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Analysis of the Effectiveness on Distant Learning Education in Teaching ALS

Students; Basis for Program Enhancement

A Thesis Proposal

Presented to

The Faculty of Graduate School

In Partial Fulfillment of the requirements

For the Degree Master of Arts in Education

Major in Educational Management

May 2019
Chapter I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Poverty touches all levels of life. It affects family dynamics, living conditions, and the

ability to dream or pursue education. In this period of globalization, development and

technical revolution, education is considered as the first step of every human activity.

Education is regarded as the major contributor to the improvement of living standards of

disadvantaged groups. For many poor Filipinos, education is a means to a better life, like

what they say “Education is a key to success”.

Each of the Filipino citizens’ young or adult has the privilege to undergo formal

schooling (Mendoza, 2015)1 . However, most of the Filipinos were being deprived of this right

due to their destitute conditions and traditional cultures. Dela Rosa (2015) 2 mentioned that

in the Philippines, the trend for the past ten years show that for every ten pupils who enroll

in grade school, only seven graduates. The same ratio is experienced among the high

school students.

In fact, there are about 28 million Filipinos who have less than secondary education

based in the Labour force Survey 2015 under Philippine Statistics Authority. Main reasons

cited for dropping-out are mostly poverty related. While basic education is free, many poor

families are unable to finance the ancillary school needs of their children.

1
According to Mendoza, 2015 each of the Filipino citizens’ young or adult has the privilege to undergo formal
schooling.
2 Dela Rosa, R. (August 2015). Effectiveness of the alternative learning system using the adolescent
reproductive health education teaching program as implemented to selected out-of-school youth in
Philippines: Implications to health teaching. International Journal of Novel Research in Healthcare and
Nursing,Vol. 2, issue 2, Retrieved January 10, 2016, from
www.noveltyjournals.com/download.php?file=Effectiveness%20of%20the%20Alternative-336.pdf&act=book
Equalizing opportunities in education is “one of the most important conditions for

overcoming social injustice and reducing social disparities in any country … and is also a

condition for strengthening economic growth” (UNESCO, 2008, p. 24).

In so doing, the Department of Education has designed a program called-

Alternative Learning System (ALS) to address this issue and to comply with the UNESCO’S

Millennium Development Goal of eradicating illiteracy across nations and to provide all

Filipinos the chance to have access to and complete basic education in a mode that fits

their distinct situations and needs. This is relative idea in the Philippine Educational System

in order to prevent the increase of illiteracy on our country.

Alternative Learning System is free education program implemented by the

Department of Education (DepEd) under the Bureau of Alternative Learning System

(BALS), it seeks to serve the Filipinos regardless of their age, educational attainment, race,

religion, economic status, out-of-school-youths, industry-based workers, people with

disabilities, former inmates, rebels, and other people who, for one reason or another,

cannot afford to go through formal schooling. The Philippines set this program to reduce

high drop-out rates among public schools and to accelerate numbers of pupils/students

participation in the basic education curriculum.

Section 12.1 Rules Xll of R.A. 9155 stipulates that Alternative learning system is a

parallel learning system in the Philippines that provides a practical option to the existing

formal instruction. When one does not have or cannot access formal education in schools,

ALS is an alternate or substitute. ALS includes both formal and informal sources of

knowledge and skills.


Background of the Study

The 1987 Philippine Constitution provides for the recognition and promotion of other

forms of education other than formal education. Article XIV, Section 2, Paragraph (1)

declares that the State shall establish, maintain and support a complete, adequate and

integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people and society; and

paragraph (4) concisely encourages non-formal, informal and indigenous learning systems

as well as self-learning, independent and out-of-school study programs particularly those

that respond to community needs.

The Governance Act for Basic Education otherwise known as the Republic Act 9155

stipulates the establishment of the Alternative Learning System (ALS) to provide out-of-

school children, youth and adults population with basic education.

The Distance Learning Program is an alternative strategy to the formal training

programs. This learning package allows the student to study the DLP modules at their own

place and pace.

There are two major programs on ALS that are being implemented by the

Department of Education, through the Bureau of Alternative Learning System (BALS). One

is the Basic Literacy Program and the other is the Continuing Education Program -

Accreditation and Equivalency (A&E). Both programs are modular and flexible. This means

that learning can take place anytime and anyplace, depending on the convenience and

availability of the learners.

