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2004 IEEE Intemational Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

Solution of Practical Power Networks with

Sparse Techniques

Abdel Moamen M. A Narayana Prasad Padhy

Abstract- In this paper, a generalized and improved effectively. In other words, it can transfer power flow from

modeling of the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) for one line to another within its capability. This paper focuses on

Newton-Raphson power flow studies has been presented. Sparse the operation of the UPFC and also analyzes the performance

techniques are applied in the formulation and calculation of

of power flow incorporating UPFC.

Jacobian matrix. While numerous studies concerning the

utilization of these Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) The power transmitted over an ac transmission line is a

devices including W F C have been carried out so far but they are function of the line impedance, the magnitude of sending end

not free from complex mathematical modeling and are not and receiving end voltages, and the phase angle between these

generalized for any FACTS devices. The proposed model can be voltages. Traditional techniques of reactive line compensation

easily extended to any FACTS devices with minor modification in and step like voltage adjustment are generally used to alter

the Jacobian matrix of the power flow algorithm. The

these parameters to achieve power transmission control. Fixed

performance of the proposed model has been tested for IEEE30

bus systems. It has also been observed that the proposed model and mechanically switched shunt and series reactive

can be applied to larger systems and do not suffer with compensation are employed to modify the natural impedance

computational and mathematical difficulties. characteristics of transmission line in order to establish the

desired effective impedance between the sending and

Index Terms FACTS Devices, Unified Power Flow Controller, receiving ends to meet power transmission requirements.

Newton-Raphson Power Flow, Sparse Techniques.

Voltage regulating and phase shifting transformers with

mechanical tap -changing gears are also used to minimize

I. INTRODUCTION

voltage variation and control power flow. These conventional

HE power flow problem is formulated as a set of

T nonlinear equations. Many calculation methods have been

proposed to solve this problem. Among them, Newton-

methods provide adequate control under steady state and

slowly changing conditions, but are largely ineffective in

handling dynamic disturbances. The traditional approach to

Raphson method and fast decoupled load flow method are two contain dynamic problems is to establish generous stability

very successful methods. In general, the decoupled power margins in enabling the system to recover from faults, line and

flow methods are only valid for weakly loaded network with generator outages, and equipment failures. This approach,

large X/R ratio network. For system conditions with large although reliable, results in a significant under utilization of

angles across lines( heavily loaded network) and with special the transmission system. As a result of recent environmental

control that strongly influence active and reactive power restrictions, right of way issues, construction cost increases,

flows, Newton-Raphson method may be required [ 1],[2]. and deregulation policies, there is an increasing reorganization

Therefore, when the AC power flow calculation is needed in of the necessity to utilize existing transmission system assets

systems with FACTS devices, Newtm-Raphson method is a to the maximum extend possible.

suitable power flow calculation method in the system with Recently, due to the rapid developments in the field of

UPFC when high accuracy is required. digital computer, communication and power electronic device

The basic requirement of power system is to meet 'the technologies, the Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS)

demand that varies continuously. That is, the amount of power in which the transmission system parameters are readily and

delivered by the power companies must be equal to that of quickly controllable. Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC)

consumer's need. Unfortunately nobody guarantees that is power electronics based system that can provide the control

unexpected things such as generator fault or line fault and line of the transmission line impedance, phase angle and reactive

tripping would not happen. Due to its fast control power F],[S]. This versatility of the UPFC makes it a prime

characteristics and continuous compensation capability, FACTS device that can provide many of the control functions

FACTS devices have been researched and adapted in power required to solve a wide range of dynamic and steady state

engineering area [3], [4]. There are so many advantages in problems encountered in power systems @I-[ll].However,

FACTS device; it can increase dynamic stability, loading most of the UPFC models and ensuring analysis have

capability of lines and system security. It can also increase addressed cases where the UPFC is connected between infinite

utilization of lowest cost generation [SI, [6]. The key role of busbars. Little work has been done in developing suitable

models for assessing the UPFCs behavior in large scale power

Narayana Prasad Padhy and Abdel-Moamen M. A. are with Electrical

network.

