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# FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

(BDA 31003)

## Lecture Module 3: Axial and Torsional Elements

What is Axial/Torsional Element
This type of element has only one (1) single degree of freedom in each node

## It could be axial or torsional

𝐴𝐸
𝑘=
𝐿
translation

A : cross section
E: elasticity
L: length of element

rotation

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 2

Problems in
Axial/Torsional Elements

Element 2
Element 1

1 2

1 2
Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 3
Stiffness, Displacement and Force

1 k 2

f1 u1 u2 f2

𝑓1 = 𝑘𝑢1 − 𝑘𝑢2

𝑓2 = 𝑘𝑢2 − 𝑘𝑢1

𝑘 −𝑘 𝑢1 𝑓1
=
Rearrange the equation in matrix −𝑘 𝑘 𝑢2 𝑓2

𝑘 𝑢 = 𝑓

𝐴𝐸 1 −1 𝑢1 𝑓1
=
𝐿 −1 1 𝑢2 𝑓2

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 4

Elemental (local)
Stiffness Matrix
The stiffness matrix of the element now can be expressed as

𝐴𝐸 1 −1
𝑘 =
𝐿 −1 1

𝑢𝑖 𝑢𝑗
𝐴𝐸 1 −1 𝑢𝑖
𝑘𝑒 = 𝑢𝑗
𝐿 −1 1

𝑘𝑖𝑖 𝑒 𝑘𝑖𝑗 𝑒
𝑘𝑒 =
𝑘𝑗𝑖 𝑒 𝑘𝑗𝑗 𝑒

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 5

Example Problem 3-1

## a. Divide the structure into 6 element. Each segment consists of 2 elements

b. Calculate the stiffness matrix of each element

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 6

Element Node 1 Node 2 L A E
1 1 2 La/2 Aa Ea
2 2 3 La/2 Aa Ea
3 3 4 Lb/2 Ab Eb
4 4 5 Lb/2 Ab Eb
5 5 6 Lc/2 Ac Ec
6 6 7 Lc/2 Ac Ec

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 7

Assemble Stiffness Matrices Globally

## The assemble of stiffness matrices can be expressed as simple as

𝐾 = 𝑘1 + 𝑘 2 + 𝑘 3 + ⋯ + 𝑘 𝑛

## The order of [K} equals to

the number of nodes multiply by the number of degrees of freedom each node

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 8

Example Problem 3-2
Assemble the local/individual stiffness matrix in a global structural stiffness matrix [K]

Arrange the structural stiffness matrix into a complete static matrix equation
[K]{u} = {f}

Element meshing

## You want to divide into 3 elements , numbered e1, e2, e3 :

1 e1 2 e2 3 e3 4

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3 𝑢4

𝐴1 𝐸1 𝐴2 𝐸2 𝐴3 𝐸3

𝐿1 𝐿2 𝐿3

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 10

Assemble Elements
global static equation
1 e1 2 e2 3 e3 4

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3 𝑢4

In the system there are 4 nodes and every node has 1 DOF, the static equation will be:

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3 𝑢4
𝑢1 𝑢1 𝐹1
𝑢2 𝑢2 𝐹2
=
𝑢3 𝑢3 𝐹3
𝑢4 𝑢4 𝐹4

𝐾 𝑢 = 𝐹
Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 11
Assemble Elements
stiffness matrix
1 e1 2 e2 3 e3 4

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3 𝑢4

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢1 𝑢2
𝐴1 𝐸1 1 −1 𝑢1 a1 b1 𝑢1
Element e1 𝑘𝑒1 = =
𝐿1 −1 1 c1 d1
𝑢2 𝑢2

