship in Clay, Bartlett, Sept., p 40 June/July/Aug., p 83
Customers, Zug, June/July/Aug., p 57 Global Ceramics, Oct., p 63 Consuming Pots: Listening to Mark Hewitt’s
Commentary Introductions, Apr., p 43 Customers, Zug, June/July/Aug., p 57
Faenza Days: Perfecting My Craft, Sweet, May, Isichapuitu, Velarde, Dec., p 44 Conversation with Phil and Terry Mayhew, A,
p 100 Jana Bednarkova, Kenney, Feb., p 42 Wells, Mar., p 49
Flying Blind with Clay on My Glasses, Robinson, Jeri Au, Oct., p 41 David Atamanchuk, Perron, Mar., p 67
June/July/Aug., p 126 Jim Malone, Jan., p 37 Dennis Parks: Poet, Potter, Peacemaker, Lackey,
I Am Not an Artisan, Marshall, Feb., p 102 Julia Galloway, Dec., p 63 May, p 57
In the Coil: The Collector’s Urge, Robinson, Nov., Legacy of Generations, The: Pottery by American Edward Eberle, Katz, Jan., p 33
p 108 Indian Women, Peterson, June/July/Aug., End of an Era: Changes in Spanish Folk Pottery,
My Favorite Cup, Hanessian, Apr., p 112 p 62 Melville, Jan., p 63
Pottery and the Artist in Japan Today, Kiemi Marvin Zehnder, Bachus, Nov., p 39 Farm Pottery in Australia, A, Stackman, Jan., p 92
Sawyer, Oct., p 102 Minnesota Invitational, Apr., p 47 Greenbridge Pottery, Hobby, Oct., p 67
Revolutionary Concept, A, Hluch, Jan., p 98 Monarch National Competition, Apr., p 35 In My Own Backyard, Ellington, Feb., p 30
Workshop Fantasies, Chadwick, Mar., p 118 Norman Schulman, Hooker, June/July/Aug., p 46 In Pursuit of Form, Doner, Sept., p 50
Young Upstarts and Old Stick-in-the-Muds, North Street Potters: Twenty Years in the Life of a Inspirations, Goldenberg, Mar., p 75
Sondahl, Dec., p 104 City Ceramics Collective, Hill, Sept., p 43 Interview with Makoto Yabe, An, Ames, Dec., p 55
Zen of Clay, Malinowski, Sept., p 118 On/Off the Wall, May, p 61 Iron in the Fire, An, Thomas, Jan., p 57
Put a Lid on It, Nov., p 44 It’s All One Meditation, Stengel, Oct., p 53
Decoration Steve Davis-Rosenbaum, Forman; Flashed Jeri Au, Oct., p 41
Another Season, Another Palette, Kronstadt, Majolica, Davis-Rosenbaum, Jan., p 89 Jim Malone, Jan., p 37
Oct., p 32 Texas Clay Traditions, Nov., p 43 Julia Galloway, Dec., p 63


Kathleen Guss and Stephen Robison, Clintonson, Laughing in the Dark, Lopata, Oct., p 61
Sept., p 64 Legacy of Generations, The: Pottery by American
Larry Rumble, Schaltenbrand, Sept., p 36 Indian Women, Peterson, June/July/Aug.,
Lasting Impressions, Rosebrook, Feb., p 36 p 62
Legacy of Generations, The: Pottery by American Making Craft to Make Art: Musings on a
Indian Women, Peterson, June/July/Aug., Production Day, Spencer, Feb., p 39
p 62 Making of Giants, The, Godowsky, Apr., p 39
Making Craft to Make Art: Musings on a Marketing Dance, The, Selfridge, Dec., p 31
Production Day, Spencer, Feb., p 39 Marvin Zehnder, Bachus, Nov., p 39
Marketing Dance, The, Selfridge, Dec., p 31 Michalene Walsh, Nasisse, Sept., p 60
Moravian Import, A, Talacko, May, p 39 Nicholas Wood, Brown, June/July/Aug., p 76
My Hands Tell Me What I’m Thinking: The Norman Schulman, Hooker, June/July/Aug., p 46
Pottery of Kris Nelson, Doubet, Nov., p 35 Opportunity for Growth, An: Dennis Smith and
