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Newton-Raphson UPFC model for power flow solution of practical power


networks with sparse techniques

Conference Paper · May 2004


DOI: 10.1109/DRPT.2004.1338472 · Source: IEEE Xplore

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2004 IEEE Intemational Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

Newton-Raphson UPFC Model for Power Flow


Solution of Practical Power Networks with
Sparse Techniques
Abdel Moamen M. A Narayana Prasad Padhy

FACTS device is to control the power flow actively and


Abstract- In this paper, a generalized and improved effectively. In other words, it can transfer power flow from
modeling of the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) for one line to another within its capability. This paper focuses on
Newton-Raphson power flow studies has been presented. Sparse the operation of the UPFC and also analyzes the performance
techniques are applied in the formulation and calculation of
of power flow incorporating UPFC.
Jacobian matrix. While numerous studies concerning the
utilization of these Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) The power transmitted over an ac transmission line is a
devices including W F C have been carried out so far but they are function of the line impedance, the magnitude of sending end
not free from complex mathematical modeling and are not and receiving end voltages, and the phase angle between these
generalized for any FACTS devices. The proposed model can be voltages. Traditional techniques of reactive line compensation
easily extended to any FACTS devices with minor modification in and step like voltage adjustment are generally used to alter
the Jacobian matrix of the power flow algorithm. The
these parameters to achieve power transmission control. Fixed
performance of the proposed model has been tested for IEEE30
bus systems. It has also been observed that the proposed model and mechanically switched shunt and series reactive
can be applied to larger systems and do not suffer with compensation are employed to modify the natural impedance
computational and mathematical difficulties. characteristics of transmission line in order to establish the
desired effective impedance between the sending and
Index Terms FACTS Devices, Unified Power Flow Controller, receiving ends to meet power transmission requirements.
Newton-Raphson Power Flow, Sparse Techniques.
Voltage regulating and phase shifting transformers with
mechanical tap -changing gears are also used to minimize
I. INTRODUCTION
voltage variation and control power flow. These conventional
HE power flow problem is formulated as a set of
T nonlinear equations. Many calculation methods have been
proposed to solve this problem. Among them, Newton-
methods provide adequate control under steady state and
slowly changing conditions, but are largely ineffective in
handling dynamic disturbances. The traditional approach to
Raphson method and fast decoupled load flow method are two contain dynamic problems is to establish generous stability
very successful methods. In general, the decoupled power margins in enabling the system to recover from faults, line and
flow methods are only valid for weakly loaded network with generator outages, and equipment failures. This approach,
large X/R ratio network. For system conditions with large although reliable, results in a significant under utilization of
angles across lines( heavily loaded network) and with special the transmission system. As a result of recent environmental
control that strongly influence active and reactive power restrictions, right of way issues, construction cost increases,
flows, Newton-Raphson method may be required [ 1],[2]. and deregulation policies, there is an increasing reorganization
Therefore, when the AC power flow calculation is needed in of the necessity to utilize existing transmission system assets
systems with FACTS devices, Newtm-Raphson method is a to the maximum extend possible.
suitable power flow calculation method in the system with Recently, due to the rapid developments in the field of
UPFC when high accuracy is required. digital computer, communication and power electronic device
The basic requirement of power system is to meet 'the technologies, the Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS)
demand that varies continuously. That is, the amount of power in which the transmission system parameters are readily and
delivered by the power companies must be equal to that of quickly controllable. Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC)
consumer's need. Unfortunately nobody guarantees that is power electronics based system that can provide the control
unexpected things such as generator fault or line fault and line of the transmission line impedance, phase angle and reactive
tripping would not happen. Due to its fast control power F],[S]. This versatility of the UPFC makes it a prime
characteristics and continuous compensation capability, FACTS device that can provide many of the control functions
FACTS devices have been researched and adapted in power required to solve a wide range of dynamic and steady state
engineering area [3], [4]. There are so many advantages in problems encountered in power systems @I-[ll].However,
FACTS device; it can increase dynamic stability, loading most of the UPFC models and ensuring analysis have
capability of lines and system security. It can also increase addressed cases where the UPFC is connected between infinite
utilization of lowest cost generation [SI, [6]. The key role of busbars. Little work has been done in developing suitable
models for assessing the UPFCs behavior in large scale power
Narayana Prasad Padhy and Abdel-Moamen M. A. are with Electrical
network.
Engineering Department, Indian Institute of technology, Roorkee, Uttaranchal
India 247 667 (e-mail moniendee~~,iit~.c~nct.in)
0-7803-8237-4/04/$17.0002004IEEE

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2004 IEEE International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuringand Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