Formal Education system is classroom-based, managed by trained formal school

teachers. While ALS Non-formal Education happens outside the classroom, community-

based, usually conducted at community learning centers, barangay multi-purpose hall,


libraries or at home, managed by ALS learning facilitators, such as mobile teachers, district

ALS Coordinators, instructional managers at an agreed schedule and venue between the

learners and facilitators.

ALS is intended for out-of-school children, youth and adults who need basic and

functional literacy skills, knowledge and values. These people are usually located in far-

flung communities with no or limited access to formal schools.

In 2008, it was estimated that 40.95 million or 45% of the total Philippine population

did not complete basic education. This population is considered the target groups of the

alternative learning system.

ALS programs are delivered in various modes such as face-to-face, radio-based,

eskwela/computer-based or independent learning. Learning sessions take place at the

Community Learning Center or at any place convenient to the learners. Teaching and

learning may also take place at the homes of the learners, under the shades of trees,

inside a church or mosque, playground and any other available space and venue.

Republic Act 9155 defines Non-formal Education as “any organized, systematic

educational activity carried outside the framework of the formal school system to provide

selected types of learning to a segment of the population”.

BALS has developed Informal Education courses that include self-interest and life

experiences programs. With this construct, greater learning needs will be addressed and

funneled to promote lifelong learning in all streams of education.

It is in this point why the researcher chose this study in order to know the

effectiveness of the ALS program and if it has already gained a lot of learners who were

already achieve success in their learning needs and development.


Adhering to the goal of the UNESCO’S Millennium Development as being

implemented by the Department of Education under the Bureau of Alternative Learning

System (BALS) for the Out of School Youth (OSY) to help them attain basic literacy and

functional literacy. The Department of Education (DepEd) implemented the Alternative

learning System (ALS) in the Philippines under the Bureau of Alternative Learning System.

The program provides a viable alternative to the existing formal education instruction,

encompassing both non-formal and informal sources of knowledge and skills.

Alternative Learning System (ALS) has learning streams, namely: Basic Literacy

Program (BLP) serves illiterate individuals, Elementary Accreditation and Equivalency

(A&E) Program for learners who did not finish elementary education, and Secondary A&E

Program for learners on the secondary level. In the RA 9155: The Governance Act of Basic

Education recognized the Alternative Learning System (ALS) as a complement of formal

education and a major component of basic education with a clearly defined role within the

overall educational system.

Recently, several researchers have conducted study and found out that there were

many challenges in Alternative Learning System implementation such as absenteeism of

the learners, provision of more learning facilitators, Community Learning Centers,

insufficient and irrelevant learning materials, lack of facilities and equipment, lack of

integration of livelihood and employment opportunities, and lack of interest (on the part of

the out-of-school-youth) (Carag, 2013).


The researcher made the preliminary data gathering, the District ALS coordinator

and facilitators said that most common problem of the teacher is the availability of learning

modules. The ALS utilizes learning modules. Each module is complete in itself. It contains

the description of the module, objectives, learning activities, and pre and post-tests.

Modules for the basic and lower elementary level learners come with a Facilitator’s Guide.

Meanwhile, modules for advanced elementary and secondary levels were designed for

self-learning.

The Alternative Learning System Accreditation and Equivalency (ALS A&E) Test,

formerly known as the Non-formal Education A&E Test, is a paper and pencil test designed

to measure the competencies of those who have neither attended nor finished elementary

or secondary education in the formal school system. However, in 2014, 18% of ALS

learners passed the A&E Test all over the Philippines and Region IV-A got 28% rate

among all regions in the country. It shows that the there is something wrong in the

assessment nor content and instruction of the mobile teachers that will result to ineffective

learning for the learners (Igarashi, Yamauchi, Tenazas, 2016)3.

However, the scenario is the basis of the conduct of this study. In view of this

phenomenon, the researcher aimed to study and find out the problems encountered by the

learners of Alternative Learning System in Area 4 in Division of Batangas, and design an

action plan on how to solve these problems.

