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A Project Report on


Submitted By

For The Degree of


Under the Guidance of



SION (W), MUMBAI – 400 022

I, JUHI SANGTANI, studying in the Third year of Bachelor of Management
Studies course in the academic year 2015-2016 at S.I.E.S College of Arts, Science
and Commerce, Sion (West), hereby declare that I have completed the project
the course requirements of Bachelor of Management Studies of University of

I further declare that the information presented in this project is true and original to
the best of my knowledge.


I, PROF. MUSTAFA SAPATWALA hereby certify that JUHI SANGTANI studying

in the Third Year of Bachelor of Management Studies course at the S.I.E.S College
of Arts, Science and Commerce, Sion (West), has completed a project on A
the academic year 2015 -2016.

I further declare that the information presented in this project is true and original to
the best of my knowledge.

​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​
Date : ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​PRINCIPAL
Place : ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ (Dr. Harsha Mehta)

(External Examiner) ​ College Seal ​ PROF. MUSTAFA SAPATWALA


I would like to express my gratitude and sincere thanks to my Project Guide PROF.
MUSTAFA SAPATWALA, S.I.E.S College of Arts, Science and Commerce, for
instilling confidence in me to carry out this study and extending valuable guidance
and encouragement from time to time, without which it would not have been
possible to undertake and complete this project.

I also wish to extend my appreciation to our Principal Dr. Harsha Mehta and the
Vice-Principal Prof George Abraham, for their kind co-ordination and support.

I would also like to thank our BMS Coordinator Mrs. Anita Agrawal and Core
Faculty Members of BMS Mr. Mustafa Sapatwala to provide us with all the
required help and motivating us to do the project in the best way.
I would like to thank my colleagues for their valuable comments and suggestions
for making this a cherishable experience for me.

I would also like to thank my parents and my friends, who have stood by me
whenever needed, and without whose support this task would not have been


Sr.No. Particulars Pages







3 CHAPTER 2 22



4 CHAPTER 3 52




5 CHAPTER 4 63



6 CHAPTER 5 70


7 CHAPTER 6 73


8 CHAPTER 7 75




From past many decades people are getting more into sports as a recreation as well as an
entertainment. Hence, sports materials and equipments especially the shoes that are used in
various sports are demanded much higher. Nike is the leader in the athletic shoe industry after
which comes Adidas. So this clearly states that they are Giants in athletic footwear industry and
are highly competing each other. In this study most of the factors are covered that affects the
competition of Nike and Adidas. It contains all the details of Nike as well as Adidas. And there
also a survey conducted, considering various factors of Nike and Adidas.
The purpose of this report is to learn about strategy and strategic management by comparing the
strategies of two companies from the same industry. The strategies of Nike and Adidas have been
compared from the footwear industry. Nike and Adidas both specialize in footwear, apparel and
accessories and their competition is intense as Nike is the market leader and Adidas is the market
challenger. The topics in this report cover critical incidents of both Nike and Adidas that
occurred in the past and the comparison between both their strategies as well their future plans.
This report shows us the influence the strategy has on the success or failure of companies and
how companies craft sustainable strategies that help them to retain their position in the market.


Nike and Adidas have almost similar strategies but different implementation methods. Both the
companies concentrate heavily on technology and strive to produce new and innovative products.
Nike focuses on the American markets whereas Adidas focuses on the European market. Nike
does not have any production plants as they only design, distribute and market their products and
hence they outsource to various countries in Asia, mainly Taiwan and Korea, which outsource
their production to China, Indonesia and Vietnam. Adidas on the other hand, carry out all their
production in Germany and recently has adopted Nike’s outsourcing policy by outsourcing to
Asian countries. Nike and Adidas both follow a premium pricing strategy which according to
Kotler, is a strategy where companies charge a premium price for their products. Their
competition is always intense and according to Anderson (2010) during the world cup 2010 Nike
launched the popular “write the future”, three minute advertisement featuring world cup stars
which was a major hit on YouTube and Adidas replied with their two minute video with
celebrities like Snoop Dogg and Daft Punk into a famous scene from the movie Star Wars. Nike
sponsored nine teams whereas Adidas sponsored 12 teams.

Even though Adidas was the official sponsor of the World cup 2010, Nike attached an LED
display to a 30 story skyscraper in Johannesburg where soccer fans could write short messages
using popular social networking websites such as Twitter and Facebook and Nike put up 100
messages on the side of the walls every night.

Adidas adiPURE III Nike Tiempo Elite


An athletic shoe is a generic name for footwear designed for sporting and physical activities.

Athletic shoes, depending on the location and the actual type of footwear, may also be referred
to as trainers (British English), sandshoes, gym boots or joggers (Australian English) running
shoes, runners or gutties (Canadian English, Australian English, Hiberno-English), sneakers,
tennis shoes (North American English, Australian English), gym shoes, tennis, sport shoes,
sneaks, or takkies (South African English) and rubber shoes (Philippine English) canvers

(Nigerian English).

The term Athletic Shoes is typically used for running in a marathon or half marathon,
basketball, and tennis (amongst others) but tends to exclude shoes for sports played on grass such
as association football and rugby football, which are generally known as "boots", or in North
America as cleats.

Attributes of an athletic shoe include a flexible sole, appropriate tread for the function intended
and ability to absorb impact. As the industry and design have expanded, the term "athletic shoes"
is based more on the design of the bottom of the shoe than the aesthetics of the top of the shoe.
Today's designs even include sandal, marry Jane and even elevated styles suitable for running,
dancing and jumping.

The shoes themselves are made of flexible compounds, typically featuring a sole made of dense
rubber. While the original design was basic, manufacturers have since tailored athletic shoes for
the different purposes that they can be used for. A specific example of this is the spiked shoe
developed for track running. Many of these shoes are made up to a very large size because of
athletes with large feet. High-end marathon running shoes will often come in different shapes
suited to different foot types, gait etc. Generally, these shoes are divided into neutral,
overpronation and underpronation (supination) running shoes to fit the respective foot strike of
the runners.



* Racing flats
* Track shoe
* Skate shoes
* Climbing shoe
* Approach shoe
* Wrestling shoes
* Cleats
* Football boot
* Dance Shoe

➢ The word sneaker is traditionally defined a shoe consisting of a solid rubber sole
attached to an upper made, usually, of canvas. While rubber soled shoes called
plimsolls had been in use for some time for aristocratic lawn sports, and King
Henry VIII was reported to have worn a sneaker-like shoe for playing tennis, the
true life of the sneaker did not begin until American inventor Charles Goodyear
patented the process for vulcanization of rubber. Until that time, the sneaker as we
know it now was simply not possible. The oldest sneakers used for basketball are
thought to be the Converse All Stars, first produced in 1917, but the Spalding
Company produced shoes in 1907 specifically for the game of basketball. Still
these are not the oldest sneakers. A discovery at an estate sale has led experts to
believe that the first basketball shoes were produced by Colchester Rubber
Company of Colchester, Connecticut who went out of business in 1893. While
there is no significant evidence to point to the use of these shoes for basketball, it
seems that shoes that were produced just a few miles from the birthplace of
basketball just two years after the invention of the game would certainly have
been used for basketball.
➢ By the early 1900's, sneakers were being produced by small rubber companies
who specialized in the production of bicycle tires. U.S. Rubber, a conglomerate of
nine other rubber companies, introduced Keds in 1916 while Converse introduced
the first mass marketed basketball sneaker in 1917 with their introduction of the
Converse All Star. Other companies, including B.F. Goodrich and Spalding Co.,
were producing tennis shoes and smaller family-owned companies were
manufacturing early cleared shoes. At first the market for sneakers was small and
practically invisible, but after World War I, America turned to sports and physical
health as a way to demonstrate moral fiber and patriotism. The market for
sneakers grew steadily as young boys lined up to by sneakers endorsed by football
player, Jim Thorpe and Converse All Stars endorsed by basketball player, Chuck
Taylor. In the 1920's and 30's, manufacturers added traction to the soles of their
sneakers and began marketing them for different sports. A major innovation of
this time was the production of distinct models for boys and girls. Sneakers were
known for comfort and used almost strictly for athletic endeavors.
➢ The revived Olympic Games provided exposure and heightened interest in
sneakers and sports in general, leading to increased sales. It was at this time that
the German sneaker manufacturer, Adidas would be founded in Herzogenaurach.
German manufactured sport shoes would dominate the market until the late 1960's
with the founding of current market leader, Nike.
➢ World War II interrupted production of sneakers for the public as factories
switched to produce items in support of the massive war effort and raw materials
became scarce. After the cessation of hostilities, the slow rise in the popularity of
sneakers resumed. Another major brand, Puma, was also founded at this time after
Rudolph Dassler split with Adi Dassler in a feud. Rudi Dassler set up shop across
town and the Puma brand was born.

➢ The 1950's witnessed another increase in the amount of leisure time available to
families. The Baby Boom began and sneakers officially became the choice shoe
for American youth as school dress codes relaxed. Hollywood officially
sanctioned this fashion with a string of movies featuring actors in sneakers,
including James Dean and his Converse Jack Purcells in West Side Story. Sales of
sneakers soared to 600 million pairs a year in 1957, leading leather shoe
manufacturers to issue ads claiming that sneakers were bad for children's feet and
the sneaker manufacturers to respond with claims that sneakers cured the
syndrome of "inhibited feet".
➢ Sneakers were imported from Japan in the early 60's, but accounted for only a
small portion of the market until Nike founders Phil Knight and Bill Bowerman
began importing Tiger shoes under the name Blue Ribbon Sports. Sneakers came
into their own in the 70's as jogging became the new fashionable sport and created
a need for a special shoe used just for the purpose of jogging. Technology created
a need for exercise apart from work and the shoes to perform this exercise.

➢ Until this time, manufacturers had been concerned with high production, but now
they began to focus on marketing shoes for a lifestyle purpose.

Shoes for walking, running shoes, football shoes, basketball shoes-- every sport needed its
own shoes- and then you needed another pair of sneakers for just casual wear. By the 80's,
sneakers were everywhere. Woody Allen wore them to the ballet, Led Zeppelin wore them in
their 1976 documentary, and Dustin Hoffman wore them while playing reporter Carl Bernstein in
the movie All the President's Men. The shoes originally developed for sports became the
mainstay for most people. Nike and Reebok were the market leaders while older brands Adidas
and Converse were nearly in ruins. Newer companies came in and out of fashion and the industry
began shelling out large amounts of money for sports endorsements.
A major footnote in the Sneaker Era is the signing of basketball player Michael Jordan to a
contract with Nike to produce and endorse his own signature line of shoes. Today, the Nike
Swoosh and the Jordan Jumpman are icons and require no introduction.

Sneaker collectors, called "Sneakerheads", use sneakers as fashionable items. Casual sneakers
like the Air Force One (Nike) or Superstar (Adidas) have become icons in today's pop culture.
Artistically-modified sneakers can sell for upwards of $500.

When it comes to sneaker technology, shoes are divided into three major areas: the upper, the
midsole, and the outsole. Depending on the materials and combinations used, one model of
sneaker can vary greatly from another.

