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# NPTEL Online Certificate Courses

## Digital Image Processing Assignment Week 7

1. Which of the following statement is (are) TRUE for KL Transform?
i. KL Transform kernel in is not fixed unlike in other transforms.
ii. Covariance matrix of the vector population is not real and symmetric.
iii. KLTransform is optimum in the sense that it minimizes mean square error between 𝒙 and
̂
𝒙, where 𝒙 is the original vector and ̂𝒙 is the reconstructed vector.
iv. KL Transform kernel is based on statistical properties of vector representation of image.

a) i. Only
b) iii. Only
c) i., iii. and iv.
d) i., ii. and iv.

2. Find out the KL Transform Matrix for the set of 2-D vectors given below.

a) 0.82 0.57
[ ]
−0.57 0.82
b) 0.82 −0.57
[ ]
0.57 0.82
c) 0.57 −0.82
[ ]
0.82 0.57
d) None of the Above

3. Which of the following are true about Image Negative in image enhancement operation?
i. Image Negative operation produces image equivalent to a photographic negative.
ii. It used to decreases the dynamic range of gray levels images.
iii. It decreases white or gray detail embedded in dark regions.

a) i. only
b) ii. Only
c) i. and ii. both
d) i. and iii. both
4. Which of the following can result in forming low contrast image?
a) Poor illumination of the scene to be photographed.
b) Lack of dynamic range of imaging sensor used for image aquisition.
c) Wrong setting of lens aperture during image acquisition.
d) All of the above

## 5. Which of the following is TRUE, for power law transformation

𝑇(𝑟) = 𝑐𝑟 𝛾
Where, 𝑐 and 𝛾 are positive constants and r is the input intensity

a) 𝛾 > 1 =>Narrow range of dark input values is mapped into wider range of values and
wide range of high intensity values is mapped into narrow range of values
b) 𝛾 < 1 =>Narrow range of dark input values is mapped into wider range of values and
wide range of high intensity values is mapped into narrow range of values
c) 𝛾 = 1 => Lead to identity transformation.
d) None of the above.

## 6. Process used to correct the power-law response is called ____________________.

a) Alpha Correction
b) Luminance Correction
c) Gamma correction
d) None of the above

7. Process that increases the dynamic range of Gray levels in an image is called
____________________.
a) Linear stretching
b) Contrast stretching
c) Colour stretching
d) Piecewise stretching

8. Despite KL Transform’s favourable theoretical properties, the KLT is not used in practice for
which of the following reasons?
i. Its basis functions depend on the covariance matrix of the image, and hence they have to
recomputed and transmitted for every image.
ii. There are no fast computational algorithms for its implementation.

a) i. Only
b) ii. Only
c) Both i. and ii.
d) None of the above

## 9. Sum of all components in normalized histogram is equal to

a) 100
b) 1
c) Number of pixels.
d) None of the above.

## 10. Log transformation is given by which formula,

a) 𝑠 = 𝑐 𝑙𝑜𝑔(1 + |𝑟|), where c is the scaling constant and r is the input intensity.
b) 𝑠 = 𝑐 𝑙𝑜𝑔(|𝑟|), where c is the scaling constant and r is the input intensity.
c) 𝑠 = 𝑙𝑜𝑔(1 + |𝑟|), where r is the input intensity.
d) 𝑠 = 𝑐 𝑙𝑜𝑔(|𝑟|), where c is the scaling constant and r is the input intensity.
Solutions:
1 c) i,iii,iv: option ii is incorrect as Covariance matrix is always symmetric and have real
components.

0.82 −0.57
2 b)[ ]: KL Transformation matrix is computed by the following steps: 1. Find the
0.57 0.82
covariance matrix of the given vectors. 2. Find the eigen values and the eigen vectors of the
Covariance matrix. 3. Create the transformation matrix such that the eigen vectors form the rows
of the KL transformation matrix.

3 a) i only: Options ii and iii are incorrect as Image negative operation do not produces any
variation in range of intensity values neither it filters any intensity.

4 d) All the above: Option (i) results in intensities which are in the dark range. Option (ii) will
result in very few intensities present in the image which cause the image to have low contrast.
Option (iii) Wrong setting of lens aperture will cause either excess illumination or dark image
which will result in low contrast.

5 a) 𝜸 < 𝟏 =>Narrow range of dark input values is mapped into wider range of values
and wide range of high intensity values is mapped into narrow range of values:

## The power law graph depicts the effect of 𝜸

6 c) Gamma Correction: Gamma correction negates the effect of power law transformation.

7 b) Contrast Stretching: Contrast Stretching increases the range of intensity values of an image.

## 8 c) both i and ii: Both option i and ii renders KL transform to be ineffective.

9 a) 1: Each bin represents the probability of occurrence of an intensity and their sum total is 1.
10 a) 𝒔 = 𝒄 𝒍𝒐𝒈(𝟏 + |𝒓|), where c is the scaling constant and r is the input intensity: Follows
from the definition of log transfrom