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_SGS Curso de Ensayos No Destructivos -INSPECCION VISUAL- Volumen Ill 2.1.2 ASME B 31.1 INTRODUCTION ‘The ASME B31 Code for Pressure Piping consists of a number of individually publisbed Sections, each an American National Standard, under the direction of ASME Committee B31, Code for Pressure Piping. Rules for each Section reflect the kinds of piping installations considered during its development, as follows: B31.1 Power Piping: piping typically found in electric power generating stations, in indusirial and institutional Plants, geothermal heating systems, and central and istrict heating and cooling systerns; B31.3 Process Piping: piping typically found in petro- leur refineries, chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, semiconductor, and cryogenic plants, and related pro= cessing plants and terminals; B314 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liguids: piping wansporting products which are predominately liquid between plants and terminals and within terminals, pumping, regulating, and metering stations; B31.5 Refrigeration Piping: piping for refrigerants and secondary coolants B3L8 Gas Transportation and Distribution Piping Systems: piping transponing products which are pre- dominately gas between sources and terminals, including compressor, regulating, and metering stations; gas gath- ering pipelines; B31.9 Building Services Piping: piping typically found in industrial, institutional, coramereial, and public buildings, and in multi-unit residences, which does not require the range of sizes, pressures, and temperatures covered in B3I.1; B3I.II Slurry Transportation Piping Systems: piping twansporting aqueous slurries between plants and termi- nals and within terminals, pumping, and regulating stations. This is the B31.3 Process Piping Code Section Hereafter, in this Introduction and in the text of this Code Section B31.3, where the word Code is used without specific identification, it means this Code Section Ik is the owner's responsibility 10 select the Code Section which most nearly applies to a proposed piping insallation, Factors to be considered by the owner include: limitations of the Code Section; jurisdictional requirements: and the applicability of other codes and standards, All applicable requitements of the selected Code Section shall be met. For some installations, more than one Code Section may apply 20 different parts of the installation. The owner is also responsibie for imposing requirements supplementary t0 those of the Code if necessary to assure safe piping for the proposed installation Cenain piping within a facility may be subject to other codes and standards, including bat not limited to: ANSI Z223.1 National Fuel Gas Code: piping for fuel gas from the point of delivery to the connection of each fuel utilization device NFPA Fire Protection Standards: fire protection gy tems using water, carbon dioxide, halon, foam, dry chemical, and wet chemicals: NEPA 99 Health Care Facilities: medical and labora- tory gas systems; Building and plumbing codes, as applicable, for potable hot and cold water, and for sewer and drain systems, Tae Code sets forth engineering requirements deemed necessary for safe design and construction of pressure piping, While safety is the basic consideration, this factor alone will not necessarily govern the final specifi cations for any piping installation, The designer is cautioned that the Code is not a design handbook: it does not do away with the need for the designer or for competent engineering judgment. To the greatest possible extent, Code requirements for design are stated in terms of basic design principles and formulas, These are supplemented, as necessary, with specific requirements to assure uniform application ‘of principles and to guide selection and application of Piping elements. The Code prohibits designs and prac- tices known to be unsafe and contains warnings where caution, but not prohibition, is warranted. ‘This Code Section includes (a} references to acceptable material specifications and component standards, including dimensional re- Quirements and pressure-temperature ratings; (6) requirements for design of components and as- semblies, including piping suppor: 02 18 31.1-2008 CHAPTER V FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY, AND ERECTION WELDING I. General iping systems shall be constructed in accordance, 1 the requirements of this Chapter and of materials have been manufactured in accordance with the tirements of Chapter IV. These requirements apply all fabrication, assembly, and erection operations, ‘ther perfcrmed in a shop or at a construction site. following applies essentially to the welding of ous materials. The welding of aluminum, copper, requires different preparations and procedures 271.1 The welding processes that are to be used er this part of this Code shall meet all the test tirements of Section IX of the ASME Boiler and ssure Vessel Code. 2 Material 27.2.1 Filler Metal. All filler metal, including con- cable insert material, shall comply with the require- ats of Section IX, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel . A filler metal not incorporated in Section IX ” be used if procedure qualification test is first cessfully made in accordance with Section LX. Filler als with Tess than 0.05% carbon content shall not ‘sed for high temperature applications (above 850°P) ow alloy steels due to reduced ereep rupture prop- s 27.2.2 Backing Rings. Backing rings, when used, 1 conform to the following requirements: \) Ferrous Rings. Ferrous metal backing rings which yme @ permanent part of the weld shall be made 1 material of weldable quality, compatible with the 2 material and the sulfur content shall not exceed %. 4.1) Backing rings may be of the continuous ma- ‘ed or split band type. 4.2) If two abutting surfaces are to be welded to \ird member used as a backing ring and one or two of the three members are ferritic and the other member or members are austenitic, the satisfactory use of such materials shall be determined by the WPS qualified as required in para. 1275. (A.3) Backing strips used at longitudinal welded Joints shall be removed. (B) Nonferrous and Nonmetallic Rings. Backing rings ‘of nonferrous or nonmetallic materials may be used for backing provided they are included in @ WPS as required in para. 127.5, Nonmetallic or nonfusing rings shall be removed. 127.2.3 Consumable Inserts. Consumable inserts may be used provided they are made from material ‘compatible with the chemical and physical properties of the base material. Qualification of the WPS shall be as required by para 127.5. 127.3 Preparation for Welding , __ (A) End Preparation (A.1) Oxygen or are cutting is acceptable only if the cut is reasonably smooth and true, and all slag is cleaned from the flame cut surfaces. Discoloration which may remain on the flame cut surface is not considered to be detrimental oxidation. (A.2) Butt-welding end preparation dimensions con- tained in ASME B16.25 or any other end preparation which meets the WPS are acceptable. (A.3) If piping component ends are bored, such boring shall not result in the finished wall thickness after welding less than the minimum design thickness Where necessary, weld metal of the appropriate analysis ray be deposited on the inside or outside of the piping component to provide sufficient material for machining to insure satisfactory fitting of rings. (44) If the piping component ends are upset, they may be bored to allow for a completely recessed backing ring, provided the remaining net thickness of the finished ends is not Jess than te minimum design thickness