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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Background of the Study

Every Filipino has the right to free basic education. Basic Education is the

education intended to meet basic learning needs which lay the foundation on which

subsequent learning can be based. It encompasses early childhood, elementary and

high school education as well as alternative learning systems for children, out-of-

school youth and adult (OSY/OSA) learners and includes education for those with

special needs. (www.deped.gov.ph)

Republic Act 9155 otherwise known as the Governance Act of Basic

Education stipulates the establishment of the Alternative Learning System (ALS) to

provide out-of-school children, youth and adult population with basic education. The

Act recognizes the ALS as a complement of formal education and a major component

of basic education with a clearly defined role within the overall educational goals.

ALS is a parallel learning system in the Philippines that provides a practical option to

the existing formal instruction. When one does not have or cannot access formal

education in schools, ALS is an alternate or a substitute.

ALS includes both the non-formal and informal sources of knowledge and

skills. Since every Filipino has a right to free basic education, the government

establishes ALS to provide all Filipinos the chance to have access to and complete

basic education in a mode that fits their distinct situations and needs. There are two

major programs on ALS that are being implemented by the Department of Education,
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through the Bureau of Alternative Learning System (BALS). One is the Basic

Literacy Program and the other is the Continuing Education Program-Accreditation

and Equivalency (A & E). Both programs are modular and flexible. This means that

learning can take place anytime and anyplace, depending on the convenience and

availability of the learners.

ALS Non-formal Education happens outside the classroom, community-based,

usually conducted at community learning centers, barangay multi-purpose hall,

libraries or at home, managed by ALS learning facilitators, such as mobile teachers,

district ALS Coordinators, instructional managers at an agreed schedule and venue

between the learners and facilitators. ALS is intended for out-of-school children,

youth and adults who need basic and functional literacy skills, knowledge and values.

These people are usually located in far-flung communities with no or limited access

to formal schools. (www.deped.gov.ph)

The Basic Literacy Program is an intensive community-based training for non-

literate OSY/OSA, who are willing to learn basic literacy skills. It is a program aimed

at eradicating illiteracy among out-of-school youths and adults (in extreme cases

school-aged children by developing basic literacy skills of reading, writing and

numeracy. On the other hand the Continuing Education Program-Accreditation and

Equivalency (A & E) includes the Alternative Learning System Accreditation and

Equivalency (ALS A & E) Test, formerly known as the Non-formal Education A & E

Test, is a paper and pencil test designed to measure the competencies of those who

have neither attended nor finished elementary or secondary education in the formal

school system. Passers of the A & E Test are given a certificate/diploma, bearing the
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Department of Education (Deped) seal and the signature of the Secretary, certifying

their competencies as comparable graduates of the formal school system. Passers are

qualified to enrol in secondary and post-secondary schools.

(http://www.deped.gov.ph/als-ae)

The following are the options/opportunities for the ALS Accreditation &

Equivalency (A & E) Test Passer:

 Enter secondary formal school system (DepEd Order No, 13, s. 2003)

 Enter college/university (DECS Memorandum No. 344 s.2000 – PASUC

or DECSMemorandum No. 101 s.2001 – CHED)

 Enter technical-vocational training programs (DECS Order No. 110 s.1999

–TESDA or DECS Memorandum No. 533 s.2000 – MFI)

 Enter/re-enter the world of work (DECS Order No. 20 s.2000 – CSC)

 Learn essential life skills to participate more fully and actively in the

political, social, and economic lives in the community.

Similarly, Executive Order No. 356, renamed the Bureau of Non formal

Education to Bureau of Alternative Learning System on September 13, 2004. The

Executive Order states that ALS will respond to the need of a more systematic and

flexible approach in reaching to all types of learners outside the school system.

The government has initiated its support to the ALS A&E Program. DECS

Memorandum No. 344, s. 2000 contains the Agreement between the Department of

Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) and the Philippine Association of State

Universities and Colleges (PASUC) on the Non formal Education Accreditation and
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Equivalency (NFE and A&E) Secondary Level. According to this memoranda

certificate holders will be accepted into post-secondary education programs of

PASUC member institutions subject to the usual screening procedures of such

institutions for regular enrolees. Moreover, DECS Order no. 110, s. 1999 contains the

Agreements between Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) and

Technical Education Skills and Development Authority (TESDA) that successful

NFE A & E Certificate Holders who want to avail of the formal and non-formal

training programs of TESDA shall not anymore be required to undertake the entrance

or preliminary tests and shall be exempted from the usual TESDA screening

procedures for enrolees who have not graduated from formal school system.

Moreover, the Civil Service Commission (CSC), through CSC Resolution No.

