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FABRICATION OF WATER

PUMPING SYSTEM USING SOLAR


CONTENTS

 SYNOPSIS

 INTROUCTION

 LITERATURE REVIEW

 DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENTS

 BLOCK DIAGRAM & EXPLANITION

 DRAWING

 WORKING PRINCIPLE

 MERITS AND DEMERITS

 APPLICATIONS

 LIST OF MATERIALS

 CONCLUSION

 BIBLIOGRAPHY

 PHOTOGRAPHY

SYNOPSIS
Agriculture is the backbone of India. In rural areas, These require manual
operation/fossil fuel for its operation. To address these issues, a novel protocol is
developed viz. Solar Agro Pumping (SAP) is an innovative product developed for
rural applications which utilizes the solar energy as a fuel. Proposed Solarized
Agro Pumping protocol is an innovative product especially developed for rural
applications which utilizes the energy from the solar arrays is used for spraying the
pesticides. The solar photovoltaic panel traps the solar arrays and this energy is
stored in the Lead Acid battery. Battery powers the DC motor coupled fan and it's
used to extract the atmospheric air. Pesticide flows down due to gravitational force
and a blower is attached to the DC Motor to boost the air pressure in spraying the
pesticide. In nozzle both the pesticide and pressurized air mixes and pesticide is
sprayed.

 To decrease the operational cost by using new mechanics :


In the market there are many types of pumpings are available. And costly, there are
many operation methods are used to spray the pesticide.
 To work reliably under different working conditions :
We can give the reliability of the Pumping mechanism and there are no human
interference in mechanism, so we can reduce man effort.
 To decrease the cost of the machine :

Many Pumping mechanisms available in the market there are many costly
mechanism are used and we decrease the cost and increase the production of Vegetables,
crops and fruits.
 To decrease labor cost by advancing the spaying method.
 Machine can operated in small farming land.
 Making such a machine which can be able can be performed for spraying easily.
INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER - 1

INTRODUCTION
Today, India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture and allied sectors like
forestry and fisheries, accounted for 13.7% of GDP (Gross domestics product) in 2013 about
50% of the total workforce. The economic contribution of agriculture to India’s GDP is steadily
declining with the country broad based economic.
India is agriculture country. In India there are many equipments formed for farming. In
the farm there are many types of lands available and whether conditions also different. In India
there are different types of fruits, vegetables and grains produced and that sold in market.
In India around 70% of the population earns its livelihood from agriculture. It still
provides livelihood to the people in our country. It fulfills the basic need of human being and
animals. It is an important source of raw material for many agro based industries. India’s
geographical condition is unique for agriculture because it provides many favorable conditions.
There are plain areas, fertile soil, long growing season and wide variation in climatic condition
etc.
Spraying of agrochemicals in the field is a tedious and laborious task. The
conventional knapsack pumping available in the market requires manual labor to operator, which
is difficult to find due to movement of farm laborers towards cities. The small formers cannot
afford to buy the power operated pumping or tractor mounted pumpings available in the markets,
as these are very costly and are of not much use to small formers due to small land holdings.
Agriculture pumping pesticide machine is designed to reduce human effort. It
used to agriculture field by spray pesticide in farm to get better crop. Agriculture spray adjacent
is used with pesticides order to enhance such as herbicides, insecticide, fungicides and other
agents that control for eliminate.
Spraying of agrochemicals in the field is a tedious and laborious task. The
conventional knapsack pumpings available in the market require manual labor to operate, which
is to difficult find due to movement of farm laborers toward cities. The small formers cannot
afford to by the power operated pumping or tractor mounted pumping available in the market, as
the market, as these are very costly and are of not much use to small farmers due to small land
holding.
Spray Agricultural pumping pesticides machine is designed to reduce human effort. It
used to agricultural spray pesticide. Now a days farmers more used pesticide in farm to get better
crop. Agricultural spray adjacent is used with pesticides order to enhance such as herbicides,
insecticide, fungicides and other agents that control or eliminates unwanted pests.
LITERATURE REVIEW
CHAPTER -2

LITERATURER REVIEW

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:
Hand-pulled pumpings
Hand-pulled herbicide pumpings are like a knapsack pumping mounted on wheels. When
the wheels turn, they pump the herbicide into a boom with four or six Spray nozzles. The height
of the boom can be adjusted to deal with plants of different heights. These pumpings are
sometimes called “pedestrian-pulled” pumpings. They have more nozzles and a larger tank than
a knapsack pumping, so can cover a lager areas more evenly. They are Suitable for treating a
whole field; they cannot be used to spot-spray in- dividable patches of weeds. Because the spray
is behind the operator (unlike with knapsack pumpings), there is much less risk of breathing in
the spray of getting it on your skin other clothing.