3Yamauchi, Futoshi; Igarashi, Takiko; Tenazas, 2016. Alternative and inclusive learning in the Philippines
(English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/757331468297305021/Alternative-and-inclusive-learning-in-the-
Philippines
The development of an Alternative Learning System (ALS) has been a dream of the

Philippine government for over twenty years. With the development of ALS, thousands of

out-of-school youth and adults from the most impoverished sectors of Filipino society will

expectedly have an alternative means to improve their basic education skills and

competencies as a pathway to a better tomorrow.

The objectives of (ALS) are similar to those of formal education-acquisition of

knowledge, development of skills and formation of desirable Filipino values and attitudes.

The objectives are as diverse as the needs of individuals but the goal is the development of

self-reliant, self-sufficient, and self-disciplined citizens.

The development of an Alternative Learning System (ALS) has been a dream of the

Philippine government for over twenty years. With the development of ALS, thousands of

out-of-school youth and adults from the most impoverished sectors of Filipino society will

expectedly have an alternative means to improve their basic education skills and

competencies as a pathway to a better tomorrow. The objectives of (ALS) are similar to

those of formal education-acquisition of knowledge, development of skills and formation of

desirable Filipino values and attitudes. The objectives are as diverse as the needs of

individuals but the goal is the development of self-reliant, self-sufficient, and self-disciplined

citizens.
The various ALS programs and activities cater to the different learning needs of the

out-of-school children, youth, and unemployed/underemployed adults. It is through the ALS

that those who are not extended the benefits of formal education can develop their total well-

being. They shall be able to learn the basic knowledge and skills that embrace the areas of

community living such as functional literacy, civic education, socio-cultural development,

sports and physical fitness development, leadership training, vocational and technical skills

and economic development.

With the Operational of ALS by the DepEd, school dropouts now have other options

for learning aside from the formal school system. They may opt to join the more systematic

learning program which is non-formal education, or more experiential-type of learning

known as informal education. In both options, however, a dropout’s prior learning is

recognized and may be accredited if so desired. The move to shift the DepEd focus from

NFE to ALS is a good decision especially from the point of view of the school dropout.

The curricula of the learning systems make them truly comparable because the

competencies in both are parallel and comparable to each other. In other words, their

curricula aim to develop competencies of knowledge, attitude, values and skills (K, A, V, S)

that equally promote the same goal which is functional literacy. Likewise, different program

offerings, teaching strategies, evaluation schemes used and the whole program itself are

purposely designed for a different type of learners.

The DepEd, Division of Batangas City has been adopting various educational and

intervention programs to raise the literacy level and address the learning needs of all types

of learners. It has been constantly implementing different programs and project introduced

and endorsed by the regional and central offices. During the last five years (2009-2013) of its

implementation, the ALS- Accreditation and Equivalency program has almost achieved its
peak for having maintained the first rank of the division in the region in terms of program.

However, the alarming reports on the increasing dropout rate every year just reveal that the

efforts of the government specifically the Department of Education in the formal school

system seems not enough to achieve the desired goal in education.

For so many years, the Philippine government has been trying to realize the

Education for All (EFA) Plan of 2015. But as the target year of attainment comes closer, the

annual reports on the number of learners dropping out of formal schools reveal that they

become bigger and bigger and this scenario conforms with the increasing number of

enrollees in the different ALS programs. The objective of the ALS to decrease number of

illiterates and gradually eradicate illiteracy by 2015 seems to be impossible because at

present times thousands of OSYs are still coming to ALS to avail of the shortened course.

From hundreds of learners joining in the program in the past, it now ballooned to thousands

of enrollees who are mostly dropouts of the formal schools.

The conduct of this study was inspired by the researcher’s personal experiences in

the field of non-formal education. He has been assigned as District ALS Coordinator

(DALSC) in his respective division and his involvement in the implementation of the

different ALS programs served as input and background enough to confirm the findings of

the study. It is for this cause why he got interested to pursue the conduct of this study.

Towards this end, this study therefore adheres that ALS needs a continuous

evaluation in order to strengthen the implementation of its programs and projects for the

benefit of the beneficiaries, the ALS learners. With this in view, the researcher believes that

the comprehensive management plan for ALS program will strengthen the program

implementation in Batangas City.


This study is considered to be very significant because its findings may be useful

instruments to a number of entities such as the Schools Division Superintendent, District

Supervisors and School Heads, Division ALS Supervisor, Local Government Units, ALS

implementers, ALS learners and future researchers. The null hypothesis was tested in this

study: the instruction in ALS has no significant relationship to the status of its graduates.