Nabavi and Iravani [12] proposed a way to handle UPFC


with power flow algorithms by removing the UPFC where
sending end is transformed into a PQ bus and receiving end is
transformed into a PV bus. The active and reactive power
//
loads in the PQ bus and the voltage magnitude at the PV bus - UIU) _'I
are set at the values to be controlled ly UPFC. The active
power injected into the PV bus has the same value as the
active power extracted in the PQ bus . A standard load flow is
carried out to determine the nodal, complex voltages at the
UPFC terminals. The UPFC parameters are computed after the
load flow converged.
Noroozian et a / [13] have taken the approach of modeling
the UPFC as a series reactance together with a set of active
Fig. 1. UPFC model
and reactive nodal power injection at each end of the series
reactance. These powers are expressed as function of terminal, The basic operation principle diagram of the UPFC is
nodal voltages, and the voltages of a series source which shown in Fig. 1. which is already described in open literature
represents the UPFC series converter. The UPFC injection [5]-[ 101. The Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) made
model is implemented into a full NR program by adding the out of two Voltage Source Converters (VSCs), which are
UPFC power injection and their derivatives with respect to the connected through a common DC link capacitor. The first
network state variables. Still it is requirement to go fore model VSC is connected to the power system through a shunt
which is free from mathematical. (exciting) transformer, known as STATic synchronous
Fang and Ngan [14] proposed a hybrid model in which each Compensator (STATCOM), injects an almost sinusoidal
UPFC is represented by an ideal series voltage and an ideal current of variable magnitude at the point of connection.
shunt current. An ideal voltage source model is used to Whereas the other converter is inserted into the transmission
represent the series converter of the UPFC while an ideal line through a series transformer (boosting), known as Static
current source is used to represent the shunt converter. Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC), injects an almost
However, power losses of coupling transformers are not sinusoidal voltage of variable magnitude in series with the
depicted appropriately. Esquivel et. al. [15], [ 161 presented a transmission line. When the STATCOM and the SSSC operate
comprehensive voltage-source-based (VSB) UPFC model for as stand-alone controllers, they exchange almost exclusively
controlling desired combinations of active powers, reactive reactive power at their terminals. When both VSCs are
powers and voltage magnitude. Both the series converter and operating together as a UPFC, the injected voltage in series
the shunt converter are modeled as ideal voltage sources with with the transmission line can be at any angle with respect to
appropriate impedances. Thus, active and reactive power the line current; therefore, the exchanged power at the
losses of coupling transformers are considered. In the VSB terminals of each converter can be reactive as well as real, The
model, four additional variables of each UPFC are appended result is that the real and reactive power flow in the line can
in the conventional Newton-Raphson power flow solver. regulated selectively.
Although this model can describe various operation modes of
UPFCs. B. UPFC Principle and Load Flow Equations
Sheng-Huei et a1 [I71 modified Fang and Ngan UPFC The general transfer admittance matrix for the UPFC is
power flow models for controlling desired combinations of formulated by applying KCL and KVL to the electric circuit
active powers, reactive powers and voltage magnitude. The shown in Fig. 2. For each branch, compute the elements of the
series converter is modeled as ideal voltage source with branch admittance matrix where
appropriate impedances and the shunt converter is modeled as
ideal current source which decomposed into active and
reactive parts.
It has been found that a generalized power flow model
incorporating FACTS devices with sparse techniques will be The equation 1 can be rewritten as:
very much useh1 for present day modern power system. So an
attempt has been made to solve the power flow incorporating
UPFC and can be extended to other FACTS devices easily and
successfully such as TCSC, STATCOM, SSSC, etc.

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2004 E E E Intemational Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

Fig. 2. Typical UPFC with transmission system


where
r, (3)
0 -AP
AQ
(4) and AX=
F(W=
and AQji
qf = Y, + J B , + y, +Yp
Kf =qt = - P L +y,)
Y,, = YL + j B c + Y,
1 1 1
YL =- , Ys=- and Y =- J , l J12 J13 J14 J15

ZL 2, z, J =
J21

J ~
J22

IJ32
J23

J33
J24

J34
J2S

J35
(16)
where
4 I, are the line currents. J4l J4, J43 J44 J45

7,V, are the buses voltages. -J5I J52 J53 J54 J 5 5 -

V,, Vp are the ideal series and parallel voltages sources.


