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2.

B- COOLING TOWERS

A cooling tower is equipment used to reduce the temperature of a water stream by extracting heat from
water and emitting it to the atmosphere. Cooling towers make use of evaporation whereby some of the
water is evaporated into a moving air stream and subsequently discharged into the atmosphere. As a
result, the remainder of the water is cooled as shown in Figure 1 .Cooling towers are able to lower the
water temperatures more than devices that use only air to reject heat, and are therefore more cost-
effective and energy efficient.
The purpose of cooling tower is to cool relatively warm water by contacting with unsaturated air. The
evaporation of water mainly provides cooling.
In a typical water cooling water tower, warm water flows counter-current to an air stream. Typically,
the warm water enters the top of packed tower and cascades down through the packing, leaving at the
bottom.
Air enters at the bottom of the tower and flows upward through the descending water. The tower
packing often consists of slats of plastic or of packed bed. The water is distributed by troughs and
overflows to cascade over slat gratings or packing that provides large interfacial areas of contact
between the water and air in the form of droplets and films of water. The flow of air upward through
the tower can be induced by the buoyancy of the warm air in the tower (natural draft) or by the action
of a fan. The water cannot be cooled below the wet bulb temperature. The driving force for the
evaporation of the water is approximately the vapor pressure of the water less the vapor pressure it
would have at the wet bulb temperature.
Cooling tower is used to cool relatively hot water.
- As the humidity of the inlet air decreased, the performance of the cooling tower will be better.
This leads to the better mass transfer between water and gas phase.
- As the temperature of the inlet air decreased, the performance of the cooling tower will be
better.
- As the temperature increased overall mass transfer coefficient increased.
If the air flow rate is increased, the heights of the cooling tower decrease.

1-TYPES OF COOLING TOWERS


1.1 INDUCED-DRAFT COUNTER-FLOW COOLING TOWER
A wet cooling tower is essentially a semi enclosed evaporative cooler. An induced-draft counter flow wet
cooling tower is shown schematically in Fig.1. Air is drawn into the tower from the bottom and leaves
through the top.
Warm water from the condenser is pumped to the top of the tower and is sprayed into this airstream.
The purpose of spraying is to expose a large surface area of water to the air. As the water droplets fall
under the influence of gravity, a small fraction of water (usually a few percent) evaporates and cools the
remaining water. The temperature and the moisture content of the air increase during this process. The
cooled water collects at the bottom of the tower and is pumped back to the condenser to pick up
additional waste heat.
Makeup water must be added to the cycle to replace the water lost by evaporation and air draft. To
minimize water carried away by the air, drift eliminators are installed in the wet cooling towers above
the spray section.
The air circulation in the cooling tower just described is provided by a fan, and therefore it is classified
as a forced-draft cooling tower. The air circulation in the cooling tower just described is provided by a
fan, and therefore it is classified as a forced-draft cooling tower. Mechanical draft towers have large
fans to force or draw air through circulated water. The water falls downwards over fill surfaces, which
help increase the contact time between the water and the air - this helps maximize heat transfer
between the two. Cooling rates of mechanical draft towers depend upon various parameters such as fan
diameter and speed of operation, fills for system resistance etc.

Fig.1 Induced-draft counter-flow cooling tower

1.2 NATURAL DRAFT COOLING TOWER


The natural draft cooling tower makes use of the difference in temperature between the ambient air
and the hotter air inside the tower. As hot air moves upwards through the tower (because hot air rises),
fresh cool air is drawn into the tower through an air inlet at the bottom. Due to the layout of the tower,
no fan is required and there is almost no circulation of hot air that could affect the performance.
Concrete is used for the tower shell with a height of up to 200 m. These cooling towers are mostly only
for large heat duties because large concrete structures are expensive. Which looks like a large chimney
and works like an ordinary chimney? The air in the tower has high water-vapor content, and thus it is
lighter than the outside air. Consequently, the light air in the tower rises, and the heavier outside air fills
the vacant space, creating an air flow from the bottom of the tower to the top. The flow rate of air is
controlled by the conditions of the atmospheric air. Natural draft cooling towers do not require any
external power to induce the air, but they cost a lot more to build than forced-draft cooling towers. The
natural draft cooling towers are hyperbolic in profile, as shown in Fig.2.
Fig.2. Natural draft cooling tower
2-THE PERFORMANCE OF COOLING TOWERS (CT)
1) Range
2) Approach
3) Effectiveness
4) Cooling capacity
5) Evaporation loss
6) Cycles of concentration
7) Blow down losses
8) Liquid / Gas ratio
The following parameters used to determine the cooling tower performance:-
• Wet bulb temperature of air
• Dry bulb temperature of air
• Cooling tower inlet water temperature
• Cooling tower outlet water temperature
• Exhaust air temperature
• Electrical readings of pump and fan motors
• Water flow rate
• Air flow rate