Recently, several researchers have conducted study and found out that there were

many challenges and problems in Alternative Learning System implementation such as

absenteeism of the learners, provision of more learning facilitators, Community Learning

Centers, insufficient and irrelevant learning materials, lack of facilities and equipments, lack

of integration of livelihood and employment opportunities, and lack of interest (on the part

of the OSY) (Carag, E., 2013).

The researchers made the preliminary data gathering, the District ALS Coordinator

and facilitators said that most common problem of the teacher is the availability of learning

modules. The absenteeism of the learners and Community Learning Centers are another

common problem of the teachers.

However, this scenario is the basis of the conduct of this study. Hence, the

researchers aim to study to determine and analysis of the effectiveness of distant learning

ALS students, basis for program enhancement.


Theoretical Framework

The following theories are stated as support to the assumption of research.

Learning is considered one of the most valuable topics in psychology, yet it is still a

challenge to define its concept. Learning can be defined as a relatively permanent

influence on behavior, knowledge, and thinking skills that comes about through

experience. However, not everything we know is learned. We inherit some capacities—

they are inborn, or innate, not learned (Oslon & Hergenhahn, 2013) 4. The scope of

learning is broad (Domjan, 2010; Klein, 2009)5. It involves academic behaviors and

nonacademic behaviors. It occurs in schools and everywhere else that students

experience their world.

Knowles popularized adult learning theory and offered ways to apply it in learning

activities. Knowles believed that the needs of adults in education differed a great deal

from the needs of children. He popularized the term andragogy, “the art and science of

helping adults learn” to draw a sharp distinction between adult learning and pedagogy,

the instruction of children. He suggested that because children had yet to assume

responsible, independent roles in society, teachers and parents tend to make the

decisions about what and how they should learn. But because adults have a health of

life experience and have already assumed responsible roles, it is important to respect

slightly the different principles when engaging in adult education (Pappas, 2013)6.
1

4
Olson, M. H., & Hergenhahn, B. R. (2013). An introduction to theories of learning.
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

5 According to Domjan, 2010; Klein, 2009, The scope of learning is broad

6(Pappas, 2013) article of M.S. Knowles, “Self-Directed Learning”, A Guide for Learners and
Teachers. (N.Y. Cambridge Books 1975) p.18
Adults need to be involved in the planning and evaluation of their instruction.

Experience (including mistakes) provides the basis for the learning activities. Adults are

most interested in teach subjects that have immediate relevance and impact to their job

or personal life. Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented

(Kearsley, 2010).

The study of Pillar (2015) was conducted to investigate the lived-experiences

among the alternative learning students (ALS) in Bacolod, City Philippines. It

conceptualized that education can be flexible according to the needs of the earners

thus, education can take beyond borders. The qualitative-phenomenological approach

was used through schematizing the responses of the informants. ALS teachers were

searching for better teaching strategies for them to improve their skills in teaching Basic

English Grammar to ALS students particularly the one who were in jail and in the care of

DSWD (for minor age, 16-17 year old). It is recommended that the ALS students’

performance and development should be monitored so that they will be ready to take

the ALS accreditation and equivalency test. Therefore, these ALS students need to be

provided with quality education beyond classroom.

7
Kearsley, G. (2010). Andragogy (M.Knowles). The theory into practice database. Retrieved
from http://tip.psychology.org
Learning to live together, deals on the development of an understanding of other

people and appreciation of interdependence in a spirit of respect for the values of

pluralism, mutual understanding and peace (Carreon, 2015) 8. Learning to be, believes

in a holistic and integrated approach to educating the human person, as an individual

and as a member of society and focuses on the full development of the dimensions and

capacities of the human person: physical, intellectual, aesthetic, ethical, economic,

socio-cultural, political, and spiritual as he/ she relates with others in the family,

community, nation, region and the world (Vega, 2015)9.

Gardner’s work on multiple intelligences has had an enormous impact on the

field of education. Gardner posits at least seven intelligences (musical, spatial,

linguistic, logical/ mathematical, bodily/ kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal), and

asserts that successful learning experiences should engage as many of these

intelligences as possible (Corpuz, 2013)10.