Animal-pulled pumpings
Animal-powered pumpings many have up to 10 nozzles (spaced about 50cm apart). They
can be pulled by one or two animals. They have a large capacity than hand pumpings, so are
suitable for larger areas.

Tractor-powered pumpings
Tractor-powered pumpings can be very sophisticated. They are suited for large farms. It
may be possible to hire someone to spray your farm with a tractor pumping, rather than investing
in one yourself.

Bicycle pumping
Aware of the problem faced in the spraying of agrochemicals in the field, decided to
develop a pumping which is efficient and affordable by the farmers. He decided to mount the
pumping on a bicycle, which can be found in every household.
This portable spraying system consists of an adjustable boom, tank, and chain and
sprockets and cam follower mechanism for converting rotary motion to reciprocating motion.
The assembly can be mounted on any bicycle available in the market. A cylindrical tank
containing the solution is firmly attached to the frame of the bicycle. While the bicycle is pulled
forward, the cam follower provides reciprocating motion to pump, which compresses the fluid in
the tank. This comes out through the spraying nozzle, connected to boom, as mist. This pumping
is energy-efficient and easy to operate and maintain. As it is a flexible product with adjustable
height and width of spraying boom there is greater flexibility for using it for various crops. Since
the bicycle requires less space to move, it can be used in a more versatile manner as compared to
power pumpings that are mounted on tractors. A labor saving device, it can be used to spray one
acre of land in 45 minutes thus covering more area compared to manual spraying. Easy to
assemble and dissemble, it server the dual use of pumping cum bicycle.

PROBLEM DEFINATION:

Now a day’s traditional spraying pumps we observing following problems :


Costly for farmers having small farming lands, the spraying is traditional done by labor carrying
backpack type pumping which require more human effort, traditional spraying method having
more time consuming, efficiency of traditional spraying method is less, and in traditional
spraying methods require pressure is not produce.
As Above problems we sort out by our project. We decrease the human effort by
using cycle pumping, the area of spraying acquire large area than traditional pumping. The
efficiency of our pumping is larger and continuous; it covers two rows at a time. Cycle Pumping
sprays pesticide constantly all over spread on vegetables and crops. This pumping is reasonable
for small area farm. Moving cycle pumping not only reduces human effort, but also human
stress. This Bicycle pumping faster and reasonable cost.
DESCRIPTION OF
EQUIPMENT
CHAPTER -3

DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT

 PUMPING SYSTEM:
The pumping will not function properly without proper hoses and controls to connect the
tank, pump and nozzles as they are the key components of the spraying system. Select hoses and
fittings to handle the chemicals at the selected operating pressure and quantity. Peak pressures
higher than average operating pressures are often encountered. These peak pressures usually
occur as the spray boom is shut off. Choose components on the basis of composition,
construction, and size. Hose must be flexible, durable, and resistant to sunlight, oil, chemicals,
and general abuse such as twisting and vibration. Two widely used materials that are chemically
resistant are ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and ethylene propylene dines monomer. Suction hoses
should be air-tight, non-collapsible, as short as possible, and as large as the pump intake. A
collapsed suction hose can restrict flow and “starve” a pump, causing decreased flow and
damage to the pump. It you cannot maintain sprays pressure; check the suction line to be sure
that it is not restricting flows. Other lines, especially those between the pressure gauge and the
nozzles, should be as straight as possible, with a minimum of restrictions and fittings. The proper
size of these varies with the size and capacity of the pumping. A high but not excessive fluid
velocity should be maintained throughout the system. Lines that are too large reduce the fluid
velocity so much that some pesticides, such as dry flowables or wet able Powders, may settle
out, clog the system, and reduce the amount of pesticide being applied. If the lines are too small,
an excessive pressure drop will occur. A flow velocity of 5 to 6 feet per second is recommended.
Suggested hose size for various pump flow rates is listed. Some chemicals will react with plastic
materials. Check pumping and chemical manufacturer’s literature for compatibility. Boom
stability is importance in achieving uniform spray application. The boom should be relatively
rigid in all directions. Swinging back and forth or up and down is not desirable.
 PUMPING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM:
Pumping Distribution system is the pumping will not function properly without proper
hoses and controls to connect the tank, pump and nozzles as they are the key components of the
spraying system. Select hoses and fitting to handle the chemicals at the selected operating
pressure and quantity. Peak pressures higher than average operating pressures are often
encountered. These peak pressures usually occur as the spray boom is shut off. Choose
components on the basis of composition, construction, and size. Hose must be flexible, durable,
and resistant to sunlight, oil chemicals, and general abuse such as twisting and vibration. Two
widely used materials that are chemically resistant are ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and ethylene
prophylene dione monomer (EPDM). Suction hoses should be air-tight, non-collapsible, as short
as possible, and as large as the pump intake. A flow and damage to the pump. If you cannot
maintain spray pressure, check the suction line to be sure that it is not restricting flows. Other
lines, especially those between the pressure gauge and the nozzles, should be as straight as
possible, with a minimum of restrictions and fittings. The proper size of these varies should be
main-trained throughout the system. Lines that are too large reduce the fluid velocity so much
that some pesticides, such as dry flowables or wet table powders, may settle out, clog the system,
and reduce the amount of pesticide being applied. If the lines are too small, an excessive pressure
drop will occur. A flow velocity of 5 to 6 feet per second is recommended. Some chemicals will
react with plastic materials. Check pumping and chemical manufacturers literature for
compatibility. Boom stability is important in achieving uniform spray application. The boom
should be relatively rigid in all directions. Swinging back and forth or4 up and down is not
relatively rigid in all directions. Swinging back and forth or up and down is not desirable. Gauge
wheels mounted near the end of the boom will maintain uniform boom heights. The boom height
should be adjustable from 1 to 4 feet above the target.