ZL,Z, and Z, are transmission line, series source and parallel
source impedances respectively.
B, is the half line charging susceptance of transmission line.
Assuming a loss-free converter operation, the UPFC neither
absorbs nor injects active power with respect to the
transmission system. The active paver demanded by the series
converter is supplied from the AC power system by the shunt
converter via the common DC link. The DC link voltage, Vd,,
remains constant. Hence, the active power supplied to the
shunt converter, Pp, must satisfy the active power demanded
by the series converter, Ps, so UPFC is capable of controlling
both real and reactive power flows in lines independently.
Since the device does not actually generate real power,
V, =[E]
however it does reactive power; it only changes the
distribution of p ower flow in lines. i.e.
APd, ‘p, -Pp =o (9)
where If S is the power injected into the network,
S = V I’ = diag(qf = diag(l*) V (21)
P, = reaf(VpI; (10) where, ; is defined as multiplication of two vectors in point
wise, I is the conjugate of bus current I and diag (V) is a
P, = reaf(<Is*) (11)
with square matrix with the elements of V on the main diagonal.
and
I , = Vf- V p > Y p (1 2) 1=Z1(V1,U ) + I , (V2, ii2) (22)
I, =If-Ip (13) the familiar Jacobian matrix of power flow is
The UPFC linearized power flow equations are combined with
the linearized system of equations corresponding to the rest of
the network,

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2004 IEEE International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

where the main diagonal.


as - diag(v-ai* + diag(f)-av
-- (24)
Btf. is the inter-conductance matrix observed from the
terminal t It is zeromatrix nLxnL with the elements of &,on the
aa a6 aii
main diagonal.
as = diag(V+ az* + diag(Z*)-
- av B,, is the self- conductance matrix at terminal t. It is
(25)
TI alvl alvl zeromatrix n L x n L with the elements of Y,, on the main
diagonal.
as - diag(V+ + diag(l* )-av
-- aI *
(26) From above definitions:
aii2 aii2 aii,
V, = A f r V and V, = A l T V (36)
-as = diag(v- ai * + diag(f )-av The injected currents of line 4and Zt can be obtained as
(27)
alV2 I alV2 I alv2 I I , = B,V, + BflV (37)
These matrices are very sparse. It is easy to calculate by
1, = Bt, V, + Btf Vf (38)
applying sparse techniques.
If 'S is the power flow in the l i n e j from terminal fto terminal
t and St from t to f
Partials of V& Z with respect to voltage angles 6 and * * *
voltage magnitude /VI S , = V f I f = diag(V, )I, = diag(Zf )V, (39)

a'
-- - diagfiv) (28)
S, = VI I,* = diag(V,)Z,* = diag(l,*)V, (40)
aii Partials of V, V) & 4with respect to voltage angles 6 and
av = diag(e'")
- voltage magnitude IVI
(29)
alvl a'
-- - diagfiv)
and ad

Partials of V& Z with respect to voltage angles 6, andvoltage av av


magnitude I V21
av av
qiq
-=-=o
aa2 pvzl

(34) and
Partials of Sf with respect to voltage angles 6 and voltage
where Yl and Y, are constant admittances matrices magnitude 1 VI

D. Formulation ofLine Flow and its Is Derivatives (47)

If we define the matrix A and matrix B as below

A=(A, A , ] and B = [ Z 21 (35)


-=
alvl
diag(vf) 1
- + diag(Z,* av, )m
Partials of V, V , V2& Ifwith respect to voltage angles 6* and
(48)

where
voltage magnitude IVjl
A, all zeromatrix n f l n L except the network connection of
branch$ at terminal f equal to I . av - a 5
---- -0
(49)
A , all zeromatrix nbxnL except the network connection of aii2 aa,
branch$ at terminal t equal to I .
B, is the self conductance matrix at terminal f. It is -= diag(f12) (50)
zeromatrix n L x nL with the elements of on the main 4'21

diagonal. azf - az2 -Y* -


av,
B? is the inter-conductance matrix observed from the ---- (51)
terminal f : It is zeromatrix n L x n L with the elements of q,on
azi, a&, a&,

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2004 TEEE Intemational Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

Also,

where Yl and Y, are constant admittances matrices ar, 31, a l p


-=---
Partials of S,with respect to voltage angles 6 , and voltage as2 as, as,

voltage magnitude lVzl

P, = real(VpIj, and P, = r e u l ( ~ I , * ) (56)

I,, =(Vf -V,,)Y,, and I , =I+, (57)


Partials of I,, & I, with respect to voltage angles 6 and voltage
magnitude I I

aIS
-=--- a~,,
31,
(611
alv,I 441 alv,I
Partials of $> & & with respect to voltage angles 6 and Then we can calculate Jacobian elements as:
voltage magnitude \VI(

Partials of Ip & Z, with respect to voltage angles 62and


voltage magnitude IV,l

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2004 IEEE International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuringand Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

111. CASE STUDY


To test the performance of the proposed algorithm IEEE 30
bus test system[ 181 shown in Fig. 3 with 230kV and lOOMVA
base has been considered. Specified power flow control over
the transmission lines has been achieved by determining the
converged series injection voltage and angles of series and
parallel injection voltages. The UPFC has been designed with
the transformer impedances with specified values z= Z, = j
1.0. The following Table 1 Shows the percentage increase in
power flow and its corresponding injection voltages. Out of 41
lines available in the system, solutions for specific lines have
been presented. Unfortunately rest of the lines fails to provide
better power flow control with UPFC. Even though the
solutions for positive increase in power flow are demonstrated
but the same procedure can be repeated for negative power
flow control.

