Sie sind auf Seite 1von 90

Eastern Treatment Plant

Tertiary Upgrade Project

CONCEPT DESIGN REPORT


FOR WORKS APPROVAL SUBMISSION 2009

Prepared by:
Black & Veatch Australia Pty Ltd
Level 6, 492 St Kilda Road, Melbourne 3004
Telephone (03) 8673 4200.
and
Kellogg Brown & Root Pty Ltd
Level 3 441 St Kilda Road Melbourne Victoria 3004
Telephone (03) 9828 5333, Facsimile (03) 9820 0136

July 2009
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Executive Summary ............................................................................................................ 1


1 Introduction............................................................................................................. 4
2 Eastern Treatment Plant overview .......................................................................... 5
2.1 General............................................................................................................ 5
2.2 Plant flows ...................................................................................................... 6
2.3 Feed water quality........................................................................................... 9
2.3.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 9
2.3.2 Indicative feed water quality................................................................. 10
2.3.3 Forms of nitrogen, pH and alkalinity.................................................... 11
3 Advanced Tertiary Treatment Plant...................................................................... 12
3.1 Process overview .......................................................................................... 12
3.2 Treated water quality .................................................................................... 14
3.3 Design flows ................................................................................................. 16
3.3.1 Existing flows ....................................................................................... 16
3.3.2 Design capacity..................................................................................... 17
4 Site layout and constraints .................................................................................... 18
4.1 Plant location ................................................................................................ 18
4.2 Plant layout considerations ........................................................................... 18
4.3 Materials of construction .............................................................................. 20
4.4 Hydraulic considerations .............................................................................. 21
4.5 Geotechnical considerations ......................................................................... 22
5 Process units.......................................................................................................... 23
5.1 ATTP feed water management ..................................................................... 23
5.2 Tertiary Supply Pump Station....................................................................... 23
5.3 Ozone treatment ............................................................................................ 25
5.3.1 Description............................................................................................ 25
5.3.2 Ozone system design basis.................................................................... 25
5.4 Biological media filtration ............................................................................ 33
5.4.1 Description............................................................................................ 33
5.4.2 Biological media filtration design basis................................................ 34
5.5 UV disinfection system................................................................................. 38
5.5.1 Description............................................................................................ 38
5.5.2 UV system design basis ........................................................................ 39
5.6 Chlorine disinfection..................................................................................... 41
5.6.1 Description............................................................................................ 41
5.6.2 Chlorine disinfection system design basis ............................................ 41
5.7 Treated water storage.................................................................................... 43
5.8 Residuals management.................................................................................. 44
5.8.1 Description............................................................................................ 44
5.8.2 Backwash balancing tank...................................................................... 45
5.8.3 Residual solids separation and thickening – tertiary DAFT system ..... 45
5.8.4 Residuals stabilisation........................................................................... 47

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page i


Concept Design Report 2009
5.9 Alkalinity correction system ......................................................................... 48
5.10 Electrical system ........................................................................................... 49
5.11 Instrumentation, control and automation ...................................................... 50
5.11.1 General.................................................................................................. 50
5.11.2 Integration considerations..................................................................... 51
5.11.3 ATTP control system architecture ........................................................ 51
5.11.4 Control philosophy................................................................................ 52
5.11.5 Interfaces with existing systems ........................................................... 52
5.12 Flexibility for future process enhancements – Membrane filtration............. 52
6 Operational reliability and redundancy................................................................. 54
6.1 Introduction................................................................................................... 54
6.2 General ATTP design considerations ........................................................... 55
6.3 Tertiary supply pump station ........................................................................ 56
6.4 Ozone system ................................................................................................ 56
6.5 Biological media filtration system ................................................................ 57
6.6 Residuals handling system............................................................................ 57
6.7 UV disinfection system................................................................................. 58
6.8 Chlorine disinfection system......................................................................... 59
6.9 Treated water storage.................................................................................... 59
7 Environmental and social considerations.............................................................. 60
7.1 Introduction................................................................................................... 60
7.2 Air ................................................................................................................. 60
7.3 Noise ............................................................................................................. 61
7.4 Surface water and ground water ................................................................... 61
7.5 Land .............................................................................................................. 62
7.6 Flora and Fauna............................................................................................. 63
7.6.1 Flora ...................................................................................................... 63
7.6.2 Birds...................................................................................................... 63
7.6.3 Bats ....................................................................................................... 65
7.6.4 Other ..................................................................................................... 66
7.7 Cultural heritage............................................................................................ 66
7.8 Community engagement ............................................................................... 66
7.9 Waste and materials use................................................................................ 67
7.9.1 Materials use ......................................................................................... 67
7.9.2 Residual solids ...................................................................................... 68
7.9.3 UV lamp cleaning ................................................................................. 68
7.9.4 Other consumables................................................................................ 69
7.9.5 Ozonation off-gas.................................................................................. 69
7.10 Power consumption and carbon footprint ..................................................... 70
7.10.1 Power consumption............................................................................... 70
7.10.2 Carbon footprint.................................................................................... 70
8 Cost estimates ....................................................................................................... 73
Appendix A: Historical effluent quality data at Eastern Treatment Plant ............. 75
Appendix B: Project Drawings.............................................................................. 78

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page ii


Concept Design Report 2009
Executive Summary
In October 2006, the Victorian Government announced that the Eastern Treatment Plant
(ETP) treated effluent discharge will be upgraded with the project due for completion in
2012. The upgrade is a key initiative in the Government's plan to secure our water future.

The objectives of the ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project are to:

• Significantly improve treated water quality which will address the impact of the
current discharge to the receiving marine environment at Boags Rocks on the
southern Mornington Peninsula, and
• Create a high quality fit-for-purpose recycled water resource for use in a wide
range of non-potable recycling applications.

Melbourne Water has undertaken the Tertiary Technology Trials, comprising extensive
pilot-scale testing of the candidate treatment technologies, which has provided invaluable
data to inform options development, engineering design, assessment and cost estimation
activities and thereby result in selection of the most advantageous treatment option.

The proposed scope of the upgrade includes implementation of a new treatment plant at
ETP comprising both tertiary treatment and advanced treatment concepts to deliver a
broad range of treated water quality benefits to meet the project objectives. This report
provides concept design information for the proposed Advanced Tertiary Treatment Plant
and is intended as a supporting attachment to the Works Approval Application which
Melbourne Water will be submitting to EPA Victoria for the ETP Tertiary Upgrade
Project.
The proposed Advanced Tertiary Treatment Plant will be incorporated into the ETP
treatment process between the existing Holding Basins, which store secondary treated
effluent, and the Outfall Pump Station, and consists of the following major elements:

The Tertiary Supply Pump Station will lift secondary effluent from the Holding Basin
Return Channel into the Advanced Tertiary Treatment Plant. The pump station will have
variable output across the full plant design flow range. Flow through the remainder of
the Advanced Tertiary Treatment Plant will be by gravity.

Ozone will be dosed to treat the aesthetic parameters of colour and odour, increase the
UV transmittance, provide disinfection, and oxygenate the feed flow to the downstream
biological media filters. Ozone will be generated on-site from oxygen feed gas supplied
by a combination of onsite oxygen generation and liquid oxygen storage. Ozone will be
dosed into twin pipeline contactors via side-stream injection.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 1 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
Biological media filters will remove particulate matter, biodegrade organic compounds
and reduce ammonia by nitrification. The filters will be based on a gravity down-flow
granular media configuration with automatic backwashing (cleaning) systems.

Ultraviolet disinfection will provide further pathogen reduction and specifically target
protozoa and bacteria. The ultraviolet disinfection system is expected to be based on low
pressure high output lamp technology to maximise energy efficiency in either an open
channel or closed reactor configuration.

Chlorine disinfection will provide further pathogen reduction and a disinfection residual
to specifically target viruses and bacteria. The chlorine system will utilise the existing
ETP chlorine plant and be capable of operating in both free chlorine and combined
chlorine (chloramine) disinfection modes.

Treated water storage will be provided by twin 32 ML basins constructed with earthen
embankments and both lined and covered to maintain treated water quality. The treated
water storage will provide both contacting volume for disinfection with either free or
combined chlorine and hydraulic buffering storage between the Advanced Tertiary
Treatment Plant and the downstream Outfall Pump Station to facilitate the balancing of
flows and minimise stop/start operation.

Residuals handling systems will be provided to handle the backwash solids stream from
the biological media filters. The solids from this stream will be removed and thickened
by a dissolved air flotation process using polymer and coagulant to improve process
performance. The thickened solids stream will be fed to the existing ETP sludge
digesters for stabilisation and gas production, and the clarified effluent stream will be
returned to the Effluent Holding Basins.

The Advanced Tertiary Treatment Plant will provide the following treated water quality
benefits:

• The risk of plume visibility at Boags Rocks will be significantly reduced even if
the current nearshore discharge is retained. This will be achieved through a
combination of significant solids, foam and colour reduction as described below.
• Suspended solids will be reduced by around 80% at median conditions and 90%
at 95th percentile conditions, thereby reducing the risk of plume visibility and
improving the visual clarity of the water in the marine environment, and reducing
the food source for opportunistic species at Boags Rocks.
• Activated sludge plant foam will be completely removed, and the residual foam
forming potential of the discharge will be reduced to a level comparable to
drinking water.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 2 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
• True Colour will be significantly reduced by around 80 to 85% at both median
and 95th percentile conditions, and typically down to levels comparable to
drinking water thereby improving recycled water aesthetic quality.
• Litter will be completely removed.
• The precursors to fat balls, being oil and grease, will be eliminated.
• The odour level of the discharge will be reduced and the odour character
improved which both will be of benefit both at Boags Rocks and in terms of
improving recycled water aesthetic quality.
• Pathogens will be extensively reduced by the order of 4-6 log (99.99 to
99.9999% reduction) for each of bacteria, protozoa and viruses to further reduce
the health risks associated with the recreational use of the marine environment
and address the requirements for high quality fit-for-purpose recycling
applications.
• Discharge toxicity in the marine environment will be further reduced in terms of
both residual ammonia toxicity and other minor toxic components of the ETP
effluent.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 3 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
1 Introduction

In July 2008, Black & Veatch in association with KBR was appointed by Melbourne
Water to undertake engineering services for Eastern Treatment Plant (ETP) Tertiary
Upgrade Project, Phase 1 – Option Design, Costing and Assessment. This work included
developing and assessing candidate process trains for the ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project
to meet the following project objectives:

• To significantly improve treated water quality which will address the impact of
the current discharge to the receiving marine environment at Boags Rocks on the
southern Mornington Peninsula.
• To create a high quality fit-for-purpose recycled water resource for use in a wide
range of non-potable recycling applications.

In addition to typical tertiary treatment processes comprising some combination of


filtration and disinfection processes, the introduction of advanced treatment presents the
opportunity to more fully address residual issues for the receiving marine environment
and provide a more robust platform for possible future recycling applications.

The Tertiary Trials Plant, which has been in operation since February 2008, has provided
invaluable data to inform the development of preliminary process designs, for which
engineering designs and cost estimates have been prepared, as described in this report.

This report provides concept design information for the proposed Advanced Tertiary
Treatment Plant (ATTP) and is intended as a supporting attachment to the Works
Approval Application to EPA Victoria for the ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 4 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
2 Eastern Treatment Plant overview

2.1 General
The ETP, at Bangholme in Melbourne’s south east, provides an essential public health
service, processing about 40% of Melbourne's sewage each day. This serves about 1.5
million people, in Melbourne’s south-eastern and eastern suburbs. ETP is the second
largest sewage treatment plant in Australia (behind Western Treatment Plant) and the
largest activated sludge plant.

Treated effluent is pumped by the Outfall Pump Station along a 56 km pipeline to the
South East Outfall at Boags Rocks on the southern Mornington Peninsula, where it is
discharged into Bass Strait under the licence conditions set by EPA Victoria (EM35642).
A proportion of this flow is diverted for use by the recycled water customers of South
East Water and the Eastern Irrigation Scheme (operated by Water Infrastructure Group).

A technical summary of the existing ETP systems and processes is provided below:

1. Sewage gravitates into the influent pumping station and is pumped to either
19 mm bar screens or 5 mm fine screens, followed by pre-aeration and grit
removal. The screenings and grit removed are dewatered prior to landfill
disposal.
2. The de-gritted flow passes to the primary sedimentation tanks, where settled
sludge is collected and pumped to anaerobic digesters. Floating scum is currently
directed to the head of the tank by water jets and pumped to the digesters.
3. Settled sewage flows to the step-feed activated sludge aeration tanks. Oxygen is
supplied by fine-bubble diffused aeration supplied by centrifugal blowers.
4. Mixed liquor from the aeration tanks is discharged to secondary sedimentation
tanks where activated sludge is settled out and clarified effluent overflows to the
secondary effluent channel and then on to effluent holding basins.
5. Most of the settled sludge from the secondary sedimentation tanks is returned to
the aeration tank. Excess biomass is pumped to dissolved air flotation tanks and
centrifuges for thickening, then stabilised by anaerobic digestion in conjunction
with the primary sludge. Digested sludge is dried in sludge drying pans. The
dried sludge is harvested during warm weather and stored for 3 years prior to
reuse.
6. Clarified effluent flows by gravity to the Effluent Holding Basins (EHBs). These
basins provide balancing storage for diurnal flow variations and wet weather
events, and a degree of effluent polishing.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 5 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
7. Immediately prior to the Outfall Pumping Station (OPS), effluent is filtered
through 3 mm opening screens to remove any residual foreign matter that has
survived the treatment process, and disinfected by dosing gaseous chlorine. The
effluent is then pumped to the South East Outfall (SEO) via the OPS at a rate of
3.0 to 7.6 kL/s depending on plant service water diversions and the number of
OPS pumps in operation.
8. Part of the effluent is recycled back to the plant for process water known as 2W
and 3W water.
9. The SEO includes a ten kilometer rising main section and a gravity section.
Discharge is to Bass Strait at Boags Rocks, 56 km from ETP.
10. Gas produced by the anaerobic digestion process is used primarily to generate
electricity which is used within the plant. Heat recovery equipment fitted to each
gas engine provides sludge and space heating.
11. Plant process control is by distributed redundant PLCs, and a central control
room. The control room contains the operator interface.
12. Power is supplied to the site at 22 kV. This is stepped down to 6.6 kV and
distributed at this voltage to switchboards at the Influent Pumping Station and
Aeration Blower Building to supply the large motors.

2.2 Plant flows


Historical average annual inflows to ETP are presented in Figure 2.1 below.

The trends in flows to ETP have been influenced by the following factors:

• The success of waste minimisation, infiltration/inflow reduction, and water


demand management measures from the late 1980’s onwards, including a
slowing in Melbourne’s population growth and until more recent years.
• From early 1997 onwards, the operation of the sewage collection system has been
managed to provide greater flexibility for switching some flows between the
Western Treatment Plant at Werribee and ETP. This approach optimises system
operation, wet weather flow management, and augmentation over the next 20
years.
• Recent decline in flows into ETP as a result of drought and water saving being
implemented across the catchment.

The average annual inflow to ETP over the three years of 2006/07/08 ending 30 June was
330 ML/d, and that over the last three years 2007/08/09 was 307 ML/d.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 6 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
Previous projections of flow growth at ETP have now been downgraded and current flow
projections indicate an essentially flat growth outlook with average flows likely to remain
below 360 ML/d due the continued benefits of demand management initiatives offsetting
any growth in connected population.

500

450

400
AVERAGE ANNUAL FLOW

350

300

250

200
Note average annual inflow to
ETP is at its lowest since 1988
150

100
1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010

YEAR ENDING 30 JUNE...

Figure 2.1 ETP influent trend

The existing ETP primary and secondary treatment systems and EHBs have a nominal
peak wet weather capacity of 1,700 ML/d. The peak capacity of the OPS, the only means
for discharging treated effluent from the site, is around 700 ML/d. Wet weather flows in
excess of the OPS capacity are temporarily stored in the EHBs. To empty these storages
the OPS is required to operate at maximum output for durations dependent on the severity
and duration of the wet weather event, the impact of successive events on accumulated
effluent storage, and the weather outlook.

Analysis of historical records of OPS outputs in association with wet weather flows
indicates a similar declining trend to that presented in Figure 2.1 above. Based on the
previous 20 years, the 90th percentile was 24 days’ operation at peak output per year, and
the average was 12. The average over the 10 years from 1997 to 2008 was 9 days per
year, and based on the current outlook the OPS could be expected to operate at peak
output for 5 to 10 days a year on average.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 7 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
While the average daily net production of the ATTP will match the normal dry weather
flow of ETP, including internal recycle flows, the treatment and hydraulic capacity of the
ATTP is directly related to the existing OPS capacity plus any additional flows required
within ATTP such as process backwash flows.

The relationship between peak wet weather flows, the EHB system and the OPS capacity
lead to the proposed ATTP having to be capable of addressing the following flow
scenarios:

Wet weather: Up to 700 ML/d (three duty OPS pumps in operation) treated water
production for 5 to 10 days per year on average and up to 4+ weeks
in a wet year, and meeting process water requirements.

Dry weather: From minimum flow, up to 570 ML/d (two duty OPS pumps in
operation) treated water production on a year round basis, and
meeting process water requirements.