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3 𝑢4
𝑢1
𝑢2
𝐾1 =
𝑢3
𝑢4

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 12

Assemble Elements
stiffness matrix
1 e1 2 e2 3 e3 4

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3 𝑢4

𝑢2 𝑢3 𝑢2 𝑢3
𝐴2 𝐸2 1 −1 𝑢2 a2 b2 𝑢
Element e2 𝑘𝑒2 = = 2
𝐿2 −1 1 c2 d2
𝑢3 𝑢3

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3 𝑢4
𝑢1
𝑢2
𝐾2 =
𝑢3
𝑢4

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 13

Assemble Elements
stiffness matrix
1 e1 2 e2 3 e3 4

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3 𝑢4

𝑢3 𝑢4 𝑢3 𝑢4
𝐴3 𝐸3 1 −1 𝑢3 a3 b3 𝑢
Element e3 𝑘𝑒3 = = 3
𝐿3 −1 1 c3 d3
𝑢4 𝑢4

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3 𝑢4
𝑢1
𝑢2
𝐾3 =
𝑢3
𝑢4

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 14

Assemble Elements
stiffness matrix – combine all elements
𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3 𝑢4
𝑢1
𝑢2 Combine all elements into
𝐾1 =
𝑢3 the structure
𝑢4
𝐾 = 𝐾1 + 𝐾2 + 𝐾3 +. . . + 𝐾𝑛

𝑢1 𝐾 =
𝑢2 𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3 𝑢4
𝐾2 =
𝑢3 𝑢1
𝑢4 𝑢2
𝑢3

𝑢1 𝑢4

𝑢2
𝐾3 =
𝑢3 The same cells +
𝑢4 Unoccupied remains 0
Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 15
Assemble Elements
force vector
1 e1 2 e2 3 e3 4

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝐹2 𝑢3 𝑢4 𝐹4

0 𝑢1
Element e1 𝑓𝑒1 =
−𝐹2
𝑢2

𝑢1

𝐹1 = −𝐹2 𝑢2
𝑢3
𝑢4

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 16

Assemble Elements
force vector
1 e1 2 e2 3 e3 4

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝐹2 𝑢3 𝑢4 𝐹4

0 𝑢2 Force at node 2
Element e2 𝑓𝑒2 =
0 has been defined by e1
𝑢3

𝑢1

𝐹2 = 𝑢2
𝑢3
𝑢4

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 17

Assemble Elements
force vector
1 e1 2 e2 3 e3 4

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝐹2 𝑢3 𝑢4 𝐹4

0 𝑢2
Element e3 𝑓𝑒3 =
𝐹4
𝑢3

𝑢1

𝐹3 = 𝑢2
𝑢3
𝐹4 𝑢4

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 18

Assemble Elements
force vector – combine all elements

𝑢1
−𝐹2 𝑢2 Combine all elements into
𝐹1 =
the structure
𝑢3
𝑢4 𝐹 = 𝐹1 + 𝐹2 + 𝐹3 +. . . + 𝐹𝑛

𝑢1 𝑢1
𝐹2 = 𝑢2 −𝐹2 𝑢2
𝐹3 =
𝑢3 𝑢3
𝑢4 𝑢4
𝐹4

𝑢1

𝐹3 = 𝑢2
𝑢3
𝐹4 𝑢4
Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 19
Constraints
I have now the static equation complete:

𝑢1
𝑢2 −𝐹2
=
𝑢3
𝑢4 𝐹4

I can solve the unknown displacement vector {u} No.... WAIT a minute

## This end is fixed This end will move

not allowed to move at all at certain distance only,
no more than that
Oh.. No... ?????
Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 20
Constraints

## This end is fixed This end will move

not allowed to move at all at certain distance only,
no more than that

Constraints

## This end is fixed This end will move

not allowed to move at all at certain distance only,
no more than that

1 e1 2 e2 3 e3 4

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3 𝑢4

𝑢1 = 0 𝑢4 = β

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 22

Constraints
Before constraints : 1 e1 2 e2 3 e3 4

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3 𝑢4
𝑢1
𝑢2 𝐹2
=
𝑢3
𝑢4 𝐹4

After constraints : 1 e1 2 e2 3 e3 4

𝑢1 = β1 𝑢2 𝑢3 𝑢4 = β4

The equations 𝑢1
must be modified 𝑢2 𝐹2
so that =
𝑢3
𝑢1 = β1 𝑢4 = β4 𝑢4 𝐹4
Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 23
Handling constraints
direct elimination method
1 e1 2 e2 3 e3 4

𝑢1 = β1 𝑢2 𝑢3 𝑢4 = β4

## 𝐾11 𝐾12 𝐾13 𝐾14 𝑢1 𝐹1

𝐾21 𝐾22 𝐾23 𝐾24 𝑢2 𝐹2
𝑢3 =
𝐾31 𝐾32 𝐾33 𝐾34 𝐹3
Before introducing constraints
𝐾41 𝐾42 𝐾43 𝐾44 𝑢4 𝐹4