Uppers, the top part of the shoe with the laces, fancy designs and bright colors that holds the
shoe together, usually come in one of three materials, leather, synthetic leather, and mesh.
Special editions, retro and vintage models, Converse and casual shoes like the Nike Vandal, the
Air Force 1, and the Nike After Party for women may have a canvas upper. The most famous
shoes to have an all canvas upper are the Converse All Stars.

Midsoles are used to cushion and provide support and protection for the foot. There are four
types of materials used in commercially produced sneakers. Midsoles are often constructed of a
combination of materials. Midsole materials are Phylon, polyurethane, Phylite, and EVA.

The outsole, the part of the shoe that comes in contact with the ground, provides durability, and it
is the first stage of cushioning for the shoe. Patterns on the outsole vary according to the needs of
the sport. The five most commonly used materials for outsoles are as follows:


➢ List of athletic shoe brands, large brands include:

1. Adidas
3. Clae
4. Converse

5. DC Shoes
6. Fila
7. Gola
8. Heelys
9. K-Swiss
10. Keds
11. Keen
12. Lacoste
13. Lonsdale
14. Mizuno
15. New Balance
16. Nike
17. Pony
18. PF Flyers
19. Puma
20. Reebok
21. Saucony
22. Sperry Top-Sider
23. Starbury
24. Supra
25. Vans


The runner with the spikes should feel that he had more grip on the track.
The following table provides details about specific sports shoes. When viewing the table
consider how much trainer technology has advanced in the last 100 years.
High Jump
▪ This type of shoe has a much
thicker sole.
▪ This gives maximum support
and comfort. The shoe is light
and flexible which helps the
athlete achieve speed over a
short distance before jumping.
▪ This shoe has to have spikes.
The spikes at the front help
the athlete to gain speed in the
run-up. The four spikes t the
heel provide grip when the
athlete takes off.

Javelin ▪ This type of shoe has to be

robust and durable. Athletes
drag their feet along the
ground during the throw.
▪ As a result the shoe has to be
made from a tough,
hardwearing material.
Support is crucial.
▪ Javelin shoes look more like
boots with protection around
the ankle. Most of them
feature strapping.
▪ This prevents the foot from
moving in the shoe.

Jumps and pole vault ▪ These events require speed both

on the ground and in the air.
In most cases straps have
replaced the laces.
▪ The sole tends to be both firm
and flexible allowing extra
bounce in the jump. The
spikes are once again very
▪ They provide the grip before the
jump. Notice the spikes tend
to be just at the front of the
The Throws ▪ The shoe has to allow the
athlete to throw and spin. A
hooked strap over the toe
helps to prevent the feet from
moving sideways during the
build up to the throw.
▪ These types of shoes do not
have spikes but have a hard
sole. This lengthens the
lifespan of the shoe.
▪ The sole tends to have circular
grooves on the balls of the
feet. These help the athlete to
▪ This type of shoe has to be
lightweight and offer
flexibility at the front.
▪ They all tend to have spikes,
which are located at the front.
▪ They are able to cope with lots
of different types of surfaces.
Most Olympic
▪ Athletes have their shoes
specially made.

Long Distance ▪ These shoes have to be both

durable and flexible. Comfort
is a real priority, also this
about the sweat factor.

▪ A mesh is sometimes added in

the upper part of the shoe to
allow the foot to breathe.

▪ The cushioning is also very


▪ Spikes are sometimes added but

are not essential.


Market Analysis

The U.S. market for athletic footwear includes all producers of non-cleated, rubber and
plastic footwear designed in an athletic style or for athletic use. The industry is a collection of
smaller, segmented, yet often overlapping markets, defined by both the price and the purpose of
the shoes. For instance, there are mini-markets for shoes designed for each of many sports and
other purposes: basketball, running, walking, tennis, and casual wear. The greatest overlap
between these categories is between performance shoes and casual wear. Many people wear
running shoes or basketball shoes on a daily basis in a non-athletic setting. One can walk or play
basketball in running shoes. Therefore, there is some degree of overlap between most segments.
The industry is dominated by a few large firms, while the majority of other players have
less than 5% market share. The graph below shows the market share breakdown by sales volume
for 2004, before the merger of the #2 and #3 firms, Adidas and Reebok.
This graph shows market share after the merger of Adidas and Reebok.

These firms fight for market share through non-price competition, on strategies such as
strengthening brand image and increasing product proliferation. The success of each firm is
greatly dependent upon its marketing campaigns. The brand image of the major firms is created
by extensive marketing campaigns and celebrity endorsements. Consumers associate themselves
with a particular brand and tend to stick with the brand with which they are comfortable. Entry to
the industry is difficult as brand loyalties are high.

The United States is the world’s largest importer of athletic footwear, which is primarily
manufactured in Asian nations. The graph at right shows the trend in US footwear production
and imports. Most firms design the sneakers and outsource their manufacturing to foreign
producers. The sneakers are then distributed to major retailers and are sold to the consumer
through a variety of channels. The following provides an analysis of Porter’s Five Forces relating
to the athletic footwear industry; internal rivalry, entry barriers, substitutes and complements,
supplier power, and buyer power.
It is easy to become the market leader or the market challenger for organizations but
sustainability is the primary concern and hence organizations focus of the sustainability by
coming up with strategies that will make their position sustainable in the long run. Nike’s future
plans are to focus on the environment and production of eco friendly products. They mentioned
in their 2005 and 2006 Corporate Responsibility Report that they will become carbon neutral by
2011 by reducing their Caron Dioxide emissions. They have decided to design all Nike brand
footwear in ways through which they can reduce waste production during product design and
packaging. They will eliminate the use of volatile organic compounds and use more
environmental friendly material in their products and be carbon neutral by 2011. Adidas on the
other hand became the official sportswear partner of the London 2012 Olympic Games. The
London Organizing committee for the Olympic Games and Paralympics Games (LOGOC) has
few regulations which all of its partners are obligated to follow. These obligations are focused
towards the environment. Adidas, being a partner of LOGOC has to follow all these regulations
as their future plans are to be the official sponsor of almost all major events in the world, and in
order to achieve this goal their strategy is to produce environment friendly goods as well. They
have to ensure that all their products are produced with environment friendly materials, which
would protect the human health and the environment and their packaging should also be
produced with materials that can be recycled. Hence we can see that both the future plans of
Nike and Adidas are quite similar.


* To learn about strategy and strategic management of 2 companies of same industry.

* The strategies have been compared on the basis of athletic footwear industry.
* To study the demand of which company products are more and methods used by them
to attract the market.
* To understand the competition between two Giants in the market.
* To measure the effectiveness of advertisement / promotional activities for a competing
product class and corporate advertising.
* To understand and measure various factors that affect brand-building, brand re-call and
finally the choice of customers while buying it.
* To understand the competition between Nike and Adidas.

* To understand Athletic footwear industry.

* To know how they face their competitor’s strategies.
* To know how they survive in the cutthroat competition.
* As there is competition, which factor differentiates them from each other is shown in
the report.
* To learn, how these companies have dealt with critical situations they faced in past.



Founded: 24 January 1964

Founder(s): William J. "Bill" Bowerman , Philip H. Knight

Headquarters: Beaverton, Oregon, United States

Area served: Worldwide

Key people: Philip H. Knight(Chairman),Mark Parker(CEO) & (President)

Industry: Designing and Manufacturing- Sportswear,Sports equipment

Products: Athletic shoes, Apparel, Sports equipment, Accessories

Revenue: ▲ US$ 18.627 billion (2010)

Operating income: ▲ US$ 2.199 billion (2009)

Net income: ▲ US$ 1.883 billion (2009)

Total assets: ▲ US$ 12.443 billion (2010)

Total equity: ▲ US$ 7.825 billion (2010)

Employees: 30,200 (2008)

➢ Nike was involved in the design, development and worldwide marketing of high
quality footwear, apparel, equipment, and accessory products. The largest seller of
athletic footwear and athletic apparel in the world, Nike offered its products
through approximately 18,000 retailers in the US and various independent
distributors, licensees and subsidiaries in nearly 200 countries around the world.
Independent contractors manufactured most of Nike's products. Footwear
products were mostly produced outside the US, while apparel and equipment were
made both in the US and abroad.
➢ Nike's athletic footwear products were worn for both casual or leisure purposes.
Running, basketball, children's, cross-training and women's shoes were Nike's
top-selling product categories.
➢ Nike also offered shoes designed for outdoor activities like tennis, golf, soccer,
baseball, football, bicycling, volleyball, wrestling, aquatic activities, hiking, and
other athletic and recreational uses. Nike sold sports apparel, athletically inspired
lifestyle apparel, as well as athletic bags and accessory items.
➢ Nike often marketed footwear, apparel and accessories in "collections" of similar
design or for specific purposes.
➢ Nike also marketed apparel with licensed college and professional team and
league logos. Nike sold sports balls, timepieces, eyewear, skates, bats, gloves, and
other equipment designed for sports activities, swimwear, cycling apparel,
maternity exercise wear, children's clothing, school supplies, timepieces, and

electronic media devices.

➢ Nike also sold various plastic products to other manufacturers through its wholly
owned subsidiary, NIKE IHM, Inc. and plastic injected and metal products to
other manufacturers through its wholly-owned subsidiary, BAUER Italia S p A.
➢ Nike sold a line of dress and casual footwear, apparel and accessories for men and
women under the brand names Cole Haan®, CH, Gseries by, Cole Haan, and
Bragano through its wholly-owned subsidiary, Cole Haan Holdings. Nike's
wholly-owned subsidiary, Bauer NIKE Hockey Inc., offered ice skates, skate
blades, in-line roller skates, protective gear, hockey sticks, and hockey jerseys,
licensed apparel and accessories under the Bauer® and NIKE® brand names.
Bauer also offered various products for street and roller hockey. Another wholly-
owned subsidiary Hurley International offered a line of action sports apparel (for
surfing, skateboarding, and snowboarding) and youth lifestyle apparel and
footwear under the Hurley brand name.
Nike, originally known as Blue Ribbon Sports (BRS), was founded by University track
athlete Philip Knight and his coach Bill Bowerman in January 1964. The company initially
operated as a distributor for Japanese shoe maker Onitsuka Tiger (now ASICS), making most
sales at track meets out of Knight's automobile.
According to Otis Davis, a student athlete whom Bowerman coached at the University of
Oregon, who later went on to win two gold medals at the1960 Summer Olympics, Bowerman
made the first pair of Nike shoes for him, contradicting a claim that they were made for Phil
Knight. Says Davis, "I told Tom Brokaw that I was the first. I don't care what all the billionaires
say. Bill Bowerman made the first pair of shoes for me. People don't believe me. In fact, I didn't
like the way they felt on my feet. There was no support and they were too tight. But I saw
Bowerman make them from the waffle, and they were mine.”
In 1964, in its first year in business, BRS sold 1,300 pairs of Japanese running shoes grossing
$8,000. By 1965 the fledgling company had acquired a full-time employee, and sales had
reached $20,000. In 1966, BRS opened its first retail store, located at 3107 Pico Boulevard
in Santa Monica, California next to a beauty salon, so its employees no longer needed to sell
inventory from the back of their cars. In 1967, due to rapidly increasing sales, BRS expanded
retail and distribution operations on the East Coast, in Wellesley, Massachusetts.
By 1971, the relationship between BRS and Onitsuka Tiger was nearing an end. BRS prepared
to launch its own line of footwear, which would bear the Swoosh newly designed by Carolyn
Davidson. The Swoosh was first used by Nike on June 18, 1971, and was registered with
the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office on January 22, 1974.
In 1976, the company hired John Brown and Partners, based in Seattle, as its first advertising
agency. The following year, the agency created the first "brand ad" for Nike, called "There is no
finish line", in which no Nike product was shown. By 1980, Nike had attained a 50% market
share in the U.S. athletic shoe market, and the company went public in December of that year.
Together, Nike and Wieden+Kennedy have created many print and television advertisements,
and Wieden+Kennedy remains Nike's primary ad agency. It was agency co-founder Dan
Wieden who coined the now-famous slogan "Just Do It" for a 1988 Nike ad campaign, which
was chosen by Advertising Age as one of the top five ad slogans of the 20th century and
enshrined in the Smithsonian Institution. Walt Stack was featured in Nike's first "Just Do It"
advertisement, which debuted on July 1, 1988. Wieden credits the inspiration for the slogan to
"Let's do it", the last words spoken by Gary Gilmore before he was executed.
Throughout the 1980s, Nike expanded its product line to encompass many sports and regions
throughout the world. In 1990, Nike moved into its eight-building World Headquarters campus in
Beaverton, Oregon.