③ ②

Air
Water



Figure 3 shows the temperature relationship between water and air as they pass through a counter flow
cooling tower. The curves indicate the drop in water temperature (3 to 4) and the rise in the air wet-
bulb temperature (1 to 2) in their respective passages through the tower. The temperature difference
between the water entering and leaving the cooling tower (3 minus 4) is the range. The range is the
same as the water temperature rise through the load heat exchanger, provided the flow rate through
the cooling tower and heat exchanger are the same. Accordingly, the range is determined by the heat
load and water flow rate, not by the size or thermal capability of the cooling tower. The difference
between the leaving water temperature and entering air wet-bulb temperature (4 minus 1) in Figure 3
is the approach to the wet bulb or simply the approach of the cooling tower. The approach is a function
of cooling tower capability, and a larger cooling tower produces a closer approach (colder leaving
water) for a given heat load, flow rate, and entering air condition. Thus, the amount of heat transferred
to the atmosphere by the cooling tower is always equal to the heat load imposed on the tower, whereas
the temperature level at which the heat is transferred is determined by the thermal capability of the
cooling tower and the entering air wet-bulb temperature.

Range

Water


Approach Air

Fig.3. Range and approach of cooling tower


Heat to vaporize the water = Heat from the cooling air
hfg* ∆mv= mdry−air *Cpdry−air *∆T
∆T= Tdry - Twet
hfg= mean latent heat of vaporization of water from o to 50ºC = 2443.5kj / kg
∆mv = mass of liquid water being vaporized
mdry−air = mass of air
Cpdry−air = sensible heat capacity of air at ct. pressure = 1 kj/kgºC
COOLING TOWER RANGE
This is the difference between the cooling tower water inlet and outlet temperature. A high CT Range
means that the cooling tower has been able to reduce the water temperature effectively, and is thus
performing well.
CT Range (°C) = [CW inlet temp (°C) – CW outlet temp (°C)]
APPROACH. This is the difference between the cooling tower outlet cold water temperature and ambient
wet bulb temperature. The lower the approach the better the cooling tower performance. Although,
both range and approach should be monitored, the Approach is a better indicator of cooling tower
performance. CT Approach (°C) = [CW outlet temp (°C) – Wet bulb temp (°C)]
COOLING TOWER EFFECTIVENESS
This is the ratio between the range and the ideal range (in percentage), i.e. difference between cooling
water inlet temperature and ambient wet bulb temperature, = Range / (Range + Approach).
The higher this ratio, the higher the cooling tower effectiveness.
CT Effectiveness (%) = 100 x (CW in temp – CW out temp) / (CW in temp – WB temp)
Cooling towers are rated in terms of approach and range, where the approach is the difference in
temperature between the cooled water temperature and the entering air wet bulb (Twb) temperature
the range is the temperature difference between the water inlet and exit. Since the maximum cooling
tower efficiency is limited by the wet bulb temperature (T wb ) of the cooling air.
Cooling tower efficiency can be expressed as
η = (Tw3 – Tw4) / (Tw3 - Twb ) (1)
Where
η = cooling tower efficiency (%) - common range between 70 - 75%
Tw3 = inlet temperature of water to the tower (oC)
Tw4 = outlet temperature of water from the tower (oC)
Twb = wet bulb temperature of air (oC)
The temperature difference between inlet and outlet water (T w3 – Tw4) is normally in the range 10- 15
COOLING CAPACITY. This is the heat rejected in kj /hr, given as product of mass flow rate of water,
specific heat and temperature difference.
EVAPORATION LOSS. Evaporation losses will vary depending upon temperature and humidity, but a
general rule is that for every 60oC temperature drop across the tower, approximately 0.85% of the
recirculation rate will be evaporated.
Evaporation Loss (m3/hr)=0.00153 ΔT.R (ΔT =Temp. difference between inlet and outlet water.)
R = Recirculation Rate, (m3/h)
Liquid/Gas (L/G) ratio, of a cooling tower
Liquid/Gas (L/G) ratio, of a cooling tower is the ratio between the water and the air mass flow rates .
Adjustments can be made by water box loading changes or blade angle adjustments. Thermodynamic
rules also dictate that the heat removed from the water must be equal to the heat absorbed by the
surrounding air. Therefore the following formulae can be used:
L(T1 – T2 ) = G(h2 – h1)
L/G = (h2 – h1) / (T1 – T2 ) (2)
Where:
L/G = liquid to gas mass flow ratio (kg/kg)
T1 = hot water temperature (oC)
T2 = cold-water temperature (oC)
h2 = enthalpy of air-water vapor mixture at exhaust wet-bulb temperature
h1 = enthalpy of air-water vapor mixture at inlet wet-bulb temperature
COOLING TOWER CALCULATIONS
The method by which heat is removed from an open recirculating cooling water system is evaporation
(E) of some of the water over a tower. The amount of temperature reduction that can be accomplished
by evaporation at any time is limited to the wet-bulb temperature or simply, the relative humidity. A
high relative humidity lowers the evaporation rate; dry conditions encourage a higher evaporation rate.
Seasonal humidity conditions are an important consideration in tower sizing, design, and placement.
The recirculation rate and the temperature drop across the cooling tower are the two pieces of data
needed to calculate the amount of water lost from the open recirculating cooling system (due to
evaporation).
Following items will be discussed and calculated:
1- Temperature Drop
ΔT =TR -TS
TR = the temperature of the tower return water
TS = the temperature of the basin supply water