The ATTP will be capable of operation at variable output from minimum flow up to peak
flow. The specific capacity requirements for the ATTP are discussed further in
Section 3.3.

A basic schematic of the hydraulic integration of the ATTP with existing ETP assets is
provided in Figure 2.2 below.

1700 ML/D PEAK CAPACITY UP TO 700 ML/D PEAK CAPACITY TO OPS

ETP EFFLUENT ADVANCED OUTFALL


o o TERTIARY TREATED WATER
1 &2 HOLDING TREATMENT STORAGE PUMP
BASINS PLANT (ATTP) STATION

Figure 2.2 Hydraulic integration of ATTP with existing ETP assets

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 8 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
2.3 Feed water quality

2.3.1 Introduction
This section discusses the quality of secondary treated effluent that will be feed water for
the new ATTP. The data needs to be considered in the context of:

• monitoring locations and how water quality can change between locations,
• monitoring techniques,
• how water quality is analysed,
• changes to sewage quality within the period covered by the data set, and
• changes to the treatment plant over time.

The majority of the data used to develop the secondary effluent quality statistics was
derived from sampling at the following locations:

1. Secondary effluent samples taken from the secondary effluent conduit


immediately downstream of clarifiers.
2. Forebay effluent samples immediately upstream of chlorination and the OPS. The
Forebay is the first of the EHBs and has a theoretical retention time of 12 hours at
average dry weather flow downstream of the secondary effluent sample point
described above.
3. Final effluent samples taken from the Outfall Rising Main after addition of
chlorine (~ 2 to 3 mg/L as Cl2) and approximately 15 minutes retention time at
average dry weather flow.

Water quality is subject to minor changes between the secondary effluent, Forebay and
final effluent monitoring points. The principal changes are caused by settlement of
residual secondary effluent particulate matter (and re-suspension by strong winds) and
chlorination. For each parameter, data deemed to be most representative of the ATTP
feed have been presented.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 9 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
2.3.2 Indicative feed water quality
Secondary effluent quality has been monitored intensively in support of the Tertiary
Technology Trials since January 2008 and this recent monitoring period captures changes
in secondary effluent quality associated with the implementation of the Ammonia
Reduction Project.

The feed water quality design basis for the new ATTP, presented in Table 2.1 below,
addresses the key water quality parameters relevant to the proposed ATTP process and
represents a combination of the long term data set and more recent intensive monitoring
program.

A more extensive detailed historical set of ETP effluent quality parameters based on
longer term data is provided in Appendix A.

Table 2.1 ATTP feed water quality design basis

Parameter 10th Percentile Median 90th Percentile


UVT (cm-1, 254nm) 35 42 48
True Colour (Pt-Co units) 70 90 120
TSS (mg/L) 6 15 30
Turbidity (NTU) 3 6 15
COD (mg/L) 40 55 75
CBOD5 (mg/L) 3 6 14
Ammonia-N (mg/L) 1 3 7
Nitrite-N (mg/L) 0.1 0.6 0.8
Nitrate-N (mg/L) 6 11 16
Total-N (mg/L N/S(1) 17 N/S(1)
pH 7.1 7.4 7.6
Alkalinity (mg/L as CaCO3) 60 85 105
Total Phosphorus (mg/L) 5 7 10
Anionic surfactants (MBAS, mg/L) 0.1 0.2 0.4
Oil & Grease (mg/L) - <5 16
Notes:
(1) NS = None Stated. Total-N 10th and 90th percentile concentrations are not relevant to the ATTP design basis

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 10 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
2.3.3 Forms of nitrogen, pH and alkalinity
The activated sludge plant at ETP was upgraded and reconfigured between late 2005 and
late 2007 to allow for nitrification and denitrification to reduce ammonia in the final
effluent. As a result the secondary effluent NH3-N, NO2-N, NO3-N, TN, pH and
alkalinity have all changed significantly relative to historical data. The data presented in
Table 2.1 above is only taken from the period January 2008 through to March 2009
representing the operational period of the activated sludge plant in nitrification/
denitrification mode to date.

Starting in early 2010, the Ammonia Reduction Project will be completed and four new
aeration tanks commissioned to meet the EPA Victoria discharge licence condition of a
90th percentile ammonia nitrogen limit of 10 mg/L under the full range of annual flow
and load conditions. It is possible that secondary effluent NH3-N, NO2-N, NO3-N, TN,
pH and alkalinity might change slightly following commissioning of the four new
aeration tanks.

Since February 2008 the quality of Forebay effluent has been monitored comprehensively
at the Tertiary Trials Plant.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 11 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
3 Advanced Tertiary Treatment Plant

3.1 Process overview


A high level description of the general components of the proposed ATTP is provided
below. A more detailed description of each of the process units is provided in subsequent
sections of this report.

The overall ATTP process is described by the process flow diagram and accompanying
mass balance (drawing J46-01-204) included in Attachment B.

ATTP feedwater management: The design will provide flexibility allowing the ATTP
to receive feed flows either from the EHBs (normal operation) or directly from the
Secondary Effluent Channel downstream of the secondary clarifiers. The opportunity to
select the best feed water quality for the ATTP facilitates optimum plant operation,
throughput and efficiencies.

Tertiary supply pump station: The ATTP is being inserted between the existing EHBs
and OPS and the hydraulic grade between these two assets is only sufficient to facilitate
that transfer. Therefore, a pump station is required to lift secondary effluent from the
Forebay into the ATTP and ultimately deliver treated water to the OPS.

Ozone dosing; Ozone will be employed to provide a number of treatment functions as


follows:
• reduce and improve the aesthetic parameters colour, odour and foam
• increase the UVT to enable more efficient downstream UV disinfection
• reduce pathogen concentrations (i.e. disinfect) of each of protozoa, viruses and
bacteria
• oxygenate the flow ahead of the biological media filters (BMF) to support
biological treatment in that process
• microflocculate particulate matter in the feed water to improve downstream BMF
filtration performance.

Ozone off-gas will be collected and destructed to oxygen prior to discharge to the
atmosphere.

Biological media filters (BMF): These are deep bed downflow granular media filters
primarily comprising either granular activated carbon or anthracite media with a sand
layer underneath. The filtration process removes particulate matter from the water. In
addition, due to the prevailing process conditions a biological population of

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 12 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
microorganisms (biomass) develops on the surface of the media and degrades various
compounds in the water. In particular, the filters support nitrification resulting in reduced
ammonia levels in the treated water.

UV disinfection: UV treatment will provide pathogen reduction, specifically targeting


protozoa (Cryptosporidium) and bacteria.

Chlorine disinfection: Chlorine treatment will also provide pathogen reduction,


particularly virus and bacteria reduction, and a low disinfectant residual in the final
treated water. The chlorine will be provided as solution from the existing ETP chlorine
plant and will not require any additional chlorine storage at the ETP. The chlorine
system will be capable of operating in both free chlorine and combined chlorine
(chloramine) disinfection modes.

Treated water storage: The storage will provide a fixed volume contact basin for
chlorine disinfection Ct requirements. The storage will also provide balancing of flows
between the ATTP and the OPS for smooth ramping up and down of flows.

Outfall pump station: This pump station is an existing asset and includes 3 duty and 2
standby pumps. The OPS capacity sets the flow requirements for the ATTP. The level of
the OPS pumps also provides the fixed end level for the ATTP hydraulic profile.

Residuals handling: Regular backwashing of the filters will produce a residuals stream
which contains the solids removed from the secondary effluent feed water stream. The
backwash stream will be flow-balanced and fed at a steady rate to a dissolved air flotation
thickening (DAFT) process. Polymer and ACH coagulant will be used to improve DAFT
performance. Clarified water from the DAFT will be returned to the Forebay upstream of
the ATTP for re-treatment while the thickened residual solids will be fed to the existing
anaerobic sludge digestion process.

Alkalinity correction: It is expected that some form of alkalinity and/or pH correction


will be required to address the reduction in alkalinity caused by nitrification in the BMF
process. At this stage of design, it is proposed to provide hydrated lime dosing. Lime
dosing is not expected to be a routine operation and its requirement is dependent on a
number of factors as discussed in Section 5.9.

Power supply and distribution: The ATTP will have a stand alone 22kV electrical
network fed by an additional feeder to the ETP to be provided as part of a site power
supply upgrade project.

Control system: The ATTP control system will integrate with the existing ETP Siemens
PCS7 system and be controlled from the existing Eastern Control Centre with provision
for local control as required.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 13 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
3.2 Treated water quality
The ETP currently includes primary settlement and the biological activated sludge
process to produce secondary treated effluent. With the implementation of the ATTP, the
treated water quality will be significantly improved in terms of physio-chemical and
aesthetic parameters, and pathogen reduction. Both the current EPA Victoria licence
requirements for ETP final effluent and the anticipated treated water quality from the
ATTP are presented in Table 3.1 below, including parameters which are relevant to the
Tertiary Upgrade Project but which are not currently licenced. Furthermore, the primary
treated water quality benefits associated with the ATTP are outlined below.

The ATTP will remove all litter from the effluent, and will reduce fat, oil and grease and
reduce the formation and quantity of fat balls. It will also remove suspended solids,
Apparent Colour and True Colour, bringing the colour of the treated water down towards
drinking water levels. This level of treatment will address the risk of discharge plume
visibility at Boags Rocks where the ETP final effluent is currently discharged. Other
contributors to plume visibility such as biological foam and surfactants will also be
comprehensively addressed.

The ATTP will both reduce odour levels and improve the character of the odour in the
treated water; the ‘earthy’ odour typical of the ETP secondary effluent will be improved
to a more neutral odour that will be less likely to be offensive. The ATTP will also
remove all activated sludge plant foam as well as reduce any residual foam forming
potential to a level comparable to drinking water.

The toxicity of the discharge at Boags Rocks will be further reduced through a
combination of further reduced ammonia levels and reduction in any minor toxic
components of the ETP effluent other than ammonia.

The ATTP will treat all effluent flows to a high microbiological standard which will
provide the following benefits:
• Further reinforcement of the "very good" microbiological water quality
classification in the vicinity of the outfall and lead to year-round most favourable
rating of local bathing water quality under the Draft WHO Recreational Water
Guidelines
• Creation of a high quality fit-for-purpose recycled water resource in accordance
with the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling(AGWR) 1 .

1
National Guidelines for Water Recycling: Managing Health and Environmental Risks. Natural Resource
Management Ministerial Council, Environment Protection and Heritage Council, Australian Health
Minister’s Conference. November 2006

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 14 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
The projected performance of the ATTP with respect to metals, including the licenced
metals chromium, lead, copper and cadmium, is expected to improve in comparison to
current treated effluent quality but this is not readily quantifiable as the concentrations of
metals are already very low.

Table 3.1 Existing licence conditions for discharge to water and projected ATTP
performance

Performance Indicator, Existing Licence Projected ATTP Comments


Unit Conditions (1) Performance

Maximum

Maximum
90th%ile

90th%ile
Median,

Median,
Annual

Annual

Annual

Annual
Carbonaceous biochemical oxygen 20 40 NS NS 10 NS
demand, CBOD5 milligrams per litre
Suspended solids, milligrams per litre 30 60 NS 2 5 NS
Ammonia as nitrogen, milligrams per 5 10(2) NS 0.5 2 NS
litre
Anionic surfactants, milligrams per 0.4 0.7 NS NS 0.3 NS
litre
E.coli bacteria, organisms/100 mL 200 1000 NS NS 10 NS Recycled water requirements
may differ
Turbidity, NTU NS NS NS NS 2 NS Not currently licenced
True Colour, Pt-Co NS NS NS 15 25 NS Not currently licenced
Notes:
(1) As sampled at the Truemans Road sampling point
(2) The 90th percentile ammonia limit comes into effect as of 1 July 2010
NS – Not Stated.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 15 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
3.3 Design flows

3.3.1 Existing flows


ETP treats an annual average flow (AAF) of approximately 330 ML/d as delivered by the
South-Eastern, Chelsea-Frankston and Dandenong Valley Trunk Sewers. This is based on
the last three years’ data and is reduced from historical flows by the water saving
measures currently in operation as discussed in Section 2.2. Flows within the plant are
affected by internal recycle flows and waste flows.

The peak wet weather flow (PWWF) to the ETP is 20.4 kL/s (1,750 ML/d), which is the
capacity of the Inlet Pump Station (IPS). This entire flow is treated within the primary
and secondary processes of the plant.

All treated effluent is discharged from site by the OPS. The OPS pumps operate at fixed
speeds and therefore OPS output is subject to step changes in flows as outlined in Table
3.2 below.

Table 3.2 Current OPS flow capacity

Operating Scenario Design Output Flow


(kL/s) (ML/d)
One Pump 3.6 311
Two Pumps 6.6 570
Three Pumps (maximum) 8.2 708

The treated effluent flow through the OPS is currently approximately 380 ML/d, based on
an average annual flow of 330 ML/d into ETP plus up to 50 ML/d (0.60 kL/s) of recycled
service water, referred to as ‘2W’ and ‘3W’ flow streams, which is currently taken from
the rising main downstream of the OPS and used on the ETP site.

Plant flows in excess of the OPS capacity are stored in the EHBs which perform a critical
function to balance diurnal flow variations and wet weather flows described as follows:

• During average conditions plant flows are normally managed on a daily basis
such that the daily discharge from the OPS matches the plant inflow.
• When a significant wet weather event occurs, the flow from the OPS is increased
as required up to its maximum of 8.2 kL/s (708 ML/d) by operating all three
pumps and secondary effluent flows in excess of the OPS output are stored in the

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 16 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
EHBs until the wet weather event subsides and the OPS catches up with the
reduced plant flows and drains the EHBs.

MWC is committed to undertaking the construction of the Western Effluent Holding


Basin (WEHB) which will significantly increase the wet weather management capacity of
the ETP site and will be in place by the time the ATTP is commissioned. Between the
WEHB project and the relatively flat flow growth forecast to the ETP, it is unlikely that
there will be significant increase in the capacity of the OPS or the proposed ATTP.
However, the concept design of the ATTP also considers how its future output could be
increased to match the flow of four OPS pumps (864 ML/d or 10.0 kL/s). The proposed
plant layout facilitates future upgrades to the ATTP to make allowance for possible future
flow requirements.

3.3.2 Design capacity


The ATTP production capacity will be designed to meet the capacity of the OPS plus any
internal recycle flows, and will generally match the capacity of the OPS from minimum
(one OPS pump running = 3.6 kL/s) to maximum flow (three OPS pumps running =
8.2 kL/s).

MWC has identified the future possibility of providing a new service water pump station
which would draw flows from upstream of the OPS. This would potentially increase the
peak throughput requirement for the ATTP. It is expected that a new service water pump
station would only be implemented for reasons such as asset management and/or
operational preferences within the next 20 years rather than to increase peak effluent
discharge rates. It is proposed that the ATTP provide treatment capacity for the current
OPS and service water configuration, and provide hydraulic capacity for the current OPS
and possible future new service water pump station.

The proposed design flow capacities for the ATTP are presented in Table 3.3.

Table 3.3 ATTP design flow capacity

Scenario Design Flow


(kL/s) (ML/d)
Minimum output (commissioning and maintenance) 1.5 130
Minimum output (normal operation) 2.9 250
Maximum output (dry wether flow) 6.6 570
Maximum output (process units) 8.2 708
Maximum output (civil structure hydraulics / piping) 8.8 758

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 17 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
4 Site layout and constraints

4.1 Plant location


ETP is located on a 1,000 hectare site in Bangholme. Access to the plant is from
Thompsons Road. Future planning for the site allows augmentation, to deal with
increasing loads or changed effluent quality requirements, of the primary and secondary
areas to the eastern side of the plant and future expansion of the digesters north and south
of the existing digesters towards the eastern end of the digester block.

The area between the existing digesters and the Southern Effluent Holding Basin (SEHB)
and north towards to the EHBs has been identified for the ATTP and is within close
proximity to tie in points in the existing plant.

The location and plant layout is shown in the conceptual view and outline layout
drawings in Appendix B.

The 1:100 year flood encroaches onto the southern side of the site to a level of 3.2 m
AHD. The ground level in the proposed location varies from 3.0m to 4.5m AHD.
Consequently only minimal fill would be required to ensure that all structures are above
the flood level.

4.2 Plant layout considerations


The ETP is a large and complex facility which is in continuous operation and the ATTP
will be a significant augmentation to the site and will require high levels of system
integration.