➢ The 1970s
In 1971, Knight and Bowerman decided to develop a distinctive trademark and a new
brand name 'Nike', inspired by the Greek winged Goddess of Victory...
➢ The 1980s
In the early 1980s, Nike replaced Adidas as the leading athletic shoe company in the
American market. When Nike went public, Knight became one of the richest men in the world.
But in the mid-1980s, after five years of rapid growth at an annual rate of 44%, Nike failed to
anticipate the emerging market for aerobic shoes, having concentrated its efforts on casual shoes.
The SWOOSH logo is a graphic design created by Caroline Davidson in 1971. It
represents the wing of the Greek Goddess NIKE. Caroline Davidson was a student at
Portland State University in advertising. She met Phil Knight while he was teaching
accounting classes and she started doing some freelance work for his company. Phil Knight
asked Caroline to design a logo that could be placed on the side of a shoe. She handed him
the SWOOSH, he handed her $35.00.


Nike's marketing strategy is an important component of the company's success. Nike is
positioned as a premium-brand, selling well-designed and expensive products. Nike lures
customers with a marketing strategy centering on a brand image which is attained by distinctive
logo and the advertising slogan:
"Just do it". Nike promotes its products by sponsorship agreements with celebrity athletes,
professional teams and college athletic teams.
Nike produces a wide range of sports equipment. Their first products were track running shoes.
They currently also make shoes, jerseys, shorts, base layers etc. for a wide range of sports
including trackfield, baseball, iceockey, tennis, Associationfootball, lacrosse, basketball and cric
ket. Nike Air Max is a line of shoes first released by Nike, Inc. in 1987. The most recent
additions to their line are the Nike 6.0, Nike NYX and Nike SB shoes, designed
for skateboarding. Nike has recently introduced cricket shoes, called Air Zoom Yorker, designed
to be 30% lighter than their competitors. In 2008, Nike introduced the Air Jordan XX3, a high
performance basketball shoe designed with the environment in mind.
Nike sells an assortment of products, including shoes and, association football, basketball,
tennis, American football athletics, golf and training for men, women, and children. Nike also
sells shoes for outdoor activities such as tennis, golf, skateboarding, football, baseball, American
, cycling, volleyball, wrestling, cheerleading, aquatic activities, auto racing and other athletic and
recreational uses. Nike is well known and popular in youth, chav culture and hip hop culture as
they supply urban fashion clothing. Nike recently teamed up with Apple Inc. to produce
the Nike+ product which monitors a runner's performance via a radio device in the shoe which
links to the iPod nano. While the product generates useful statistics, it has been criticized by
researchers who were able to identify users' RFID devices from 60 feet (18 m) away using small,
concealable intelligence motes in a wireless sensor network. In 2004, they launched the SPARQ
Training Program/Division. Some of Nike's newest shoes contain Flywire and Lunarlite Foam.
These are materials used to reduce the weight of many types of shoes. In the video game Gran
Turismo 4 there is a car by Nike called the NikeOne 2022, designed by Phil Frank.

➢ Nike Comes under Ceiling price.
➢ The cost of making one pair of Shoes.

➢ Is less than $25.

➢ But it adds more than $15 for.
➢ Compensating & paying for R&D.
➢ Advertisement and sales team.
➢ To add up the total cost for one.
➢ Pair of shoes will be $80.
➢ Accelerating growth through focused
➢ Execution.
➢ Delivering superior, innovative products.
➢ Supply Chain a Competitive advantage
➢ Deepening relationships with customers.
Nike positioned its products as high performance shoes designed with high technology features.
Nike athletic shoes were targeted at men and women aged between 18 and 34 years. Till 1976,
except for the routine purchase of space in running publications, Nike's advertising was largely
in the form of cooperative arrangements with retailers who inserted ads in local newspapers.
Nike is the world's #1 manufacturer and marketer of athletic footwear and apparel. Almost out
of the blue, the company established itself as one of the world's most familiar brands during the
1980s and 1990s.and now 2000s. As familiar as a Coke bottle or Big Mac, the Nike "swoosh"
logo came to symbolize not just sports culture, but street culture, as the appeal of the star players
who endorsed the brand was carried onto city streets. Nike is undisputed leader in sports-oriented
street wear. “Advertising Age estimated global measured advertising expenditure of $308 million
in 2006, making Nike the world's#89 advertisers.
Nike has been using the same logo ever since they established the famous swoosh. The swoosh
logo is a graphic design created by Caroline Davidson in 1971. It represents the wing of the
Greek Goddess Nike. Caroline Davidson was a student at Portland State University in
advertising. She met Phil Knight while he was teaching accounting classes and she started doing
some freelance work for his company. Phil Knight asked Caroline to design a logo that could be
placed on the side of a shoe. She handed him the Swoosh, he handed her $35.00. In spring of
1972, the first shoe with the Nike swoosh was introduced (from Nike Consumer Affairs packet,
1996). Not only does Nike have one of the famous logo, Nike also has one of the most famous
slogans around: “Just Do It!” According to Nike company lore, it was coined at a 1988 meeting
of Nike’s ad agency Wieden and Kennedy and a group of Nike employees. Dan Weiden,
speaking admiringly of Nike’s can-do attitude, reportedly said, “You Nike guys, you just do it.”
Then the brilliant slogan came about.
Nike continues to lure customers with a marketing strategy centering around a brand image
which is attained by th distinctive logo and advertising slogan. It is my belief that Nike's power
to sell comes from deep-rooted desire for cultural. In 1982, Nike aired its first national television
ads, created by newly formed ad agency Wieden+Kennedy, during the New York Marathon. This
would mark the beginning of a remarkably successful partnership between Nike and W+K that
remains intact today. The Cannes Advertising Festival has named Nike its 'advertiser of the year'
on two separate occasions, the first and only company to receive that honor twice (1994, 2003).


Niketown at Oxford Street,London

Nike sells its product to more than 25,000 retailers in the U.S. (including Nike's own
outlets and "Niketown" stores) and in approximately 160 countries in the world. The company
also has a program called NIKEiD at, which allows customers to customize designs
of some styles of Nike shoes and deliver them directly from manufacturer to the consumer. Nike
sells its products in international markets through independent distributors, licensees, and


1. Footwear (52% of Revenue)
Nike specializes in athletic footwear, particularly in running, cross-training, basketball, and
soccer, although Nike also sells sport-inspired casual footwear like its Air Force Ones footwear
line. Footwear sales increased 14% in 2008, reaching about $9.7 billion, and accounted for 52%
of Nike's 2008 revenue. Much of the growth in footwear revenue is attributed to the 8% increase
in footwear sales in the EMEA region. Approximately 45% and 40% of the company's 2008
footwear sales occurred in the United States and EMEA regions, respectively.

2. Apparel (28% of Revenue)

Nike sells sports apparel such as running shorts, t-shirts, and licensed apparel (with logos of
college and professional sports teams). Apparel sales totaled $5.2 billion in 2008, a 14.4%
increase from a year earlier. Nike attributes much of this revenue growth to a 25% increase in
sales in emerging markets like Russia in the EMEA region as well as a currency-neutral 50%
increase in revenues from China. The EMEA region accounts the majority of Nike's apparel
sales, accounting for 40% the company's revenue earned from apparel.

3. Equipment (6% of Revenue)

Nike also sells sports equipment such as balls, protective equipment, and golf clubs. Sales of
Nike branded equipment reached $1.07 billion in 2008, a 9.5% increase from 2007. This increase
was driven primarily by an 18% increase in equipment sales in the EMEA region, which
accounted for 40% of the company's equipment sales.

4. Other (14% of Revenue)

Nike also sells apparel and footwear under the Nike Golf, Cole Haan, Converse, Hurley
International, and Umbro brand names. Nike earned approximately 14% of its revenue, or $2.6
billion in 2008, from these segments. This represents a 15% increase in sales from 2007, which
can mainly be attributed to significant growth in the Nike Golf and Converse segments.



➢ Nike is a very competitive organization. Phil Knight (Founder and CEO) is often
quoted as saying that 'Business is war without bullets.' Nike has a healthy dislike
of is competitors. At the Atlanta Olympics, Reebok went to the expense of
sponsoring the games. Nike did not. However Nike sponsored the top athletes and
gained valuable coverage.
➢ Nike has no factories. It does not tie up cash in buildings and manufacturing
workers. This makes a very lean organization. Nike is strong at research and
development, as is evidenced by its evolving and innovative product range. They
then manufacture wherever they can produce high quality product at the lowest
possible price. If prices rise, products can be made more cheaply elsewhere (to the
same or better specification), Nike will move production.
➢ Nike is a global brand. It is the number one sports brand in the World. Its famous
'Swoosh' is instantly recognizable, and Phil Knight even has it tattooed on his
➢ Strong management team and good corporate strategy in both North American
and overseas markets.
➢ First mover advantage in e-commerce.
➢ Brand recognition and reputation.
➢ Diversity and variety in products offered on the web (footwear, apparel, sporting
equipment, etc.)
➢ Strong control over its own distribution channel.
➢ Strong customer base.
➢ Strong financial position with minimal long term debts.
➢ Innovative designs in footwear enabling consumers to design their own shoes
➢ Diversity and variety in products offered on the web.
➢ Emerging brand name.