Engineering Department, Indian Institute of technology, Roorkee, Uttaranchal

India 247 667 (e-mail moniendee~~,iit~.c~nct.in)

0-7803-8237-4/04/$17.0002004IEEE

77

2004 IEEE International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuringand Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

with power flow algorithms by removing the UPFC where

sending end is transformed into a PQ bus and receiving end is

transformed into a PV bus. The active and reactive power

//

loads in the PQ bus and the voltage magnitude at the PV bus - UIU) _'I

are set at the values to be controlled ly UPFC. The active

power injected into the PV bus has the same value as the

active power extracted in the PQ bus . A standard load flow is

carried out to determine the nodal, complex voltages at the

UPFC terminals. The UPFC parameters are computed after the

load flow converged.

Noroozian et a / [13] have taken the approach of modeling

the UPFC as a series reactance together with a set of active

Fig. 1. UPFC model

and reactive nodal power injection at each end of the series

reactance. These powers are expressed as function of terminal, The basic operation principle diagram of the UPFC is

nodal voltages, and the voltages of a series source which shown in Fig. 1. which is already described in open literature

represents the UPFC series converter. The UPFC injection [5]-[ 101. The Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) made

model is implemented into a full NR program by adding the out of two Voltage Source Converters (VSCs), which are

UPFC power injection and their derivatives with respect to the connected through a common DC link capacitor. The first

network state variables. Still it is requirement to go fore model VSC is connected to the power system through a shunt

which is free from mathematical. (exciting) transformer, known as STATic synchronous

Fang and Ngan [14] proposed a hybrid model in which each Compensator (STATCOM), injects an almost sinusoidal

UPFC is represented by an ideal series voltage and an ideal current of variable magnitude at the point of connection.

shunt current. An ideal voltage source model is used to Whereas the other converter is inserted into the transmission

represent the series converter of the UPFC while an ideal line through a series transformer (boosting), known as Static

current source is used to represent the shunt converter. Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC), injects an almost

However, power losses of coupling transformers are not sinusoidal voltage of variable magnitude in series with the

depicted appropriately. Esquivel et. al. [15], [ 161 presented a transmission line. When the STATCOM and the SSSC operate

comprehensive voltage-source-based (VSB) UPFC model for as stand-alone controllers, they exchange almost exclusively

controlling desired combinations of active powers, reactive reactive power at their terminals. When both VSCs are

powers and voltage magnitude. Both the series converter and operating together as a UPFC, the injected voltage in series

the shunt converter are modeled as ideal voltage sources with with the transmission line can be at any angle with respect to

appropriate impedances. Thus, active and reactive power the line current; therefore, the exchanged power at the

losses of coupling transformers are considered. In the VSB terminals of each converter can be reactive as well as real, The

model, four additional variables of each UPFC are appended result is that the real and reactive power flow in the line can

in the conventional Newton-Raphson power flow solver. regulated selectively.

Although this model can describe various operation modes of

UPFCs. B. UPFC Principle and Load Flow Equations

Sheng-Huei et a1 [I71 modified Fang and Ngan UPFC The general transfer admittance matrix for the UPFC is

power flow models for controlling desired combinations of formulated by applying KCL and KVL to the electric circuit

active powers, reactive powers and voltage magnitude. The shown in Fig. 2. For each branch, compute the elements of the

series converter is modeled as ideal voltage source with branch admittance matrix where

appropriate impedances and the shunt converter is modeled as

ideal current source which decomposed into active and

reactive parts.

It has been found that a generalized power flow model

incorporating FACTS devices with sparse techniques will be The equation 1 can be rewritten as:

very much useh1 for present day modern power system. So an

attempt has been made to solve the power flow incorporating

UPFC and can be extended to other FACTS devices easily and

successfully such as TCSC, STATCOM, SSSC, etc.

