0 views

Uploaded by aruriza

Research on Synchronous Breaking Technology

- Differential, High Speed Op Amp _LMH6550
- Bad to the Bone Crafting Electronics Systems with Beaglebone and BeagleBone Black - Steven F Barrett - Jason Kridner.pdf
- Microprocessor Based Impedance Relay
- Microcontroller-Based Solar Charger
- SCF2_DFL.ASM
- BLUE EYES
- AutoRanging DMM
- Microcontroller Lab Manual
- Resumo - Pedro Xavier - DSP Based Power Quality Analyzer
- Ads 8344
- ADE7758
- DS75 (Maxim)
- Analog to Digital Conversion
- ME475_das
- Development of Design MMir
- DSP Hardware White Paper
- Intrusion Detection in Smart Grid
- Interfacing With Analog Devices Week 12v2
- ADC
- Programe

You are on page 1of 4

of Vacuum Circuit Breaker

Shaohua Ma1, Zhiyuan Cai1 and Jimei Wang2

1

College of Electrical Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110023, P.R.China

2

College of Electrical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xian 710049, P.R.China

Abstract- In this paper an approach of synchronous A. Generally Expression of Short Circuit Current

breaking technology of vacuum circuit breaker is In a power system, a short circuit current may

presented. In order to predict the zero of a short circuit generally be expressed as follow

current, the recurrence formula is built according to the h

general expression of short circuit current, and it is simple i (t )

Ae O t ¦ a j cos nZ t b j sin nZ t . (1)

j 1

without complex calculation and easy to come true by

hardware and software. The simulation results for the where i(t) is the instantaneous value of the short circuit

actual measurement short circuit current show good current; A is the initial value of the decaying direct

predicting ability and high precision. Furthermore, current component; Ȝ is the decaying time constant of

support vector machine (SVM) is using for compensating the decaying direct current component; Ȧ is the

the offset of the breaking time from the driving mechanism, angular frequency of the fundamental component; h

and the model is built by minimum mean-square value is the order of the highest harmonics component; aj is

SVM. the sinusoidal component of the j order harmonics; bj

is the cosine component of the j order harmonics.

I. INTRODUCTION The discrete time series i(k) of i(t) can be educed

For a vacuum circuit breaker synchronous breaking from (1) as follow

is of advantage to improve its breaking capability,

i (k ) A exp(O k TS )

reduce its electrical wear and prolong its life. However

h

(2)

some key problems have not yet come, including how to

¦ a j cos nZ kTS b j sin nZ kTS .

predict the zero of the short circuit current and how to j 1

where k is the serial number of the discrete sample

mechanism.

points, k=0, 2, …, m-1; m is the number of the sample

In this paper the short circuit current is analyzed so

points; TS is the sample period.

as to build the recurrence formula of predicting its zero,

In order to predict the zero of a short circuit current,

and the simulation results for the actual measurement

some numerical filtering methods are adopted including

short circuit current show that it is easy to come true

Fourier transform, least square method and adaptive

and nothing remains but to satisfy the conditions as

filter etc. There methods estimate the characteristic

follows, such as the effective number of bits (ENoB) of

quantities of i(t) from i(k) according to the general

the analog to digital converter (ADC) is equal to 12 bit,

expression of a short circuit current, and then estimate

the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the measurement

the zero of i(t). Due to complex arithmetic and

circuit is equal to 60dB, the sampling period is equal to

reiteration, it is difficult to realize using a general

32 times in every fundamental wave etc. Support vector

microprocessor, so digital signal processor (DSP) is

machine (SVM) is using for adjusting the offset of the

often adopted, and the measurement circuit with high

breaking time from the driving mechanism, and the

precision is needed.

predictive model of the breaking time with few support

B. Recurrence Formula of Predicting Short Circuit Current

vectors is built by minimum mean-square value SVM. It

In order to predict the zero of a short circuit

is easy to be programmed.

current according to i(k), recurrence formula is built

II. PREDICTION OF SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT ZERO in this paper.

In order to implement synchronous breaking of The principle of recurrence formula is follow as:

vacuum circuit break, it is needed to predict the zero of building up a simple recurrence formula, which can

a short circuit current so as to give breaking command estimate the instantaneous value i(m) of the short

on a proper time. Thus it is important to build the circuit current according to i(0), i(1), …, i(m-1), and

module for predicting the zero of a short circuit current, then estimate i(m+1) , i(m+2),…i(m+n). If i(m+n-1)

which is simple and easy to come true by hardware and is negative to i(m+n), the zero of i(t) is between

software. i(m+n-1) and i(m+n), and may be estimated by

interpolation. Formula (10) can be using for predicting the short

It may be educed from (2) circuit current with the decaying direct current

component and the fundamental component, and the

O sample time window needed is about half

i(k ) A exp( k)

Nf fundamental period.