1 0 0 0 𝑢1 β1
0 𝐾22 𝐾23 0 𝑢2 𝐹2 − 𝐾21 β1 − 𝐾24 β4
𝑢3 =
0 𝐾32 𝐾33 0 𝐹3 − 𝐾31 β1 − 𝐾34 β4
After introducing constraints 𝑢4
0 0 0 1 β4

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 24

Handling constraints
direct elimination method
1 0 0 0 𝑢1 β1
0 𝐾22 𝐾23 0 𝑢2 𝐹2 − 𝐾21 β1 − 𝐾24 β4
𝑢3 =
After introducing constraints 0 𝐾32 𝐾33 0 𝐹3 − 𝐾31 β1 − 𝐾34 β4
0 0 0 1 𝑢4 β4

𝑢1 = β1 𝑢4 = β4

Then solve the simultaneous equation after 2 variables have been eliminated:

## 𝐾22 𝐾23 𝑢2 𝐹2 − 𝐾21 β1 − 𝐾24 β4

𝑢3 =
𝐾32 𝐾33 𝐹3 − 𝐾31 β1 − 𝐾34 β4

to find 𝑢2 and 𝑢3

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 25

Handling constraints
penalty method

## ● The correct solutions at the constrained nodes are obtained

by introducing high value at the dof of the nodes so this will
ignore other value corresponding to the constraints.

## ●There is no elimination process and solving the equations can

be started immediately. This will be easier to program and
faster solution

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 26

Handling constraints
penalty method
1 e1 2 e2 3 e3 4

𝑢1 = β1 𝑢2 𝑢3 𝑢4 = β4

## 𝐾11 𝐾12 𝐾13 𝐾14 𝑢1 𝐹1

𝐾21 𝐾22 𝐾23 𝐾24 𝑢2 𝐹2
𝑢3 =
𝐾31 𝐾32 𝐾33 𝐾34 𝐹3
Before introducing constraints
𝐾41 𝐾42 𝐾43 𝐾44 𝑢4 𝐹4

## 𝐾11 + 𝐶 𝐾12 𝐾13 𝐾14 𝑢1 𝐹1 + β1 𝐶

After introducing constraints 𝐾21 𝐾22 𝐾23 𝐾24 𝑢2 𝐹2
𝑢3 =
𝐾31 𝐾32 𝐾33 𝐾34 𝐹3
𝐾41 𝐾42 𝐾43 𝐾44 + 𝐶 𝑢4 𝐹4 + β4 𝐶
Using high value penalty :
𝐶 = 𝑀𝑎𝑥 ∣ 𝐾𝑖𝑗 ∣ 1020

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 27

Handling constraints
penalty method
Proof that penalty method can define the constraint

## 𝐾11 + 𝐶 𝐾12 𝐾13 𝐾14 𝑢1 𝐹1 + β1 𝐶

𝐾21 𝐾22 𝐾23 𝐾24 𝑢2 𝐹2
𝑢3 =
𝐾31 𝐾32 𝐾33 𝐾34 𝐹3
𝐾41 𝐾42 𝐾43 𝐾44 + 𝐶 𝑢4 𝐹4 + β4 𝐶 𝐶 = 𝑀𝑎𝑥 ∣ 𝐾𝑖𝑗 ∣ 1020

## 𝐾41 𝑢1 + 𝐾42 𝑢2 + 𝐾43 𝑢3 + 𝐾44 + 𝐶 𝑢4 = 𝐹4 + β4 𝐶

Since C is a huge value compared to other items the equations can be written

𝐶 𝑢1 ≈ β1 𝐶 𝑢1 ≈ β1

𝐶 𝑢4 ≈ β4 𝐶 𝑢4 ≈ β4

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 28

Handling constraints
penalty method
1 e1 2 e2 3 e3 4
Another alternative approach
in imposing penalty constraints
𝑢1 = β1 𝑢2 𝑢3 𝑢4 = β4