However, effective learning only occurs when a learner is able to execute all four

stages of the model. Therefore, no one stage of the cycle is an effective as a learning

procedure on its own (McLeod, 2013)11.

8
According to Carreon, 2015, Learning to live together, deals on the development of an understanding of
other people and appreciation of interdependence in a spirit of respect for the values of pluralism, mutual
understanding and peace.
9 (Vega, 2015), R Suarez-Vega, An approach to the author citation potential: measures of scientific

performance which are invariant across scientific fields Scientometrics 102 (2), 1467-1496
10
Corpuz, B., et al. (2013). Special topics in education. Open high School Program. 776 Aurora Blvd.,
cor. Boston Street, Cubao, Quezon City, Metro manila: Lorimar Publishing, Inc.
McCarthy expanded on Kolb’s work and the research on left and right brain

processes to create the 4MAT System. McCarthy suggested four learning types:

imaginative learners, analytic learners, common sense learners, and dynamic learners.

Dr. McCarthy’s 4MAT approach identifies the diversity of learners and connects them,

no matter their level, to any type of material, emphasizing real-world applications as an

essential component of in-depth understanding. This concept-based approach to

curriculum and instructional planning promotes high-quality teaching and learning. Most

educators consider Bernice McCarthy's work to be a key contribution to the

development of the learning styles movement and the differentiated classroom

(McCarthy, 2005)12.

Conceptual Framework

The paradigm of the study shows the profile of the student respondents, profile of

the teacher respondent, perception of the student-respondent on ALS Program, and

perception of the teacher-respondent on ALS Program in the first box, While the second

part shows the basis for the ALS program enhancement and analysis of the

effectiveness on distant learning system . Once the results are gathered, it could be a

basis for the improvement of the said program.

11McLeod, S. A. (2013). Kolb - Learning Styles. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/learning-kolb.html


12
McCarthy, B. (2005). The 4MAT System: Teaching to Learning Styles with Right/Left Mode Techniques.
Barrington, Ill.: Excel, Inc.
Research Paradigm:

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

1. Profile of the Student-and teacher


respondent:

1. Identify the profile of the


1.1 Age respondents.
1.2 Sex
2. Determine and analysis of
1.3 Highest formal educational the effectiveness of distant
attainment Learning ALS student-
respondents based on:
1.4 Level of informal Education
Determination and
1.5 Work/employment
1.1 Assessment and
evaluation Analysis of the
2. What is the effectiveness 1.2 Resources
1.3 Content and Effectiveness of Distant
teaching of Distant Learning System instruction
among the ALS Students- Learning ALS Students,
3. Determine and analysis of
respondents? the effectiveness of distant
Learning teacher- Basis for Program
respondents based on:
3. Perception of the student-
1.1 Assessment and Enhancement.
respondents on ALS implementation
evaluation
1.2 Resources
4. Perception of teacher- 1.3 Content and
instruction
respondents on ALS implementation
4. Design an action plan to
basis for program
enhancement and
5. What are basis for Program effectiveness of distant
learning of the
Enhancement may be proposed respondents.
based on the findings of this study?

Figure 1. A research paradigm showing the interplay of analysis of the


effectiveness of distant learning ALS students and basis for program enhancement in
Area 4 in Division of Batangas
Statement of the Problem

This study focuses on analysis of the effectiveness on distant learning ALS

students and basis for program enhancement in Area 4 of Division of Batangas.

Specifically, it aims to answer the following problems:

1. What is the profile of the student-respondents in terms of:

1.1 Age

1.2 Sex

1.3 Highest formal educational attainment

1.4 Level of informal education attained

1.5 Work/ employment

2. What is the profile of the teacher-respondents in terms of:

1.1 Age

1.2 Sex

1.3 Civil status

1.4 Highest educational attainment

1.5 Number of trainings and seminars attended

3. What are the analysis of the effectiveness of distant learning ALS student-respondents

based on:

1.1 Assessment and evaluation

1.2 Resources

1.3 Content and instruction


4. What are the analysis of the effectiveness of distant learning ALS student-respondents

based on:

1.1 Assessment and evaluation

1.2 Resources

1.3 Content and instruction

5. Is there significant relationship between the profiles of the teacher-respondent to the

effectiveness of distant learning in ALS?