2- Concentration Ratio or Cycles of Concentration


The rate at which water is bled from a system (m3/h) compared with the amount of fresh water being
introduced in the system (m3/h) will also determine the concentration ratio.
CR = MU/BD
Where: MU = Makeup Rate, (m3/h)
BD = Blow-down Rate. (m3/h) includes drift, leakage, and filter wastage

3- Make Up Water
Water that must be added to replace water lost from the recirculating system by evaporation and bleed-
off (or blow down) is called makeup water (MU). The amount of water entering the system must be
equal to the amount leaving the system. MU = E + BD
If the temperature drop across the tower and the recirculation rates are known, the amounts of water
loss through evaporation can be calculated. If the concentration ratio is also known then the makeup
water requirements can be calculated as follows.
MU = E.CR/ (CR-1)

4- Blow-down Rate
The blow down (bleed-off) rate is generally defined as the water lost from the system for all reasons
except evaporation.
BD = E / (CR-1)

SPECIFIC AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY OF AIR


The mass of water vapor present in a unit mass of dry air. This is called absolute or specific humidity
(also called humidity ratio) and is denoted by ω:
ω = mv /ma kg water vapor/kg dry air
= (Ra /Rv )(Pv /Pa )
Ra = 0.287 kj/kg K and Rv = 0.4615 kj/kg.K
ω = 0.622 Pv /Pa
The total pressure P is given by:
P = P a + Pv
ω = 0.622 Pv /(P -Pv )
The relative humidity, φ the mass of water vapor present in a unit mass of saturated air
φ = mv / mg = Pv /Pg ( Pg = Psat )
The relative humidity ranges from 0 for dry air to 1 for saturated air