78

2004 E E E Intemational Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

where

r, (3)

0 -AP

AQ

(4) and AX=

F(W=

and AQji

qf = Y, + J B , + y, +Yp

Kf =qt = - P L +y,)

Y,, = YL + j B c + Y,

1 1 1

YL =- , Ys=- and Y =- J , l J12 J13 J14 J15

ZL 2, z, J =

J21

J ~

J22

IJ32

J23

J33

J24

J34

J2S

J35

(16)

where

4 I, are the line currents. J4l J4, J43 J44 J45

ZL,Z, and Z, are transmission line, series source and parallel

source impedances respectively.

B, is the half line charging susceptance of transmission line.

Assuming a loss-free converter operation, the UPFC neither

absorbs nor injects active power with respect to the

transmission system. The active paver demanded by the series

converter is supplied from the AC power system by the shunt

converter via the common DC link. The DC link voltage, Vd,,

remains constant. Hence, the active power supplied to the

shunt converter, Pp, must satisfy the active power demanded

by the series converter, Ps, so UPFC is capable of controlling

both real and reactive power flows in lines independently.

Since the device does not actually generate real power,

V, =[E]

however it does reactive power; it only changes the

distribution of p ower flow in lines. i.e.

APd, ‘p, -Pp =o (9)

where If S is the power injected into the network,

S = V I’ = diag(qf = diag(l*) V (21)

P, = reaf(VpI; (10) where, ; is defined as multiplication of two vectors in point

wise, I is the conjugate of bus current I and diag (V) is a

P, = reaf(<Is*) (11)

with square matrix with the elements of V on the main diagonal.

and

I , = Vf- V p > Y p (1 2) 1=Z1(V1,U ) + I , (V2, ii2) (22)

I, =If-Ip (13) the familiar Jacobian matrix of power flow is

The UPFC linearized power flow equations are combined with

the linearized system of equations corresponding to the rest of

the network,

79

2004 IEEE International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

as - diag(v-ai* + diag(f)-av

-- (24)

Btf. is the inter-conductance matrix observed from the

terminal t It is zeromatrix nLxnL with the elements of &,on the

aa a6 aii

main diagonal.

as = diag(V+ az* + diag(Z*)-

- av B,, is the self- conductance matrix at terminal t. It is

(25)

TI alvl alvl zeromatrix n L x n L with the elements of Y,, on the main

diagonal.

as - diag(V+ + diag(l* )-av

-- aI *

(26) From above definitions:

aii2 aii2 aii,

V, = A f r V and V, = A l T V (36)

-as = diag(v- ai * + diag(f )-av The injected currents of line 4and Zt can be obtained as

(27)

alV2 I alV2 I alv2 I I , = B,V, + BflV (37)

These matrices are very sparse. It is easy to calculate by

1, = Bt, V, + Btf Vf (38)

applying sparse techniques.

If 'S is the power flow in the l i n e j from terminal fto terminal

t and St from t to f

Partials of V& Z with respect to voltage angles 6 and * * *

voltage magnitude /VI S , = V f I f = diag(V, )I, = diag(Zf )V, (39)

a'

-- - diagfiv) (28)

S, = VI I,* = diag(V,)Z,* = diag(l,*)V, (40)

aii Partials of V, V) & 4with respect to voltage angles 6 and

av = diag(e'")

- voltage magnitude IVI

(29)

alvl a'

-- - diagfiv)

and ad

magnitude I V21

av av

qiq

-=-=o

aa2 pvzl

(34) and

Partials of Sf with respect to voltage angles 6 and voltage

where Yl and Y, are constant admittances matrices magnitude 1 VI

-=

alvl

diag(vf) 1

- + diag(Z,* av, )m

Partials of V, V , V2& Ifwith respect to voltage angles 6* and

(48)

where

voltage magnitude IVjl

A, all zeromatrix n f l n L except the network connection of

branch$ at terminal f equal to I . av - a 5

---- -0

(49)

A , all zeromatrix nbxnL except the network connection of aii2 aa,

branch$ at terminal t equal to I .