6. Is there significant relationship between the profiles of the student-respondents and the

effectiveness of distant learning in ALS?

Hypothesis

The problem numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4are hypothesis free. Problem 5 and 6are

hypothesized as follows:

Hₒ1.There is no significant relationship between the profiles of the teacher-

respondent to the effectiveness of distant learning in ALS?

Hₒ2.There is no significant relationship between the profiles of the student-

respondents and the effectiveness of distant learning in ALS?


Significance of the study

As conceived by the researcher, this study was conducted to determine and

analysis of the effectiveness of distant learning ALS learners in Area 4 of Division of

Batangas, basis for program enhancement.

The findings of this study may be valuable and beneficial to the following:

To the learners, this study would enable the learners to address the analysis of

effectiveness of distant learning. It may also enlighten their minds towards positive

outlook of the distant learning in the alternative learning system program.

To the mobile teachers, knowing the analysis of effectiveness of distant

learning by the ALS learners would help them to practice professional development for

their careers. It may also help them to facilitate and deliver learning effectively.

To the District ALS Coordinator, this study would be able them to carry out and

apply the plan for the analysis of effectiveness of distant learning in ALS.

To the Education Program Supervisor in ALS, this study would help them in

the provision of the needed in the further implementation of ALS in the province of Area

4 in Division of Batangas.

To the parents, this study would be helpful in which their children can enhance

knowledge with free all.

To the community, this study would provide better knowledge and experience to

help in improving the quality of education in each member of the community.

To the future researcher, this study would provide additional information and

ideas should they conduct similar study in the future.


Scope and Delimitations of the Study

The study focused only on analysis of effectiveness of distant learning by the

learners of Alternative Learning System. This study required respondents with a total

number of 96 respondents combining all the 10 students from two (8) schools and 16

ALS Teacher of all district that implemented or catered the Alternative Learning System

program in Area 4 of Division of Batangas.

The researcher conducted the study among Basic Literacy Program (BLP),

Elementary level (EL) and Secondary level (SL) Alternative Learning System learners

within the locality of Area 4 of Division of Batangas.

The data was gathered within the time period of 2018-2019; it focused on the

analysis of effectiveness of distant learning of learners of ALS in their learning behavior

in terms of (content and instruction, assessment and evaluation, and resources) in the

above mentioned schools which are both located in Area 4 of Division of Batangas

which eventually used as the basis for enhancing the program.

In accomplishing the study, the researcher used an instrument in a form of a

modified questionnaire with corresponding indicators of the analysis of effectiveness of

distant learning by alternative learning system’s students in their learning behavior in

terms of content and instruction, assessment and evaluation, and resources. Related

Literature was the primary bases of establishing questions for the respondents.
Definition of Terms

To understand the concepts pointed out by the researcher in this study, the

following terms were conceptually and operationally defined.

4MAT- is a process for delivering instruction in a way that appeals to all types of

learners and engages, informs, allows for practice and creative use of material learned

within each lesson.

Accreditation- A process of granting recognition for a level of quality based on a

set of standards that needs to be met.

Alternative Learning System (ALS).It is conceptually defined as a ladderized,

modular non-formal education program in the Philippines for dropouts in elementary and

secondary schools, out-of-school-youths, non-readers, working Filipinos and even

senior citizens (Pillar, 2015).

Andragogy- refers to methods and principles used in adult education.

Basic Literacy- A set of skills that include the ability to read with comprehension

and write simple messages.

Department of Education (DepEd)- The Department of Education (abbreviated

as DepEd; Filipino: Kagawaran ng Edukasyon) is the executive department of the

Philippine government responsible for ensuring access to, promoting equity in, and

improving the quality of basic education.

Distance Learning Program. is an alternative strategy to the formal training

programs. This learning package allows the student to study the DLP modules at their

own place and pace depending on the convenience and availability of the learners.
Education For All (EFA) - Education for All (EFA) is a global movement led by

UNESCO (United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), aiming to

meet the learning needs of all children, youth and adults by 2015. UNESCO has been

mandated to lead the movement and coordinate the international efforts to reach

Education for All.

Effectiveness is the capability of producing a desired result or the ability to

produce desired output. When something is deemed effective, it means it has an

intended or expected outcome, or produces a deep, vivid impression.

