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Intodvetion 1.1 Introduction ‘The chemical industries including chemical manufacturing, fuels production and power plants have traditionally strongly depended on fossil-based feedstock (crude oil, natural 120s, coal, chemicals, ee,). Continued economic growth still leads to the development of activities that are highly energy dependent and intensive, However, the use of fossil fuels as the main energy resonsce is associated with many issues and impacts incInding Jong-term availability, supply security. price volatility, and especially, environmental impacts such as the emissions of greenhouse gases and the resulting climate change effects (King et al., 2010). These challenges motivate the development of sustainable technologies for processing renewable feedstock for fuel, chemical and material production, and biorefineries are an example of such technologies. The biorefinery concept refers to the process which uses biomass as a renewable feedstock to partially substitute fossil fuels for both production of energy, fsels and chemicals. Process-product design framework Chemical product-process design i an open problem which involves many activities (process creation, development of basic concept, experimental studies, detailed design, tc.) and decision-making at different levels as presented in Figure 1.1. Chemical product-process design typically consists of $ mmin stages (Sciden ct al. 2009). The concepr stage isthe earliest stage where a number of ideas and concepts are generated. Preliminary process syathesis, which is the decision-making approach at the early-stage, is used to seseen among the possible alternatives and to identify the promising ones in order to move futher to the next stage. The feasibility stage isthe step where the ideas and concepts are further developed by pesforming the feasibility study, simlation study, and an experimental study for selected altematives. The detailed process synthesis is used to rank and compare the feasible concepts that have been developed before moving tothe detailed design stage. AV the detailed design stage. one alternative is selected and everything is then ready to perform the detailed design, equipment sizing, detailed capital cost estimation, procurement, and detailed economic analysis, Consequently, the complete design (plant design and layout) inctuding “4 Introduction construction work, commissioning and operation is performed in the Manufacnaing stage. Sales and marketing is then involved in the last stage. the Product introduction, in order to plan and maximize the product sales. es generation ‘sPrkiminary process synthesis ‘sEqupment clacton sbenchcale eperiment Development of tase ase Bees) “