B, is the self conductance matrix at terminal f. It is -= diag(f12) (50)

zeromatrix n L x nL with the elements of on the main 4'21

av,

B? is the inter-conductance matrix observed from the ---- (51)

terminal f : It is zeromatrix n L x n L with the elements of q,on

azi, a&, a&,

80

2004 TEEE Intemational Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

Also,

-=---

Partials of S,with respect to voltage angles 6 , and voltage as2 as, as,

Partials of I,, & I, with respect to voltage angles 6 and voltage

magnitude I I

aIS

-=--- a~,,

31,

(611

alv,I 441 alv,I

Partials of $> & & with respect to voltage angles 6 and Then we can calculate Jacobian elements as:

voltage magnitude \VI(

voltage magnitude IV,l

81

2004 IEEE International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuringand Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

To test the performance of the proposed algorithm IEEE 30

bus test system[ 181 shown in Fig. 3 with 230kV and lOOMVA

base has been considered. Specified power flow control over

the transmission lines has been achieved by determining the

converged series injection voltage and angles of series and

parallel injection voltages. The UPFC has been designed with

the transformer impedances with specified values z= Z, = j

1.0. The following Table 1 Shows the percentage increase in

power flow and its corresponding injection voltages. Out of 41

lines available in the system, solutions for specific lines have

been presented. Unfortunately rest of the lines fails to provide

better power flow control with UPFC. Even though the

solutions for positive increase in power flow are demonstrated

but the same procedure can be repeated for negative power

flow control.

To improve the system performance, UPFC was placed in

line 24 and line 35near to bus 19.and 25 respectively This

means that the overall system losses should be reduced along

with control of line power. Moreover, since the control

parameters of UPFC can be simultaneously or selectively

controlled to influence power system performance. Therefore,

in this case study, the impact of controlled parameters of

UPFC is investigated converged was obtained to a power

mismatch tolerance of 10'l2.

CONTROL WITH KEEPING ORIGINAL REACTIVE POWER.

Line Specified v, 4 Total Loss

power

No, flow (%)

(P.u.) (degree) (degree) (MW)

I - 10 0.0085 -459.86 -4.37 4.636-j 16.591

82

2004 E E E Intemational Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

to 28)

IV. CONCLUTION

This paper has presented a Newton-Raphson load flow

algorithm to solve power flow problems in power system with

unified power flow controller (UPFC). This algorithm is

capable of solving power networks very reliably. The IEEE 30

bus system has been used to demonstrate the proposed method

over a wide range of power flow variations in the transmission

designed with the transformer impedances with specified system. It has also been observed that the proposed algorithm

values &= Z, =.01+ j 1.0. It is the UPFC has been embedded is also suitable h r large systems with better range of power

in the transmission lines 24 (between buses 19 &20) at bus 19, control. It is important to note that UPFC has to be placed in

and 36 (between buses 28 &27) at bus 28. The power flow specific transmission lines to improve the system

without UPFC was (6.6078 + j2.8925) MVA on line 24 (from performance.

[ 141 Fang W. L. and Ngan H. W., “Control setting of unified power flow

V. REFERENCES controllers through a robust load flow calculation,” IEE Proceedings,

Generation. Transmission & Distribution, vol. 146, no. 4, pp. 365 -369,

Stott B, “Review of Loadflow Calculation Methods”, IEEE July 1999.

Proceedings, Vo1.62, pp. 916-929, July 1974. [ 151 Fuerte-Esquivei C R., Acha E., “Unified Power Flow Controller: A

Fuerte-Esquivei C.R., Acha E: “A NewtomType Algorithm for the Critical Comparison of Newton-Raphson UPFC Algorithms in Power

Control of Power Flow in Electrical Power Networks”: IEEE Flow Studies,” IEE Proceedings, Generation, Transmission

transactions on Power Systems, vol. 12, N0.4, pp. 1474- 1480,November &Dish.ibution. vol. 144,no. 5 , pp. 437444, September 1997.

1997

[ 161 Fuerte-Esquivei C.R., Acha E., Ambriz-Perez H.: “A Comperhensive

Noroozian M. and Andersson G. “Power Flow Control by Use of

NewtomRaphson UPFC Model for the Quadratic Power Flow Soluation

Controllable Series Components”, IEEE Transactions on Power of Practical Power Network”: IEEE transactions on Power Systems, vol.