The organization does have a diversified range of sports products. However, the income of
the business is still heavily dependent upon its share of the footwear market. This may leave it
vulnerable if for any reason its market share erodes. The retail sector is very price sensitive.
Nike does have its own retailer in Nike Town. However, most of its income is derived from
selling into retailers. Retailers tend to offer a very similar experience to the consumer. Can you
tell one sports retailer from another? So margins tend to get squeezed as retailers try to pass
some of the low price competition pressure onto Nike. Negative image portrayed by poor
working conditions in its overseas factories. E-commerce is limited to USA. The direct sale to
consumers is creating conflicts with its own resellers. Currently available supply chain,
manufacturing, and fulfillment technologies aren't known for its research easily integrated with
online build-to-order systems and development leading to innovative designs. The e-commerce
is limited to USA, however, has planned to expand to Canada and international in the near
future. Online customer service is not "helpful" or easy to find. Nike has invested billions of
dollars in building its image those customers Recognize and capture their loyalty, too.
In 2008, Nike spent $2.8 billion on advertising, 12.4% of revenue (wikinvest). This large
investment is to sustain its market leading position. Also, its unique identity constructs an
effective barrier to entry. The company offers a diversified range of sports products. However,
the revenue of the business is heavily dependent on its share of the footwear market. This may
leave some room for competitors such as those multi-dimensional companies to select market
niches under price Nike and to focus their marketing and advertisement. Some major fashion
firms have owned a limited amount of success from accessories and sportswear. For example,
DKNY, Tommy Hilfiger, and Ralph Lauren already have a strong brand name and gained a
small market advantage. During Q1 2009, Nike's advertising expenses jumped 39% because of
higher marketing efforts surrounding the Olympics (wikinvest). Nike’s sport marketing will
continue to be its major marketing strategy and a selection of accessories and souvenirs of
Olympics bring in revenue of appeals.


➢ Product development offers Nike many opportunities. The brand is fiercely defended
by its owners whom truly believe that Nike is not a fashion brand. However, like it or
not, consumers that wear Nike product do not always buy it to participate in sport.
Some would argue that in youth culture especially, Nike is a fashion brand. This
creates its own opportunities, since product could become unfashionable before it
wears out i.e. consumers need to replace shoes. There is also the opportunity to
develop products such as sport wear, sunglasses and jewelry. Such high value items
do tend to have associated with them, high profits.
➢ The business could also be developed internationally, building upon its strong global
brand recognition. There are many markets that have the disposable income to spend
on high value sports goods. For example, emerging markets such as China and India
have a new richer generation of consumers. There are also global marketing events
that can be utilized to support the brand such as the World Cup (soccer) and The
➢ Rising of the Internet environment: With no doubt, online market could be the most
potential market for every business. One of the best advantages is the online market,
which not only can provide a large and wide selling channel, but also can build a
good relationship with customers. For the future orientation, Nike could allow their
customers to order products online, and pick them up at a retail store.
➢ A good product development always gives Nike an opportunity for growth.
Especially for today, consumer’s taste and preference are varied from time to time.
Product’s life cycle is getting short. Nike specializes in athletic footwear, especially in
running, basketball, and soccer. Footwear business accounted for 52% of Nike’s 2008
revenues. Other market such as apparel, equipment and other also accounted 48% of
Nike’s revenues. In addition, even though its pricing is than other brands’, the
company still creates its unique value above customers’ expectation. Basically,
consumers can have a wide range of selection from running shoes or sunglasses with
Nike brand.


➢ Nike is exposed to the international nature of trade. It buys and sells in different
currencies and so costs and margins are not stable over long periods of time. Such an
exposure could mean that Nike may be manufacturing and/or selling at a loss. This is
an issue that faces all global brands.
➢ The market for sports shoes and garments is very competitive. The model developed
by Phil Knight in his Stamford Business School days (high value branded product
manufactured at a low cost) is now commonly used and to an extent is no longer a
basis for sustainable competitive advantage. Competitors are developing alternative
brands to take away Nike's market share.

➢ Continuing challenges in import/export duties. Threats to free trade and foreign

currency fluctuations. Possibility of distress from growing beyond its capabilities.
Growing Competition, Fashion Shifts in Footwear market.
➢ The growing of competition- Nike targets at many segments in a variety of sports
products; it compete many Companies, like New Balance, but also against large
athletic footwear and Manufacture like Adidas AG and Puma. The figure below
provides an overview Nike and its major competition.
➢ The fake overflow in the market- Fake products could be one of the most critical
reasons for Nike. In fact, in some Asia countries: Taiwan, China, or Vietnam. Nike
could lose more than million dollars business because they do not have effective way
to stop those fake products.
➢ Consumer cost- As a consumer, Nike always represent high quality and highly
reliable. However, the cost will be higher than other brands. The public feels that
Nike overcharges its consumers and should reduce the price of their products.
Company Revenue Net Income Gross Margin Advertising costs
(millions) (millions) % of revenue
NIKE INC. $18,627 $ 1,883.4 45% 12.4%
ADIDAS € 10,299 € 815 47.4% 13.4%


Nike, Inc. had gone through various incidents which had an impact on their success.
According to Dermesropian, Drage, Grigaite and Lopez (2004,p.3) in 1972, Nike persuaded
marathon runners at Olympic Tracks to wear their shoes which was an innovative strategy as it
resulted in strong advertising when some of the runners were the top finishers and popularity of
Nike continued to grow throughout the 70s. In 1979 Nike had 50% of the US running shoe
market. In 1988 Nike introduced their famous slogan ‘Just do it’ and acquired a company called
Cole Haan. They sponsored many famous athletes such as Michael Jordan, a famous basketball
player and Tiger Woods, an excellent young golf player. During 1992 Nike acquired Canstar
sports which included the hockey equipment maker Bauer and opened its first Niketown store. In
early 1995 Nike acquired a license to put its logo on NFL uniforms which resulted in strong

AIR JORDAN : They launched a new brand called Jordan, in 1997, which was influenced by
the famous basketball player Michael Jordan and one of the most famous shoes of that brand
were called Air Jordan. Some incidents harmed Nike during 1998 as they had to cut 1,200 jobs
due to the fall of sales in Asia and the demand of athletic shoes fell in 1999. Nike wanted to
diversify and in the year 2000 they shifted a little towards the technological and electronic sector
and introduced athletic electronics, which included MP3 players, heart monitors, and two-way
radios. They opened their first Nikegoddess store in California in 2001. They acquired Hurley
International, a distributor of action sports apparels and lost their license to put their logos on
NFL uniforms to Reebok in 2002. In 2003 they acquired one of their competitors called
Converse but it continued to operate independently in order to sustain the brands popular name.
1. Provide and environment which develops people to maximize their contribution to Nike.
2. Identify focused consumer segment opportunities.
3. Provide quality and innovative services and products internally and externally.
One of the Nike’s objective statements is to be the world’s leading sports and fitness Company.
This statement describes the sports and fitness industry business it belongs to. However,
it does not mention about what product and service they will provide. It does not mention about
distribution and customers also. It only can tell the public about its management direction and its
ambition of remaining the leading position in sports and fitness industry.



Founded 1924 (registered in 1949)

Founder(s) Adolf Dassler

Headquarters Herzogenaurach, Germany

Key people Herbert Hainer (CEO), Erich Stamminger (CEO, Adidas Brand), Igor
Landau (Chairman of supervisory board) (2009-)

Industry Designing and Manufacturing

Products Footwear, Sportswear

,Sports equipment

€10.799 billion ($15.6 billion)(2010)

Operating ▲ €1.070 billion ($1.5 billion)(2010)


Profit ▲ €642 million ($933 million)(2010)

38,980 (2010)

Adidas Inc. is a marketer of sports apparel and athletic shoes. The German manufacturer,
through its marketing strategy which rests on a favorable brand image, has evolved into a large
multinational enterprise. In keeping with the brand image is its association with the distinctive
logo and its advertising slogan, "Impossible is Nothing." In order to maintain and sustain this
image, the company makes huge investments in advertising and brand promotion. At the critical
time of global economic crisis, Adidas will react to the consumers’ pessimistic attitude and
stressful emotion during this period. It may become a good chance for Adidas because it can take
advantage of its previous advertising way of “Impossible is Nothing” campaign by sponsoring
sports stars to express the corporate philosophy of grit, determination, passion and humor, giving
people more courage and psychological comfort in face of economic crisis. But besides that, we
also focus more about family function especially in Asian countries which emphasize a lot on
family, which can provide caring emotional communication. Therefore, from both strong-willed
hero worship and water-like fork environment, customers can easily link Adidas image with not
only strength, but also warmth. The preferred media we choose are TV, specific magazines,
outdoor and internet.
Adidas was formed by German sports apparel by the founder Adi Dassler during the
1920’s. While Dassler was in his mother’s wash room he decided to begin an athletic shoe. After
he made the shoe he had help from his brother and twelve other people to produce around 50
handmade shoes per day. These athletic shoes were made for running and training. “For over 80
years, Adidas has been part of the world of sports on every level, delivering state-of-the-art
sports footwear, apparel and accessories. Today, Adidas is a global leader not only in the shoe
industry, but also in the sporting goods industry. Shoes from the Adidas are available in virtually
every country of the world.” Recently Adidas and the NBA joined forces and made “The
Brotherhood”. “The Brotherhood” consists of Tracy McGRady of The Houston Rockets,
Dwyane Wade of The Miami Heat, Tim Duncan of The San Antonio Spurs, Chauncey Billups of
the Detroit Pistons and Gilbert Arenas of the Washington Wizards. When it came down to it
Adidas and the NBA came up with the slogan called “Basketball is a Brotherhood.” The main
focus of “The Brotherhood was Adidas to sponsor the NBA. The way these six players were
selected was by their athletic ability which is why they are also known as all stars. Then these six
players decided to form a series that would help kids to discover their dream by playing with
NBA Stars. A strong advertising and public Relation events makes adidas as a worldwide
recognized brand and it would be more sustainable in the world market.

Adolf ("Adi") Dassler started to produce his own sports shoes in his mother's wash kitchen
in Herzogenaurach, Bavaria, after his return from World War I. In 1924, his brother Rudolf
(Rudi) Dassler joined the business which became Gebruder Dassler Schuhfabrik (Dassler
Brothers Shoe Factory) and prospered.
At the 1928 Olympics, Dassler equipped several athletes, laying the foundation for the
international expansion of the company. During the 1936 Summer Olympics on Berlin, Dassler
equipped quadruple gold medal winner Jesse Owens of the U.S. with his shoes. Late in World
War II, the shoe factory shifted to production of the Panzerschreck anti-tank weapon. The
brothers split up in 1948, with Rudi forming Puma, and Adi forming Adidas. The company
formally registered as adidas AG (with lower case lettering) on 18 August 1949. The phrase All
Day I Dream about Soccer, although sometimes considered the origin of the Adidas name, was
applied retroactively. The name is actually a portmanteau from "Adi" (a nickname for Adolf) and
"Das" (from "Dassler")
German-based Adidas-Salomon AG is the second largest manufacturer of sporting.
The global footwear market is a growing market with an increase in consumer demand based on
globally increasing consumer incomes. The sports footwear market is significantly characterized
by the high speed of innovation, which forces the companies to invest more in development
initiatives. At the same time the companies are trying to reduce costs through decreasing supplier
prices in order to stay competitive. Looking forward, the footwear market is expected to steadily
keep growing. The Adidas Group is a worldwide operating German sports apparel manufacturer
with its head office in Herzogenaurach. The company was founded in August 1949 and named
after its founder Adolf (Adi) Dassler. With the winning of the World Cup 1954 in Bern by the
German national team, the Adidas soccer shoes became world-famous. The German team played
with Adidas soccer shoes where you could replace the studs – a new innovation in those days. In
the following years Adidas expanded its production beyond athletic footwear and produced
sportswear and equipment. In 1989 the company became a corporation. In 2006 Adidas took
over their British rival “Reebok” with the goal to accelerate its drive in the U.S. market and to
approach Nike, the world market leader in the athletic footwear industry. Today, Adidas is still
trailing Nike. The Adidas Group consists of the brands Adidas, Reebok and Tailor-Made.
Adidas has always been a company that stands for revolutionary inventions in the athletic shoe
industry. Adidas reported in 1996 one of the most successful years in its history after
implementing new sales and marketing strategies. This could only be topped in 2001 where
Adidas-Salomon achieved record-breaking sales. Another significant trend lies in long-term
sponsoring contracts that Adidas gained within the last few years. In April 2006 they signed a
contract to become the official NBA apparel provider for.