Enthalpy of moist air


Enthalpy - h - (kJ/kg) of moist air is defined as the total enthalpy of the dry air and the water vapor
mixture per kg of moist air, includes the
• Enthalpy of the dry air - the sensible heat
• Enthalpy of the evaporated water - the latent heat
h =ha + ωhυ = Cp.T + ω.hg
The temperature of air in air-conditioning applications ranges from about
-10 to about 50°C. In this range, dry air can be treated as an ideal gas with a constant C p value of 1.005
kJ/(kg K)
Taking 0°C as the reference temperature, the enthalpy of dry air can be determined from
hdry air = ha = CpT = 1.005T (kJ/kg)
Where T is the air temperature in C
The atmospheric air can be treated as an ideal-gas mixture whose pressure is the sum of the partial
pressure of dry air Pa and that of water vapor Pυ:
P = P a + Pυ
Therefore, the enthalpy of water vapor in air can be taken to be equal to the enthalpy of saturated
vapor at the same temperature. That is, hυ = hg
The enthalpy of water vapor at 0oC is 2502 kJ/kg. The average Cp value of water vapor in the
temperature range -10 to 50oC can be taken to be 1.82 kJ/kgoC. Then the enthalpy of water vapor can be
determined approximately from
hυ =hg(T) = 2501.3 + 1.82T (kJ/kg)
h = 1.005T + ω [2502+1.82 T] kJ/kg (T inoC)
h = 1.005T + ω*hg (3)

MASS BALANCE:
The mass flow rate of dry air through the tower remains constant, but the mass flow rate of liquid water
decreases by an amount equal to the amount of water that vaporizes in the tower during the cooling
process.The water lost through evaporation must be made up later in the cycle to maintain steady
operation. Applying the mass and energy balances yields
Referring to the following diagram the mass flow rate of the makeup water is given by the difference in
specific humidity ω at the inlet and outlet air streams multiplied by the mass flow rate of the dry air.
Thus the mass flow balance equations for the cooling tower become:
Dry air mass balance: ma1=ma2=ma
Water mass balance: mw3+mv1= mw4+mv2
mw3+ma1. ω1= mw4+ ma2. ω2
mw3 – mw4 = ma(ω2 – ω1) = mmakeup (4)
ω =specific humidity

ENERGY BALANCE:
ma1.h1+ mw3.h3= ma2.h2+ mw4.h4
ma.h1+ mw3.h3= ma.h2+ [mw3 - ma(ω2 – ω1)] h4
ma= mw3(h3-h4 )/[(h2-h1) - (ω2 – ω1)h4] (5)


Water in
③ Air +Vapour out
mw3
ma2+mv2

Air +Vapour in
④ ① ma1+mv1
Water out
mw4
Dry air (ma )
Vapour (mv1) = ω1 . ma
Vapour (mv2) = ω2 . ma
h1 and h2 = the enthalpies of the vapor ,h air-vapor = T+ ω (2500+2T) kj/kg
h3 and h4 = the enthalpies of the liquid , h liquid =CP.T =4.18T kj/kg
The temperature T is in degrees Celsius, and the specific heat capacity of dry air CP is approximately 1.00 [kJ/kg°C]
and that of liquid water approximately 4.18 [kJ/kg°C]. In the above analysis we have assumed that the temperature
of the makeup water equals the temperature of the cooled circulating water T 3. Alternatively the values of enthalpy
for the vapor (h1 and h2) can also be conveniently read directly from the Psychrometric Chart.
ω =specific humidity, is related to the various pressures and the relative humidity φ by the following relations
ω= mv / ma = 0.622xPv / (P-Pv)= 0.622x φ.Pg /(P- φ.Pg )
The pressure Pv is the partial pressure of the vapor, Pg is the saturation pressure at temperature T, and P is the total
pressure (air + vapor), usually taken as one atmosphere (101.325 kP a).
GUIDE FOR SOLVING PROBLEMS
1- Given The dry bulb-temperature Tdry and Relative humidity, φ
Inlet air①
Temperature T1
Saturation pressure Ps1
Parietal pressure of water vapour Pv1=φ1*Ps1
Specific volume of water vapour vv1=462*T1/Pv1 T(oK) and P(N/m2)
Parietal pressure of dry air Pa1 =P-Pv1 P=atmospheric pressure=1.013
Specific volume of dry air va1=287*T1/Pa1 T(oK) and P(N/m2)
specific humidity ω1=0.622Pv1/Pa1
ha1= 1.005T1 + ω1 [2502+1.82 T1] ,T(oC)
Enthalpy
= 1.005T1 + ω1*hg1 kj/kg dry air
Outlet air②
Temperature T2
Saturation pressure Ps2
Parietal pressure of water vapour Pv2=φ2*Ps2
Specific volume of water vapour vv2=462*T2/Pv2
Parietal pressure of dry air Pa2 =P-Pv2
Specific volume of dry air va2=287*T2/Pa2
specific humidity ω2=0.622Pv2/Pa2
ha2= 1.005T2 + ω2 [2502+1.82 T2] ,T(oC)
Enthalpy
= 1.005T2 + ω2*hg2 kj/kg dry air
2- Given The dry bulb-temperature Tdry and wet bulb-temperature Twet
Pv = Pws (Twet) - P· k· (Tdry - Twet ) (p=hPa)
Pv=The water vapour pressure
Pws =Water vapour saturation pressure at Twet
P = The ambient pressure is 1013 hPa
k = Psychrometer constant 0.000662°C-1