## 𝐾11 𝐾12 𝐾13 𝐾14 𝑢1 𝐹1

𝐾21 𝐾22 𝐾23 𝐾24 𝑢2 𝐹2
𝑢3 =
𝐾31 𝐾32 𝐾33 𝐾34 𝐹3
Before introducing constraints
𝐾41 𝐾42 𝐾43 𝐾44 𝑢4 𝐹4

## 𝐶 𝐾12 𝐾13 𝐾14 𝑢1 β1 𝐶

After introducing constraints 𝐾21 𝐾22 𝐾23 𝐾24 𝑢2 𝐹2
𝑢3 =
𝐾31 𝐾32 𝐾33 𝐾34 𝐹3
𝐾41 𝐾42 𝐾43 𝐶 𝑢4 β4 𝐶
Using high value penalty :
𝐶 = 𝑀𝑎𝑥 ∣ 𝐾𝑖𝑗 ∣ 1020

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 29

Axial Element
static problem - summary

➢ FEM modeling

➢ Analyse elemental stiffness matrix and force vector and save them
➢ in global storage

## ➢ Assemble all elements into the global matrix, 𝐾 𝑢 = 𝐹

𝑐 𝑐
➢ Modify equations by considering the constraints, 𝐾 𝑢 = 𝐹
➢ by using either direct elimination method or penalty method

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 30

Example Problem 3-3

## Develop a finite element model to represent the problem

(2 Elements, 3 nodes)

## Calculate the displacement in each node,

USING DIRECT ELIMINATION METHOD.

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 31

Calculate every element [k] and {f}
1 1 2 2 3

𝑢1 = 0
𝑓3 = −10

## Element Node 1 Node 2 L A E AE/L

1 1 2 1 2 1 2
2 2 3 1 1 1 1

Element 1 𝑢1 𝑢2
1 −1 𝑢1 0 𝑢1
[𝑘1 ] = 2 {𝑓 1 } =
−1 1 𝑢2 0 𝑢2

Element 2 𝑢2 𝑢3
1 −1 𝑢2 0 𝑢2
[𝑘 2 ] = 1 {𝑓 2 } =
−1 1 𝑢3 −10 𝑢3

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 32

Assemble all elements to get [K] and {F}

## Number of DOF in every node: DOF = 1

Number of nodes in the system: N=3

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 33

Assemble all elements to get [K] and {F}
𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3

0 0 0 𝑢1 0 𝑢1
[𝐾] = 0 2 −2 𝑢2 {𝐹} = 0 𝑢
2
0 −2 2 𝑢3 −10
𝑢3

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3
2 −2 0 𝑢1 0 𝑢1
[𝐾] = −2 2 0 {𝐹} = 0
0 0 0 𝑢2 𝑢2
0
𝑢3 𝑢3

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3
2 −2 0 𝑢1 0 𝑢1
[𝐾] = −2 2 + 1 −1 {𝐹} = 0
𝑢2 𝑢2
0 −1 1 −10
𝑢3 𝑢3

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 34

Apply constraints
𝑢1 = 0

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3

2 −2 0 𝑢1 0 𝑢1
𝐾 = −2 2 + 1 −1 {𝐹} = 0
𝑢2 𝑢2
0 −1 1 −10
𝑢3 𝑢3

1 0 0 0
𝐾 = 0 2 + 1 −1 {𝐹} = 0 − −2 𝑢1
0 −1 1 −10 − 0 𝑢1

3 −1 𝑢2 0
= 𝑢2 = −5
−1 1 𝑢3 −10
𝑢3 = −15

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 35

Assemble all elements to get [K] and {F}
𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3

0 0 0 𝑢1 0 𝑢1
[𝐾] = 0 0 0 {𝐹} = 0
0 0 0 𝑢2 𝑢2
0
𝑢3 𝑢3

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3
2 −2 0 𝑢1 0 𝑢1
[𝐾] = −2 2 0 {𝐹} = 0
0 0 0 𝑢2 𝑢2
0
𝑢3 𝑢3

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3
2 −2 0 𝑢1 0 𝑢1
[𝐾] = −2 2 + 1 −1 𝑢2 {𝐹} = 0 𝑢2
0 −1 1 𝑢3 −10 𝑢3