While the majority of the ATTP will be located in essentially a vacant brownfield area of
the site, implementation of the ATTP must be carefully planned, designed, constructed
and commissioned while maintaining full ETP plant performance and licence
compliance. In terms of layout and interface considerations, the key assets and services
which the ATTP impacts on include the following:

• Forebay, EHB system and Tertiary Supply Pump Station (TSPS): Secondary
effluent is to be supplied from the EHBs to the new TSPS. This interface has
been designed to minimise interference with the EHBs during construction.
• Secondary effluent channel and TSPS: Provision to supply secondary effluent
directly to the TSPS will be provided in addition to being able to supply from the
Forebay. To feed secondary effluent directly to the TSPS the existing

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 18 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
mechanical effluent screens, as distinct from the 3mm aperture static screens, will
be removed as they will be redundant after the construction of the ATTP. The
new feed channel tie-ins will need to be managed to ensure that the OPS and
Forebay remain operational. The Forebay can be isolated during construction of
the channel.
• Outfall Rising Main: The 2.1m diameter pipeline (also referred to as the South
Eastern Outfall or SEO) will have to be traversed twice – once to supply feed
water to the ATTP and once to return final treated water to the OPS.
• Chlorination system: The existing chlorination system is to be retained and
upgraded to ensure that required chlorine dose rate and disinfection requirements
for the ATTP can be met. The connections will need to be performed to ensure
that the existing chlorination is not compromised. The ATTP must also be
implemented in accordance with ETPs Major Hazard Facility classification.
• Treated Water Storage (TWS) tie-in with the OPS: The outlet of the TWS is
to be connected to the existing OPS for the off-site discharge of final treated
water. This connection will comprise a large buried pipeline passing through
areas with existing services including the Outfall Rising Main. The construction
of the tie-ins will need to be managed to ensure that the OPS remains operational.
• Chelsea-Frankston Sewer: This delivers sewage to the head of ETP and may be
used for emergency residual stream discharges from the ATTP.
• EHB system and Southern Effluent Holding Basin (SEHB): Tie-ins are
required for ATTP recycle stream returns, clean stormwater runoff, and
emergency overflow provisions.
• ATTP residuals and anaerobic digesters: The ATTP residual solids handling
system will be tied-in with the existing heat recovery hot water and anaerobic
sludge digestion systems. The connections will be performed to ensure that the
existing sludge heating and digestion systems remain operational.
• Control system interfaces: The ATTP automated control system will be
configured to be operated by the site’s main control system.
• High Voltage power supply: The ATTP drives the need for a site power supply
upgrade as discussed in Section 5.10. It is proposed to investigate opportunities
to integrate the new ATTP power supply network with certain areas of the
existing ETP, such as the OPS, to provide enhancements to overall site power
supply reliability and availability. The construction of the tie-ins will need to be
managed to ensure that all relevant systems remain operational. In addition,
there is an existing 6.6 kV duct bank feed power supply to a substation located at
the Surge Vessels which impacts on plant layout.
• Site services: General site service connections such as potable water, service
water, compressed air, roadways and surface water drainage, ventilation and
lighting, fire alarm and suppression systems, tunnels/galleries, 415V emergency
power, plant cathodic protection system, and security, PA and telephone systems.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 19 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
In addition, the ATTP project must coordinate carefully with other major works occurring
at ETP at same time.

Where possible, new services and pipelines will cross above the Outfall Rising Main and
the Chelsea-Frankston Sewer to minimise risks of damaging these critical services during
construction. The exception to this is the TWS discharge pipeline to the OPS. For
hydraulic gradient reasons this has to pass under the Outfall Rising Main.

Emergency overflows from the BMF system and the TWS are routed above ground to
pass over the Outfall Rising Main. These lines will pass under the existing SEHB
bund/road prior to discharge into the east side of the SEHB.

The following conditions have also been applied in deriving the preferred ATTP layout:
• Segregation of treated water and secondary effluent is essential to address
potential recontamination risks. Air gap separation is provided where possible.
• Permanent roads and hardstanding areas for maintenance will be provided to the
new ATTP plant area as an extension of the existing road system. These roads
will be capable of carrying all vehicles requiring access to the ATTP.
– Concrete walkways matching existing will be provided for access to new
facilities.
– Hardstanding areas will be provided to allow the set up of mobile cranes for
lifting major equipment, meeting similar requirements as the roads.
• Clean storm water drainage will flow into the SEHB. Any areas within the
ATTP which could experience contamination, such as loading bays, chemical
storage areas, etc, will be bunded separately from the stormwater system and
discharged in a controlled manner to the head of ETP via the existing sewers.
The hard surface runoff from the ATTP (roads and roofs) will have no
measurable impact on basin flows.
• Construction of structures over the Chelsea-Frankston Sewer or SEO or loading
via the angle of repose above the pipe centre line is to be avoided.

4.3 Materials of construction


The materials of construction for the ATTP may be summarised as follows:
• TSPS: Concrete pump station
• Ozone building: Concrete tilt panel walls with steel roof
• Other buildings and switchrooms: Concrete tilt panel walls with steel roof, or
open sided structures with steel roof
• Ozone contactors: 316 stainless steel pipe work

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 20 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
• BMF system: Concrete open tank construction with pump and blower building,
consisting of steel roof and precast concrete panel walls
• UV disinfection system: Concrete channels (for open channel configuration) and
building on upper story, consisting of steel roof and precast concrete panel walls
• TWS: Earthen embankment construction with membrane lining and covers
• General plant tankage: Concrete construction.

Concrete will typically be used for main tankage due to their large size. Buildings will
typically be designed and constructed with concrete tilt panel walls and steel roofs to suit
existing ETP architecture.

Large process pipes will typically be steel with epoxy lining except for the ozone
contactors which will be stainless steel as they are in direct contact with ozone.
Emergency overflow pipes will be concrete unless they contain numerous bends in which
case epoxy-lined steel is more economical.

4.4 Hydraulic considerations


Hydraulics played a key role in determining the ATTP site layout as well as its structural
requirements. Two major factors that influence the hydraulics are:

• Suction requirements for the OPS pumps: As the OPS will continue to be used to
discharge treated water off-site, the hydraulic requirements of these pumps set
the hydraulics through the ATTP.
• The site topography: The existing ground level for the ATTP is at a similar level
to the required minimum water level at the inlet to the OPS (3.3m AHD) and is
generally flat. Two options were evaluated in terms of general approach to
hydraulic design for the ATTP:
– Option 1: Provide the necessary plant hydraulic grade by lifting once at
TSPS to enable gravity flow through the remainder of the plant. This results
in the structures of the BMF system and UV disinfection system being
elevated above ground level.
– Option 2: Provide a moderate lift at the TSPS and subsequently providing a
re-lift pump station between the UV disinfection system and the TWS. This
results in the BMF and UV structures being either slightly sunken in the
ground or at grade level.

Option 1 has been adopted as this stage as it is more robust hydraulically and less
complicated than having to pump the water twice as required for Option 2. The preferred
approach will be further reviewed, refined and confirmed as part of subsequent design
activities.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 21 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
A hydraulic profile of the proposed ATTP design is provided in Appendix B.

The BMF backwash balancing tank is the deepest structure within the ATTP. This tank
will be located to receive gravity discharge of backwash water from the BMF.

At locations within the ATTP where flow can be isolated downstream of an open
channel, overflow systems will be provided to prevent overtopping of channels and
ensure controlled flow management.

4.5 Geotechnical considerations


The results of geotechnical investigations at the proposed site are summarised in
Table 4.2 below. Based on this information heavy (water-retaining) structures founded at
existing ground level or on additional fill will require any existing soft fill material and
some of the unconsolidated peaty clay soils to be removed and replaced with compacted
selected fill prior to construction to minimise settlement. Where necessary preloading of
foundations may also be used to reduce settlement. However, it is not envisioned that
any structure will require piling foundations.

Table 4.2 Geotechnical summary

Soil description Fill deposits (1m - 2.7m thick) overlaying Quaternary age sediments,
comprising peaty clay and clay formed from swamp deposits overlaying
clayey sand from the Brighton Group Sands formations.

Bearing capacity CBR for roads 2.5


Design bearing at typical formation 0m – 1m AHD (eg below fill material) =
100KPA

Ground water -0.63 to 1.93m AHD

Permeability Sump pumps in excavations should be sufficient for dewatering excavations


to 0m AHD

Max excavation slope Up to 70deg from horizontal

Typical ground level 3.0 - 4.5m AHD

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 22 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
5 Process units

5.1 ATTP feed water management


Provision will be made to supply secondary effluent to the ATTP either from the Forebay
or from the Secondary Effluent Channel prior to the Forebay to provide a feed water
selection option for the ATTP.

During normal operation the Forebay provides some effluent polishing prior to
chlorination and off-site discharge by the OPS. However, under certain conditions such
as high wind events, settled particulate matter can be re-suspended in the Forebay.

It is proposed that at times when the effluent from the Secondary Effluent Channel is of
better quality than that from the EHBs the feed to the ATTP should be taken directly
from the Secondary Effluent Channel to optimise ATTP performance. The benefit of
such a provision has been demonstrated through the Tertiary Technology Trials.

This alternative supply provision will be achieved by the construction of a new concrete
channel between the Secondary Effluent Channel and the EHB Return Channel west of
the OPS. The channel will be hydraulically sized for the peak flow to the ATTP and the
balance of any wet weather flow that exceeds this will pass through the Forebay to the
other holding basins. The new channel structure will be controlled with gates to allow
the source of the feed to the ATTP to be switched between either the Forebay outlet or
the Secondary Effluent Channel prior to the Forebay.

5.2 Tertiary Supply Pump Station


The TSPS is required to supply secondary effluent feed water to the ATTP. This pump
station will provide all the hydraulic head for flow through the ATTP to the OPS.

The capacity of the pump station is based on the peak flow requirement as set out in
Section 3.3.2 including filter washwater and process recycle allowances. Refer to the
process flow diagram in Appendix B for further detail.

Design parameters for the TSPS are presented in Table 5.1 below.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 23 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
Table 5.1 Tertiary Supply Pump Station design basis

Design Parameter Units Size


Maximum influent flow ML/d 810
No. of pumps operating at max design flow No. 5
No of standby pumps at max design flow No. 2
3
Design flow per pump m /h 6,750
Max pumping head m 13m
Motor size kW 450
Pump control - Variable speed

The maximum pump station flow for the proposed process design is 760 ML/d.
However, it is proposed to provide an increased feed flow of 810 ML/d to provide the
flexibility to facilitate future augmentation of the plant, as discussed further in Section 8,
which would increase internal recycle flows. Provision of this additional capacity has no
notable impact on pump station design and cost as the pump head drives the design basis
rather than flow. Furthermore, incremental augmentation once the pump station is
constructed would incur increased complexity without offering any quantifiable staging
benefits.

Variable speed drives are proposed to allow a smooth transition of flows to the ATTP and
allow fine process control. It is expected that the pump station will generally be operated
to match the operation of the OPS, although there is hydraulic buffer capacity in the TWS
under average conditions to allow the TSPS to run at a constant flow while the OPS flow
changes between one and two pump output.

The flow will be transferred from the pump station in two equally sized pipelines which
include flow meters. It is intended that either pipeline can be isolated for maintenance.

Secondary effluent feed flow from the activated sludge plant to the TSPS will be
balanced in the EHBs. There is sufficient storage volume in these basins to allow ATTP
flows to be relatively independent of the ETP flows, including operation to facilitate
treatment efficiency and use of off peak power tariffs under dry weather conditions.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 24 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
5.3 Ozone treatment

5.3.1 Description
Ozone will be used in the ATTP to provide the following benefits:
• Reduce colour, odour, and foam formation potential
• Increase effluent UVT
• Provide pathogen reduction (disinfection)
• Oxygenate feed to the downstream BMF process to support nitrification
• Provide microflocculation of particulate matter

The design and sizing of the ozone system is primarily determined by the colour
reduction and pathogen reduction requirements, with the other functions being met
incidentally.

5.3.2 Ozone system design basis


Ozone will be generated from oxygen using on-site ozone generation equipment. The
oxygen supply to the ozone generators will come from two sources. The primary oxygen
supply will be a Vacuum Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) system which will provide
the base load to the generators (normal dry weather operating flows). The VPSA supply
will be supplemented by liquid oxygen (LOx) supplied from a bulk onsite storage facility.
The LOx system will provide additional oxygen to allow ozone production to be
increased under peak conditions. The LOx system also provides standby capacity to the
VPSA system allowing maintenance to be carried out on the VPSA system without
interruption to plant operation.

The VPSA system, ozone generators and LOx control systems will be housed within a
building. The LOx tanks and vapourisers will be located in a fenced yard adjacent to the
building.

The design of the ozone system, comprising integrated oxygen supply and ozone
generation, is complex and therefore there is scope for design optimisation to deliver the
lowest whole-of-life costs. The concept design presented in this report is based on
preliminary optimisation studies to date and it is possible that the approach will be
refined as part of subsequent design activities. In particular, details around the ozone
generation rate, oxygen supply rate and the distribution between on-site oxygen
generation and LOx consumption may change as the design is further developed.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 25 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
Ozone generation system

The design flow, ozone doses, and resultant production that were used to size the ozone
system equipment are listed in Table 5.2. Note that the design flows for the ozone system
are higher than the ATTP treated water output at each operating condition due to the
additional feed flow required to account for the BMF backwash stream.

Table 5.2 Ozone generation design conditions

Condition Flow (ML/d) Transferred Ozone demand


ATTP Ozone ozone dose (kg/hr)
output system (mg/L)
One OPS pump 311 324 10 135
Annual average 380 400 10 165
Two OPS pumps 570 606 10 250
Three OPS pumps 708 744 8 250

The ozone doses in Table 5.2 have been derived from the Tertiary Technology Trials, and
refer to effectively transferred ozone doses as compared to applied doses which are
subject to transfer efficiency considerations. One and two OPS pump flow conditions are
typically associated with dry weather flow conditions at ETP. A reduced dose for the
three OPS pump flow condition is applicable as this flow condition is associated with wet
weather flow to the ETP in which case the contaminants (such as colour) in the effluent
are generally diluted by the increased flow. Consequently, the same total amount of
ozone is required to treat the two and three OPS pump flow conditions. Furthermore,
ozone production can be temporarily increased above the design production rate if
required as discussed further below.

The ozone system will be sized on the basis of producing ozone gas from oxygen at 10
percent ozone by weight (wt%). There is a balance between optimal capital and operating
cost and design ozone gas concentration for oxygen-fed ozone systems. Operating at
higher ozone gas concentrations reduces the oxygen feed gas system costs but generally
increases the ozone generation plant costs because the specific energy (kWh/kg ozone)
required to produce the ozone increases. In contrast, operating at lower ozone gas
concentration substantially increases amount of oxygen gas used but lowers the ozone
generation plant costs.

Preliminary studies have suggested that the optimal ozone gas concentration for the
ATTP is 10 wt% ozone. However further review will be undertaken during subsequent
design development and refinement activities. A feature of designing on the basis of
10 wt% ozone is that the output of an ozone generator can be boosted by up to 30% by

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 26 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
increasing the oxygen feed gas rate and dropping the ozone gas concentration down to 6-
7 wt%. This feature will be incorporated into the system and therefore provides both
redundancy above and beyond the allowance of a standby ozone generator and increased
ozone production in the event of high load conditions.

Another consideration in the design of the ozone system is how effectively the ozone will
be transferred to the process flow stream. The ozone quantities presented in Table 5.2
above are effectively applied quantities and the actual ozone production rate must be
higher to account for transfer efficiency. The transfer efficiency of the proposed ozone
injection system is very high at around 96% and therefore has only a minor impact on
ozone production rate requirements.

A summary of the ozone system design basis is provided in Table 5.3.

Table 5.3 Ozone system design basis

Description Units Value


Required applied ozone mass rate kg/hr 250 (refer Table 5.2)
Ozone transfer efficiency % 96%
Required ozone production rate kg/hr 260
Design ozone gas concentration wt% 10
Adopted ozone generator capacity at design kg/hr 66
ozone gas concentration, (each)
No. of generators No. 5 (4-duty / 1-standby)
Actual ozone production capacity at design kg/hr 264 at 10 wt% ozone
concentration
Individual ozone generator capacity at varying - 66 kg/hr at 10 wt% ozone
ozone gas concentrations 72 kg/hr at 9 wt% (range 69 – 75)
78 kg/hr at 8 wt% (range 73 – 83)
83 kg/hr at 7 wt% (range 75 – 91)
87 kg/hr at 6 wt% (range 77 – 96)
Design ozone gas flow condition:
- ozone production rate (max.) - 330 kg/hr at 10 wt% ozone
- total gas flow rate (i.e. ozone/oxygen) - 3,300 kg/hr

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 27 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
Oxygen supply system - generation & LOx

The estimated range of oxygen feed gas consumption rates for ozone generation is
presented in Table 5.4. The total oxygen feed gas requirement will be met through a
combination of on-site generation and onsite LOx storage.

Table 5.4 Estimated oxygen consumption rates for ozone generation

Description Units Minimum Average Maximum


Design case - 1 OPS pump flow average annual flow 3 OPS pump flow
10wt% ozone 10wt% ozone 10wt% ozone
Oxygen consumption tonnes/d 34 42 78

Oxygen will be generated from air by a VPSA oxygen plant. VPSA plants generally
perform most efficiently when operated within a specific range of their design capacity.
Sizing one VPSA plant for the maximum oxygen consumption rate would present
turndown problems to achieve the minimum rate and lead to the requirement for two
VPSA plants at 50% of the maximum rate. Alternatively, the VPSA plant can be sized at
less than the maximum consumption rate with the balance met by LOx. The relative
contribution from each oxygen source impacts on a range of considerations including
capital cost, operating cost, energy consumption, reliability and availability, and LOx
truck deliveries.

Based on consideration of feasible plant operating regimes and preliminary whole of life
analyses, the expected capacity of the VPSA plant is from 34 to 50 tonnes/d. The
specific sizing of the VPSA plant will be reviewed through the course of subsequent
design development and optimisation activities and is dependent on the overall plant
operational philosophy to achieve lowest whole of life costs and address environmental
considerations.