(3)

h 2 ʌjk h 2 ʌjk For the short circuit current with the higher

¦ a j sin ¦ b j cos . harmonic components, if (5), (6) and (10) can still be

j 1 N j 1 N

satisfied, short circuit current may be estimated

where N is the sample times of every fundamental according to the recurrence formula.

period. Suppose the short circuit current contains the

Suppose the short circuit current only contains the decaying direct current component and thrice as well

decaying direct current component and the as less than thrice harmonics, it may be educed from

fundamental component, it may be educed from (3) (3)

3

i (0) A b1

° °i (0) A ¦ j 1

bj

® O . (4) °

°i ( N / 2) A exp( 2 f ) b1 ʌj 3 ʌj

O 3

°

¯ °i ( N / 4) A exp( 4 f ) ¦ a j sin ¦ b j cos

2 j1 2

° j 1

® (11)

The sum I(0) of i(0) and i(N/2) may be educed as °i ( N / 2) A exp( O 3

) ¦bj

follow ° 4f j 1

°

°i (3 N / 4) A exp( O ) ¦ a sin 3ʌj ¦ b cos 3ʌj

3 3

ª O º

I (0) i (0) i ( N / 2) A«1 exp( )» . (5) °¯ 4f

j

2

j

2

¬ 2f ¼

j 1 j 1

After a lapse of one sample point, the sum I(1) of It may be educed from (11)

i(1) and i(N/2+1) may be educed as follow 3

I (1) i (1) i ( N / 2 1) I ( j) ¦ i (kN / 4 j )

k 0

O ª O º (6) (12)

A exp( ) «1 exp( )» . O ª O º

Nf ¬ 2f ¼ A exp( ) j «1 exp( )»

Nf ¬ 4f ¼

Divide (5) by (6), it may be educed as follow where j is the order number, j=0, 1, …

O I (1) It can be educed from (12)

exp( ) . (7)

Nf I ( 0)

i (3 N / 4 j )

>I ( j 1)@2 2

¦ i(kN / 4 j ) . (13)

I ( j 2) k 0

Again a lapse of one sample point, the sum I(2) of

where j is the order number, j=2, 3, …

i(2) and i(N/2+2) may be educed as follow It can be seen from (13) that i(3N/4+2),

I ( 2) i(2) i( N / 2 2) i(3N/4+3), …, i(3N/4+m) can be estimated according

to i(0), i(1), i(2), i(3), …, i(N/4+1). Formula (13) may

O ª O º (8) be used for analyzing short circuit current with the

A exp( ) 2 «1 exp( )» .

Nf ¬ 2f ¼ decaying direct current component and the thrice as

well as less than the thrice harmonics, and the sample

According to (5), (7) and (8), it may be educed as

time window needed is about 3/4 fundamental period.

follow

In a similar way, for the short circuit current

i ( N / 2 2)

>I (1)@2 i ( 2) . (9)

contains the decaying direct current component and

I (0) seventh as well as less than thrice harmonics, it may

be educed as

It can be seen from (9) that i(N/2+2) can be

estimated according to i(0), i(1), i(2), i(N/2), …,

i (7 N / 8 j )

>I ( j 1)@2 6

I ( j 2) k 0

i(N/2+3) may also be estimated, repeating this

where j is the order number, j=2, 3, …

process, i(N/2+4), i(N/2+5), …may be estimated

It can be seen from (14) that i(7N/8+2),

orderly.

i(7N/8+3), …, i(7N/8+m) can be estimated according

Recurrence formula of predicting short circuit

to i(0), i(1), i(2), i(3), …, i(7N/8+m-1). Formula (14)

current is as follow

may be used for analyzing the short circuit current

i( N / 2 j )

>I ( j 1)@2 i( j ) . (10)

with the decaying direct current component and the

I ( j 2) seventh as well as less than the seventh harmonics,

and the sample time window needed is about 7/8

where j is the order number, j=2, 3, …

fundamental period.