Inlet water③
Temperature T3
Enthalpy hf3
Outlet water④
Temperature T4
Enthalpy hf4
mw3 *hf3 - mw4*hf4 = ma(ha2 - ha1)
Solved Examples
Example.1

Water Air



Point Tdb oC Twb φ (%) mw (kg/s)
1 25 15
2 35 90%
3 40 207
4 25
Determine:-
1- The volume flow rate of air into the cooling tower
2- The mass flow rate of the required makeup water
Solution
1- Inlet air(point.1)
Pv1 = Ps1 (Twet) – P* k* (Tdry - Twet )
= 17.057-1013*0.000662(25-15)=10.351 hPa
Pa1=P-Pv1=1013-10.351=1002.649 hPa
va1=Ra*T1/Pa1 =287(273+25)/( 1002.649*100) =0.853m3/kg
ω1=0.622Pv1/Pa1 =0.622*10.351/1002.649 =0.00642 kg vapour/kg dry air
hg1= 2546.5 kj/kg
h1=1.005T1 + ω1*hg1
h1=1.005*25 + 0.00642 *2546.5= 41.474 kj/kd dry air
2- Outlet air (point.2)
Ps2 = 5.6291kpa
Pv2 = φ2* Ps2=0.9*5.6291= 5.0662 kpa
Pa2=P-Pv2=101.3-5.0662 =96.2338kPa
ω2=0.622Pv2/Pa2=0.622*5.0662 /96.2338 =0.032745 kg vapour/kg dry air
hg2= 2564.6
h2=1.005T2 + ω2*hg2
h2=1.005*35 + 0.032745*2564.6= 119.153 kj/kd dry air
3- Inlet water(point.3)
h3=hf =167.53 kj/kg
4- Outlet water (point.4)
h4=hf = 104.83 kj/kg
ma= mw3(h3-h4 )/[(h2-h1 ) - (ω2 – ω1)h4]
ma= 207*(167.53 - 104.83)/ ((119.153 -41.474 ) - 104.83 *(0.032745 – 0.00642))
= 12978.9/74.91935=173.238 kg/s
Va=ma*va1=173.238*0.853 =147.77 m3/s
mmakeup = ma (ω2 - ω1 )= 173.238 (0.032745 – 0.00642)= 4.56 kg/s