Given that oxygen generation plants produce oxygen-rich product gas from atmospheric
air, the by-product of oxygen generation is predominantly nitrogen that has been removed
from the air feed gas (air is 21% oxygen and 79% nitrogen with some trace gases).

Additional oxygen supply required to meet ozone generation requirements beyond that
met by the VPSA plant will be provided from an onsite LOx system. The LOx system
also provides redundancy at times when the VPSA plant is unavailable, such as during
routine maintenance tasks or unplanned outage.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 28 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
The LOx system comprises bulk cryogenic storage, vapourisers and flow control systems.
The key design features of the LOx system are the storage capacity and number of days
between tanker deliveries, and the capacity of the vaporiser and gas flow control systems.
During normal operation the LOx system will supply any oxygen required in excess of
the VPSA output to meet the ozone generation rate. The LOx system, including the
vaporiser and gas flow control systems with complete modulated turndown, will be sized
to meet the maximum oxygen consumption rate of 78 tonnes/d in the event of the VPSA
being unavailable.

The proposed LOx storage capacity is presented in Table 5.5.

Table 5.5 LOx design basis

Description Units Value


No. of LOx storage vessels No. 3
Capacity per vessel (each) L 64,000
Total storage provided L 192,000
Size of LOx truck delivery L 15,000

This design basis provides for the following scenarios:


• Based on the lower bound VPSA plant capacity of 34 tonnes/d:
– Given that this VPSA plant capacity is less than the estimated average
oxygen consumption rate of 42 tonnes/d, LOx would be used on a routine
basis to make up the difference. The annual average LOx consumption
would be around 8 tonnes/d or 2,900 tonnes/yr, and would require around
three 15,000 L LOx tanker deliveries per week, or 150 deliveries a year.
– At average loading conditions with the VPSA in operation there would be
around 23 days LOx storage with no deliveries.
– There would be the ability to maintain operation at average flow conditions
with the VPSA out of service and operating on LOx alone for 4 days with
no LOx deliveries, and 7 days with one LOx delivery per day. The plant
could maintain operation at peak conditions with the VPSA out of service
and operating on LOx alone for around 3 days with one LOx delivery per
day.
• Based on the upper bound VPSA plant capacity of 50 tonnes/d:
– Given that this VPSA plant capacity is greater than the average oxygen
consumption rate of 42 tonnes/d, LOx would not be required on a routine
basis depending on the operational philosophy of the ATTP and its flow rate
relative to the OPS flow rate. Rather, LOx would only be used when the
oxygen consumption rate exceeded 50 tonnes/d and this is estimated to be

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 29 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
<25% of the time. The annual average LOx consumption would be around
700 to 1,500 tonnes/yr, and would require around 40 to 90 deliveries a year.
– At average loading conditions with the VPSA in operation there would be
no demand on LOx storage if the ATTP is operated at a constant flow rate.
– The ability to maintain operation with the VPSA out of service and
operating on LOx alone would be the same as described in the case of the
34 tonnes/d VPSA plant.

From the above scenarios it is evident that a larger VPSA plant capacity provides the
opportunity to reduce LOx consumption. Considering that using oxygen from LOx
produced off-site is typically more expensive than that produced from an on-site VPSA
plant, the increase in capital costs for a larger VPSA plant can be offset by cost savings of
not using LOx. Further to costs, the whole of life analysis to be undertaken as part of
subsequent design development activities to determine the preferred VPSA plant capacity
will also consider environmental considerations including greenhouse impacts and truck
movements.

Ozone plant cooling system

The ozone generation process results in the production of significant amounts of heat and
the generators operate most efficiently at low temperatures. A cooling system is
therefore required and it is currently proposed to provide a cooling water system
comprising the following elements:
1. A closed loop cooling water circuit between the ozone generators and the heat
exchangers including a circulation pump station.
2. An open loop cooling water circuit including a supply pump station to and from
the heat exchangers.

The closed loop side will be potable or deionised water with appropriate treatments and
the open loop side will be a once through system utilising product water from the ATTP.
Double plate and frame heat exchangers will be used to keep the closed and open loop
streams completely separate.

The open loop cooling water will be drawn from the TWS discharge pipe via a
submersible pump station and discharged to the same pipe downstream of the pump
station and upstream of the OPS. The closed loop flow rate will vary depending on the
number of ozone generators in operation, and the open loop flow rate will vary according
to the open loop water temperature and system cooling duty. The temperature rise in the
open loop cooling water and treated effluent flow will be less than 2˚C and 0.1˚C
respectively.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 30 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
The design basis for the cooling water system is presented in Table 5.6.

Table 5.6 Ozone plant cooling system design basis

Description Units Value


Open loop flow (fixed) ML/d 53
Open loop pipe diameter mm 600
No. of open loop supply pumps No. 3 (2-duty, 1-standby)
Closed loop flow (max.) ML/d 53
No. of closed loop circulation pumps No. 5 (4-duty, 1-standby)
No. of heat exchangers No. 3
Max. cooling system duty (heat load) MW 2.4

The design of the ozone plant cooling system will be reviewed and refined as part of
subsequent design activities, including consideration of other cooling system
configurations including air-to-water heat exchangers and chillers. Ultimately the
specific requirements of the cooling system are dependent on the specific ozone generator
supplier selected.

Ozone injection and contactor

The ozone gas will be injected into twin grade 316L stainless steel pipeline contactors to
ensure efficient transfer of ozone into the main process flow. The ozone will be
consumed rapidly, however a large amount of oxygen gas will remain dissolved/entrained
in the water (at 10wt% ozone feed gas concentration, around 90% of the feed gas is
oxygen).

A side-stream ozone injection system will be used. In this system the ozone is injected
into a small portion of the flow to be treated (the “side-stream” flow). The side-stream
flow is then re-injected into the main flow using a series of jet nozzles to ensure rapid
mixing and dispersion of the ozone. This system allows very high ozone transfer
efficiencies, in the order of 96%, to be achieved. The ozone side-stream equipment
design basis is presented in the Table 5.7 below.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 31 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
Table 5.7 Ozone side-stream injection design basis

Description Units Value


No. of side-stream trains No. 7 (6-duty, 1-standby)
No. of injectors and motive water pumps per train No. 1
Injector water inlet pressure kPa(g) 35
3
Motive water pump flow (each train) m /hr 232
Motive water pump head (each train) m 38
Side-stream flow as a percentage of main process flow % 4-6
Max. total power rating (motive water pumps) kW 275

The design basis for the ozone contactors is provided in Table 5.8.

Table 5.8 Ozone contactor design basis

Description Units Value


Average Annual Flow Peak Flow (future)
Process flow at contactors ML/d 401 810
No. of contactor pipelines No. 2
Contactor diameter (each) m 2.0
Contactor pipe length (each) m 195
3
Total contactor volume m 1,404(1)
Retention time mins 5 2.5
Notes:
(1) includes 224m3 at BMF inlet structure prior to degassing

The ozone contactor pipelines will discharge to an open water surface via stilling
chambers at the BMF inlet. This is an enclosed chamber that will allow the release and
collection of any entrained gas from the contactors. The chamber will also include water
spays to suppress any scum formation caused by the release of the entrained gas.

Ozone dosing involves applying large quantities of ozone gas (which is 90% oxygen) and
while some of the applied gas will remain in solution in the main process flow most of it
will leave the main process flow once it exits the contactor pipelines. It is expected that
there will normally be no significant ozone residual at the end of the ozone contactors.
However, some residual ozone gas may remain unreacted and therefore any off-gas will
be collected and treated to ensure safe discharge to the atmosphere.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 32 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
Ozone destruction system

The off-gas pressure in the BMF inlet chamber headspace will be controlled and off-gas
conveyed to the ozone destruction units.

The residual ozone in the off-gas is destructed by a thermal catalytic reaction which
simply speeds up the natural decay of ozone to oxygen. The ozone destruction units will
consist of a preheater, catalyst bed, and fan. The ozone destruction system will be sized
to treat the maximum gas flow rate with up to 1 wt% ozone, and there will be one
destruction unit for each ozone generator because turndown of fans or compressors is less
than the turndown of generating equipment.

The design basis for the ozone destruction system is listed in Table 5.9.

Table 5.9 Ozone destruction system design basis

Description Units Value


Maximum inlet gas concentration wt% 1.0
No. of destruction units No. 5 (4-duty, 1-standby)
Off-gas destruction capacity kg/hr 3,300
tonnes/d 79

5.4 Biological media filtration

5.4.1 Description
Downstream of ozonation, the water is filtered by means of gravity down-flow deep bed
granular media filtration. Due to a combination of the composition of the effluent and the
effects of ozonation, a biological population (or biomass) will develop on the filter media
and therefore they are referred to as biological media filters (BMF). The BMF process
provides the following treatment functions:

• Removal of particulate matter through media filtration to reduce effluent solids


and turbidity, and facilitate more efficient downstream disinfection stages and
more efficient operation of any future membrane installation
• Nitrification of ammonia
• Biodegradation of dissolved organic material
• Removal of foam formers and precursors to fat ball formation

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 33 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
5.4.2 Biological media filtration design basis
Feed water pre-treatment by ozone results in the formation of a fixed-film biomass on the
filter media. Typically granular activated carbon (GAC) media is used in conjunction
with ozone pre-treatment and the development of biomass means it is generally referred
to as biological activated carbon (BAC). The use of activated carbon, which has a
microporous structure and is able offer extensive sites for biomass development,
originates from its use in drinking water applications. An alternative to GAC is anthracite
filtration media, which does not have the same pore structure or surface adsorption
properties but has been trialled alongside GAC and was found to offer comparable
treatment performance while potentially offering some advantages at full-scale. At this
stage the functionality of both media types appears similar and a final choice will be
made based on further investigation and design work. In recognition of this, the generic
term biological media filtration (BMF) which covers both GAC and anthracite media is
subsequently used instead of BAC.

The filters will treat design flows at a peak filtration rate of up to 12 m/h with three filters
offline (either due to backwashing, maintenance or unplanned equipment failure). This
peak filtration rate is consistent with best practice approaches to drinking water and
recycled water media filtration applications. Provision will be made to enable BMF feed
flows up to the full design flow to be sent either downstream to UV disinfection or
returned upstream of the ATTP for re-treatment in the unlikely event that the whole
filtration system is taken out of service.

At this stage of design it is proposed to provide the required filter area using 36 filters.
However, considering the very large size of this filtration system alternative
configurations are being investigated to ensure the optimum configuration is adopted.

In addition, a number of different media bed configurations have been investigated


through the Tertiary Technology Trials with little to separate them in performance. At
this stage it is proposed to adopt a media bed comprising 1.3mm anthracite and 0.6mm
sand, although this configuration is subject to optimization through additional pilot
testing and detailed design work. Minor variation of the backwash air scour rate and
backwash water rise rate may also be adopted as these are dependent on the specific
media characteristics.

The design basis for the BMF process is presented in Table 5.10 below.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 34 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
Table 5.10 BMF design basis (nominal(1))

Design Parameter Units Value


Max. hydraulic design feed flow ML/d 810
Max. treatment design product flow ML/d 708
Max. headloss m 2.5
No. of filters No. 36
Filter dimensions m 13.2 by 6.0 filter floor area
Filter area (per filter) m2 80
Filter area (total) m2 2,850
Media depth m 2.0
Media material and grade - 1.7 m anthracite (size 1.3 + 0.1mm)
0.3 m sand (size 0.6 + 0.1mm)
Filtration rate with three filters offline m/h 3xOPS pump design flow (708 MLD): 12
Max. no. of backwashes per day No./d 2
Design backwash bed expansion % 30
Backwash air scour rate m/h 60
Backwash water rise rate m/h 54
Notes:
(1) Final choice of media types, sizes and depths will be made based on further investigation and design work. Design finalisation
may result in minor changes to other design parameters such as backwash air scour and water rise rate.

Filter arrangement and operation

The ozonated and oxygenated water will enter a common main filter channel that feeds
36 filters, subdivided into 4 banks of 9 filters. The filter block layout includes design
elements such as common feed channels to banks of filters with product water following
a similar network of channels located underneath the feed channel network.
Each filter will be individually controlled through air operated, automatic filter control
valve and outlet flowmeter at their discharge. These will ensure a controlled filtration
rate and ensures an even split of flows to each filter. Inlet weirs are not used for filter
flow split in order to minimise head loss and to maximise the retention of dissolved
oxygen in the ozonated water.
Water for the filter backwash operation will be drawn from a filtered water tank at the
filter outlet. A backwash wastewater tank will provide balancing storage for dirty
backwash water prior to return for processing. The backwash sequence will consist of air
scour, combined air and water washing, and water washing only to maximise solids
removal from the bed during cleaning.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 35 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
A conservative filter maximum filtration rate of up to 12 m/h has been selected with three
filters out of service (either two filters backwashing simultaneously and one filter out of
service, or one filter in backwash and two filter out of service) at maximum design flow.
Under typical average conditions the actual filter loading rate will be significantly lower
at around 6 to 7 m/h.
The standard operating methodology will generally involve only a single backwash per
day for each filter. Under average flow and load conditions it is anticipated that the filter
run time will be approximately 24 hours. In the event of peak secondary effluent solids
loads the filter run times may reduce down to 12 hours, equating to an increase in
backwash frequency from once per day to a maximum of twice per day.
Each filter will function independently and therefore the non-availability of any given
filter will not hinder the operation of other filters.
The filters will be equipped with filter-to-waste functionality to ensure filtered water
quality immediately following backwash. This is inline with best practice management
for filters in drinking water plants. Three options have been considered to managing the
filter-to-waste discharge:

1. Return to the head of the ATTP or to the inlet of the BMF system for re-treatment.
This could be achieved by providing a balancing tank and pump system to
moderate the flows, and either providing a dedicated pipeline or creating a tie-in
with another pipeline and increasing its capacity.
2. Discharge to the BMF spent wash water handling system and ultimately the head
of the ATTP for re-treatment. This would require slightly increasing the
hydraulic capacity of this system.
3. Discharge to the BMF back wash supply tank to reduce the quantity of in-spec
filtered water used for backwashing.

At this stage of design it is proposed to adopt the second option as it maximises product
water quality and does not require additional infrastructure.

Filter washing

The filter backwash process is fully automated, and will be initiated by any one of the
events listed in Table 5.11 below. A priority queue arrangement will be provided for
washing of filters.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 36 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
Table 5.11 BMF washing events

Wash trigger Description


Timer When any filter has been in service for a predetermined time, a filter wash
will be automatically initiated. The in-service time for each filter will be an
adjustable timer
High headloss When the pressure drop across the media of any filter reaches a high setpoint,
a filter wash will be automatically initiated.
High outlet turbidity When the filtered water turbidity of any filter reaches a pre-determined
setpoint, a filter wash will be automatically initiated. The turbidity setpoint
will be adjustable.
Manually initiated Manual initiation of filter back wash will also be possible

Filter backwash supply holding tank

The filter backwash holding tank is provided to store clean filtered water needed to
backwash the filters. The tank will be reinforced concrete as part of the filter structure.
The tank will be equipped with level monitoring instrumentation as part of the control
system.

The design basis for the BMF backwash supply holding tank is presented in Table 5.12.

Table 5.12 BMF backwash supply holding tank design basis

Design Parameter Units Size


No. of tanks No. 1
3
Tank working volume (each) m 1,500
No. of backwashes held at peak backwash frequency No. 3(1)
Notes:
(1) 1 backwash volume = the water needed to backwash one filter cell

Filter backwash pumps

The filter backwash pumps will be horizontal-mounted dry well centrifugal units. The
provision of variable speed motors will allow the backwash regime to be optimised to suit
actual performance on site and adjusted to suit seasonal water temperature changes. The
pumps will be of sufficient capacity to allow up to 30% expansion and restratification of
the bed. The pumps will draw water from the filter backwash supply holding tank.

The design basis for the filter backwash pumps is presented in Table 5.13 below.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 37 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
Table 5.13 BMF backwash pumps design basis (1)

Design Parameter Units Size


No. of pumps No. 5 (4 duty , 1 standby)
Design head m 15
3
Design flow (each) m /h 2,000
Power rating (each) kW 110
Notes:
(1) Based on current media selection – minor variations are possible for alternate media choices

The backwash pumps and associated air scour blower system will be housed within a
building located adjacent to the filter block.

Filter instrumentation

Filter instrumentation required for normal operation and monitoring, including expected
HACCP monitoring provisions, include the following:

• Level measurement for level control of each filter


• Differential pressure measurement across the filter media beds of each cell for
headloss measurement
• Filtered water flow measurement for each filter to control filtration rates
• Ability to measure filtered water turbidity for each filter

5.5 UV disinfection system

5.5.1 Description
The UV system provides a disinfection barrier through the inactivation of pathogenic
organisms. The UV system is designed to provide a minimum of 4-log inactivation of
protozoa (Cryptosporidium) and bacteria (E. coli).

The UV system has been based on low pressure, high output (LPHO) UV technology.
Both medium pressure and low pressure high output options were investigated. LPHO
was determined to be the most suited to this application based on a whole-of-life cost
analysis.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 38 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
The LPHO UV technology selected at this stage of design includes the following
features:

• Variable output lamps capable of turndown to 55% of maximum output per bank
• Automated Clean-In-Place lamp system to ensure optimum lamp performance
• Systems to control UV dose relative to UV transmittance and flow

The UV system may be either open channel system or a closed reactor system. The open
channel system requires a free water surface and therefore has to be located at the
elevation of the hydraulic grade line. The closed reactor system operates under pressure
within a pipe. This means that it can be located below the hydraulic grade line offering
greater flexibility in design location.