➢ Adidas - Footwear, apparel, and hardware such as bags and balls.

➢ Salomon - Winter sports incl. skis, snowboards, snowblades, ski boots and
bindings, inline skates, hiking, apparel.
➢ Mavic -Cycle components,
➢ Bonfire - Snowboard apparel.
➢ Arc'Teryx - Outdoor apparel, climbing equipment,
➢ Cliché - Skateboard equipment, footwear and apparel,
➢ Taylor Made-Adidas Golf - Golf equipment, golf apparel, golf shoes and finally,
➢ Maxfli - Golf balls, irons and accessories.
Adidas also designs and makes watches, eyewear, bags, baseball caps, and socks.As well,
Adidas has a branded range of male and female deodorants, perfumes, aftershave and lotions. In
1990, Adidas was holding on to just a two to three percent share of the U.S. market. Between
1988 and 1992 Adidas total sales dropped from nearly $2 billion to $1.7 billion. In the same
period, Nike’s sales went from $1.2 billion to more than $3.4 billion. From being the U.S. market
leader in the late 1970s, Adidas’s market share dropped to 3 percent in 1992. The European
market shares dropped while Nike’s shares grew.
Adidas also have had problems with the upstream value activities in their value chain.
Traditionally, the company have their own factories and wholly owned subsidiaries. What
happened in the '70s and forward, during the Adidas recession, was that Adidas was unable to
ship products when it was needed, and they had a long supply chain - it took 18 months to get a
new shoe into the market.


Adidas products are generally cheaper than Nike products, much of pricing can be directly
proportional to the type of technology incorporated into the shoe.
This brand, which employs a premium-price strategy, is the root of the group's strength in
Europe, with the brand generating 50% of all its sales there in 2008.



Commercial advertising media can include wall paintings, billboards, street furniture
components, printed flyers and rack cards, radio, cinema and television adverts, web banners,
mobile telephone screens, shopping carts, web pop-ups, skywriting, bus stop benches, human
billboards, magazines, newspapers, town criers, sides of buses, banners attached to or sides of
airplanes ("logo-jets"), advertisements on seatback tray tables or overhead storage bins, taxicab
doors, roof mounts and passenger screens, musical stage shows, subway platforms and trains,
elastic bands on disposable diapers, stickers on apples in supermarkets, shopping cart handles

(grabertising), the opening section of streaming audio and video, posters, and the backs of event
tickets and supermarket receipts. Any place an "identified" sponsor pays to deliver their message
through a medium is advertising.
One way to measure advertising effectiveness is known as Ad Tracking. This advertising
research methodology measures shifts in target market perceptions about the brand and product
or service. These shifts in perception are plotted against the consumers’ levels of exposure to the
company’s advertisements and promotions. The purpose of Ad Tracking is generally to provide a
measure of the combined effect of the media weight or spending level, the effectiveness of the
media buy or targeting, and the quality of the advertising executions or creative.
Adidas use several advertising media to promote their product in the marketplace. Different
advertising media use in the in the market like commercial advertisement, Print media
advertisement, covert advertising, Infomercials, Celebrities advertisement, Online advertisement,
Public transport advertisement, e-mail etc.

Covert advertising is when a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media. For
example, in a film, the main character can use an item or other of a definite brand, as in the
movie Minority Report, where Tom Cruise's character John Anderson owns a phone with the
Nokia logo clearly written in the top corner, or his watch engraved with the Bulgaria logo.
Another example of advertising in film is in I, Robot, where main character played by Will
Smith mentions his Converse shoes several times, calling them "classics," because the film is set
far in the future. I, Robot and Spaceballs also showcase futuristic cars with the Audi and
Mercedes-Benz logos clearly displayed on the front of the vehicles. Adidas also use this
advertising technique.
The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format,
as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV
events. The majorities of television commercials feature a song or jingle that listeners soon relate
to the product. Virtual advertisements may be inserted into regular television programming
through computer graphics. It is typically inserted into otherwise blank backdrops or used to
replace local billboards that are not relevant to the remote broadcast audience. Adidas has a large
amount of TV commercial advertisements in the worldwide TV network like BBC, CNN etc.

There are two types of infomercials, described as long form and short form. Long form
infomercials have a time length of 30 minutes. Short form infomercials are 30 seconds to 2
minutes long. Infomercials are also known as direct response television (DRTV) commercials or
direct response marketing. The main objective in an infomercial is to create an impulse purchase,
so that the consumer sees the presentation and then immediately buys the product through the
advertised toll-free telephone number or website. Infomercials describe, display, and often
demonstrate products and their features, and commonly have testimonials from consumers and
industry professionals. Adidas arrange several infomercials in the sports based program.

This type of advertising focuses upon using celebrity power, fame, money, popularity to
gain recognition for their products and promote specific stores or products.
Advertisers often advertise their products, for example, when celebrities share their favorite
products or wear clothes by specific brands or designers. Celebrities are often involved in
advertising campaigns such as television or print adverts to advertise specific or general
products. Adidas use David Bekham as their brand ambassador and many more celebrities in

every region to promote their product.

In the 1990s, Adidas signed the world No. 1 batsman Sachin Tendulkar and made shoes
for him. He is still wearing Adidas shoes when he plays matches. Adidas even made action
figures after Sachin Tendulkar.

Shoes from the Adidas are available in virtually every country of the world. Adidas
Group generates revenue by selling its products to retail stores or directly to the customer via one
of the brands' concept stores, factory outlets, concession corners, or online stores. Of this
revenue, 46% is from footwear, 42% from apparel, and 12% from hardware. In addition to
selling its products to retailers, the brand has 1332 own-retail stores worldwide, included 329
new stores opened in 2008. In 2008, the Adidas Group saw overall sales in North America
decrease by 14% in conjunction with the United States' economic downturn.
However, Adidas has relatively low US exposure overall, with 24% of 2008 sales
coming from all of North America. In contrast, Adidas Group's continuing expansion into the
growing economies in Asia and Latin America led to significant sales growth in those regions.
The company aims to have emerging markets represent over 35% of global sales. The group has
captured a majority of the premium athletic apparel market in several countries including India
and Japan (it is tied with Nike in China). Latin America has had sales grow 53% and 38% the
past two years. The company's strategy in these emerging markets is to target the wealthiest
segments, establishing the group's output as premium products in the industry

The Adidas Group organizes its business segments by brand:

1. Adidas (72.5% of 2008 net sales): The Adidas brand is the ultimate profit driver
for the Adidas Group, accounting for 72.5% of all group sales in 2008. The brand,
which was restructured during 2007, now consists of 2 segments: Sports
Performance (80% of brand sales in 2008) and Sports Style (20%). The Adidas
segment has seen its revenues grow to €7.8 billion in 2008 from €7.1 billion in
2. Reebok (19.9% of 2008 net sales) : Reebok has three different divisions: Reebok
(80% of brand revenue in 2008),Reebok-CCM Hockey (9%),
and Rockport (11%). The brand also contributes to the group's strength in
Europe, where it makes 32% of its sales.
3. TaylorMade-Adidas Golf (7.5% of 2008 net sales): Taylor Made-Adidas Golf is
comprised of TaylorMade and Adidas Golf, (footwear and apparel). Golf clubs
and accessories accounted for 71% of the segment's sales in 2008, with the
remaining 29% from footwear and apparel sales. TaylorMade-Adidas Golf
generated $812 million in 2008 net sales.
➢ Legacy & heritage: With decades of heritage & legacy, Adidas has travelled a
long way to establish itself as a youthful brand. The brand was started in 1949 and
has travelled a long way since then.
➢ Diversified portfolio: Company has multiple product portfolio’s with varied range
of footwear & accessories under brand name Adidas (premium segment) &
Reebok (mid range).
➢ Strong financial position: With its 2400 store globally accounting $4.3billions,
the company is in strong financial position.
➢ Distribution network: By selling it from online stores to company owned stores to
supermarket stores, Adidas has an effective distribution system for their products
available through different channels.
➢ Branding by creating touch points with the community: Celebrity endorsements
& sponsoring major sports organizations such as FIFA, UEFA, NBA & Olympics
has increased the awareness of Adidas in the market & hence it has increased the
highly targeted customer base as well.
➢ Collaborations & memberships: Strong relationship within the sustainability area
with organizations such as International Labor organization, International Finance
Corporation has given the company an edge over competitors so that they can
have a sustainable business.
CATEGORY 1 Year 3 Year 5 Year
Sales % 2.33 2.94 6.96
EPS (TTM) % -27.53 -3.02 17.01
Dividend % 0.00 14.47 33.78

➢ Premium price range: High price range due to innovative technology &
Production methods have made the brand affordable to limited customers only,
especially in developing countries.
➢ Outsourced manufacturing: Adidas has 93% of production outsourced to 3 rd
manufacturers (largely to Asia) to avail of low labor cost & easy availability of
resources. They are running a risk of over dependency on outsourcing especially
in Asian markets. Also, the overall quality of products perceived by the
consumers of developed economies is a major concern as far as brand is
➢ Limited product line: Adidas along with the recently acquired Reebok brands, has
got only 2 brands under their group although they have got deep assortments
within these brands. Thus, there is more scope for product line expansion.
➢ Other Facts:
• Rigid pricing structure.
• Our survey shows Nike behind Adidas in market share in India, has not do well in
Indian subcontinent market.
• The direct sale to consumers is creating conflicts with its own resellers.
• Currently available supply chain, manufacturing, and fulfillment technologies aren't
known for its research easily integrated with online build-to-order systems and
development leading to innovative designs.
• The e-commerce is limited to USA, however, has planned to expand to Canada and
international in the near future.
• Online customer service is not "helpful" or easy to find.
Changing Lifestyle: With the saturation of developed economies, changing taste & preferences,
education & changing lifestyle of developing economies, there is a steep rise in the demand of
premium goods & services.
Market development: Entering into new markets will be the only way to succeed in the future
because developed economies are already having high competition.
Expansion in product line: Expanding its product line will open a new set of opportunities while
at the same time it can differentiate itself from the competitors by following this strategy.
Increasing demand of premium products: If we only consider the Indian market then there is a
growth rate of 33% in demand of premium products. This tells us the future business opportunity
& expanding market size of developing economies.
Backward integration: This will be smart strategy if followed by Adidas as it will help Adidas to
secure their patent rights & also integrate their R&D with the operational team in order to work
in open system.
Competition: Although Adidas is a global brand but it is facing fierce competition from other
brands like Nike which is No.1 brand and Adidas being in 2 Position in this premium segment.
Besides this, there is regular competition from local players, substitutes and market penetrators.
Supplier Dominancy: Due to majority of its production being outsourced; Suppliers have more
bargaining power then the company.
Government Regulations: With its 35% products manufactured in China & 93% of production
happening in Asia, Import regulations, duty& tariffs plays a critical role in the pricing and
success of the company.