Example.2
A cooling tower must cool 340 kg/m of water. The water is supplied at 42 oC and it is sprayed down in
the column of air which enters the bottom of the tower at a rate of 540 m3/m with a temperature of
18oC and relative humidity of 60%.The moist air leaves the top of the tower saturated at 27 oC.The whole
process occurs at a constant pressure of 1.013 bar. Determine the temperature of cooled water in the
pool and the rate at which make up water must be supplied to replace that evaporated.
Solution
1-Inlet air (point.1)
Ps1 = 2.0858 kpa
Pv1 = φ1* Ps1=0.6*2.0858 = 1.25148 kpa
Pa1=P-Pv1=101.3-1.25148 =100.0485 kPa
ω1=0.622Pv1/Pa1 =0.622*1.25148 /100.0485=0.00778
va1=Ra*T1/ Pa1=287(273+18)/( 100.0485*1000)= 0.8348 m3/kg
ma=Va/va =540/0.8348 = 646.86 kg/m
h1=1.005T1 + ω1*hg1 =1.005*18+0.00778*2533.76=37.8kj/kg
2-Outlet air (point.2)
Ps2 = 3.60064 kpa
Pv2 = φ2* Ps2=1.0*3.60064 = 3.60064 kpa
Pa2=P-Pv2=101.3-3.60064 =97.6994 kPa
ω2=0.622Pv2 /Pa2=0.622*3.60064 /97.6994 =0.02292 kg vapour/kg dry air
hg2= 2550.14 kj/kg
h2=1.005T2 + ω2*hg2
h2=1.005*27 + 0.02292 *2550.14 = 85.584 kj/kd dry air
The rate at which make up water=ma(ω2 – ω1)= 646.86 (0.02292-0.00778)
= 9.79kg/s
3-Inlet water(point.3)
h3=hf =175.894 kj/kg
ma= mw3(h3-h4 )/[(h2-h1 ) - (ω2 – ω1 )h4]
646.86 = 340(175.894 –h4 )/[( 85.584 -37.8 ) - (0.02292 – 0.00778 )h4]
1.9= (175.894 –h4)/ [47.784-0.01514 h4]
90.7896-0.028766 h4 =175.894 –h4
0.971234 h4=85.1044
h4 =87.625 ,T4=21oC
COOLING TOWER
EXERCISES (2.C)
1- At 100% relative humidity, wet bulb temperature, dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature and
saturation temperature are equal.
a) Correct b) Incorrect
2- The minimum temperature to which water can be cooled in a cooling tower is
a) Dew point temperature of air
b) Wet bulb temperature of air
c) Dry bulb temperature of air
d) Ambient air temperature
3- The capacity of the cooling tower __________ as the wet bulb temperature of air decreases.
a) Increases b) Decreases
4- In cooling tower, degree of approach is defined as the difference between temperatures of
a. water inlet and outlet
b. Air inlet and outlet
c. Inlet Air dew point and water inlet
d. Inlet Air dew point and water outlet
5- The wet bulb temperature at 100% relative humidity is __________ dry bulb temperature.
a. same as
b. lower than
c. higher than
6- According to Dalton's law of partial pressures, (where Pb = Barometric pressure, Pa = Partial
pressure of dry air, and Pv = Partial pressure of water vapour)
a. Pb = Pa - Pv
b. Pb = Pa + Pv
c. Pb = Pa × Pv
7- Approach of a Cooling Tower is
a) Difference between Cold water outlet temperature and Wet bulb temperature
b) Difference between Hot water Inlet temperature and Wet bulb temperature
c) Difference between Hot water Inlet temperature and Cold Water Outlet temperature
d) Difference between Atmoshpheric temperature and Wet bulb temperature
8- Range of the Cooling tower is
a) Difference between Cold water outlet temperature and Wet bulb temperature
b) Difference between Hot water Inlet temperature and Wet bulb temperature
c) Difference between Hot water Inlet temperature and Cold Water Outlet temperature
d) Difference between Atmoshpheric temperature and Wet bulb temperature
9- The ratio of the concentration of dissolved solids in in circulating water compared to the make-up
water.
a) Evaporation ratio
b) Cycle of Concentration
c) L/G Ratio
d) Efficiency
10- The ratio of make-up water rate.to blow -down water rate
a) Evaporation ratio
b) Cycle of Concentration
c) L/G Ratio
d) Efficiency
11- The makeup water requirement of the cooling tower
a) Evaporation Loss – blow-down
b) Evaporation Loss +blow-down
c) Evaporation Loss /blow-down
12- Purpose of blow-down is to
a) Remove the heat from Hot water
b) Maintain the Cold Water outlet temperature
c) Limit the increase in the concentration of solids in the water due to evaporation
d) To increase the efficiency
13- A better Performance indicator of the Cooling tower is its
a) Dry bulb temperature
b) Approach
c) Range
d) Wet bulb Temperature
14- L / G ratio in cooling tower is the ratio between
a) Load and Temperature gradient
b) Length and girth
c) Air mass flow rate and water flow rate
d) Water flow rate and Air mass flow rate
15- Cooling Tower Efficiency =
a) Range/ (Range + Approach) x 100
b) Range/ Approach x 100
c) Approach/ Range x 100
d) Cold Water Temperature/ Hot water Temperature x 100
16- To reduce the makeup water requirement of the cooling tower, Cycle of Concentration to be kept
a) Very High
b) As High As Possible
c) Low
d) Very Low
17- Calculate the blow down loss of the Cooling tower from the following data. a) Evaporation Loss is
500 m3/hr, b) Cycle of Concentration is 5
a) 100 m3/hr
b) 2500 m3/hr
c) 125 m3/hr
d) Data Insufficient
18- The temperature selection normally chosen for designing of cooling tower is
a) Average maximum wet bulb for winter months
b) Average maximum wet bulb for summer months
c) Average minimum wet bulb for winter months
d) Average minimum wet bulb for summer months
19- A cooling tower sized to cool 4540 m3 /hr through a 13.9°C range might be---------- than a cooling
tower to cool 4540 m3 /hr through 19.5°C range.
a) Smaller b) Larger c) Equal
20- Purpose of cooling tower basin is
a) To serve as receptacle for Cooled water
b) To provide the storage capacity during Makeup water failure
c) To act as a reservoir for the cooling water pumps
d) All of these
21- In practice, Common efficiency range achieved in the cooling tower is
98 to 100 %
90 to 95 %
95 to 98 %
70 to 75 %
22- The cycle of concentration normally varies from
a) 0 to 3 b) 3 to 7 c) 10 to 15 d) 15 to 100
COOLING TOWER
EXERCISES (2.D)