C. Influencing Factor and Basic Requirement structural risk minimization, SVM constructs the

Using (14) to estimate the aero of a short circuit mathematical model by learning and training according

current, the sample time window should be over 7/8 to the data of small samples, and has excellent

fundamental period, and the sample period should be generalization ability.

supposed to over 32 time per fundamental period. Choosing a non-linear function I(·) to transform the

Due to the quantization error of ADC and the noise non-linear problem to the linear problem so as to map

of the measurement circuit, the actual measurement the sample vectors (x1,y1), …, (xi,yi), …, (xn,yn), xiRm,

short circuit current contains inevitably some noise yiR to the feature space with high dimensional, and

signals. The simulation results show that if ENoB of then make non-linear regression on the feature space

ADC is up to 12bit and SNB of the measurement with high dimensional. So the optimal linear

circuit is up to 60dB, the predicting precision may regression function is expressed as

satisfy the demand in order to implement the f ( x) w I ( x) b . (15)

synchronous control.

where w is the weighting vector; b is the offset.

D. Simulation of Actual Measurement Short Circuit Current

The optimal w and b should satisfy

In order to verify the recurrence formula of predicting

short circuit current, some dozens of actual 1 2 1

R ( w) w J Remp ( w) . (16)

measurement short circuit currents are analyzed by (14). 2 2

The effective number of bits (ENoB) of ADC is equal

where Ȗ is the penalty function.

to 12bit, the sample period is equal to 625μs. The

For the least square SVM the optimization problem

simulation results show that the predicting errors are

can be expressed as

with in r100μs, the one of the simulation results is

shown in fig.1, it can be seen that the simulation §1 1 n ·

min R min ¨ w T w J ¦ [ i2 ¸

function is almost accord with the actual measurement w,b ,[ 2

© 2 i1 ¹

short circuit current, the estimation offsets of the first (17)

y [ w TI ( x i ) b] 1 [ i

zero to the fifth zero are respectively -78, 46,-71, 74 s.t. ® i

and -79μs, i.e. it can predict the zero of the short ¯[ i t 0 i 1, , n

circuit current in advance of over 50ms.

According to Karush-Kuhn-Tucke condition (KKT)

1500 and Lagrangian function as well as the kernel

function K(x, xi)=IT(x)I(xi) , it can be educed as

1000

ªb º ª0 º

T 1

«a » W W W «1» > @ (18)

current /digital quantity

¬ ¼ ¬ ¼

500

where

0 ª0 y1 yn º

«y y 1 y 1 K(x1 ,x1 ) 1/Ȗ y 1 y n K(x1 ,x n ) »»

W « 1

-500 « »

Oscillogram of short circuit current « »

Measured value ¬ yn y n y 1 K(x n ,x1 ) y n y n K(x n ,x n ) 1/Ȗ ¼

-1000 Simulation function

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

According to ai and b, the predicting function can

time /ms be obtained as follow

1

Fig.1 Measured value of short circuit current and its simulation y ( x) . (19)

function curve ¦ ai y ( xi ) K ( x, xi ) b

iSV

III. SELF-ADAPTING COMPENSATE OF OPENING TIME B. Self-adapting Compensate of Opening Time

Although the opening time of PMA is stable, but it The input parameters of the predicting model are

would change as some external factor including the the initial voltage U0 and the ambient temperature ș,

initial voltage of the energy capacitor, the ambient the output parameter of the predicting model is the

temperature and the wear and tear of the contact etc., so opening time tOpen. Choosing Gaussian Radial

it is needed to predict the opening time in order to Basis Function as the kernel function

compensate its offset so as to ensure the synchronous 2

§ xx ·

control precision. K ( x, x i ) exp¨

i ¸.

¨ ¸ (20)

A. Arithmetic of Compensation of Opening Time 2V 2

© ¹

SVM is adopted in order to compensate the opening

time. SVM is one of the statistic learning methods where ı is the kernel parameter.

developed in the middle 1990’s. Based on the aim of Adopting mean square error (MES) to judge the

performance of the model 0.13ms, which can satisfy the synchronous control

precision.