At this stage the concept design is based on an open channel configuration. However, a
closed reactor configuration may offer benefits in terms of hydraulic profile and plant
layout and therefore the final UV system configuration will be reviewed and confirmed as
part of future design development activities. The disinfection performance of either
configuration will be identical.

5.5.2 UV system design basis


The filtered water quality resulting from upstream ozone-BMF treatment is suitable for
UV disinfection. The filtered water turbidity will typically be around 1 NTU as a median
and < 2 NTU as a 90th percentile. Ozone-BMF treatment (predominantly ozone)
significantly increases the UV transmittance thereby significantly reducing the specific
power required to provide a nominal UV dose. UV disinfection system feedwater UV
transmittance will be a key process control parameter.

The BMF filtered water will enter a common channel on route to UV disinfection. The
exact configuration of the UV system is dependent on the final supplier selection (each
supplier has differences in design details) and therefore the design details presented in the
following paragraphs are nominal only.

The inlet channel to the UV disinfection facility will be designed to provide good flow
distribution and consistent feed to the UV system. The flow from each UV channel will
flow into a common channel, which continues to the TWS.

The nominal design allows for five parallel channels, each channel containing three banks
of lamps arranged in series. The final number of channels and UV banks will depend on
the UV vendor selected. Each of the open channel bays includes two sets of penstocks.
The influent penstock arrangement is for channel bay isolation. The downstream
penstock is a modulating weir type which controls flow while providing a constant water

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 39 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
level in the channel bay and ensuring the correct submergence of the UV lamps at all
times. The number of banks of lamps operating in each channel can be varied and the
power output of each bank of lamps can also be varied. This provides a nominal 6 to 1
turndown per channel allowing optimisation of power consumption.

The number of channels and banks of lamps in operation, and the lamp output in each
bank will be controlled by an algorithm designed by the UV system supplier to ensure
that the design UV dose is achieved. Each module will be able to be readily removed
from the bank and replaced without moving or disconnecting the other modules in the
bank, or without the need to empty the UV channel.

A superstructure will be located directly above the open channel system. The first level
of the structure is open, allowing maintenance access and removal of lamp modules. A
monorail and hoist are provided for each row of module banks. The UV switch room will
be located on the second level of the structure, where the UV ballast panels and UV
system distribution board will be located.

The nominal design basis for the UV disinfection system is provided in Table 5.14.

Table 5.14 UV disinfection system design basis (nominal(1))

Design Parameter Units Size


Design peak flow ML/d 708
Design average flow ML/d 380
Design UV transmittance % 55
Average UV transmittance % 64
Turbidity NTU Typically 1, 90th percentile <2
Target log reduction value (LRV) - 4-LRV protozoa (Cryptosporidium)
4-LRV bacteria (E. Coli)
Nominal validated UV dose mJ/cm2 22(2)
Lamp type - Low pressure high output
Number and dimensions of channels - 5 No. 1.6m deep x 2.9m wide x 15m long
Number of banks per channel No. 3
Total no. of lamps No. 3,200
Maximum power kW 800
Flow control device - Modulating weir
Notes:
(1) UV disinfection system design is ultimately dependent on the specific UV technology supplier engaged to deliver the system
(2) As per USEPA Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidance Manual for the Final Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule,
November 2006

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 40 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
5.6 Chlorine disinfection

5.6.1 Description
Chlorine disinfection is the final treatment step of the ATTP and will provide an
additional disinfection barrier, particularly with regard to virus and bacteria. The chlorine
disinfection system will utilise the existing ETP chlorine plant and be capable of
operating in both free chlorine and combined chlorine (chloramine) disinfection modes.
Chlorination will be controlled to meet disinfection requirements and residual targets.

5.6.2 Chlorine disinfection system design basis

Chlorine dosing

The following chlorine dosing points will be provided:


• At the inlet to the TWS, which will be the primary chlorine dosing point for the
ATTP.
• The existing dosing point at the suction of the OPS pumps will be retained as a
back-up chlorine dosing point. In the unlikely event of the ATTP having to be
bypassed, this dosing point will therefore remain available to chlorinate
secondary effluent before it is discharged from site as per current practice.

The chlorine dose to the main process flow will be controlled by a flow-paced control
algorithm that is trimmed based on on-line chlorine residual measurement. The flow
input will be from a flow meter located immediately downstream of the chlorine injection
point. The chlorine residual will be monitored by on-line analysers.

Chlorine will be supplied from the existing gaseous chlorine facilities on the ETP site.
No additional storage is proposed. Chlorine transfer to each of the dosing points will be
as a supersaturated aqueous chlorine solution as per the current system. Chlorine will not
be transferred to any dosing point as liquid or gaseous chlorine. Some chlorination
equipment augmentation may be required to account for the longer transfer distance to
the proposed dosing point at the inlet to the TWS as compared to current dosing point at
the OPS.

Upstream ozone-BMF treatment has the capability to produce treated water with very low
ammonia levels through its ability to nitrify residual ammonia in the secondary effluent.
Therefore, chlorination will generally be in the form of free chlorine for a majority of the
time. There is potential for ammonia concentration to increase as a result of certain

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 41 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
events such as higher plant flows associated with peak wet weather events. Under such
circumstances low levels of ammonia will be breakpoint chlorinated as determined by the
chlorination system capacity, or alternatively the chlorination mode will be switched
from free chlorination to combined chlorination (chloramination) as per current practice
at ETP. The design of the ATTP will address both chlorine disinfection modes.

Chlorine will be contacted with the main process flow in the TWS which will be designed
and operated to provide the required chlorine contact time for final disinfection. When
operating in combined chlorine mode, the TWS will operated at close to its maximum
operating level in order to maximise contact time. The actual retention time will be
continuously controlled and monitored using a combination of ATTP and OPS flow,
TWS outlet gates, and TWS level transmitters thereby enabling the Ct value to be
calculated for process monitoring, compliance and reporting purposes.

The design operating conditions for the chlorine disinfection system is presented in
Table 5.15 below.

Table 5.15 Chlorine disinfection system design basis

Design Parameter Units Chlorine Disinfection Mode


Free Chlorine Combined Chlorine
(typical operation) (chloramine)
Ct mg.min/L 40(1) 345
Design chlorine residual mg/L 1 5
Required contact time mins 40 69
Design min baffling factor - 0.6
3
Minimum gross contact tank m 35,100 60,500
volume (max. 758 ML/d future
flow)
Median chlorine use kg/d 1,580 N/A
Peak chlorine use (max. output kg/d 7,200 N/A
of duty chlorinators)
Notes:
(1) The design basis for free chlorine is a Ct of 10 to 40 mg.min/L representing the lower and upper bounds subject to confirmation
through further investigations.

Chlorine handling and leakage monitoring will be in accordance with Dangerous Goods
Regulations, and chlorine solution will be run in double contained pipes which will drain
to safe collection points.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 42 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
Dechlorination

When the chlorine disinfection system is operating in combined chlorine


(chloramination) mode the chlorine residual at the outlet of the TWS will be up to 5 mg/L
chlorine. Chloramines are a persistent form of chlorine and such a residual without
adjustment would be expected to result in elevated residual chlorine at the Truemans
Road sampling point. Therefore a dechlorination system will be provided to control and
limit the final treated water chlorine concentration. The basis of the design is to lower the
total chlorine concentration to approximately the current operating levels of 1.0 mg/L at
the OPS. Dechlorination is expected to be rarely required.

The dechlorination process involves dosing a reducing agent that reacts readily with
chlorine and lowers the chlorine concentration in the treated water. Reducing agents are
typically used to achieve dechlorination with sodium bisulphite, sodium metabisulphite,
and sulphur dioxide being the most common chemicals used. Sodium bisulphite has been
selected as it is readily available in liquid form thereby eliminating many OH&S issues
compared to solid sodium metabisulphite.

Sodium bisulphite will be dosed into the treated water storage basin discharge chamber
based on flow and residual chlorine levels if needed. The design dosing regime is
described in Table 5.16 below.

Table 5.16 Sodium bisulphite design basis

Design Parameter Units Value


Design excess chlorine to be removed mg/L 5
Design dose ratio SO2:Cl 0.9:1
SO2 concentration - 20%
Design sodium bisulphite solution dose mg/L 22.5

Sodium bisulphite will be stored in bunded tanks immediately adjacent to the dosing
point. Filling of the chemical tanks would be via tanker from a bunded loading station
and tanker standing area.

5.7 Treated water storage


The preferred location for the TWS is south of the ATTP and between the SEHB and the
Chelsea-Frankston Sewer as set out in the conceptual view and outline layout drawings in
Appendix B. This location simplifies construction, provides footprint flexibility,

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 43 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
maximises free storage in the existing EHBs, and locates the TWS away from the
secondary effluent in the EHBs.

A minimum combined TWS volume of 64 ML is proposed. The TWS will comprise two
identical basins of 32 ML each. The basins will be internally baffled to achieve the
design minimum baffling factor of 0.6 (e.g. actual minimum retention time will be 0.6 of
total volume theoretical retention time).

Proposed basin construction uses earthen construction with a 2:1 (horizontal: vertical)
sloping wall with sand and crushed rock under a geotextile and polypropylene liner. The
basins include concrete inlet and outlet structures, an access ramp, and an emergency
high level overflow routed to the EHBs. The TWS is located above ground water level,
and minimum operating level in the TWS is above local ground level. This prevents
potential contamination via infiltration from groundwater. The basin includes a cover
system complete with drainage arrangements to convey rainwater off the surface of the
basins, again protecting the ATTP final treated water from contamination.

The TWS includes an inlet structure with penstocks to isolate flow to either storage basin
for maintenance. The inlet structure includes chlorine residual monitoring to provide
feedback to control the chlorination dosing upstream of the storage basins. Chlorinated
treated water is combined at the outlet structure and directed to the OPS for conveyance
offsite. The outlet structure will also includes gates for basin isolation for maintenance.
The provision of control gates for basin level/flow control in relation to chlorine
disinfection control will be reviewed.

5.8 Residuals management

5.8.1 Description
The BMF process will capture and remove residual suspended solids from the secondary
effluent and therefore produce an additional residual solids stream. The nature and
quantities of this residual solids stream are discussed in further detail in Section 7.9.2.

This new residual solids stream will essentially be the same as the plant’s existing
secondary waste activated sludge (WAS) stream and will be treated accordingly,
including thickening, stabilisation in the existing anaerobic digesters to produce biogas
and discharge to the existing sludge drying pans.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 44 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
5.8.2 Backwash balancing tank
Spent backwash from the BMF process will flow by gravity to the backwash balancing
tank. The tank is required to balance the intermittent flows from the BMF backwash and
allow a steady feed to the downstream solids separation and thickening process. The size
of the backwash balancing tank is based on the peak flow received from the BMF system.
Each filter requires backwashing once a day on average and a maximum of twice per day,
with up to 2 filters being washed at one time. Additional storage capacity in the
balancing tank is also provided to allow for short term mechanical failures in the residual
solids handling system.

The backwash balancing tank is split into two concrete tanks, each with a working
volume of 1,000 m3, and will be located partially below ground level. The tanks will
have a common inlet structure which receives the gravity flow via a pipeline from the
BMF. This inlet includes an overflow weir to the Chelsea-Frankston Sewer, which leads
to the head of the ETP process, to allow the residual solids separation and thickening
process to be bypassed in the event of major mechanical failure.

Under normal operation the homogeneity of the spent backwash water will be maintained
by low energy submersible mixers located in the tanks. The mixers will retain solids in
suspension while allowing small amounts of carried over filter media to settle. The filters
can be expected to lose up to about 2% of their media per annum. This equates to about
100 m3 per annum of media that will need to be removed from the spent backwash prior
to the solids separation and thickening process. The two tanks allow one tank to be taken
offline for maintenance, including the removal of trapped media using a suction tanker
from a sump in each tank. Other options for removal of trapped media will be considered
during the detailed design.

Spent backwash water will be transferred from the backwash balancing tank to the
downstream solids separation and thickening process via a pump well fitted with
submersible pumps.

5.8.3 Residual solids separation and thickening – tertiary DAFT


system
The BMF backwash stream will have a low solids concentration and therefore the
residual solids will be separated from the liquid stream and thickened to a target
concentration of up to 3% dry solids so as to be suitable for addition to the existing
anaerobic digesters.

At this stage of design it is proposed to provide a dissolved air flotation thickening


(DAFT) system for this purpose which is directly comparable to the DAF process

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 45 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
successfully employed at ETP for thickening the current WAS stream. Alternative
treatment processes, including sedimentation, are also being reviewed and assessed as
part of ongoing design development activities to determine the preferred approach based
on whole of life cost and environmental considerations.

The DAFT process involves dissolving air in water under pressure and then releasing the
air at atmospheric pressure in a flotation tank or basin. The released air forms tiny
bubbles which adhere to the suspended matter causing the suspended matter to float to
the surface of the water where it may then be removed by a skimming device.

The flow of unthickened spent backwash water from the backwash balancing tank will be
split evenly to four parallel DAFT Tanks by a flow split chamber with weirs. A polymer
and coagulant dosing system will be provided to assist in achieving the target thickened
solids content. The clarified effluent subnatant stream from the DAFT will be discharged
to the EHBs for re-treatment by the ATTP.

Each of the four DAFT tanks will be equipped with a dedicated saturation vessel to
generate the dissolved air for flotation. The saturation vessels will be provided with
compressed air from a central system, and with water from a common recycle system
provided by the clarified subnatant. Combined saturation vessels have not been adopted
as they reduce control and redundancy.

The thickened solids float will flow to a holding tank that will have about thirty minutes
of storage capacity (20 m3). The thickened solids will then be pumped with duty/standby
positive displacement pumps to the existing sludge digesters via a heating system as per
the other existing sludge streams sent to digestion.

The design basis for the DAFT system is provided in the Table 5.17 below.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 46 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
Table 5.17 Tertiary DAFT system design basis

Equipment Units Size


Peak/Average design flow to DAFT ML/d 52/21
2
Peak solids loading (N) (kg/m /d) 80
3 2
Peak hydraulic loading (4 duty) (m /m /hr) 7.2
No. of DAFT tanks (incl. flocculation tanks) No. 4
2
Size of DAFT tanks (incl. flocculation tanks) (each) m 75
No of flocculation tanks No. 8
Flocculation tank retention time (each) min 10
Peak/Average recycle rate ML/d 7.9/3.2
Coagulant type - ACH
Thickened solids float concentration % dry solids Up to 3
Solids removal efficiency % 90
Air compressor system No. 2 (1-duty, 1-standby)

5.8.4 Residuals stabilisation


Thickened solids from the DAFT tanks will flow to a holding tank prior to being pumped
to the existing anaerobic digesters. This new solids stream from the ATTP will account
for about 3% of the total sludge feed to the digesters and will be blended with the sludge
from the main plant before being introduced to the digesters.

The capacity of the existing digesters to deal with the extra solids load has been
investigated and found to be acceptable.

The DAFT solids management system will include a sludge storage hopper, macerator
and transfer system, a means for heating the sludge via heat exchangers and connection to
the digester feed system.

The residual solids heat exchangers have been based on existing equipment at the ETP. A
total of two heat exchangers are required for the additional sludge being sent to the
digesters. Hot water for heating the tertiary residual solids may be drawn from the
existing plant hot water heat recovery system, which uses waste heat from onsite power
generation.

The proposed location of the heat exchangers is in one of the spare rooms within the
tunnel system adjacent to the digester piping gallery.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 47 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
The thickened and heated tertiary residual solids stream will be introduced into the feed
lines to the digesters at a point to ensure adequate mixing with other streams being fed to
the digesters, such as thickened primary sludge and thickened WAS.

5.9 Alkalinity correction system


The ETP secondary effluent is relatively low in alkalinity and the additional alkalinity
consumption from nitrification by the BMF treatment step could at times lower the
alkalinity even further resulting in low treated water pH. In order to ensure appropriate
control measures are in place to maintain the pH it is proposed to provide a hydrated lime
dosing at the ATTP.

A range of supplements have been considered to provide alkalinity and pH correction. At


this stage it is proposed to use hydrated lime as the design basis, although final selection
will be reviewed and confirmed as part of detailed design activities. Hydrated lime will
be dosed at the head of the ATTP immediately downstream of the TSPS.

Lime dosing is expected to be intermittent and will be dependent on the following


considerations:
• Secondary effluent alkalinity is dependent on the degree of
nitrification/denitrification in the activated sludge process. Maximising
denitrification here will minimise the need for lime dosing. This is currently not
a treatment requirement for ETP
• The full denitification capacity of the activated sludge process will be fully
characterised once the four new aeration tanks are commissioned at the end of
2009 (i.e. this year).
• The planned introduction of desalinated drinking water into Melbourne’s
drinking water supply will result in an increase in ETP alkalinity levels due to the
desalinated water having a higher alkalinity than current surface water drinking
sources. The actual impact on ETP will be dependent on the proportional
contribution of desalinated drinking water to the ETP catchment and this will be
variable.