North Street Potters: Twenty Years in the Life of a the Southwest Craft Center, Dunnewold,
City Ceramics Collective, Hill, Sept., p 43 May, p 32
Opportunity for Growth, An: Dennis Smith and Pairing of Opposites: Eva Kwong’s Sculptural
the Southwest Craft Center, Dunnewold, Vases, Bonansinga, Nov., p 62
May, p 32 Simple Molds and Reduced Lusters, Oliver, Sept.,
Ordering Chaos, Rhudy, with The Process, Mar.,
P 57 Spraying Paper-Reinfo reed Clay, Baker, Nov., p 46
Pairing of Opposites: Eva Kwong’s Sculptural Suggestive Symbols, Benge, Mar., p 108
Vases, Bonansinga, Nov., p 62 Totemic Sculptures of Ted Vogel, The,
Pioneer Pottery, Kidder, June/July/Aug., p 79 Bonansinga, June/July/Aug., p 51
Playing 20 Questions, Troy, Oct., p 64 Villa Delirium Delft Works, Krajft, Sept., p 68
Potters of Kwarn Ar-Marn, The, Shippen, Voicing Feelings, Romeroy Nelson, Oct., p 50
June/July/Aug., p 47 William Parry: The Medium Is Insistent, Zakin,
Salt and Refractory Coatings, Jacobson, Dec., p 36 Mar., p 63
Seashell Fuming, Bradford, Jan., p 40 Yoshiro Ikeda: The Evolution of a Life’s Work,
Steve Davis-Rosenbaum, Forman, with Flashed Morris, May, p 43
Majolica, Davis-Rosenbaum, Jan., p 89
Storytelling, Frank with Wright, Nov., p 67 Studio, Tools and Equipment
Villa Delirium Delft Works, Krajft, Sept., p 68 Brad Schwieger, Moore McCall, with Surface
Where You’ve Been Is Good and Gone; All You Effects, Schwieger, Feb., p 53
Keep Is the Gettin’ There, Hill, Apr., p 58 Carl Sheehan, Kinnaman, Sept., p 108
Working History, A, Bowers, Feb., p 48 Cary Hulin, Clark, May, p 50
Yoshiro Ikeda: The Evolution of a Life’s Work, Clay Builds Community Spirit, Beall, Sept., p 110
Morris, May, p 43 Conserving the World’s Largest Terra-Cotta
Horses, Danisch, Sept., p 47
Sculptors and Sculpture Conversation with Phil and Terry Mayhew, A,
Bennett Bean: Playing by His Rules, Chambers, Wells, Mar., p 49
with Making a Bean Pot, Mar., p 43 Dennis Parks: Poet, Potter, Peacemaker, I^ackey,
Bernard Dejonghe, Dec., p 64 May, p 57
Brad Schwieger, McCall, with Surface Effects, El Rio de la Vida: Intimations of Ecuador, Spencer,
Schwieger, Feb., p 53 Nov., p 55
California Sculpture Conference, Lui, Oct., p 39 E,nd of an Era: Changes in Spanish Folk Pottery,
Carol Gouthro, Krutchkojf, June/July/Aug., p 68 Melville, Jan., p 63
Conserving the World’s Largest Terra-Cotta Farm Pottery in Australia, A, Stackman, Jan., p 92
Horses, Danisch, Sept., p 47 George Wright: Oregon Potters’ Friend and
Dennis Parks: Poet, Potter, Peacemaker, Lackey, Inventor Extraordinaire, Buskirk, Mar., p 39
May, p 57 Greenbridge Pottery, Hobby, Oct., p 67
Edward Eberle, Katz, Jan., p 33 In My Own Backyard, Ellington, Feb., p 30
El Rio de la Vida: Intimations of Ecuador, Spencer, In Pursuit of Form, Doner, Sept., p 50
Nov., p 55 It’s All One Meditation, Stengel, Oct., p 53
Exploring Possibilities, Salicath, Nov., p 71 Joy Brown, Pomerantz, with Wood Firing Notes,
Form and Energy: The Work of Toshiko Takaezu, Jan., p 51
Dubis Merino, Mar., p 37 Kiln for All Reasons, A, Johnson, May, p 67
From Clay Depths to Interdisciplinary Heights, Lessons from a City Kiln, Leuthold with Wilkins,