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 36

Apply constraints
𝑢1 = 0

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3

2 −2 0 𝑢1 0 𝑢1
𝐾 = −2 2 + 1 −1 {𝐹} = 0
𝑢2 𝑢2
0 −1 1 −10
𝑢3 𝑢3

1 0 0 0
𝐾 = 0 2 + 1 −1 {𝐹} = 0 − −2 𝑢1
0 −1 1 −10 − 0 𝑢1

3 −1 𝑢2 0
= 𝑢2 = −5
−1 1 𝑢3 −10
𝑢3 = −15

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 37

Example Problem 3-4
Reconsider the Example Problem 3.3.
Apply the penalty method to define the matrix equation after the constraint

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3

1030 −2 0 𝑢1 0 + 0 1030 𝑢1
𝐾 = −2 2+1 −1 𝐹 = 0
𝑢2 𝑢2
0 −1 1 −10
𝑢3 𝑢3

𝑢1 0
𝑢2 = −5
𝑢3 −15

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 38

Multi Point Constraints
If the displacements of nodes are related each other or depending on a
specific function, it is referred to as Multi Point Constraints.

3 4 c
b
2 1 a

1 2 5 u1
u2
u5

𝑢1 𝑎 𝑎
= 𝑢1 − 𝑢5 = 0
𝑢5 𝑐 𝑐
β1 𝑢𝑖 + β2 𝑢𝑗 = β0
𝑢2 𝑏 𝑏
= 𝑢2 − 𝑢5 = 0
𝑢5 𝑐 𝑐

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 39

In order to obtained the correct equation

β1 𝑢𝑖 + β2 𝑢𝑗 = β0

𝑢𝑖 𝑢𝑗
β1 2 β1 β2 𝑢𝑖
𝑎𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 =
β1 β2 β2 2 𝑢𝑗

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 40

Strain and Stress in
Axial Element
Strain (ε) in an element occurs when the element is stretched or
compressed, i.e. Elongation (δ)

δ𝑒 = 𝑢𝑗𝑒 − 𝑢𝑖𝑒

δ 𝑒
ϵ𝑒 = 𝑒
𝐿

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 41

Example Problem 3-5
A1 Circular cross section
A1 = 0.0036 m2
A2
A3 A2 = 0.0025 m2
A4 1kN
-250 N A3 = 0.0009 m2
A4 = 0.0004 m2
E = 70 GPa
0.25 m 0.25 m 0.25 m

## Prepare a finite element model consisting of 3 elements

To represent each segment. (use inner cross section for your model)

## a. Calculate the deformation in every segment, at A1, A2, A3 and A4

b. Calculate the strain (ε) in every element
c. Find the stress (σ) in every element
d. Find the elemental force.
e. find the reaction force
Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 42
1 e1 2 e2 3 e3 4

𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢3 𝑢4

𝐴2 𝐸 𝐴3 𝐸 𝐴4 𝐸

𝐿 𝐿 𝐿

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 43

Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 44
~0

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 45

Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 46
Example Problem 3-6
A1 Circular cross section
A1 = 0.0036 m2
A2
A3 A2 = 0.0025 m2
A4 1kN
-250 N A3 = 0.0009 m2
A4 = 0.0004 m2
E = 70 GPa
0.25 m 0.25 m 0.25 m

## Prepare a finite element model consisting of 6 elements

Every segment consists of 2 elements.
(use inner cross section for your model)

## a. Calculate the deformation in every node

b. Calculate the strain (ε) in every element
c. Find the stress (σ) in every element
d. Find the elemental force.
e. Find the reaction force
Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 47
Example Problem 3-7
E=101GPa E=73GPa
E=69GPa
A2
A B C D x
1 kN
A3
A1 E=101GPa
A2

## Prepare a finite element model to investigate the displacement at point

A, B, C and D, also the stresses of each element.

## You have to provide of the following information

a. The deformation in every node
b. The strain (ε) in every element
c. The stress (σ) in every element
d. The elemental force.
e. The reaction force

Exercises 3-7_1
15 cm

D A2
A B C 1 kN E F x
A3
A1 E=101GPa
A2

## Prepare a finite element model to investigate the displacement at point

A, B, C, D, E and F also the stresses of each element.