The hydrated lime plant will comprise storage silos, slurry metering, batching tanks and
dosing pumps based on similar installations used for drinking water pH correction. Two
silos will be provided with a maximum height of 20m above ground level. Appropriate
dust control filters will be provided on the silos and associated slurry tanks. The
proposed installed capacity will be in the range of 3,000 to 8,000 kg/day. Based on the
lower bound of the projected increase in ETP alkalinity associated with the introduction

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 48 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
of desalinated drinking water, the estimated annual lime consumption is around
200 tonnes/yr.

The design basis for the hydrated lime plant is provided in the Table 5.18.

Table 5.18 Hydrated lime system design basis

Item Units Size


Total silo capacity (t) tonnes 80
No. of silos No. 2
Silo dimensions (each) - 3m dia x 15m tall
No. of slurry tanks No. 2
3
Slurry tank capacity (each) m 7.5
Overall plant footprint (LxWxH) m 15 x 15 x 20

The hydrated lime will be wetted to form slurry of between 2.5% and 5% solids for ease
of use.

The addition of hydrated lime (Ca2+)will result in a decrease in the sodium adsorption
ratio (SAR) through the relationship SAR = [Na+] / (([Ca2+] + [Mg2+])/2)0.5. The SAR of
the current ETP effluent is already suitable for irrigation and any periods of lime dosing
for pH correction would of course further improve the SAR.

5.10 Electrical system


The electrical system will designed as a stand alone 22 kV electrical network with power
being made available from augmentation of the existing Eastern Treatment Plant 22 kV
supply network. The ATTP will be supplied with two independent metered 100%
capacity feeders.

The ATTP electrical system will be configured with a two bus main 22 kV switchboard
with bus tie circuit breaker and radial transformer feeders to the various process areas
around the plant.

Each process area will be supplied by two 100% capacity feeders and 22 kV / 415 V step
down oil filled hermetically sealed transformers. The 415 V unit switchboard will be
configured with two buses and a bus tie circuit breaker. The unit switchboard will directly

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 49 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
supply all large drives and packaged motor load centres, light and power for the area and
instrumentation and control power.

Essential power for the ATTP will be sourced from the existing site 415 V emergency
power system.

The electrical system will be monitored in the ATTP control system indicating circuit
breaker status, fault status and power demand in each feeder. Consideration will be given
to remote control of the electrical system circuit breakers from the ATTP control system
to allow the operator to re-instate the ATTP to full operation on loss of power supply to
one feeder.

The electrical system will include protection schemes as follows:


• Feeder differential (pilot wire) on the incomer 22 kV feeders
• Bus zone protection on the 22 kV switchboard
• Overcurrent and earth fault protection on the transformer and capacitor bank
feeders
• Overcurrent and earth fault on the 415 V unit switchboards
• Trip circuit supervision and circuit breaker fail protection on all circuit breakers.

The protection relays will communicate with the ATTP control system to provide
information of trip status, warning status, time to trip, time to reset, phase current, phase
voltage and power demand.

5.11 Instrumentation, control and automation

5.11.1 General
The ATTP control system will automatically perform the day to day control of the plant
and will monitor and report on process performance. Under normal operations, operators
will monitor the ATTP from the existing ETP control room (Eastern Control Centre or
ECC) which is manned continuously (24 hrs/365 days). The ATTP will have operator
workstations in an operations room attached to one of the switchrooms at the ATTP, and
the same functionality will also be available to the ECC.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 50 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
5.11.2 Integration considerations
The ATTP control system will integrate with the existing Siemens PCS7 control system
at the ETP. The degree, and possible staging (if any), of this integration will be fully
defined by an integration strategy which will be developed during detailed design. It is
expected that the degree of integration will ultimately be quite extensive and seamless
from an operator’s perspective.

Though specific vendors have not yet been selected, it is certain that some of the process
equipment packages being considered will be supplied complete with internal control
systems. These process equipment packages will be integrated with the ATTP plant
control system in accordance with the integration strategy described above.

5.11.3 ATTP control system architecture


The architecture of the ATTP control system will be similar to the existing ETP plant
control system. The ATTP control system architecture will include the following key
features:

• A control local access network (LAN) network having a self-healing, optical


fibre ring topology
• A plant control system (PCS) data LAN network having a self-healing, optical
fibre ring topology
• Human machine interface (HMI) servers (redundant) separate from existing ETP
HMI servers
• Shares the existing historian server
• Two HMI workstations located in the ATTP operation room plus access to ATTP
graphics pages from existing ETP HMI’s
• Both a dedicated engineering workstation for commissioning and a permanent
engineering workstation
• Programmable logic controller (PLC) processors distributed to process areas,
with typically one PLC processor per unit process area
• An operator interface terminal (OIT) located at each PLC (each major process
area) providing limited local control facilities independent of the PCS7 HMI
system
• Racks of PLC I/O (input/output) modules connected by a dedicated remote I/O
network, and distributed into field mounted marshalling cabinets (referred to by
MWC as distributed marshalling kiosk’s or DMK’s) located wherever clusters of
field devices exist

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 51 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
5.11.4 Control philosophy
A control philosophy will be developed to address the functional standards of the control
system, and define such things as:

• Automatic, remote, OIT and local control of field equipment and the extent of
such modes of control
• Alarm generation and annunciation/transmission, alarm categories, filtering and
masking and alarm acknowledgment
• Device level control of valves and motors including definition of the depth of
diagnostic information being monitored by the control system
• Levels of user access control/restrictions

The control philosophy for the ATTP shall be generally consistent with that of the wider
ETP.

5.11.5 Interfaces with existing systems


Apart from controlling the ATTP, the control system must also interface to a number of
existing systems and these interfaces shall be defined in greater detail during detailed
design.

5.12 Flexibility for future process enhancements – Membrane


filtration
The primary project objectives of addressing the impact of environmental discharge to
the marine environment at Boags Rocks and producing a high quality fit-for-purpose
recycled water resource will be met by the proposed ATTP concept design as presented
in this report.

The design also provides for future augmentation with ultrafiltration membrane filtration
downstream of ozone-BMF treatment should it be required as part of the specific needs of
future large-scale recycling projects (e.g. those requiring reverse osmosis treatment). The
ability to augment the ATTP with membrane filtration has been considered as part of the
plant’s design as discussed below.

Membrane filtration has been investigated as part of the Tertiary Technology Trials both
upstream and downstream of ozone-BMF treatment. While both applications were found
to be technically feasible, membrane filtration was found to be much more efficient

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 52 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
downstream of ozone-BMF treatment, as compared to direct secondary effluent feed, due
to the improved water quality. Hence the preferred location of a future membrane
filtration plant is downstream of ozone-BMF treatment.

Augmentation of the ATTP would essentially comprise insertion of a membrane filtration


system between the BMF system and downstream disinfection systems. Given that UF
membrane filtration would provide equivalent or greater removal of protozoa and bacteria
than the UV disinfection system is designed for, it would not be necessary to send the
membrane filtered water through UV treatment and therefore it is expected that it would
be discharged directly to the chlorine disinfection system and TWS. An outline layout
drawing for the augmented ATTP with future membrane filtration is provided in
Appendix B.

Addition of a membrane filtration step would include the following new plant elements
depending on use of either a pressure-based or immersed membrane configuration:

• Membrane feed water pump station (pressure-based configuration)


• Membrane filtration plant, comprising the membrane filtration modules
(pressure-based configuration) or tanks (immersed configuration)
• Membrane permeate pump system (immersed configuration)
• Membrane permeate storage tank for backwashing and cleaning solutions
• Membrane backwash pump and air scour blower systems
• Membrane cleaning systems, including chemical unloading, storage and dosing
systems (such as sodium hypochlorite, sulphuric or citric acid, and caustic)
• Spent membrane backwash water handling system, including a balancing tank
and DAF thickening process consistent with that proposed for the ATTP.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 53 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
6 Operational reliability and redundancy

6.1 Introduction
The ATTP design incorporates a range of measures to provide the requisite level of
operational reliability and redundancy in a cost effective manner as driven by the
following general requirements:
• The ATTP must not inhibit the ability to discharge treated effluent off-site via the
OPS.
• The primary objective of the ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project is to address impacts
of the existing treated effluent discharged on the receiving environment at Boags
Rocks. The ATTP must therefore be capable of treating all ETP flows.
• The secondary project objective is to produce high quality fit-for-purpose
recycled water. The required availability of recycled water production ultimately
depends on the recycled water end uses and associated recycled water scheme
management plans. The availability of recycled water production may be less
than the requirement to treat all ETP flows.

In addition, the following general operational reliability and redundancy requirements are
relevant:
• For each group of operational units, one standby unit, with a minimum of 25%
standby units, will be provided.
• There will be no single common point of failure.

There is also provision to consider non-installed standby equipment, such as spare pumps
which may be stored on-site for quick replacement in lieu of complete installed redundant
equipment.

The capability of the key elements of the plant design to address these requirements is
addressed below.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 54 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
6.2 General ATTP design considerations
There are three key aspects of the ATTP concept that inherently contribute to operational
reliability of the proposed effluent design:

• The ability to store secondary effluent in the EHB system: The existing
2,000 ML EHB system provides buffering storage between the secondary
treatment process and the OPS in the event of high flow wet weather events.
Under such conditions the system stores the secondary effluent flows (max.
1,750 ML/d) in excess of the OPS capacity (max. 708 ML/d). During normal dry
weather operation only a small portion of the EHB system is used to balance the
diurnal secondary effluent flow and fixed speed OPS pump set operation on a
daily basis. MWC is proposing to augment the EHB system by undertaking the
Western Effluent Holding Basin Project to address peak flow events, and which
would provide an additional 1,000 ML of storage thereby providing a total
system capacity of 3,000 ML.
• The ability to operate the ATTP at variable capacity: The ATTP design basis
provides for fully variable flow capacity between 130 and 708 ML/d treated
water production. Therefore, when considered in conjunction with the EHB
system, it will be possible to optimise ATTP throughput in the event of any
degree of plant unavailability.
• Adoption of a robust feed water design basis: The capacity of the ATTP is
determined by a combination of flow and secondary effluent quality. Given that
the ATTP must pass all flows at ETP, it has generally been designed based on
peak flows and loadings as supported by long-term historical data records for the
site. However, considering that peak flow events are wet weather event related
and generally limited to <3 weeks a year, the ATTP will be operating
substantially below its peak design loadings during normal weather conditions
thereby providing a degree of inherent plant redundancy.
• Provision of overflows and returns to the head of treatment: A number of
emergency overflow systems have been incorporated into the plant design
whereby flows can be safely returned to upstream processes for re-treatment in a
controlled manner. These provisions enable the plant to continue operating at
optimised throughput in the event of any short-term capacity constraints.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 55 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
6.3 Tertiary supply pump station
The pump station will comprise 5–duty and 2-standby pumps providing 40% redundancy
compared to 25% minimum redundancy requirement.

6.4 Ozone system


The ozone contactor system will comprise two parallel pipelines. While hydraulic plant
elements are not subject to redundancy requirements due to their inherent high reliability
and availability, considering that the ozone contactor has a critical treatment function the
provision of dual process contactors provides operational flexibility in terms of being
able to continue treating the average annual plant flow with one contactor out of service
for maintenance, and also eliminates a potential single point of process failure.

The reliability and availability of oxygen feed gas supply and ozone production is
addressed by the following:

• The LOx system is sized to meet the oxygen supply requirements in the event of
the VPSA plant being unavailable. The vapourisers and gas flow controls are
sized for the full oxygen demand.
• The ozone plant is designed with 4-duty and 1-standby ozone generator thereby
meeting the minimum of 25% redundant capacity. In the event that one
generator is unavailable, the ozone demand can still be met with 3-duty and 1-
standby generator by temporarily operating at a lower ozone gas concentration.
While this mode results in higher oxygen feed gas consumption and therefore
reduced efficiency, it provides a means of maintaining both oxygen supply and
redundancy in the event of an unplanned generator outage.
• The ozone injection system comprises 6-duty and 1-standby side-stream injection
system. Each ozone contactor will have three dedicated injection systems with
the standby unit configured so as to be able to be used for either contactor. This
configuration provides 33% redundancy for any one of the two contactors, as
required to treat the average annual flow. The redundancy is reduced to 17%
across both contactors at peak wet weather flow. Additional redundancy can be
provided using a feed from the service water system and maintaining spare
pumps onsite.
• The ozone off-gas destruction system comprises 4-duty and 1-standby ozone
destruction unit on the basis of one destruction unit for each ozone generator
thereby satisfying the 25% minimum redundancy requirement.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 56 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
6.5 Biological media filtration system
Under peak solids loading conditions (high flow and high TSS concentration), a peak
design filtration rate of up to 12 m/h will be maintained with 3 of the 36 filters being
unavailable (either 2 filters backwashing simultaneously and 1 out of service, or 1 filter
backwashing and 2 filters out of service). Therefore the impact of a single filter failing
for any reason would be minimal, with no change in filtered water quality.
In addition, should another 2 filters be unavailable, leaving 5 of the 36 filters being
unavailable, the peak filtration rate would only increase from 12 to 12.8 m/h. This is also
expected to have minimal impact on filtered water quality.
The BMF backwash pump system comprises 4-duty and 1-standby pump and the BMF
air scour system comprises 4-duty and 1-standby blower and therefore both systems meet
the 25% minimum redundancy requirement.

6.6 Residuals handling system


The spent BMF backwash balancing tank comprises two compartments such that
operation can be maintained during annual average conditions while one of the tanks is
out of service for maintenance or cleaning.

There is no specific redundancy in the tertiary residuals handling system at peak loading
conditions but the provision to enable discharge of any excess unthickened backwash
water to the head of ETP via the sewer ensures system operation remains unconstrained.

During normal operation spent BMF backwash water will be treated by a DAFT to
separate residual solids from the wastewater stream, and the thickened residual stream
will be sent to the digesters while the clarified effluent stream will be sent to the Forebay
inlet. In the event that the tertiary residuals handling system is unavailable, it will
normally be possible to discharge unthickened spent backwash water directly to the
Chelsea-Frankston Sewer for return to the head of ETP to enable continued operation of
the ATTP. Under average annual conditions the unthickened spent backwash stream will
be around 21 ML/d and, given this represents only a minor impact on ETP treatment
systems, discharge to sewer could be undertaken for up to several weeks in the event of
tertiary residuals handling system unavailability. Under peak flow and load conditions,
the unthickened backwash water increases to around 52 ML/d. Discharge to sewer under
these conditions could be undertaken for up to several days depending on the loading and
conditions of the ETP treatment systems.

These measures ensure a very high reliability of the residuals handling system as a whole.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 57 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
6.7 UV disinfection system
The design of the UV disinfection system will ultimately be dependent on the selection of
the preferred UV technology supplier and a nominal design has been adopted for the
purpose of Concept Design. This discussion of operational reliability and availability is
therefore applicable to the nominal design comprising 5 channels with each channel
having 3 banks of UV lamp modules.

The UV disinfection system has been designed based on the combination of a peak flow
condition of 708 ML/d and 5th percentile UVT of 55%. This represents an extreme
loading scenario and ensures system operational reliability and availability is provided
through a combination of the following considerations:

• The 5th percentile UVT is associated with dry weather flow conditions and the
UVT is in fact higher during peak flow conditions due to wet weather flow
dilution. The calculated UVT at peak (wet weather) flow could reach 64%.
Considering that the UV system capacity (power) to achieve a nominal UV dose
is (non-linearly) inversely proportional to UVT, the full capacity of the system
will not be required at peak wet weather flow.
• Under normal conditions the 5th percentile UVT of 55% should only occur under
dry weather flows up to 570 ML/d (two OPS pump operation) as compared to the
design peak flow of 708 ML/d. At this flow and UVT one of the five channels
could be out of service without affecting treatment.
• In practice, ozone dosing can be controlled to constrain the minimum UVT
further by modulating the ozone dose in response to varying secondary effluent
quality.
• At average annual flow conditions of 380 ML/d and 5th percentile UVT the
system redundancy would be higher again meaning that two of the five UV
channels could be out of service.
• In the event of unavailability of parts of the UV disinfection system, flow
through the system can be modulated and optimised to maintain maximum
throughput taking into account the actual UVT at that time, and the target UV
dose required.
• Spare critical equipment components, such as electrical, instrumentation and
control components, can be maintained on-site to mitigate the impact of
unplanned outages.
• The system will be designed based on performance at end of lamp life when
minimum lamp output occurs. As a result system capacity will always be greater
than the minimum design basis.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 58 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
The operational reliability and redundancy of the UV disinfection system will ultimately
be specified on the basis of the preferred UV technology supplier as determined through
subsequent project delivery activities.

6.8 Chlorine disinfection system


It is proposed to augment the existing ETP chlorine dosing system to provide chlorine to
the ATTP. Existing primary chlorination plant comprises three 150 kg/h chlorinators
dedicated to post-chlorination (i.e. at the OPS). Two chlorinators are required to provide
the peak proposed chlorine supply rate to the ATTP and therefore it is currently proposed
that the existing chlorinators will operate as 2-duty and 1-standby thereby providing 50%
redundancy.