Adidas also faced various occurrences in order to attain the title of the second largest
athletic footwear sportswear and accessories manufacturer.

Adidas Samba
Adidas registered as a company in 1949 with the three stripes logo as their trademark.
Explained that in the year 1950 they produced the “Samba” all-round soccer shoes which are
even now considered to be the best classic training shoe today. One of the biggest successes of
Adidas was in 1952 when it was the most common shoe brand worn at the Olympic Games held
in Helsinki. They made the first track shoes with removable spikes. Emil Zatopek, in Adidas
shoes, won three gold medals in one week creating a huge impact on the image of the brand.

German National Team wearing Adidas in the 1954 football world cup
In 1954 Adidas became famous all over the world as the German national team was victorious in
the football world cup for the first time, wearing Adidas shoes with screw-in spikes. In 1955
Adidas came up a shoe with exchangeable spikes which became very popular among the high
jumpers. In 1964 Billy Mills won the men’s 10,000 meters wearing the new Adidas shoe which
was considered the lightest shoe weighing 135 grams. In 1969 Adidas produced the world’s first
injection molded multi stud soles of polyurethane, which gave a one year guarantee on the soles.
Adidas began production of balls in 1961 and in 1970 their football was the official ball of the
football world cup. In 1971 the famous ‘Fight of the century’ where Muhammad Ali and Joe
Frazier fought with each other, both of them wore special boxing shoes designed by Adidas.

Adidas Copa Mundial

In 1979, Adidas produced ‘Copa Mundial’, which even today is still the world’s best selling
soccer shoe. In 1986 Adidas introduced Azteca, the first synthetic world cup matchball in the
world. However, in 1993 Adidas took over Sports Inc., a US based sports marketing company
and Adidas was losing US$100 million a year. Robert Louis Dreyfus had become the new
president of Adidas and he downsized the German staff and went subcontracting to China.
Adidas once had 70% market share in the US and it fell to 2% in 1993. In 1994 Adidas made a
comeback by producing the revolutionary soccer shoe called the Predator during the soccer
world cup in the USA. They went public in 1995 and acquired the Salmon Group which
consisted of the brands TaylorMade, Mavic and Bonfire in 1997. The new company is named
Adidas-Salmon AG. They were the first sporting goods company to chosen as the official
sponsor of a soccer world cup in 1998 when they sponsored the 1998 FIFA World cup in France.

Adidas Predator Mania

In March 2002 Adidas launched ClimaCool a footwear with a ventilation system and
introduced the new Predator Mania boots and jerseys with the dynamic layering concept in the
2002 FIFA world cup with their own official ball called the Fevernova. They sold over 6 million
footballs and more than 1.5 million jerseys and half a million of the Predator Mania that year. In
2006 Adidas became the official partner, supplier and licensee for the FIFA world cup to be held
in 2006, 2010 and 2014. They acquired Reebok International in the same year.
For Adidas, India is: a strategically important growth market:-
➢ Factors for success: Supply Chain Management.
➢ Cutting edge technology.
➢ Aggressive approach to market, Association with sports events and personalities.
➢ Future plans: Four-fold sales growth in next three years, Add more showrooms,
Launch new products.
➢ To be the global leader in the sporting goods industry.
➢ Maximize the operational and financial performance.
➢ Creating shareholder value.
➢ Diverse brand portfolio.

➢ Investments focused on highest-potential markets and channels.

➢ Creating a flexible supply chain.
➢ Leading through innovation.
➢ Understanding needs/wants of the people.
➢ Becoming a sustainable company.
➢ Multi-brand strategy.
➢ Innovating products, services and processes.
➢ Provide a wide variety of products to a broad spectrum of consumers.
1. Yee and Sidek (2008) - investigated how the respondents are influenced by factors of brand
loyalty towards sportswear brands. Previous research adopted seven factors to test in the
Malaysian environment. The seven factors of brand loyalty are brand name, product quality,
price, style, promotion, and service quality and store environment. Brand name has shown strong
correlation with brand loyalty. In order to increase customer satisfaction and drive them to be
brand loyalists, marketers are encouraged to develop aggressive marketing programs; there is
positive and significant relationship between factors of brand loyalty (brand name, product
quality, price, style, promotion, service quality and store environment) with sportswear brand
loyalty. Study of more focused factors that are appropriate to the Indian environment is
recommended in order to obtain accurate information.
2. Youn, Song and MacLachlan (2008) examined how consumers’ brand preferences and price
sensitivities evolve as their levels of experience increase in outdoor sports gear categories. It is
proved that how consumers evolve along discrete latent states that represent their experience and
knowledge levels, and how this corresponds to changes in preference parameters. In our
empirical estimation and evaluation of the model we utilize customer membership data from a
large outdoor and sporting goods retailer. Existing single-category Hidden Markov approaches
require a rich purchase history and do not work well for the types of durable product categories
in an area such as sport climbing, as typical customers make relatively few purchases in any
single category, even over long periods of time. For this reason we use a multi-category
framework in which unobservable experience levels are inferred by leveraging information from
multiple categories. Using Hierarchical Bayes estimation, account for initial consumer
heterogeneity as customers first take up the sport at different skill levels. This also allows us to
account for consumer heterogeneity in transition probabilities as customers accumulate
experience and knowledge at different rates. We model the latent states to follow a Markov chain
with a transition probability matrix that is specific to individual customers, and is a function of
their cumulative purchases in each category. Thus, we are able to identify the typical brand(s)
purchased by customers at different stages of their experience. We find empirical evidence that
customer who are beginners or are new to sport climbing will prefer certain brands while
customers who have more experience or knowledge of the sport will prefer other brands. The
multi-category approach allows us to determine which product category is most indicative of a
stage of a consumer’s evolution.
3. Krishna (2012) focused on attitudes and behavior on the concept of the youth’s buying
behavior towards branded sports shoes, different consumers have got different decision making
process. The buyer’s ultimate goal is to buy the product of qualitative, quantitative with low/best
affordable price. In order to identify different kinds of consumer’s behavior towards buying of
different branded shoes and Nike sports shoe. Investigator has carried out buying behavior of
youth and different kind of consumer behavior models, literature and theory of consumer
behavior; and finally, analyzed and concluded.
4. Yoh, Mohr and Gordon (2012): investigated factors that influence Indian teens’ athletic
footwear purchase. Four hundred and fifty-six teens participated in the study. Throughout the
review of related literature and the conduction of a pilot study, seven characteristics were
considered; price, color, style, brand name, comfort, quality, and celebrity endorsement. It
indicated that gender played a significant role in the purchasing behavior of Indian teens. Male
teens stated that comfort and quality are the most important factors while female teens revealed
that style and color are more important factors than any other factor. Marketers and advertising
managers of athletic shoes companies should utilize the findings of this study to communicate
with teen consumers more effectively. Sportswear, including sports shoes, becomes a common
and popular category because it gives young people a more relax lifestyle and greater versatility
and comfort. It is believed that consumers prefer products of developed countries to products of
developing or underdeveloped countries.
5. Ko, Kim and Hoon (2008) tried to compare consumer behaviors for sports shoes between
Nike and Adidas. Their research model analyzed relationships among country-of-origin,
perceived quality, perceived price, brand image and purchase intention for sports shoes in Korea
and China.. Brand image was found to play an important role in influencing perceived quality
and perceived price in Nike and Adidas respectively. Perceived quality was found to influence
positively purchase intention in both countries. Perceived price was found to negatively
influence purchase intention in case of Nike.



➢ Adidas is competence in all sectors of sports.

➢ A.d.i.d.a.s - All Day I Dream About Sports
or from the original German founder
of the company, Adolf "Adi" Dassler, more likely considering the company
history and its German origins.

➢ Adidas – AdiDassler.
NIKE - Nike came from the Greek name for the Goddess of Victory


Adidas' motto is "Impossible is nothing."

Nike's motto is "Just do it."


Sport / Entity Adidas Nike

Univers ➢ USC
➢ University of

➢ "T-Mac"(Tracy
➢ "Agent 0"(Gilbert
➢ "KG"(Kevin Garnet)
➢ Tim Duncan
➢ Chauncey Billups
➢ Dwight Howard
➢ Josh Smith

➢ "Vincinaty"(Vince

➢ Reggie Bush
3. Football
➢ Mario Williams

4. ➢ Adrian Peterson

5. Golf ➢ Sergio Garcia ➢ Tiger Woods

➢ "PacMan"(Manny
6. Boxing

➢ Novak Djokovic ➢ Roger Federer

➢ Jo-Wilfried Tsonga ➢ Rafael Nadal
7. Tennis ➢ Fernando Gonzalez ➢ Maria Sharapova

➢ Fernando Verdasco ➢ Juan Martin Del Potro

8. Baseball ➢ Derek Jeter (JJ)

➢ Kaka ➢ C.Ronaldo
➢ Messi ➢ Ronaldo de Assís Moreira
➢ Gerrard (aka. Ronaldinho)
9. Soccer ➢ Beckham ➢ Fernando torres
➢ Lampard ➢ Wayne rooney
➢ Raúl ➢ Zlatan Ibrahimovic
➢ Didier drogba

Difference between Nike and Adidas

Both Nike and Adidas are well known sportswear firms that have become household names of
sorts throughout many parts of the world. The undisputed giants of the sportswear and sports
equipment industries, consumers can generally expect quality products from the two brands.
Nevertheless, there are instances wherein one may be the better option over the other, and the
factors that go into making such a decision do not always have anything to do with the quality of
the products. Let's take a look at some of the factors that may influence your purchase decision
in the future.
Photo by comopeiz Photo by adifansnet