## You have to provide of the following information

a. The deformation in every node
b. The strain (ε) in every element
c. The stress (σ) in every element
d. The elemental force.
e. The reaction force
f. Verify all results with FEM application software (Mecway or LISA)
Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 49

𝑓𝑡𝑜𝑡 = 𝑓𝐿 + 𝑓𝑏 + 𝑓𝑡

= + +
𝑓𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑗 𝑓𝑗 𝑓𝑏𝑗 𝑓𝑡𝑗

𝑓𝑏𝑖 𝐿 2𝑏𝑖 + 𝑏𝑗
=
𝑓𝑏𝑗 6 𝑏𝑖 + 2𝑏𝑗

𝑓𝑡𝑖 −1
= 𝐸𝐴α 𝑡𝑗 − 𝑡𝑖
𝑓𝑡𝑗 1

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 52

Example Problem 3-8
A1 Circular cross section
A1 = 0.0036 m2
A2
A3 A2 = 0.0025 m2
A4 1kN
-250 N A3 = 0.0009 m2
A4 = 0.0004 m2
E = 70 GPa
0.25 m 0.25 m 0.25 m
100o C
Alpha = 0.000012
Other nodes 50o C
Prepare a finite element model consisting of 3 elements
To represent each segment. (use inner cross section for your model)

## a. Calculate the deformation in every segment, at A1, A2, A3 and A4

b. Calculate the strain (ε) in every element
c. Find the stress (σ) in every element
d. Find the elemental force.
e. find the reaction force
Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 53
Torsional Element

𝐽𝐺 𝐸
𝑘= Shear Modulus 𝐺=
𝐿 2 1+ν
θ𝑖 θ𝑗
𝐽𝐺 1 −1 θ𝑖
𝑘𝑒 = Inertia polar or Torsional constant π𝑅4
𝐿 −1 1 θ𝑗 (for circular cross section) 𝐽=
2

## Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 54

Example Problem 3-9
The 20 mm diameter A-36 steel shaft is subjected to the torques shown.
Determine the angle of twist of the end B. Given G=75GPa
(c) Element 1
θ1 θ2 θ3 θ4
[k1] = 1.47E+03 -1.47E+03 0 0 θ1
-1.47E+03 1.47E+03 0 0 θ2
0 0 0 0 θ3
0 0 0 0 θ4

(c) Element 2
θ1 θ2 θ3 θ4
[k2] = 0 0 0 0 θ1
0 1.96E+03 -1.96E+03 0 θ2
0 -1.96E+03 1.96E+03 0 θ3
0 0 0 0 θ4

(c) Element 3
θ1 θ2 θ3 θ4
[k3] = 0 0 0 0 θ1
0 0 0 0 θ2
0 0 5.89E+03 -5.89E+03 θ3
0 0 -5.89E+03 5.89E+03 θ4
(c) Total [K]
θ1 θ2 θ3 θ4
[K] = 1472.8125 -1472.8125 0 0 θ1
-1472.8125 3436.5625 -1963.75 0 θ2
0 -1963.75 7855 -5891.25 θ3
0 0 -5891.25 5891.25 θ4

T1 -80
T2 = 20
T3 -30
T4 0

## (d) Apply Direct Elimination Method)

Before constraint:
θ1 θ2 θ3 θ4 {θ} {T}
1472.8125 -1472.8125 0 0 θ1 θ1 -80
-1472.8125 3436.5625 -1963.75 0 θ2 x θ2 = 20
0 -1963.75 7855 -5891.25 θ3 θ3 -30
0 0 -5891.25 5891.25 θ4 θ4 0

## After constraint : θ4=0

{θ} {T}
1472.8125 -1472.8125 0 0 θ1 θ1 -80
-1472.8125 3436.5625 -1963.75 0 θ2 x θ2 = 20-(0*0)
0 -1963.75 7855 0 θ3 θ3 -30
0 0 0 1 θ4 θ4 0
(d) Inverse matrix
θ1 θ2 θ3 {θ} {T}
0.001357946 0.000678973 0.000169743 θ1 θ1 -80
0.000678973 0.000678973 0.000169743 θ2 x θ2 = 20
0.000169743 0.000169743 0.000169743 θ3 θ3 -30

## (d) Solve using calculator or simultaneous equations give,

θ1 -1.00E-01 -0.100149
θ2 -5.00E-02 -0.045831
θ3 -1.50E-02 -0.015277
Lecture Module 3 BDA31003 58