6.9 Treated water storage


The TWS comprises two separate basins such that average annual flow can continue to be
treated while one basin is out of service for maintenance.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 59 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
7 Environmental and social considerations

7.1 Introduction
Through significantly improving the final effluent quality discharged from ETP,
addressing environmental impacts at Boags Rocks and producing a high quality recycled
water resource, the Tertiary Upgrade Project inherently benefits both the environment
and the community. The following sections focus on the environmental and social
considerations associated specifically with the implementation of the ATTP at the ETP
site.

The proposed location of the ATTP is a brownfield site within existing wastewater
treatment infrastructure. The site has been significantly altered from its natural state and
therefore environmental impacts associated with implementation of the proposed ATTP
are limited.

Construction works at ETP for an advanced tertiary treatment facility would occur on a
site largely occupied by a carpark, past construction site compound, access roads, sheds,
and landscaping dating from the original construction of ETP. The main works area is at
least partially disturbed by the original construction of ETP. Portions of the southern
extent of the works area where the treated water storage would be located have typically
been leased for agricultural purposes for many years.

All construction activities will be undertaken in accordance with the Environmental


Protection Act 1970 and regulations. EPA Victoria Publication 480 – Environmental
Guidelines for Major Construction Sites will be used as a framework for creating sound
working practices that minimise the environmental impacts of construction.

7.2 Air
The only notable impact on air quality associated with construction of the ATTP is the
potential of dust resulting from construction activities. However, these construction
activities will be directly comparable to those routinely undertaken at the ETP site,
including earthworks activities associated with sludge drying pan refurbishment, or major
projects such as the new odour control facilities or current aeration tank construction.

The potential for dust to impact on air quality will be addressed through employing
standard dust suppression measures and is expected to have minimal impact on the
surrounding environment. Standard approaches to dust management include minimising

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 60 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
areas of open excavation, grass seeding spoil heaps, restricting speeds on haul roads, and
using water trucks to wet down haul roads and excavated areas.

The ATTP is not expected to alter the overall odour performance at the ETP site
primarily due to:
• Treating secondary effluent which has low odour emission rates - there are
already large exposed surface areas of secondary effluent which do not contribute
significantly to the overall odour performance of the site
• Ozone-BMF treatment further reduces effluent odour
• The backwash thickening process is similar to existing dissolved air flotation
tanks onsite and it will receive residual solids from an ozonated aerobic source of
low odour potential

7.3 Noise
Given that the ATTP will be located in the centre of the ETP site and that extensive
construction activities at site are undertaken without problems, the impact of construction
noise on local residents is expected to be minimal. The nearest residential properties are
more than 1.2 km from the construction site. The majority of construction noise should
occur during normal working hours. Where after-hours construction is unavoidable and
could potentially be audible from local residences, a community consultation program
will be implemented.

Noise from the operational ATTP is not expected to have any impact at the ETP site
boundary through the adoption of appropriate noise management measures in plant
design. These are typically driven by OH&S requirements for site operations.

7.4 Surface water and ground water


Surface water run off from the construction site will be controlled with interceptor drains
and bunds to prevent it entering the local water courses. Captured runoff will be passed
through silt traps before being discharged to existing drainage systems.

Temporary sanitation facilities will be provided for the construction site and plumbed
into the local sewer to the head of the works.

The water table is typically at 0 to 1m AHD which is between 2m and 6m below the
surface at the ETP site and therefore construction activities are not expected to encounter

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 61 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
significant quantities of ground water in excavations due to the shallow depth of the
excavations and the low level of the water table at the works area.

While no significant dewatering of excavations are anticipated in the ATTP construction


is expected, where ground water is encountered it will be extracted from the excavation
using sump pumps and managed in the same manner as run off above. The groundwater
is classified as Segment B (suitable for irrigation and potable mineral water) and is
brackish (TDS: 1,200-1,400 mg/L).

No significant effect on groundwater discharge to the Patterson River or Carrum-


Edithvale swamp is expected.

7.5 Land
The land occupied by the ETP is zoned Public Use Zone 1 (Service and Utility).

The construction of the ATTP will require significant numbers of vehicle movements
during earthwork and concreting activities. The construction site will be accessed from
Thompson Road using the existing site access. Thompsons Road is a major through road
and links to the Mornington Peninsula freeway and the East Link freeway roads without
passing through residential areas. However, as part of the construction program the
number of vehicle movements outside normal working hours will be minimised where
possible. To assist in managing construction traffic turning on Thompsons Road
appropriate signage will be deployed.

Where necessary wheel washing facilities will be provided at the construction site
entrance/exit to ensure that mud is not carried on wheels and vehicle under-bodies onto
public roads.

As required diesel fuel will either be brought on to the site daily in specially modified
fuel trucks to fill plant or it may be stored on the construction site in a temporary fuel
store facility. Any fuel store will comply with all regulations applicable to the use and
storage of diesel oils, petrol, paraffin and other inflammable fuels and will ensure that
adequate precautions are taken against fire. The fuel will be stored in a well ventilated
area, away from ignition sources in purpose made metal storage containers. All fuel
stores will be contained in purpose built bunds and secured in a lockable fenced area.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 62 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
7.6 Flora and Fauna

7.6.1 Flora
Construction works at ETP for the ATTP would occur on a site largely occupied by a
carpark, a past construction site compound, access roads, sheds, and landscaping dating
from the original construction of ETP. The main works area is at least partially disturbed
by the original construction of ETP. Portions of the southern extent of the works area
where the treated water storage would be located have typically been leased for
agricultural purposes for many years.

The proposed location for the ATTP consists of exotic pastures and paddocks of non-
native pasture grazed by cattle surrounding the treatment facilities, with some screening
plantings of native trees. The majority of the proposed construction area is dominated by
degraded treeless vegetation and a disused site hard stand compound.

MWC recognises the importance of the ETP site from a biodiversity context and will
endeavour to maintain as much of the existing vegetation as possible. The layout of the
ATTP has been undertaken in consideration of the vegetation management hierarchy of
options: avoid, minimise and mitigate any impacts. Complete avoidance was found not
to be practicable. It is possible to minimise impacts through design and management,
with new plantings to provide habitat and offsets for the portion of current plantings
which would have to be removed in the area in question.

Construction of the ATTP will necessitate removal of a number of trees. The only
indigenous remnant vegetation observed within the study area is in poor condition and
consists of one mature swamp paperbark (Melaleuca ericifolia) and one tea-tree
(Leptospermum sp.) with no indigenous understorey. A number of native trees, planted
as a possible screening or windbreak around 30 years ago, will require removal.

MWC is committed to undertaking offset plantings to address the necessary removal of


native vegetation in a manner consistent with requirements of the Planning and
Environment Act 1987 and the Victorian Government’s Native Vegetation Management –
A Framework for Action 2002 which form the guiding principles under which native
vegetation is managed in Victoria.

7.6.2 Birds
Migratory and wading birds are recorded in and around the ETP and are significant
species that must be protected. Some species are also listed by the Japan-Australia and

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 63 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
China-Australia Migratory Bird Agreements (JAMBA and CAMBA respectively).
Migratory species are vulnerable to disturbance to their feeding and resting behavior that
can prevent them gaining sufficient fat reserves to successfully complete their return
migration.

Wading birds can experience disturbance to their breeding, nesting and feeding routines
from factors such as movement and noise and fail to breed successfully.

The proposed ATTP construction will have minimal interfaces with the EHBs, where the
majority of the migratory and wading bird species are located, and hence direct
interference with the birds should be minimised. Works related to hydraulic structures
around the Forebay and OPS will require the draining of the Forebay for several months.
This is a routine maintenance activity at the site (generally undertaken every five years)
to remove settled solids from the basin floor. When the Forebay is drained, an additional
EHB will be brought into service to conserve hydraulic buffering volume and thereby
maintain the same water surface area.

During plant operation, the new TSPS interface with the EHBs will simply substitute for
the current OPS interface with the EHBs and therefore there will be no net change in this
respect.

MWC works closely with Birds Australia to maintain and improve bird habitat at the site,
and Birds Australia undertake monthly bird surveys and have a representative on the ETP
Community Liaison Committee. Measures undertaken by MWC to provide bird habitat
include:
• Maintaining water in the ‘Golden Triangle’ area using recycled water. This is a
collection of decommissioned sludge drying pans located to the north west of
EHB system.
• Construction and planting of the ‘Doughnut’ pond and keeping it topped up with
recycled water. This area has also been furnished with nesting boxes.
• The western-most EHB 6 has been planted with wetland plants and a residual
amount of water is usually maintained in this basin.
• The SEHB usually has a residual water level to provide habitat.

In addition, MWC has wetlands at Edithvale and have just constructed a wetland in the
south east corner of the ETP site on Boggy Creek.

Most of the above bird habitat areas are removed from the proposed location of the ATTP
and therefore any impacts of plant construction on birds is expected to be minimal.

A review of all mitigation measures currently in place at the ETP will be undertaken to
protect the threatened fauna species that occur at the ETP site and incorporate any project

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 64 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
specific additional measures to protect species during the construction and operation
phases of the plant as required.

7.6.3 Bats
While bats have not historically been listed in Melbourne Water’s Biological Database of
the ETP site, a recent preliminary bat survey commissioned by MWC identified a number
of microbat species within a study area comprising ETP, Edithvale-Seaford Wetlands,
Wannarkladdin Wetlands, Boundary Road Wetland and PARCS Wetland.

Of the seven species of microbats and three species complexes (similar morphology)
identified within the study area, five species and two species complexes were identified
within the ETP site. The study also potentially identified the state significant and the
Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (FFG) listed Eastern Bent-wing bat within the study
area. While the Eastern Bent-wing bat was potentially identified at ETP at a survey
location around 1 km west of the proposed ATTP location, it was not identified at a
survey site around 100 m west of the proposed ATTP location.

A key recommendation of the preliminary study, which is proposed to be implemented to


further improve MWC’s understanding of the importance of the ETP study area, is to
undertake a Level 2 assessment during October/November 2009 comprising harp trap
surveys to further assess species diversity and abundance to establish if the species
recorded as potentially occurring within the study area are in fact present.

The ATTP is to be constructed within close proximity to one of the preliminary study
survey locations at ETP. Irrespective of whether microbats use the area as roosting or
foraging sites, which will be better understood through the Level 2 assessment, MWC
recognises the importance of the site from a biodiversity context and will endeavour to
maintain as much of the existing vegetation as possible, and compensate any necessary
vegetation removal.

Where existing vegetation, which may potentially provide microbat habitat, is required to
be removed/pruned, then the following mitigation strategies will be implemented as
proposed by the preliminary study findings:
• Felling/pruning works is to be undertaken in October or March.
• Prior to pruning/felling, inspection of decorticating bark and/or hollows is to be
undertaken by a suitably qualified zoologist. The zoologist will also inspect the
branch or trunk when it is lowered to the ground. The branch will be left on the
ground for at least 48 hours to allow any bats that may still be present to escape.
Once this period has elapsed, any roosting cavities should be opened carefully
and examined for remaining bats.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 65 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
• Where possible, trees and branches are to be left where they fall and pruned
material is to be maintained on-site in a semi-shaded area to support woodland
insects and provide foraging habitat for microbats.
• Bat boxes are to be installed prior to removal/pruning of any large trees or works
on buildings where bats are known to be present.

7.6.4 Other
The drainage line in the vicinity of the proposed ATTP location, and containing some
indigenous aquatic vegetation and habitats for common frog species, will be largely
unaffected. Consideration of minimising any impact during construction will need to be
given.

7.7 Cultural heritage


A desktop study has determined that no known Aboriginal or European heritage sites are
located in the ATTP activity area at ETP. While the entirety of the activity area is
considered an area of Aboriginal cultural heritage sensitivity on the basis of the local
geomorphology, significant ground disturbance from prior works associated with the ETP
have demonstrably eliminated the cultural heritage sensitivity in the areas so affected.
Furthermore, an associated field inspection found no obvious indications of preserved
historical landscape elements and the risk of an Aboriginal archaeological site of high
significance occurring within the activity area is considered to be low.

The Aboriginal Heritage Regulations 2007 do not specify the need for a mandatory
Cultural Heritage Management Plan (CHMP) for the proposed development, as required
in Section 46 of the Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006. However, a voluntary CHMP will be
prepared for the area in question to address any risks of low significance Aboriginal sites
occurring in the area and potentially being impacted by the works.

7.8 Community engagement


Stakeholder and community involvement and engagement are important objectives for
Melbourne Water in undertaking the ETP Tertiary Upgrade. The ETP Community
Liaison Committee (CLC) will be the principle point of engagement to inform and to
gather feedback on how to avoid and minimise any impact of construction of the ATTP.

The current scheduled bi-monthly meetings with the CLC will continue throughout the
construction and commissioning phases of the project and will include project updates,
site inspections where appropriate, and calls for feedback from the committee.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 66 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
The project delivery team (which will include MWC) for the ETP Tertiary Upgrade
Project will develop and implement plans for stakeholder engagement and
communications about implementation of the project. The plans will include a program
of activities to inform and consult where appropriate on design and construction of the
ATTP. The plans will be required to integrate with Melbourne Water’s overall
communications about its responsibilities for sewerage management and the
communications plan for the ETP.

Engagement with respect to the design and construction of the ATTP will include the
following:

• groups with an interest in the marine environment and land environment in the
south east and Mornington Peninsula, including those represented on the CLC
• schools and interest groups that visit the ETP
• people who visit and use the national park and beaches near the SEO discharge at
Boags Rocks
• the State Government owned metropolitan retail water companies serviced by the
ETP and the SEO and which the ETP supplies with recycled water
• representatives of federal, state and local government, including State
government agencies where some form of approval is required
• the broader community to highlight progress with design and construction of the
ATTP.

Overall, implementation and operation of the proposed ATTP is expected to have


negligible negative impacts on the community on the basis that it will be located within
an existing operational site.

7.9 Waste and materials use

7.9.1 Materials use


Ozone production consumes power and this is taken into account in the estimation of the
plant power consumption, associated greenhouse gas emissions, and plant cost estimates
taking into account MWC’s carbon offset power pricing.

Thickening aids, such as coagulant and polymer, will be used in association with
separating and thickening the tertiary residual solids stream. The estimated average
consumption rates of coagulant and polymer are 55 tonnes/yr and 5 tonnes/yr respectively
(both in terms of active ingredient).

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 67 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
Hydrated lime consumption, for the purpose of pH and alkalinity correction, is estimated
at up to 200 tonnes/yr. The lime inert solids will be removed in conjunction with the
BMF backwash and associated tertiary residual solids stream.

Chlorine consumption for the purpose of final treated water disinfection is expected to be
directly comparable to current chlorine consumption at the site (i.e. no net change).
Some sodium bisulphate may occasionally be used for dechlorination when operating in
combined chlorine mode. This is however expected to be rarely required and its annual
consumption can not be readily estimated, but is expected to be very low.

Plant design and materials of construction will be selected on a TBL basis taking into
account life cycle cost analysis principles.

7.9.2 Residual solids


The tertiary residual solids stream will comprise:

• the majority of the residual particulate matter (suspended solids) in the secondary
effluent which currently goes to the marine environment, and
• any biomass which develops on the BMF media and is sloughed off during
backwashing of the filters,
• any inerts contained within the lime used for alkalinity supplementation and pH
correction which are captured in the filter process, and
• solids associated with coagulation pre-treatment for the DAFT process.

The thickened residual solids stream is estimated to be 2,000 tonnes/yr dry solids, or
around 3% of current sludge quantities, and will be directed to the existing anaerobic
digesters where it will contribute to biogas production for production of green power.

7.9.3 UV lamp cleaning


Intermittent chemical cleaning of the UV lamp sleeves is required. The volume of
cleaning agent used for this process is minimal with the total cleaning solution volume
washed of the cleaned sleeves into the treated water in the order of 100 L/yr. The type of
cleaning gel used is specific to the UV vendors and certified suitable for use in drinking
water applications (NSF61).

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 68 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
7.9.4 Other consumables
The principal process consumable will be UV lamps, ballasts and quartz sleeves from the
UV disinfection system, and media top-up for the filters. The expected quantities are
presented in Table 7.1 below.

Table 7.1 Estimated waste from UV lamp and BMF media replacement

Item Replacement Interval Total Annual Replacements


UV lamps 12,000 hours 1,000 units
UV ballasts 15,000 hours 750 units
Quartz sleeves 2 years 1,500 units
BMF media Top up as required 100- 300m3

Used UV lamps and sleeves will be returned to the UV system supplier for safe and
efficient recycling and disposal.

Any small amounts of BMF media that are backwashed out of the filters typically
comprise fragmented media from the washing action and so would no longer be of the
appropriate particle size for return to the filters. It would be combined with the ETP
biosolids for reuse as appropriate.

7.9.5 Ozonation off-gas


Off-gas from the ozone system comprises approximately 99% oxygen and 1% ozone.
Ozone contained in the off-gas is destructed prior to venting to atmosphere resulting in
the discharge essentially comprising oxygen only.

The average and maximum destructed off-gas (i.e. essentially oxygen) discharge rates are
1,650 kg/hr and 3,300 kg/hr respectively. Investigations into the beneficial use of the
waste oxygen stream within the plant are ongoing.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 69 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
7.10 Power consumption and carbon footprint

7.10.1 Power consumption


The estimated annual power consumption and peak connected load for the proposed
ATTP design has been calculated for each process area of the ATTP based on anticipated
flow and feed water quality profiles and is presented in Table 7.2 below.