Experiential Learning Cycle- is the process of learning through experience, and

is more specifically defined as "learning through reflection on doing"

Functional Literacy- A significantly higher level of literacy beyond basic literacy

that includes the following competencies: communication skills, critical thinking and

problem-solving skills/application of scientific way of thinking in daily life/ numeracy,

sustainable use of resources/ productivity, development of self and sense of community,

and expanding one’s worldview

Learners – there are the beneficiaries’ of Alternative Learning System Program.

Learning to know: to provide the cognitive tools required to better comprehend the

world and its complexities, and to provide an appropriate and adequate foundation for future

learning.

Learning to do: to provide the skills that would enable individuals to effectively

participate in the global economy and society.

Learning to live together: to expose individuals to the values implicit within

human rights, democratic principles, intercultural understanding and respect and peace
at all levels of society and human relationships to enable individuals and societies to live

in peace and harmony.

Livelihood Program. It pertains to the ALS program in a modular form teaching

the student think for a sort of living suited to their skills.

Multiple Intelligence- the theory of human beings has one central “computer”

where intelligences are housed. Howard Gardner says that there are multiple types of

human intelligence, each representing different ways of processing information: verbal

linguistic, logical mathematical, visual spatial, musical intelligence, naturalistic, bodily-

kinesthetic, intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence.

Out- School- youth- An eligible youth who is a school dropout

Non-formal Education (NFE) – is any organized, systematic educational activity

carried outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning

to a segment of the population.

United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)-

pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural

sciences, social/human sciences, culture and communication/information. Projects

sponsored by UNESCO include literacy, technical, and teacher-training programs,

international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the

press, regional and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity,

translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the

world's cultural and natural heritage (World Heritage Sites) and to preserve human

rights, and attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.


Chapter III

Research Methodology

This chapter presents and explains the procedure that the researcher used in

conducting this study. These procedures involve the following: research design,

research locale, population and sampling, respondents of the study, instrument, data

gathering, and statistical treatment.

Research Design

The researcher used the evaluative method of research, wherein the findings or

the results of a treatment on a variable were determined. This was done through

answering the questionnaires which were distributed among ALS students and ALS

teachers.

Research Locale

The schools of Area 4 in Division of Batangas were chosen as the research

locale for this study as the researcher sought a need and a problem to do so.

Population and Sampling

The researcher used the entire population of Alternative Learning System

learners and teachers of Area 4 in Division of Batangas with a total number of 80

learners-respondents and 16 teachers-respondents.

Respondent of the study

The respondents of this study were 20 A students and 20 ALS from Elementary

Accreditation and Equivalency (A&E) Program for students who did not finish

elementary education, 20 ALS learners from Secondary A&E Program for learners on
the secondary level only and 20 ALS learners from the Skills Program, with a total of 80

ALS learners and 16 ALS Teacher combining the all ALS students and ALS teacher

from Area 4 in Division of Batangas.

Data Gathering Instrument

The researcher used a modified questionnaire adapted from Boquil et al. (2016) 13

studies. The questionnaire was evaluated by Psychology Professors and an Education

Professor to ensure the instruments used were valid.

The questionnaire contained three parts wherein the first part aimed to answer

problem number 1 – which is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of

age; sex; civil status; work/ employment; highest formal educational attainment;

program enrolled; and level of informal education attained.

The second part contained twenty (30) items to determine the problems

encountered wherein numbers 1-10 used to emphasize the questions for teachers,

numbers 10-20 for facilities and the remaining ten numbers 20-30 used to emphasize

the questions for resources. This part aimed to answer the effectiveness of distant

learning in statement of the problem. The implication of this study was based on the

findings on the effectiveness of distant learning by the ALS learners and ALS Teacher.

This will apparently answered the problem stated in #3.


1

13
Boquil et al., 2016, the questionnaire was evaluated by Psychology Professors and an Education
Professor to ensure the instruments used were valid.
Statistical treatment of Data

In order to determine the result of the study, Weighted Average Mean

percentage was used to compute the gathered data.