Sponsorships and Market Focus

Nike has always come in ahead of Adidas in terms of celebrity sponsorships, although to its
credit, Adidas has taken considerable steps to narrow the gap. Nike still has the edge over its
competition in terms of sales however, and it remains to be seen whether Adidas will catch up
any time soon.
In terms of market focus, Nike has a more varied line-up, comprised of basketball and running
shoes, as well as cross-training products. Among the different brands under the Nike umbrella
are Umbro, Converse and Cole Haan.
Adidas for its part currently offers products that are geared primarily towards the soccer, tennis
and general athletics markets. Among the companies in Adidas' roster are Reebok, Taylor Made
and Rockport.
Market Strategies
Nike remains firmly focused on the domestic market, although it has made inroads into the
lucrative international soccer market fairly recently. The company is also considered largely
responsible for the frenzy of athlete sponsorship that the industry is known for today. All of this
ties in with Nike's dominance of the advertising and marketing aspects of the business, a hold
that the company will likely retain for the foreseeable future.
Adidas on the other hand has traditionally focused on the European market, although it is a
formidable name in the rest of the world as well. This is mainly due to the company's affiliation
with soccer, which is widely considered to be "the" International sport. The company has
recently taken steps to increase its marketing and advertising budget, and has even made inroads
into the lucrative sports equipment and sportswear markets.
Outsourcing Policies
Nike isn't really a production company per se, and almost all of its products are outsourced to
various countries in Asia, particularly Taiwan and Korea, which in turn outsource production to
still other Asian countries, among them China, Indonesia and Vietnam. The company does have
a home office in Beaverton, and it is there that Nike products are designed, developed and
Adidas recently adopted a similar approach, with virtually all the design and development work
being handled in Germany, and production being outsourced to Asian countries as well. This
move has helped Adidas remain competitive in the industry.
Similarities and Differences
• More focused on the local market.
• More effective advertising and marketing.
• Recently updated the look of its line.
• Offers custom product lines.
• Excellent website support for custom options.
• All production is outsourced.
• More focused on the European market.
• Specializes in soccer, tennis, and athletics.
• Recently expanded its product line to include sports equipment and clothing.
• Recently updated its production for increased efficiency and cost effectiveness.
• Production is outsourced to Asian countries.

The World Cup Brand Winner: Adidas or Nike?
With approximately 2.6 billion people worldwide following the 2010 World Cup, the spectacle
has been a field day for marketers, each trying to connect their brand with the strong emotions
fans have for their favorite teams. But the stakes are particularly high for those brands that
actually sell football gear. Two contenders, Adidas and Nike, each have a shot at becoming
undisputed market leader when the whistle blows on July 11 and the final game concludes.
Coming into 2010, their records show them evenly matched: each is estimated to have earned
$1.5-1.7 billion in football merchandise sales in 2008 and 2009, and each controls about a third
of the total market.
Adidas is playing its tried and tested strategy of being the official FIFA sponsor of the World Cup
games. This means the referees wear Adidas uniforms, the footballs are Adidas-branded and
televised ads for football apparel and equipment during matches can only be, you guessed it, for
Adidas. Moreover, Adidas is the official sponsor for 12 of the 32 teams playing in the World Cup
— so the uniforms of teams such as Germany, Argentina, and Spain (all of which advanced to
the quarter finals) were emblazoned with the Adidas logo.
Given the shutout sponsorship strategy by Adidas, Nike has had to fight back using different
tactics. Back in the 2006 World Cup games, it tried an end-run using digital technology, tapping
into consumers' new penchant for online social networking. Collaborating with Google, Nike
created the world's first social network for football fans, which it named (in reference
to the Brazilian phrase joga bonito, which means "play beautifully"). The site featured discussion
groups on various teams, games, and players, and video clips of Nike-sponsored football stars
performing awe-inspiring moves. Fans, thought Nike, would flock to the site as a place to
commune with like-minded individuals all over the world, and their enthusiasm would make the
videos go viral.
Although Nike came out of the 2006 World Cup in decent shape, thanks in part to the fact that a
Puma-sponsored (and not an Adidas-sponsored) team won the championship, its digital strategy
didn't deliver as much lift as it hoped. The vision of millions of fans heavily engaged with the
Joga website (while subtly being reminded of the Nike brand) didn't quite materialize. The
problem, so it would seem, was that while Nike's move recognized consumers' shift to new
media and technologies, it did not capitalize on the deeper and less obvious changes in consumer
expectations, attitudes, and behaviors that accompanied that shift.
Fast-forward to the 2010 World Cup games. Once again Nike faces the Adidas official-sponsor
shutout approach, and once again Nike opts for a digital offense. Only this time, its marketers
take a very different approach.
On May 20th, several weeks before the games began, Nike released a three-minute video ad
called "Write the Future" on its Facebook page. The well-crafted ad features some of football's
most famous players (all in Nike gear) imagining what their future would be if they were to
make or fail to make a certain play in the game. In less than a week, the number of Nike
followers on Facebook doubled, driven by the desire to see the ad and pass it along. But "Write
the Future" is not just a static ad. Fans are given tools to edit the spot — and their edited versions
compete for votes from appreciative peers. Meanwhile, a "Write the Headline" opportunity via
Facebook and Twitter gives fans an even bigger opportunity to see their creativity in lights; it
invites them to post a short grabber of a phrase reporting on the future of a player. The most
popular of these are displayed in a bright LED light show (visible from 2.5 kilometers away) on
Johannesburg's fourth largest building, which Nike has taken over.
Nike also supported its online campaign with "Write the Future" elements in more traditional
media. Although it could not advertise during the televised games, it ran a 30-second version of
the "Write the Future" ad on shows airing at the same time on other channels, and on soccer
matches prior to the start of the games. The television spots included a tout to pique fans' interest
in seeing the full three-minute version online.
The success of the campaign is indisputable. Five weeks after its debut, the online spot has been
viewed by over 20 million people. According to a Nielsen survey that tracks brand buzz (by
examining brand references in blogs, online message boards, and social networking sites), as of
mid June, Nike enjoyed more than double the share of buzz associated with the World Cup than
its rival Adidas (30.2% share of buzz vs. 14.4%, respectively).
What are the keys to the upset? Clearly the campaign's success owes much to its creative
execution and fit with Nike's brand image. But the new factor here is that it corresponds very
well with how consumers have evolved in the digital age. Considered more broadly, Nike's
"Write the Future" campaign is a good example of a company figuring out how to size up a trend
and find the right application of it to its business. (This is the focus of Luc Wathieu's and my
article in the current issue of HBR, "Are You Ignoring Trends that Could Shake Up Your
Back in 2006, Nike had perceived that social networks were in vogue, but thought it would be
sufficient simply to create one to capitalize on that trend. By 2010, it had thought more deeply
about the implications of that trend: those consumers had come to expect a much more active
role in the content they engage with. They now want to customize content and products to fit
their preferences and personality, get immediate feedback on their actions and opinions, and be
rewarded for their contributions. They derive great satisfaction from being first to discover things
and disseminate them to others. They resent any perceived lack of transparency from the
businesses they interact with.
Nike's efforts to connect those implications with its business imperatives aren't limited to the
"Write the Future" campaign. It has also looked for ways to capitalize on the same trend in its
product development. Ask anyone in the business of football merchandise and they will tell you
that the big money is in the shoes. Manufacturers typically time their latest and greatest football
boots with the World Cup extravaganza. For the current World Cup, Nike launched its Mercurial
Vapor SuperFly II. But someone that buys a pair gets more than the enhanced acceleration the
new shoes are designed to provide. The shoes come with a unique user code that, once entered
online, unlocks a full training program. Its Nike Football+ program was developed in
conjunction with the world's leading coaches and players, and offers a myriad of video training
sessions, tips, and methods for improving one's play. Programs can also be downloaded through
an app to an iPhone or to other mobile web-enabled handsets to take to the field. No longer are
athletes being asked to pay upwards of $300 just to have a better physical shoe; they're also
getting a service that helps them become better players.
In a matter of days, the 2010 World Cup will be history, and Nike's current campaign and current
shoe will have had their day in the sun. What may endure is its knowledge of how to size up a
big new trend and understand how to apply it to its business challenges, and that may produce a
whole string of victories. Other companies who want to win with the next hot new thing should
take note.

Research methodology is a strategy that guides a research in providing answers to research
questions and for this, research survey is being done. “Accuracy of the study depends on the
systematic application of the method”. The researcher has to decide the method to be used that
helps him to get a desired direction in a systematic way.
QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN: The questions were designed in an easily understandable way
with the help of our teachers, so that the respondents may not have any difficulty in answering
them. The questionnaire contained 10 questions. This has to be done to get opinion of the people
regarding the Nike & Adidas and the ongoing competition between them and which is preferred
RANDOM SAMPLING: Sampling can be defined as a part of population. Thus random
sampling may be defined as the selection of a portion from the whole population in which each
elements of the population has an equal chance of being selected. A more please definition is that
each element in the population has a non-zero and known probability of selection a randomly
drawn sample is an unbiased sample. In this research survey 50 people were surveyed at random
to get the relevant information.
SAMPLE SIZE: The sampling techniques used in this project are probability sampling
techniques and the methods used in cluster sampling.
SAMPLING UNIT: The respondents who were asked to fill out questionnaires are the sampling
units. These comprise of students, Gym trainers, athletes, people with specific brand preferences
SAMPLE SIZE: The sample size was restricted to only 50 between age group of 15-35, which
comprised of mainly peoples from different regions of India.
SAMPLING AREA: The area of the research was Mumbai, India.

In this collection data, structured questionnaire is used as a tool by asking a set of standardized
questions to know the perception of the giants regarding footwear industry of the masses. And
which is better Nike or Adidas.
The next step involved in collecting information requires discussion with people. Thus valuable
information was gathered informal friendly talks with the people.
Various websites & magazines were consulted to collect literature relevant to the topic.
The study was considered significant for the following reasons:
➢ Understanding of dynamics in marketing of sport shoe was facilitated.
➢ Sports shoe manufacturers could understand the demands of consumers.
➢ Feedback derived from consumers to shoe manufacturers was made possible.
➢ Helpful for budding shoe companies to understand the preference patterns of
The objective of the study was to investigate the brand preference of sport shoe consumers in
Mumbai, India.


1. Which is your favorite Sport?

This Question is asked to figure out the demand of particular type of shoes according to the
sport. I.e. understanding demand pattern according to the sports.
2. Which sports brand do you prefer?

This Question states demand pattern of athletic footwear brands.

3. Which Brand is cost-effective or money friendly?

This states that what are the consumer preferences and which impact of promotion is on them.
4. Which punch line motivates you more?

It’s simply to know which brand has more influential punch line. ​
5. Do you compromise quality for price?

Higher brands have higher quality as well as higher prices. So common people have tendency to
buy shoes that are cheaper and unbranded. So to know are people willing to pay for good
6. If you consider quality which brand is better?

Just to compare both the brands on the basis of their quality and variety they offer.
7. Which Brand has better advertisements and promotions?

Just to analyze which brand is more effective with their AD campaigns.

8. Are you loyal to a particular brand?

This Questionnaire shows the nature of the customer’s i.e. Are they loyal to a particular brand or
9. Is there any impact of celebrities on your purchase of sport shoes?

This is to take out a survey that how much impact celebrity endorsements affect the
buying behavior of a customer.
10. Which Brand’s Product is more durable?