(1) Cooling of a Power Plant by a Cooling Tower, Cooling water leaves the condenser of a power plant
and enters a wet cooling tower at 35oC at a rate of 100 kg/s. The water is cooled to 22 oC in the cooling
tower by air that enters the tower at 1 atm, 20oC, and 60 percent relative humidity and leaves
saturated at 30oC. Determine
(a) The volume flow rate of air into the cooling tower
(b) The mass flow rate of the required makeup water.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----
(2) A wet cooling tower is to cool 60 kg/s of water from 40 to 26oC. Atmospheric air enters the tower
at 1 atm with dry and wet-bulb temperatures of 22 and 16 oC, respectively, and leaves at 34oC with a
relative humidity of 90 percent. Determine
(a) The volume flow rate of air into the cooling tower
(b) The mass flow rate of the required makeup water.
Answers: (a) 44.9 m3/s, (b) 1.16 kg/s
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(3) The cooling water from the condenser of a power plant enters a wet cooling tower at 40oC at a
rate of 90 kg/s. The water is cooled to 25oC in the cooling tower by air that enters the tower at 1 atm,
23oC, and 60 percent relative humidity and leaves saturated at 32oC. Determine
(a) The volume flow rate of air into the cooling tower
(b) The mass flow rate of the required makeup water.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----
(4) A wet cooling tower is to cool 50 kg/s of cooling water from 40 to 25oC at a location where the
atmospheric pressure is 96 kPa. Atmospheric air enters the tower at 20 oC and 70 percent relative
humidity and leaves saturated at 35oC. Determine
(a) The volume flow rate of air into the cooling tower
(b) The mass flow rate of the required makeup water.
Answers: (a) 33.2 m3/s, (b) 1.04 kg/s
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(5) A natural-draft cooling tower is to remove 50 MW of waste heat from the cooling water that
enters the tower at 42oC and leaves at 27oC. Atmospheric air enters the tower at 1 atm with dry- and
wet-bulb temperatures of 23 and 18oC, respectively, and leaves saturated at 37oC. Determine
(a) The mass flow rate of the cooling water,
(b) The volume flow rate of air into the cooling tower
(c) The mass flow rate of the required makeup water
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(6) Water exiting the condenser of a power plant at 45 oC enters a cooling tower with a mass flow rate
of 15000 kg/s. A stream of cooled water is returned to the condenser from the cooling tower with the
same flow rate. Make-up water is added in a separate stream at 20 oC. Atmospheric air enters the
cooling tower at 30oC and a wet bulb temperature of 20oC. The volumetric flow rate of air into the
cooling tower is 8000 m3/s. Moist air exits the tower at 40oC and 90% relative humidity. Assume an
atmospheric pressure of 101.3 kPa.
Determine:
a) The mass flow rate of dry air,
b) The mass flow rate of make-up water, and
c) The temperature of the cooled liquid water exiting the cooling tower.