Table 7.2 Estimated annual power consumption

Plant Area Average Annual Power


Consumption (kWh/yr)
Tertiary supply pumps 9,120,000
Ozone 20,000,000
BMF 530,000
UV 2,630,000
Miscellaneous 3,750,000
Residuals handling 2,390,000
Chemical dosing 900,000
Total 39,320,000

The current power consumption of the OPS will not be affected significantly by the
ATTP.

7.10.2 Carbon footprint


The expected upfront and ongoing emissions associated with the proposed ATTP have
been calculated inline with the Federal Government’s National Greenhouse Accounts,
which splits emissions into three categories.

1. Scope 1 emissions – Direct emissions generated within the boundary of the


organisation’s operations.
2. Scope 2 emissions – Indirect emissions from electricity purchased and
consumed by an organisation.
3. Scope 3 emissions – Indirect emissions embedded in non-electricity products
used or consumed by the organisation.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 70 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
Emissions are calculated by multiplying known quantities involved in the construction
and operation of the plant by carbon dioxide emission factors. Where possible, the
Department of Climate Change’s National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors, or
emission factors from the University of Bath’s Inventory of Carbon & Energy have been
used. For those emissions factors not addressed by these two sources either emission
factors from other greenhouse reports, or emissions factors based on similar products
have been adopted.

The expected upfront and ongoing emissions associated with the proposed ATTP are
presented in Table 7.3 and Figure 7.1 below.

Table 7.3 Upfront and ongoing emissions between Scopes (tonnes of CO2-e/year)

Emission Scope 1 Scope 2 Scope 3 Total


Upfront 1,300 0 18,600 19,900
Ongoing 1 53,200 9,200 62,401

Scope 1 Scope 2 Scope 1


Scope 3
7% 0% 0.7%
15%

Scope 1 Scope 1

Scope 2 Scope 2

Scope 3 Scope 3

Scope 3 Scope 2
93% 85%

Figure 7.1 Estimates for Upfront (left) and Ongoing (right) emissions by scope
category

Over the plant life ongoing emissions will be the major contributor to total emissions.

Scope 2 (indirect electricity) emissions make up the majority of ongoing emissions.


Scope 3 (indirect non-electricity) emissions form the other major contributor, and include
embedded emissions in UV lamps, and sleeves, LOx, DAFT thickening aid chemicals,
and lime. Chlorine usage is anticipated to be similar to existing operations and so is not
included in Scope 3.

The embedded energy in building materials, or Scope 3 emissions, make up the majority
of upfront emissions. There are some Scope 1 emissions, generated by fuel consumption

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 71 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
of construction equipment and vehicles, and electricity use during the construction phase
has been assumed to be negligible relative to the other emission contributors.

In recognition of the critical impact of climate change on Melbourne’s waterways, water


supply and sewage assets, Melbourne Water has committed to actively manage its own
contribution to greenhouse gas emissions and has set targets that it will:
• reduce net greenhouse gas emissions to zero by 2018, and
• increase use or export of renewable energy to 100% of total energy used, also by
2018.

Melbourne Water’s key initiatives to mitigate its impact on the climate and achieve the
2018 targets include the following:
• Avoidance: Initiatives that will avoid the use of energy or the emissions of
greenhouse gas in the first instance.
• Energy efficiency: Delivery of improvements in energy consumption of the
systems, facilities and equipment that are already in place.
• Waste utilisation: Pursuit of opportunities to increase the use of by-products
produced at Melbourne Water’s facilities or by third parties to generate energy
(e.g. energy recovery from sewage treatment sludge or biogas).
• Renewable energy substitution: Identification of opportunities to substitute
energy from fossil fuel with renewable energy, which does not give rise to
greenhouse gas emissions. This includes on-site renewable energy projects (e.g.
mini-hydro and wind generation) as well as a renewable electricity procurement
strategy, which would see the balance of Melbourne Water’s electricity
requirements provided by an off-site renewable electricity generator.
• Carbon Sequestration: Investigation to determine the feasibility of carbon
sequestration projects on Melbourne Water managed land. These projects,
including tree planting and revegetation works amongst others, might have
potential to offset unavoidable emissions by removing an equivalent amount of
greenhouse gas from the atmosphere.
• Purchase of offsets: The purchase of offsets supporting third party sequestration
or mitigation activities.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 72 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
8 Cost estimates

Project cost estimates have been developed using a bottom-up cost estimation approach
based on the design information outlined in this Concept Design Report.

Key aspects of the development of the cost estimates include the following:
• Adoption of local quantity surveying expertise to provide current local rates for
construction labour, equipment and materials and to develop quantities and prices
for civil construction and installation
• Review of estimates and construction processes by suitable experienced
construction professionals
• Extensive engagement (as far as practicable) with appropriate technology and
equipment vendors to obtain both costing and technical information.
• Experience from other comparable operating plants
• Adoption of Risk Adjusted Nominal Estimation (RANE) methodology methods
to build in the likely cost of identified project risks.

At Concept Design stage Process Flow Diagrams, preliminary Piping & Instrumentation
Diagrams, basic civil and mechanical arrangement drawings, hydraulic profiles, electrical
single line drawings, control system architecture drawings as well as preliminary
equipment lists/sizing have been developed to support cost estimation activities.

The capital cost refers to the cost of implementing the project, including all planning,
design, procurement, construction and commissioning activities to deliver the fully
operation ATTP.

The costs that have been applied to the major cost components have been derived from a
combination of the following sources:
• Factored from previous projects based on capacity or ratio
• Estimated from historical data of similar project types
• Preliminary take off of quantities
• Current local unit rates
• Project specific budget quotations.

The costs and rates used in compiling the capital cost estimate are based on current rates
and prices and have been escalated to reflect the fact that the project will be implemented
over a period of 36 months for completion by end 2012.

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 73 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
The operating cost refers to the ongoing typically annualised cost of operating the ATTP,
including the following cost elements:
• Consumables including power
• Routine plant maintenance and equipment replacement costs
• Plant staffing and labour
• Site management costs.

Certain plant components, such as instrumentation and control equipment and rotating
mechanical equipment, will have to be periodically replaced at intervals ranging from 10
to 25 years. The cost for replacing this equipment is represented as an annualised capital
renewal estimate.

The capital and annualised operating cost estimates are presented in Table 8.1. These
costs represent the RANE P50 cost, which is the most likely expected project cost
accounting for known risks at Concept Design stage.

Table 8.1 Capital and Operating Cost Estimates

Cost Element Cost ($M AUD)


Total Capital Cost (including escalation) 380
Annual Operating Cost 8.9
Annualised Capital Renewals 2.3

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 74 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
Appendix A: Historical effluent quality data at Eastern
Treatment Plant

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 75 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
Parameter Results Percentile NOTE 1 Sample Collection Details Method/Analysis Details Comments
(generally mg/L, unless 10th 50th 90th Approx. Data period Sample Type NOTE 8 Approx. AWWA/APHA/WEF Std. Meth. NATA
otherwise stated) (Median) number Frequency No., unless otherwise stated

ETP Final Effluent sample point (on the Outfall Rising Main, approx. 350m downstream of the Outfall Pump Station)
True Colour (Pt/Co units) NOTE 9 70 90 120 1320 Aug 02 – Jan 08 Composite Each weekday 2120 C N
Total Suspended Solids 9 16 32 2660 Jan 97 - Jan 08 Composite Each weekday 2540 D N For operational process monitoring
Total Suspended Solids 6 13 29 790 Jan 93 - Jan 08 Composite Weekly NOTE 2 2540 D Y Compliance sampling results
UV transmittance - % at 254 nm - 35 42 48 575 Apr 03 - Mar 05 Composite Each weekday 5910 B N
filtered
Carbonaceous BOD5 3 6 14 780 Jan 93 - Jan 08 Composite Weekly NOTE 2 5210 B Y Compliance sampling results
Filtered Carbonaceous BOD5 2 5 12 215 Jan 93 - Feb 97 Composite Occasional 5210 B Y Non – routine process monitoring for planning purposes
Chemical Oxygen Demand NOTE 4 50 70 95 2400 Jul 98 - Jan 08 Composite Each weekday Hach Method 8000 N For operational process monitoring
Total Dissolved Solids 422 490 560 320 Sep 95 - Jan 08 Composite fortnightly 2540 C Y Recycled water monitoring
pH NOTE 4 7.2 7.5 7.8 780 Jan 93 - Jan 08 Composite Weekly NOTE 2 4500 H+ Y Compliance sampling – results post chlorination.
Alkalinity (as CaCO3) NOTE 4 95 140 190 70 Jul 02 - Jan 08 Composite Monthly 2320 B Y Recycled water monitoring
Bicarbonate (as HCO3-) NOTE 4 120 170 226 240 Apr 99 - Jan 08 Composite fortnightly 2320 B Y Recycled water monitoring
Electrical Conductivity (μS cm) 870 950 1000 150 Jul 98 - Jan 08 Composite Monthly 2510 B Y Recycled water monitoring
Anionic Surfactants (mg/L MBAS) 0.1 0.2 0.4 310 Mar 97 - Jan 08 Composite fortnightly 5540 C Y Compliance sampling results
Non-ionic surfactants (CTAS) - <1 <3 24 Apr 03 - May 03 Composite Occasional 5540 C Y Non – routine process monitoring for planning purposes
Oil & Grease - <5 16 390 Feb 93 - Jan 08 Grab fortnightly 5520 B & D Y Compliance sampling results
Ammonia Nitrogen NOTE 4 10 21 31 480 Jan 93 - Jan 08 Composite fortnightly NOTE 2 4500-NH3 G Y Compliance sampling – most data prior to N/deN upgrade
Ammonia Nitrogen NOTE 4 9 18 28 2630 Jan 97 - Jan 08 Composite Each weekday 4500-NH3 B &C N For operational process monitoring – most data prior to N/deN upgrade
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen NOTE 4 12 22 33 2390 Jul 98 - Jan 08 Composite Each weekday 4500-Norg B N For operational process monitoring
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen NOTE 4 13 22 34 250 Jul 98 - Jan 08 Composite fortnightly 4500-Norg B Y Compliance sampling results
Total Nitrogen NOTE 4 21 30 40 460 Jan 93 - Jan 08 Composite fortnightly 4500-NorgC & NO3 F Y Compliance sampling results
Total Phosphorus 5.1 7.0 8.8 460 Jan 93 - Jan 08 Composite fortnightly 4500-P F Y Compliance sampling results
Boron 0.1 0.21 0.37 68 Jul 02 - Jan 08 Composite Monthly 4500 B Y Recycled water monitoring
Chloride 130 140 160 134 Jul 98 - Jan 08 Composite Monthly 4500 Cl Y Recycled water monitoring
Fluoride 0.76 0.87 1.0 61 Jan 03 - Jan 08 Composite Monthly 4500 F Y Recycled water monitoring
Sulphur as SO42- 46 51 61 85 May 02 - Jan 08 Composite Monthly 4500 SO4 Y Recycled water monitoring
Selenium NOTE 5 - <0.001 0.001 61 Dec 02 - Jan 08 Composite Monthly 3500 Se Y Recycled water monitoring
Sodium 96 110 120 133 Jul 98 - Jan 08 Composite Monthly 3500 Na Y Recycled water monitoring
Calcium 14 17 22 133 Jul 98 - Jan 08 Composite Monthly 3500 Ca Y Recycled water monitoring
Magnesium 8.2 9.3 10 133 Jul 98 - Jan 08 Composite Monthly 3500 Mg Y Recycled water monitoring
Sodium Absorption Ratio 4.7 5.5 6.2 84 Jun 02 - Jan 08 Composite Monthly Calculated Y Recycled water monitoring
Potassium 17 21 26 133 Jul 98 - Jan 08 Composite Monthly 3500 K Y Recycled water monitoring
Lithium - <0.02 <0.02 61 Jan 03 - Jan 08 Composite Monthly 3500 Li Y Recycled water monitoring
Beryllium - <0.001 <0.001 61 Jan 03 - Jan 08 Composite Monthly 3500 Be Y Recycled water monitoring
Aluminium 0.12 0.23 0.47 68 Jul 02 - Jan 08 Composite Monthly 3500 Al Y Recycled water monitoring

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 76 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
Parameter Results Percentile NOTE 1 Sample Collection Details Method/Analysis Details Comments
(generally mg/L, unless 10th 50th 90th Approx. Data period Sample Type NOTE 8 Approx. AWWA/APHA/WEF Std. Meth. NATA
otherwise stated) (Median) number Frequency No., unless otherwise stated
Iron 0.14 0.22 0.35 121 93 - 94 & Jul 02 - Composite Monthly 3500 Fe Y Recycled water monitoring
Jan 08
Cobalt <0.001 0.001 0.002 61 Jan 03 to Jan 08 Composite Monthly 3500 Co Y Recycled water monitoring
Manganese 0.03 0.04 0.05 61 Jan 03 - Jan 08 Composite Monthly 3500 Mn Y Recycled water monitoring
Arsenic <0.001 0.002 0.003 61 Jan 03 - Jan 08 Composite Monthly 3500 As Y Recycled water monitoring
Zinc 0.04 0.06 0.10 140 93-95 & Sep 01 - Composite Monthly 3500 Zn Y Recycled water monitoring
Jan 08
Molybdenum 0.002 0.004 0.007 61 Jan 03 - Jan 08 Composite Monthly 3500 Mo Y Recycled water monitoring
Mercury (µg/L) <0.05 <0. 1 0.15 470 Jan 93 - Jan 08 Composite fortnightly 3500 Hg Y Compliance results – definitive percentiles difficult as LOD varies over period
Chromium - <0.02 <0.05 406 Jan 93 - Jan 08 Composite fortnightly 3500 Cr Y Compliance results – definitive percentiles difficult as LOD varies over period
Lead <0.005 <0.01 <0.05 467 Jan 93 - Jan 08 Composite fortnightly 3500 Pb Y Compliance results – definitive percentiles difficult as LOD varies over period
Copper 0.01 0.016 0.03 397 Jan 93 - Jan 08 Composite fortnightly 3500 Cu Y Compliance sampling results
Cadmium (µg/L) - <1 <10 479 Jan 96 - Jan 08 Composite fortnightly 3500 Cd Y Compliance results – definitive percentiles difficult as LOD varies over period
Phenol (μg/L) - <1 <5 127 Jul 97 - Jan 08 Grab Monthly USEPA 8041 Y Compliance results – definitive percentiles difficult as LOD varies over period
Toluene (μg/L) - <1 <10 127 Jul 97 - Jan 08 Grab Monthly USEPA 8260 Y Compliance results – definitive percentiles difficult as LOD varies over period
Benzene (μg/L) - <1 <5 127 Jul 97 - Jan 08 Grab Monthly USEPA 8260 Y Compliance sampling results
PAH (μg/L)NOTE 6 - <8 <8 17 Dec 98 – Dec 07 Grab 6 monthly USEPA 8100 Y Compliance sampling results
PCCD/F (pg/L ITEQ) NOTE 7 - <3 - 4 Dec 00 - Jun 03 Grab occasional Y Compliance sampling results
E. coli (org/100 mL) 20 5000 150000 830 1992 - Jan 08 Grab Weekly NOTE 2 Report 71NOTE 3 Y Operational process monitoring – sampled after minimal chlorine contact time

ETP Reuse sample point (on the Outfall Rising Main near Thompsons Road, approx. 1.3km downstream of the Outfall Pump Station)
E. coli (org/100 mL) 2 22 650 589 Jul 00 - Jun 03 Grab Weekly NOTE 2 Report 71NOTE 3 Y Reuse compliance monitoring – more chlorine contact time than final effluent

Notes:
1. Percentiles are given where appropriate.
2. Sampling day changes week to week to provide representative data.
3. Report 71, 1994, The Bacteriological Examination of Water Supplies, 4th Edition, HMSO, London.
4. Parameter changing due to secondary treatment area upgrade for nitrification and denitrification.
5. Most metals analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Method.
6. PAH is poly aromatic hydrocarbon. Results are the sum of individual compound concentrations with < results taken as half limit of detection
7. PCCD/F means poly chlorinated dibenzo dioxins and furans as toxic equivalents of 2,3,7,8 tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin. I-TEQ is an abbreviation of International Toxic Equivalent.
8. Current Sample Type: Composite = 24 hour flow paced composite by autosampler, Grab = single grab sample
9. Note that colour is only recorded in increments of ten

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 77 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009
Appendix B: Project Drawings

• ATTP PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM – SHEET 1 OF 2, J46-01-204 RevC


• ATTP PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM – SHEET 2 OF 2, J46-01-205 RevD
• ATTP HYDRAULIC PROFILE - MAIN PROCESS, J46-01-206 RevC
• ATTP HYDRAULIC PROFILE – FILTER BACKWASH, J46-01-207 RevB
• ATTP CONCEPTUAL VIEW, G46-01-201 RevE
• ATTP CONCEPTUAL PLAN VIEW, G46-01-202 RevE
• ATTP CONCEPTUAL ELEVATION, G46-01-203 RevC
• ATTP OUTLINE LAYOUT, G46-02-202 RevE
• ATTP OUTLINE LAYOUT SHOWING FUTURE UF, G46-02-300 RevC

ETP Tertiary Upgrade Project Page 78 of 87


Concept Design Report 2009