2

1 k ª f ( xi ) fˆ ( xi ) º IV. HARDWARE REALIZATION

MSE ¦« » . (20) The hardware block diagram is shown in fig.2, FPGA

k i 1 «¬ f ( xi ) »¼ is using for predicting the zero of the short circuit

current, single-chip microcomputer is using for

where f ( xi ) is the output of verification sample i;

measuring the armature position, the ambient

fˆ ( x i ) is the output of the model.

temperature, the voltage of energy storage capacitor and

Training samples and verification samples are

the short circuit current etc., and compensate the

obtained by testing, after training the predicting

opening time according the measured values in order to

model is built, its MSE is equal to 2.610 912 165 294

give the opening command.

775e-005, the predicting error is within -0.14ms to

Power supply

Armature position

temperature position frenqency

Ambient

temperature

Single-chip microcomputer

voltage

Voltage of energy

storage capacitor

FPGA

Measurement circuit of

Driver circuit of exciting coils

current

Current

Fig.2 Structure block diagram of synchronous control

The FLEX10E FPGA manufactured by ALTERA Co. mean-square value SVM so as to obtain the

is adopted. By means of maxplus II, FPGA is predictive function, which related to few support

programmed, simulated and validated. The response vectors is easy to be programmed.

time is only 80μs and predicting precision is perfect.

REFERENCES

[1] K. Horinouchi, M. Tsukima, N. Tohya, et al, “Synchronous

Controlled Switching by Vacuum Circuit Breaker (VCB) with

V. CONCLUSION

Electromagnetic Operation Mechanism.” Proceedings of the 2004

Recurrence formula based on arithmetic operation has IEEE International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation,

advantage of simple computational process, high Restructuring and Power Technologies, pp.529-534, 2004.

predicting precision, and it isn’t needed high hardware [2] Nguyen, Ha-Nam; Ohn, Syng-Yup; Chae, Soo-Hoan; Song, Dong

configuration. Ho; Lee, Inbok, “Optimizing weighted kernel function for support

vector machine by genetic algorithm.”, Lecture Notes in Computer

SVM is the best general machine learning theory

Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial

developed from statistical learning theory, and suit to Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), pp.583-592,

do prediction from small samples by learning. The 2006.

opening time of PMA is related to the charging

voltage of the energy storage capacitor and the E-mail of authors: mash_dq@sut.edu.cn

ambient temperature etc., in order to improve the

synchronous control precision, the predictive models

- Differential, High Speed Op Amp _LMH6550Uploaded byMilorad Radenovic
- Bad to the Bone Crafting Electronics Systems with Beaglebone and BeagleBone Black - Steven F Barrett - Jason Kridner.pdfUploaded byjuan meza
- Microprocessor Based Impedance RelayUploaded bySuresh
- Microcontroller-Based Solar ChargerUploaded byJim Terence Colaco
- SCF2_DFL.ASMUploaded bykgrhoads
- BLUE EYESUploaded byKrupa Patel
- AutoRanging DMMUploaded byPankaj Verma
- Microcontroller Lab ManualUploaded byKiran Somayaji
- Resumo - Pedro Xavier - DSP Based Power Quality AnalyzerUploaded byМилан Лукић
- Ads 8344Uploaded bymann_only
- ADE7758Uploaded byamam
- DS75 (Maxim)Uploaded bycgmannerheim
- Analog to Digital ConversionUploaded bynguyenphuonghuy1979
- ME475_dasUploaded byShahnewaz Bhuiyan
- Development of Design MMirUploaded byBenjie Moronia Jr.
- DSP Hardware White PaperUploaded bySivaji Mopidevi
- Intrusion Detection in Smart GridUploaded byAnonymous izrFWiQ
- Interfacing With Analog Devices Week 12v2Uploaded byFathi Habibu Rahman
- ADCUploaded byHana Bah
- ProgrameUploaded byPaul Canon
- Definition of TermsUploaded bycks09
- Px c 3871359Uploaded byRahil Khan
- SensorNoiseBWUploaded byPayam Mehradnia
- adi_phd_08Uploaded bySilpa Velagaleti
- Cost Effective SystemUploaded byrajeshmholmukhe
- 83628431-Blind-Spot-Detection.docxUploaded bySohirin Adnan
- The Basics of Analog SensorUploaded bymatrixworld20
- Automatic Epileptic Seizure GADUploaded bydonsuni
- Chapter 2Uploaded byapi-3733590
- ONLINEBITS MPMCUploaded byDhanunjayegowtham Kunchala