Chatary, Apr., p 48 Jan., p 61
Gina Bobrowski: Of Geography and Animal Look at Glaze Calculation Software, A, Malmgren,
Dreams, McCarty, Jan., p 45 with Using Glaze Programs, June/July/Aug.,
Glasgow’s Miles Better: An American in Scotland, p 38
Garner, Apr., p 44 Making of Giants, The, Godowsky, Apr., p 39
Hill that Spits Fire, The, Hengst, May, p 35 Moravian Import, A, Talacko, May, p 39
Hirotsune Tashima, Lackey, June/July/Aug., p 54 Ordering Chaos, Rhudy, with The Process, Mar.,
In Pursuit of Form, Doner, Sept., p 50 P57
Inspirations, Goldenberg, Mar., p 75 Pioneer Pottery, Kidder, June/July/Aug., p 79
Interactive Tile Mural Illustrates Human Skin, Potters of Kwarn Ar-Marn, The, Shippen, June/
Patterson, Dec., p 52 July/Aug., p 47
Interview with Makoto Yabe, An, Ames, Dec., p 55 Recycle That Old Kiln, Wright, Apr., p 67
Iron in the Fire, An, Thomas, Jan., p 57 Salt and Refractory Coatings, Jacobson, Dec., p 36
Isichapuitu, Velarde, Dec., p 44 Seashell Fuming, Bradford, Jan., p 40
Jana Bednarkova, Kenney, Feb., p 42 Simple Molds and Reduced Lusters, Oliver, Sept.,
Jeri Au, Oct., p 41 P.71
John Toki, Servis, Oct., p 35 Spraying Paper-Reinfo reed Clay, Baker, Nov., p 46
Joy Brown, Pomerantz, with Wood Firing Notes, Storytelling, Frank with Wright, Nov., p 67
Jan., p 51 Where You’ve Been Is Good and Gone; All You
Lasting Impressions, Rosebrook, Feb., p 36 Keep Is the Gettin’ There, Hill, Apr., p 58

December 1998 103

Of course, once upon a time, I was CM). You won’t catch me trying any of
Comment young myself. When I started potting in these new gimmicks—I’m too much of a
Young Upstarts and the early ’70s, it wasn’t clear that there stick-in-the-mud.
was a profession in studio pottery. Every­ I also see prices that astonish me
Old Stick-in-the Muds body was making pottery (“It’s groovy, (people will pay that much for a mug?).
by Brad Sondahl man!”), and it sold like hotcakes (“Got I’m much too set in my ways to raise my
anything in earthtones?”), but there prices (it may have something to do with
I recently had a dream about visiting a weren’t a lot of old stick-in-the-muds for that leftover hippie philosophy of “pot­
mall and happening on several pottery us upstarts to bug. Craft fairs were in tery for the people”), but I may start
displays of hot-selling items in pasty clay their infancy, and jurying was limited to advertising “pottery at wholesale prices.”
bodies with bright garish glazes; the pot­ keeping out the crafts made from kits. Nah, that sounds like too much of an
ters were there, too, working behind hy­ Ah, the good old days.... innovation for me.
gienic glass. One of them showed me The success of my young upstart in­ The more I write on this, the more I
some clay with lumps of sharp basalt in it tern illustrates how easy it is to get started feel outdated. The other stand-out stick-
that would surely cut your hands when in pottery. It isn’t rocket science (although in-the-muds were dinosaurs, who ended
throwing. Confronted with clay up stuck in the mud as fossils. The
like that, I did the only reasonable upside of upstarts is that there is
thing—I woke up.