WAM formula

WM = 4f + 3f+ 2f+ 1f

For the interpretation and analysis of data, the following description was
utilized:

Scale Range Descriptive Rating

4 Strongly Agree 3. 26 - 4.00

3 Agree 2.51– 3.25

2 Disagree 1.76 – 2.50

1 Strongly Disagree 1.00 – 1.75


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Appendix A

ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS ON DISTANT LEARNING EDUCATION IN

TEACHING ALS STUDENTS; BASIS FOR PROGRAM ENHANCEMENT

Questionnaire-Checklist for Teacher-Respondents

PART 1: Personal Information

Name: ____________________________________________________

Age: _____________ Sex: _____________ Civil status: ___________

Highest Educational Attainment (Please check only one.)

Education Degree Holder with LET Eligibility

Educational Degree Holder without LET Eligibility

Non-Education Degree Holder with LET Eligibility

Master’s Degree Holder

With Units in Master’s Degree

Years of Experience as an ALS Facilitator: ______________________

Number of Trainings and Seminars Attended: ___________________


PART 2: Analysis of the effectiveness on distant learning education perceived by

the teachers in implementation of ALS. (Please check only one in every statement on

the space provided)

1 = Strongly Agree;
2 = Agree;
3= Disagree;
4 = Strongly Disagree

Assessment and Evaluation 1 2 3 4


The learning outcomes of the
learners show readiness for the
Accreditation & Equivalency Test.
The Bureau of Alternative
Learning System (BALS)
provides various assessment
tools.
The content of Examination is
provided by the BALS.
There are several numbers of
examination and assessment for
learners’ outcome.
The content of examination is
based on the learning strands.
There are available learning
modules that can be utilized.
There are available state of the
art equipments can be used both
teachers and learners.
There are accessible and
relevant educational materials in
the Community Learning Centers.
There are maintenance and
improvement of facilities in the
Community Learning Centers.
The educational materials
present are appropriate for
learning.
The learners cannot cope up all
the desired learning outcome of
all learning strands because the
length program is too short.
The instruction and delivery mode
in learning process is appropriate
for various learners.
The scheduling of activities is
based on the time convenient for
the learners.
There are available innovative
and relevant programs for
learners.
There are relevant trainings for
teachers provided by BALS.

Learners enroll their selves freely.


Facilitators experience difficulties
in mapping for learners.
Learners come to school
regularly based on the schedule.
Learners frequently come to
school because of their works.
Mostly, learners show their
interest in learning.
Appendix B

ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS ON DISTANT LEARNING EDUCATION IN

TEACHING ALS STUDENTS; BASIS FOR PROGRAM ENHANCEMENT

Questionnaire-Checklist for Student-Respondents

PART 1: Personal Information

Name:

Age: ________________ Sex: __________________________

Highest Formal Attainment: _______________________________

Level: ________________________________________________

Level of Informal Education: _______________________________

Work/Employment (Please check only one)

Farmer Housewife

Carpenter Porter

Mason Babysitter

House Helper Utility Worker

Fisherman Construction Worker

Other, please specify ____________________________


PART 2: Analysis of the effectiveness of distant learning education perceived by

the teachers in implementation of ALS. (Please check only one in every statement on

the space provided.)

1 = Strongly Agree;

2 = Agree;

3= Disagree;

4 = Strongly Disagree

1 2 3 4
The teacher follows the schedule
of administering the Accreditation
& Equivalency Test.
The teacher conducts
assessment through assessment
tool provided by the Bureau of
Alternative Learning System
(BALS).
The content of Examination is
appropriate for our learning
capabilities.
There are several numbers of
examination and assessment to
assess our learning outcome.
The content of examination is
based on the learning strands.
There are available learning
modules that can be utilized.
There are available state of the
art equipment can be used both
teachers and learners.
There are accessible and
relevant educational materials in
the Community Learning Centers.
There are maintenance and
improvement of facilities in the
Community Learning Centers.
The educational materials
present are appropriate for
learning.
I cannot cope up all the desired
learning outcome of all learning
strands because the length
program is too short.
The instruction and delivery mode
in learning process is appropriate
for various learners.
The scheduling of activities is
based on the time convenient for
the learners.
There are available innovative
and relevant programs for
learners.
There are numbers of curricular
and
Extracurricular activities for the
learners.
I feel ashamed because people
say that I am too old to go to
school.
Most of my classmates are older
than me.
Most of my classmates are active
learners than me.
Our Community Learning Center
is conducive for learning.
Our facilitator conducts learning
session promptly.