To analyze and compare the durability of the product served by the brands.
Interpretation refers to the task of drawing inference from the collected facts after an analytical
study; in fact it is a search for broader meaning of research findings. It is through interpretation
that the researcher can well understand the abstract principle that respondents beneath his
findings. The simple statistical tools will used to analyze the data collection, Bar Graphs and pie
chart have been used to illustrate the findings diagrammatically. The scores given by people were
considered on various factors and were interrelated in graphs and pie charts.
The following questionnaire states that majority of the people prefer Nike in terms of quality and
brand loyalty and prefer Adidas in terms of cost and less price. Nike has kept its brand loyalty
for a very long time because of which it has maximum customers under it. Their promotion has
also been done on a very large scale and they have targeted more customers as compared to
On the basis of the review of literature and understanding of the research problem it was
hypothesized that the consumer perceptions are influenced by explicit factors like brand, quality,
price, durability, after sale service, etc.

1. Price Premium


Nike in terms of satisfied and loyal customers are willing to pay a price premium, while Adidas
leads with loyal but less satisfied then Nike customers. In addition, Adidas prices are also

marginally less. ​
2. Satisfaction / Loyalty


In terms of satisfaction, Nike leads with both very satisfied as well as satisfied customers.
Dissatisfaction level is low. Adidas dissatisfaction level is also less but not more than Nike.
3. Perceived Quality

Here again, Nike edges out Adidas in terms of Product quality. But in terms of Product design
perceived Quality is better than Nike.
4. Perceived Value
The consistent responses by Adidas users perceive it as a value-for-money service. Nike is
perceived to be a bit expensive by its customers than Adidas.
5. Brand Personality
The brand personality of Nike comes across as an exciting and competent brand. Its vibrancy
appeals to the customers who relate to the advertising messages. But Adidas is also emerging as
a better brand with some good promotional strategies.
6. Brand Awareness
Brand awareness of the respondents was high with most being aware of both Nike and Adidas.
So the spoils are even for both the Brands here.
Comparing the overall findings we see that Nike leads in four brand equity measures
(satisfaction/loyalty, perceived quality, leadership & popularity, market share). The other three
measures (brand personality, brand awareness, market price and distribution coverage) have been
shared by both Adidas and Nike.
To conclude, the Brand Equity of Nike is higher than Adidas, though marginally.

The geographical area was very much limited to residential area & so the results are not
particularly reflection of the current behavior.
➢ The collected data are placed into an order.
➢ Percentages of respondents answered similarly are calculated and placed in a
table. Then this is interpreted.
➢ This involved drawing conclusion from the gathered data. Interpretation
changes the new information immerging from the analysis into information
that is per relevant to the study.
➢ Due to limited time period and constrained working hours for most of the
respondents, the answers at times were vague enough to be ignored.
➢ Most of the people took their Nike Shoes in the period preceding March due
to high sale so comparison was not in a proper base & so the response to
initial contacts were not all encouraging and that has been the primary reason
in the inability to quantify the results large enough so as to deduce any
relevant outcomes.
➢ Preparing the questionnaire was time consuming as well as forming the
sample size.
➢ Many respondents were not in favor for both of the brands, there was a
problem to find specific Adidas and Nike brand lovers.


On the basis of the results of this study it was concluded that customers of Mumbai prefer
wearing sports shoes on regular basis for various purposes other than gym. Not only is it used by
athletes, but also teens and mid age group. Adidas and Nike brands were highly preferred at the
cost of Indian made shoes like ASE, Action and others. Particular brands were preferred because
of its perceived quality and durability by the consumers. Least importance was assigned to price,
variety or safety provided by the sports shoes to the consumers in this study. The brand name and
image attracted consumers and they felt that the preferred brand reflected their personality. The
consumers were contended with the materials used and color options provided by their preferred
brands. There was complete agreement on the satisfaction with the quality of preferred brand
sports shoes. They perceived that the style of the preferred brand was suitable to them and also
believed that the style of their preferred brand has distinctive features. They agreed that the
behavior of salesperson of the store was friendly and courteous. There was agreement by a large
number on the impact of celebrities on purchase of sport shoes. It was also believed that the
increase of price hindered their ability to purchase. Sportspersons agree that the preferred brand
provided goods value for buyers money. They also agreed on satisfaction with the price range
and disagreed on purchase of another brand of same quality with lesser price. This exhibited their
strong association with the brand and their loyalty. It is noteworthy that many of the respondents
provide importance on the price of sports shoes of their preferred brand. Respondents were
determined not to switch over their preferred brand sport shoes under normal circumstances and
they expect some sort of discount to be offered.
➢ “Adidas are spending more time blogging that being athletes”
(A comment provided by Nike employee)
➢ “When I look into new basketball shoes, I’ve always liked the Nike Brands,
because they seem to have more heel and ankle support, but when I try to order
online (which is how I purchase my B’ball shoes), I can never find my size 11 ½
in stock.
➢ “Between the two (Nike & Adidas), Nike”.

➢ “Adidas all the way, there is no shoe in the market, which is more comfortable,
and pocket friendly than Adidas. The shoe is reliable, trendy and sporty all the
➢ “I grew up a fan of Nike; I am becoming more of an Adidas fan by the minute.”
➢ “Mark Zuckerberg! His name is usually followed by the word “Adidas”
➢ “I’m a tennis sneaker kind of girl, but for my golf shoes, I bought the Adidas. It
has a built in arch support which is great when you are walking 18-holes, carrying
a full set of clubs on your back, I needed the extra support!”
➢ “Nike is hard core technology for sports: it’s Nike Plus, it’s Dri Fit, and it’s Air.
It’s innovation. Adidas is different. Their products are more focused in style:
Adidas Originals, Adidas Stella McCartney, Adidas Y-3. What’s also very
significant about the two brands is their communication: Adidas is “impossible is
nothing”, is about empowering people (which by the way is not very far from
Nike positioning in the eighties). Nike is all about winning. About being the best.”
➢ “In my honest opinion, that’s where the difference lies in my eyes. Nike appeals
to the hardcore sport goers who thrive on competition and want the ‘best’ when
competing, which Nike has well promoted themselves as; as being the ‘best’ and
that you’ll win with them”.
➢“Adidas has long appealed to a large demographic of consumers, from athletic
people to hip-hop dancers. They’ve created a more ‘chill’ feeling around their
products that personally makes me feel and look relaxed but trendy at the same
time. ‘Impossible is Nothing’ has been a great campaign that appeals to the
Average Joe who always wanted to make it big and sees that it is possible for
➢ “Nike, I have great products from them for basketball and other competitive
sports. Adidas, I have for working out, running and notably casual wear”.
➢ Many of the responses were in favor of other brands we haven’t discussed,
mainly New Balance.
➢ “New Balance for the win. NB finally figured out that sneakers are a fashion
market and have been making some very cool looking NBs–but on top of that,
New Balance are comfortable and don’t fall apart like a lot of hipper brands”.
➢ As you can learn from the above reactions (we presented only few sample
examples), opinions about the leading sporting shoe are indecisive. I’m sure ten
years ago – we would have heard Nike’s fans shouting much louder.

Adidas is in fact bringing new challenges:

➢ Adidas bought Reebok.
➢ Adidas carrier – David Beckham has significant mark on Adidas brand.
➢ Adidas and Nike show a close fight over global market share.
➢ Adidas is successfully communicating a stylish atmosphere.
Adidas to overcome Nike, once we spotted that the discussion over the two leading brands in the
blogosphere is becoming very similar in its volume.
While for some it was hard to admit that Nike is losing its dominancy, most of the comments
we received were in fact supporting initial assumption that Nike is facing hard competition
coming from Adidas.
We profiled your evidence and personal preferences in favor of Nike, in favor of Adidas, and
those found it hard to take one side only.
Following recommendations are recommended on the basis of the findings of this study:
➢ The results of the present study may be helpful to upcoming sports marketing
professionals in order to enhance their sales.
➢ The results of the present study shall guide the sports manufacturers and franchise
in making their product better.
➢ A similar study can be conducted on National and International level
sportspersons. The study in future days may include vast area not just limited a
particular region.
➢ The tool used in the study may be made systematic by using Likert Scale for
assessing the perception of the consumers.
➢ Adidas should undertake more celebrity endorsements and should increase their
➢ Nike should lower their prices to reasonable to meet larger markets of customers.
➢ On the basis of this research, it is found that both the companies have cut throat
competition; both the companies should promote their products which are in great
➢ Adidas should change its strategies in order to reach up the level of Nike, and to
promote well in most parts of the country.
➢ Nike should not only target high level customers, but also mid income group for
specific periods to increase sales.
➢ "Adidas Orginals - Extended House Party Film".
October 2003
➢, October 2003
➢, October
➢, October 2003
➢, October 2003
➢, October 2003
➢, October 2003
➢, October 2003
➢, October 2003
➢, October 2003
➢ Adidas, Annual Report 2002
➢ Adidas, Annual Report 2001
➢ Nike, Annual Report 2002
➢ Nike, Annual Report 2001
➢ Industry Sector Analysis of Sporting Goods, U.S. and Foreign Commercial
Service, 199Multex Fundamentals / ProVestor Plus Company Report, Nike Inc.,
October 2003
ShoeStats 2002, AAFA, January 2003
➢ Bheri, G.C. (2004) Marketing research 3rd ed. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill
Publishing Co.Ltd. 2. Cadogan, J. W. and Foster, B. D. (2000) Relationship
Selling and Customer Loyalty: An Empirical Investigation, Marketing
Intelligence and Planning, 18, 185- 199.
➢ Chaudhuri, A. and Holbrook, M.B. (2001) “The chain of effects from brand trust
and brand affect to brand performance: The role of brand loyalty”. Journal of
Marketing; 65 (April): 81-93. 4. Ko, Eunju., Kim, Kyung, Hoon., Zhang, Hao.
(2008) “A Cross Cultural Study of Antecedents of Purchase Intention for Sports
Shoes in Korea and China”, Journal of Global Academy of Marketing Science,
Vol-18(1), PP: 157-177.
➢ Krishna, Srungaram, Narsimha, Vamshi. “Assessing Youth’s Buying Behaviour
towards sports Shoes” (A Case Study of Nike)” Master’s degree level Dissertation
submitted to University of Halmstad, School of Business and Engineering for the
degree of Master of Science in International Marketing, reviewed on 23-03-2012
➢ Reichheld, F,F, and Sasser, W.E. (1990) “Zero Defections: Quality Comes to
Services”, Harvard Business Review, September-October, 105-111.
➢ Yee, W. F. and Sidek, Y. (2008) “Influence of Brand Loyalty on Consumer
Sports”, Int. Journal of Economics and Management 2(2); 221-236.
➢ Yoh, Taeho., Mohr, Mike. & Gordon, Brian. (2012) “The Effect of Gender on
Korean Teens' Athletic Footwear Purchasing”, The Sport Journal, Vol 15.
➢ Youn, Nara., Song, Inseong., MacLachlan, Douglas. (2008) “A Multi-category
Approach to Modeling Consumer Preference Evolution: The Case of Sporting
Goods”, reviewed on 23-03-2012 at

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