 PUMPING APPLICATION:
One of the more common forms of pesticide application, especially in
conventional agriculture, is the use of mechanical pumpings. Hydraulic pumpings consist of a
tank, a pump, a lance (for single nozzles) or boom, and a nozzle (or multiple nozzles). Pumpings
convert a pesticide formulation, often containing a mixture of water (or another liquid chemical
carrier, such as fertilizer) and chemical, into droplets, which can be large rain-type drops or tiny
almost-invisible particles. This conversion is accomplished by forcing the spray mixture through
a spray nozzle under pressure. The size of droplets can be altered through the use of different
nozzles sizes, or by altering the pressure under which it is forced, or a combination of both.
Large droplets have the advantage of being less susceptible to spray drift, but require more water
per unit of land covered. Due to static electricity, small droplets are able to maximize contact
with a target organism, but very still wind conditions are required.
Large self-propelled agricultural ‘floater’ spryer, engaged in pre-emergent
pesticide application Self-propelled row crop spryer applying pesticide to post-emergent corn
Traditional agricultural crop pesticides can either be applied pre-emergent or post-
emergent, a term referring to the germination status of the plant. Preemergent pesticide
application, in conventional plants by removing undesirable organisms, maximizing the amount
of water, soil nutrients, and sunlight available for the crop. An example of pre-emergent
mixtures is often applied pre-emergent on agricultural fields to remove early-germinating weeds
and prepare for subsequent crops. Pre-emergent application equipment often has large, wide
tires designed to float on soft soil, minimizing both soil compaction and damage to planted (but
not yet emerged) crops. A three-wheel application machine, such as the one pictured on the right,
is designed so that tires do not follow the same path, minimizing the creation of ruts in the field
and limiting sub-soil damage.
Post-emergent application requires the use of specific chemicals chosen minimize
harm to the desirable target organism. An example is 2, 4- Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, which
will injure broadleaf weeds (dicots) but leave behind grasses (monocots). Such a chemical has
been used extensively on wheat crops, for example. A number of companies have also created
genetically modified organisms that are resistant to various pesticides. Examples include
glyphosate-resistant soybeans and Bt maize, which change the types of formulations involved in
addressing post-emergent pesticide pressure. It is important to also note that even given
appropriate chemical choices, high ambient temperatures or other environmental influences, can
allow the non targeted desirable organism to be damaged during application necessitates limited
field contact in order to minimize losses due to crop and soil damage. Typical industrial
application equipment will utilize very tall and narrow tires and combine this with a pumping
body which can be raised and lowered depending on crop height. These pumpings usually carry
the label ‘high-clearance’ as they can rise over growing crops, although usually not much more
than 1 or 2 meters high. In addition, these pumpings often have very wide booms in order to
minimize the number or passes required over a field, again designed to limit crop damage and
maximize efficiency In industrial agriculture, spray booms 120 feet (40 meters) wide are not
uncommon, especially in prairie agriculture with large, flat fields. Related to this, aerial pesticide
application is a method of top dressing a pesticide to an emerged crop which eliminates physical
contact with soil and crops. Air Blast pumpings, also known as air-assisted or mist pumpings, are
often used for all crops, such as tree fruit, where boom pumpings and aerial application would be
ineffective. These types of pumpings can only be used where overspray- spray drift – is less of a
concern, either through the choice of chemical which does not have undesirable effects on other
desirable organisms, or by adequate buffer distance. These can be used for insects, weeds, and
other pests to crops, humans, and animals. Air blast pumpings in inject liquid into a fast-moving
stream of air, breaking down large droplets into smaller particles by introducing a small amount
of liquid into a fast-moving stream of air.
BLOCK DIAGRAM &
EXPLANATION
CHAPTER – 4