- 10.1109@ceidp.2008.4772825Uploaded byaruriza
- An Electronic Voltage Transformer Based on WLAN TechnologyUploaded byaruriza
- Development of IOT Based Solution for MonitoringUploaded byaruriza
- Development of Dynamic Evolution Control for PvUploaded byaruriza
- 10.1109@tim.2009.2022377Uploaded byfahrur riza
- Power Quality Data Logger With Internet AccessUploaded byaruriza
- IoT-type Electric FanUploaded byaruriza
- Monitoring of Highway Wind Power ParameterUploaded byaruriza
- what_is_an_arrester.pdfUploaded bynunukanta
- Amalan Target Ramadhan.pdfUploaded byaruriza
- 10.1109@ICEPE-ST.2015.7368335Uploaded byaruriza
- jurnalUploaded byaruriza
- 10.1109@PESGM.2014.6939817Uploaded byfahrur riza
- ELDAUploaded byaruriza
- IR2112 datasheetUploaded byBilel Âzôüzî
- Single-Diode and Two-Diode Pv Cell Modeling UsingUploaded byaruriza
- raspi posterUploaded byaruriza
- Arduino-Poster-Portable.pdfUploaded byaruriza
- (Schaum's Outline Series) Milton Gussow-Schaum's Outline of Basic Electricity, Second Edition (Schaum's Outline Series) -McGraw-Hill (2009)Uploaded byaruriza
- Amalan Target RamadhanUploaded byaruriza
- On-line Optimal Power Flow by Energy Loss Minimization - SS Sharif - JH Taylor - EF HillUploaded byaruriza
- Power Line DiagramUploaded byaruriza
- Electrical Single Line DiagramUploaded byaruriza
- Electrical Safety HandbookUploaded byPipe Castillo
- Comparison Between Direct on Line, Star DeltaUploaded byReza Kandhy Windaka

- Antimicrobial Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite Solution and Zataria Multiflora Essential Oil as Irrigants in Root Canals Contaminated With Candida Albicans (1)Uploaded byzaheerbds
- ThesisUploaded byabrahamaudu
- HV MeasurementUploaded byRushi Amin
- tach1Uploaded byArif Nurahman
- Rasasala vs GMP ( Dept. Presentation)Uploaded bySanand Ratnam Thekkayil
- Multilevel Voltage-Source-Converter Topologies for Industrial Medium-Voltage DrivesUploaded byVamsi Sakhamuri
- Data structures and algorithms to support interactive spatial analysis using dynamic Voronoi diagUploaded byLuz Nidia Gómez Luna
- 4-Electrical Families in Revit - ModelicalUploaded bylexlox
- Unit 1 Ch. 3 the Dynamic EarthUploaded byncl12142
- The Metabolic Pathway of Psilocybin Production.pdfUploaded byAdrian Alberto Romero Bernal
- Serge Lakhovsky CoilUploaded byandremdm2008
- For Unto Us a Child is BornUploaded byMischelle 'mitch' Perez
- Design and Development of Vertical Material Handling Lift for Reduce Cycle Time and Cost OptimizationUploaded byIRJET Journal
- Anvils Horn 1405Uploaded byoiii88
- Century VZ 2008 Rifle Manual 2Uploaded byquantsuff
- Design of DF in HPHTUploaded byAaron Martin
- Civil engineering reliability.pdfUploaded byAnonymous swWVf3TW5O
- D Installation 2005Uploaded byMuhammad Tariq
- Rule: Air programs: Fuels and fuel additives— 2-Thiazolidinone, etc.Uploaded byJustia.com
- State FunctionUploaded bymelprvn
- Conoce Al Ruaj HakodeshUploaded bypilar ortiz
- Standardization of ProtocolUploaded byAbhinav Tewari
- kWiet Genset BrochureUploaded byanon-90168
- Center for the American Experiment Transportation Policy BlueprintUploaded byFluenceMedia
- Pengkajian Keperawatan Pada AnakUploaded byWafa Aun'k
- Chapter11 Valves 12Uploaded byfazarbadhusha
- How Does the Balance System WorkUploaded bySham Diyah
- Maintenance Mgmt Trg Material 150814Uploaded bySazali Khamsan
- Steven-Johnson Syndrome –A Rare Case ReportUploaded byfakhriaii
- LG-55EA9800Uploaded byrudra_1