Delivery, vol. 8, No. 3 , pp. 12-18, July 1993. 15, NO.l, pp.102-109,February 2000.

Noroozian M. Angquist L., Ghandhari M., Andersson G . “Improving

[ 171 Sheng-Huei k e , C h i d h i Chu, Ding-Hsin Chang “Comprehensive

Power System Dynamics by Series-Connected FACTS Devices”, IEEE

UPFC Models for Power Flow Calculations in Practical Power Systems”

Transactions on PowerDelivery, vol. 12, No. 4, pp.1635-1641, October IEEE Power Engineering Society (PES) Summer Meeting (SM),

1997. Canada, vol. 1, pp 27 -32, July 2001

Song Y.H., Johns A.T: “Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS)”,

[IS] Available from fttp://wahoo.ee.washington. edu

The Institute of Electrical Engineers(IEE) Press, London, U.K , 1999.

Hingorani N.G. and Gyugyi, L., “Understanding FACTS, Concepts and

Technology of Flexible AC Transmission Systems”, IEEE Press, 2000. VI. BIOGRAPHIES

Gyugyi L., “A Unified Power Flow Control Concept for Flexible AC

Abdel-Moamen M. Abdel-Rahim received the B. Sc. degree and the M.Sc.

Transmission Systems”, E E Proc., Part-C, Vol. 139, No.4, pp.323-333, degree both in Electrical Engineering From Assuit University, Egypt in 1991

July 1992. and 1998, respectively. He joined Aswan High Institute of Energy as an

Keri A.J.F., Lombard X, Edris A.A, Mehraban A.S., Elate A., “UPFC: Assistant Lecturer, Aswan, Egypt in 1993. He is currently working towards

Modeling and Analysis” IEEE Trans on Power Delivery, Vol. 14, No2,

the Ph.D. degree at the department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute

pp.648654, April 1999. of Technology, Roorkee, India. His research interests include power system

Lambord X. and Thernond P.G., “Control of Unified Power Flow economics and FACTS.

Controller: Comparison of Methods on the basis of a Detailed Numerical

Model,” IEEE Trans. on Power Systems Vol. 12, No. 2, May 1997, pp.

Narayana Prasad Padhy obtained his Degree in Electrical Engineering and

824-830. Masters in Power Systems Engineering with Distinction in 1990 and 1993,

Rietman T.R., Edris A.A., Schauder C.D, Torgerson D.R., Williams respectively. In 1997, he obtained his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering

S.L., “The Unified Power Flow Controller: A New Approach to Power

from Anna University, Chennai, India. He joined Birla Institute of

Transmission Control” IEEE Trans on Power Delivery, Vol. IO, No.2,

Technology & Science(B1TS) as an Assistant Professor, Electrical

pp.1085-1093, April 1995. Engineering Department in 1997. He is presently working as Assistant

Manzar Rahman, Mohammed Ahmad, R. Gutman, R.J. O’keefe, Robert Professor in the Department of Elecmcal Engineering, Indian Institute of

J. Nelson, Jianhua Bian, “UPFC Application on the AEP System” IEEE

Technology, Roorkee. He taught course in Basic Electrical Engineering,

Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 12, No 4,1997. Power Systems and Artificial Intelligence. His field of interest is Power

NabavtNiaki and Iravani, MR., “Steady State and Dynamic models of System Privatization, Restructuring and Deregulation, Artificial Intelligence

Unified Power Flow Controller for Power System Studies”, IEEE Applications to Power System Operation and Optimization Problems, FACTS.

transactions on Power System ~01.11,No. 4,pp. 1937-1941Nov.1996.

Noroozian M. Angquist L., Ghandhari M. and Andersson G. “Use of

UPFC for Optimal Power Flow Control”, IEEE Transactions on Power

Delivery, vol. 12,No. 4,pp.1629-1634, October 1997.

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