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

Need of Farmers

Survey of Agricultural Exhibition

To Select the Project theme

Discussion about Mechanism

Discussion about the part list

To find cost of the project

Design of Project theme

Manufacturing of the part

Assemble of all the part’s

Check the working of Model


DRAWING
DIAGRAM FOR WATER PUMPING SYSTEM
WORKING PRINCIPLE
CHAPTER – 5
WORKING PRINCIPLE
Developed agricultural need to find new ways to improve efficiency. One approach is to
utilize available information technology in the form of more intelligent machines to reduce
and target energy inputs in more effective ways than in the past. Precision farming has shown
benefits of this approach but we can now move towards a new generation of equipments. The
advent of autonomous system architectures gives s the generation of equipments based on
small smart machines that can do the right thing in the right place and in right time.
Within too close to crop area, great care must be taken not to damage the crop
disturbs the soil. One method of killing weeds close to the weed leaf, Machine vision can be
used to identify the position of an individual weed plant and a set of nozzles mounted close
together can squirt a herbicide on the weed.
Traditional or macro spraying can be very efficient, especially when they
cover large areas. Most equipment manufacture are developing larger machines with 42 meter
booms currently under development. When mounting booms this big, they have inherent
stability problems as the tractor has a relatively small wheelbase and they tend to oscillate.
One method to improve stability would be to mount a spray boom between two unmanned
robots that travelled in adjacent tramlines. This robotics gantry could apply both liquid spray
and fertilizer and be able to regulate itself according to current weather conditions.
A robotics irrigator in the farm of a mechatronic sprinkler was developed to
apply variable rates of water and chemigation to predefined areas. The trajectory and sector
angles of the jet were controlled by stepper motors and could be adjusted according the
current weather and the desired pattern by a small computer.
Agricultural bicycle pumping mechanism is used for various height of crop,
trees etc. and this system is connected to motor cycle and create more and continuous
pressure. And nozzle assembly for spraying large quantity and area acquire by the pumping.
CHAPTER - 6

Conclusion

While conclusion this report, we feel quite contended in having completed the project
assignment well on time we had enormous practical experience on fulfill of the
manufacturing schedule of the working project model. We are therefore happy to state the
calculations of mechanical aptitude proved to be very useful purpose.
Undoubted the joint venture has had all the merits interest and zeal shown by all us.
The credit goes to healthy coordination our batch colleagues in bringing out a resource
fulfillment of our assignment prescribed by the university.
Agriculture pumping pesticide machine is designed to reduce human effort. It used to
agriculture fields by spray pesticide. Now day’s farmer more used pesticide in farm to get
better crop. Agriculture spray adjuvant is used with pesticides order to enhance such as
herbicides, insecticide, fungicides and other agents that control or eliminate unwanted pests.
Now in markets there is two types of pumping mechanism is available and we produce
comparatively that two pumping get new idea’s and finally we produce comparatively less
weighted pumping mechanism. This mechanism having less maintenance and reduce human
effort and reduce pain of that handling.

We interact with farmers and collect the data about pumping and after that our concept
perform there and giving question’s and after that collect their valuable things of our projects,
our spraying mechanism fulfills there requirement efficiently
BIBLIOGRAPHY

CHAPTER – 7
BIBLIOGRAPHY

AUTOMOBILE ENGG. - N.M AGGARWAL

S.K.KATARIA & SONS

ADVANCES IN AUTOMOBILE ENGG. - S.SUBRAMANIAM

ALLIED PUBLISHERS LTD.

THEORY & PERFORMANCE OF - J.B.GUPTA

ELECTRICAL MACHINES - S.K.KATARIA & SONS

PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL

ENGINEERING AND ELECTRONICS - V.K.METHTA