The upside of upstarts is that there is still still a burgeoning craft movement,
I haven’t seen any pottery set­ a burgeoning craft movement, with room with room for new ideas and per­
ups like that in malls, but I have sonalities. The craft fairs that
seen similar ideas in the “potters’
for new ideas andpersonalities. started 20 years ago in school gyms
malls”—that is, craft fairs—young and college lawns are now major
upstarts skimming the cream off the busi­ a knowledge of alchemy is useful!), and festivals encompassing all the arts.
ness, leaving it to old stick-in-the-muds as small businesses go, the overhead isn’t I’m able to sell enough from my stu­
like me to handle those difficult and pesky enormous. For the mere cost of a com­ dio that I no longer sell at art fairs. When
“special orders.” puter, you can buy a kiln, and you can I do go to one, it’s because I’m not too
It was all brought home to me last make money with a kiln. much of a stick-in-the-mud to see what
summer by an intern, who arrived never So now I go to art fairs and I see the upstarts are up to, and maybe even
having pulled a handle, and left offering upstarts featuring new ideas like majolica glean a few new respectable ideas, like
me serious competition in sales. Time- decoration, frogs in the bottom of mugs from the 19th century....
honored customers chose her awkward (18th-century joke) and puzzle mugs (also
and hefty shapes over my staid and stream­18th century, see “In Their Cups” by The author Brad Sondahl maintains a
lined ones. Young upstarts! Delia Robinson in the October 1996 studio in Nezperce, Idaho.

Index to Advertisers
A.R.T. Studio................................. 21 Cornell........................................ 101 Laguna............................................ 9 Pottery Making Illustrated.............90
Aardvark.........................................98 Creative Industries........................ 79 Lark Books.................................... 72 Pure & Simple............................ 103
Afitosa ........................................... 30 Davens........................................... 81 Leslie..............................................81 Ram................................................84
Amaco..............................................7 Dedell......................................... 100 Lockerbie.......................................98
Sapir Studio....................................85
ACerS...................... 26, 73, 77,86 Del Val........................................ 103 Max................................................70 Scott Creek..................................... 68
Amherst Potters............................. 88 Derek Marshall ............................. 76 MBF Productions....................... 100 Sheffield......................................... 26
Anderson Ranch................... 89, 100 Dolan............................................. 94 Miami Clay.................................... 93 Shigaraki Cultural Park .................91
Armory Art Center......................... 97 Duralite....................................... 103 Mid-South......................................95 Sierra Nevada College................ 101
Axner..............................................27 Euclid’s..........................................80 Mile Hi....................................... 100 Skutt......................................Cover 4
Bailey.......................1, 17, 22, 23, 69 Falcon............................................ 84 Minnesota Clay USA.................... 19 Southern Pottery............................ 80
Bennett’s......................................... 5 Flourish .........................................84 Miracle Underglazes.................. 101 Spectrum ....................................... 74
Bluebird......................................... 28 Geil................................................ 15 Modern Postcard........................... 81 Standard......................................... 93
Brickyard....................................... 70 Georgies.........................................84 MPG Corp..................................... 86 Studio Potter.................................. 88
Brown Tool ...................................68 Giffin..............................................70 Tara................................................ 67
NCECA.................................Cover 3
Ceramic Design Group ................ 70 Gordon Ward.............................. 101 New Mexico Clay..........................70 Thomas-Stuart............................... 95
Ceramics Monthly................. 89,97 Great Lakes................................... 98 Nidec-Shimpo...................... Cover 2 Trinity............................................ 87
Clark.............................................. 70 HBD.............................................. 84 North Star................................ 65, 98 Tucker’s......................................... 24
Classified....................................... 99 Highwater Clays............................83 U.S. Pigment..................................97
Olsen............................................. 85
Clay Art Center.............................. 92 Hood..............................................94
Olympic.........................................85 Venco............................................. 25
Clay Factory................................ 103 ITC................................................ 87
Clay Times.....................................82 Palissy......................................... 100 Ward...............................................66
Jepson.......................... 11, 13, 29, 75 Paragon....................................... 100
Clayworks Supplies ...................... 80 West Coast..................................... 84
Contact.......................................... 95 Kickwheel........................................2 Peter Pugger..................................70 Westerwald.....................................92
Contemporary Kiln........................94 Krueger.......................................... 80 Philadelphia Pottery......................94 Wise................................................84
Continental Clay............................78 L&L............................................... 71 Potters Guide................................ 96 Wolfe.............................................. 94
Corey..............................................76 Laloba Ranch................................ 80 Potters Shop.................................. 80 Worcester....................................... 93