Fig. 3. . The IEEE 30-bus system

A Power Flow with UPFC


To improve the system performance, UPFC was placed in
line 24 and line 35near to bus 19.and 25 respectively This
means that the overall system losses should be reduced along
with control of line power. Moreover, since the control
parameters of UPFC can be simultaneously or selectively
controlled to influence power system performance. Therefore,
in this case study, the impact of controlled parameters of
UPFC is investigated converged was obtained to a power
mismatch tolerance of 10'l2.

TABLE 1 UPFC PARAMETERS FOR DIFFERENT REAL POWER


CONTROL WITH KEEPING ORIGINAL REACTIVE POWER.
Line Specified v, 4 Total Loss
power
No, flow (%)
(P.u.) (degree) (degree) (MW)
I - 10 0.0085 -459.86 -4.37 4.636-j 16.591

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2004 E E E Intemational Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

20 to 20) and (-16.6191 - j 5.3303) MVA on line 36 (from 27


to 28)

IV. CONCLUTION
This paper has presented a Newton-Raphson load flow
algorithm to solve power flow problems in power system with
unified power flow controller (UPFC). This algorithm is
capable of solving power networks very reliably. The IEEE 30
bus system has been used to demonstrate the proposed method
over a wide range of power flow variations in the transmission
designed with the transformer impedances with specified system. It has also been observed that the proposed algorithm
values &= Z, =.01+ j 1.0. It is the UPFC has been embedded is also suitable h r large systems with better range of power
in the transmission lines 24 (between buses 19 &20) at bus 19, control. It is important to note that UPFC has to be placed in
and 36 (between buses 28 &27) at bus 28. The power flow specific transmission lines to improve the system
without UPFC was (6.6078 + j2.8925) MVA on line 24 (from performance.

TABLE 2 POWER FLOW SOLUTIONSWITH UPFC.

[ 141 Fang W. L. and Ngan H. W., “Control setting of unified power flow
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Abdel-Moamen M. Abdel-Rahim received the B. Sc. degree and the M.Sc.
Transmission Systems”, E E Proc., Part-C, Vol. 139, No.4, pp.323-333, degree both in Electrical Engineering From Assuit University, Egypt in 1991
July 1992. and 1998, respectively. He joined Aswan High Institute of Energy as an
Keri A.J.F., Lombard X, Edris A.A, Mehraban A.S., Elate A., “UPFC: Assistant Lecturer, Aswan, Egypt in 1993. He is currently working towards
Modeling and Analysis” IEEE Trans on Power Delivery, Vol. 14, No2,
the Ph.D. degree at the department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute
pp.648654, April 1999. of Technology, Roorkee, India. His research interests include power system
Lambord X. and Thernond P.G., “Control of Unified Power Flow economics and FACTS.
Controller: Comparison of Methods on the basis of a Detailed Numerical
Model,” IEEE Trans. on Power Systems Vol. 12, No. 2, May 1997, pp.
Narayana Prasad Padhy obtained his Degree in Electrical Engineering and
824-830. Masters in Power Systems Engineering with Distinction in 1990 and 1993,
Rietman T.R., Edris A.A., Schauder C.D, Torgerson D.R., Williams respectively. In 1997, he obtained his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering
S.L., “The Unified Power Flow Controller: A New Approach to Power
from Anna University, Chennai, India. He joined Birla Institute of
Transmission Control” IEEE Trans on Power Delivery, Vol. IO, No.2,
Technology & Science(B1TS) as an Assistant Professor, Electrical
pp.1085-1093, April 1995. Engineering Department in 1997. He is presently working as Assistant
Manzar Rahman, Mohammed Ahmad, R. Gutman, R.J. O’keefe, Robert Professor in the Department of Elecmcal Engineering, Indian Institute of
J. Nelson, Jianhua Bian, “UPFC Application on the AEP System” IEEE
Technology, Roorkee. He taught course in Basic Electrical Engineering,
Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 12, No 4,1997. Power Systems and Artificial Intelligence. His field of interest is Power
NabavtNiaki and Iravani, MR., “Steady State and Dynamic models of System Privatization, Restructuring and Deregulation, Artificial Intelligence
Unified Power Flow Controller for Power System Studies”, IEEE Applications to Power System Operation and Optimization Problems, FACTS.
transactions on Power System ~01.11,No. 4,pp. 1937-1941Nov.1996.
Noroozian M. Angquist L., Ghandhari M. and Andersson G. “Use of
UPFC for Optimal Power Flow Control”, IEEE Transactions on Power
Delivery, vol. 12,No. 4,pp.1629-1634, October 1997.

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