0499 dated February 24, 2000 recognizes ALS A&E Elementary and Secondary

Certificates as valid documents for permanent appointment to government positions

provided other requirements are met. Also through Administrative Order No. 116 all

concerned government agencies and local government units are mandated to support

the ALS A&E System.

In Catanduanes, the ALS Mobile Program is in its sixteen (16) years of

implementation. In 2013, two new items for Mobile Teachers were created. To date,

there are nineteen (19) Mobile Teachers, twenty (20) District ALS Coordinators, and

two (2) Education Program Specialists II-ALS in the division of Catanduanes. They

are under the supervision of the Chief of the Curriculum Implementation Division

under the Rationalization (RAT) Plan. Before the RAT Plan, the ALS Implementers

are headed by the Education Program Supervisor/Division Coordinator for ALS.


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ALS implementers are under the administration and supervision of the District

Supervisor in the area served.

With regards ALS enrolment and A&E Test Passers in Catanduanes starting

2002 to 2015, there is a total of 1,135 A&E Test Passers out of a total 25,054 enrolled

in BLP and A & E Program. The number of passers may serve as a basis for claiming

of a successful implementation of the program or maybe a basis for policy reform.

However, there is a dearth of information as to the whereabouts of these A&E Test

Passers.

In the context of the letter from the Office of the Director of the Bureau of

Alternative Learning System, DepED Central Office to all Chief/Focal Person, all

Schools Division Superintendents and to all Education Program Supervisors, the

Department of Education is sincere in improving the Philippine Educational System.

As a major step toward this end, with the implementation of the K-12 Curriculum for

the Formal Basic Education, there is a need to review of the ALS Curriculum. The

upgrading of the ALS Curriculum, however needs baseline data to warrant the

revisions that must be done. A Tracer Study of the ALS A& E Test passers from 2011

to 2012 shall be undertaken.

There is a need to track the ALS A&E Test Passers on their present career status

after passing the ALS A&E Test, hence the conduct of this investigation. This study

will serve as an inspiration to the out-of-school youth and adults who are unable or do

not have the opportunity to attend and finish formal education due to varied reasons.

Likewise, the output of this study will also serve as material for the Advocacy and

Social Mobilization in ALS.


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Objectives of the Study

This study aimed to track and feature the ALS A&E Test Passers. Specifically,

the objectives of the study are to determine the following:

1. The personal and professional characteristics of ALS A&E Test Passers

who were successful in their chosen career

2. The reasons of the ALS A&E Test Passers for leaving formal education

3. The career path taken by the ALS A&E Passers and their present career

status

4. The problems encountered by the ALS A&E Test Passers as an ALS

student and

5. The solutions/survival strategies made by the ALS A&E Test Passers to

solve the problems they encountered.

Scope and Delimitation

This study featured success stories of 17 ALS A&E Test Passers in

Catanduanes covering the period 2002-2015. These informants were identified based

on the set criteria, such as:

a. graduated from ALS Program during the period 2002-2015.

b. successful in their chosen career path.

The researcher featured their lives focusing on their personal and professional

characteristics, reasons for leaving formal education, career path taken and their
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present career status, problems encountered and solutions employed, and notable

survival strategies.

Data were taken from the information revealed by the informants during

personal interview conducted and from the stories narrated by their family members,

former teachers, friends, and present co-workers. c

Importance of the Study

Findings of this study would serve as a source of valuable information and

insights for the following:

Out-of-School Youths/Adults (OSY/OSA). They would be among those to be

benefited most by the findings of this study. The Department of Education (DepEd)

through the ALS may initiate program enhancement for the OSY/OSA by giving

scholarship grants/programs until they finished college studies since the ultimate goal

of the ALS is to reach the marginalized sector of the society, to provide the out-of-

school youths/adults/children the opportunity to finish Basic Education and obtain

high school diploma. This will also create realizations among OSY/OSA that ALS

will provide them Basic Education and can improve their lives as evidently shared by

the successful A&E Test Passers.

ALS Implementers will be benefited most by the findings of this study as this

would guide them to sustain and maintain best practices in implementing ALS

programs and projects as revealed in this study the initiatives and efforts done by the

ALS Implementers in helping the respondents to pass the ALS A & E Test

specifically on having ALS class during night time as revealed by one informant.
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ALS Clientele.The findings that most of the ALS Passers have entered

college/university will shed light to the ALS learners that they have to finish their

studies to become successful.

Department of Education (DepEd). This study may also encourage other

partner agencies of the DepEdlike the Department of Social Welfare and

Development (DSWD) to include to their programs such as the Out of School Youth

(OSY) who left formal education because of early pregnancy and an appreciation for

the ALS programs and be active partners in its effective and efficient implementation.

Local Government Units (LGU).This study may encourage them to introduce

innovative ideas, and make legislation to allocate/appropriate funds for sustainability

of ALS programs and projects. This will ensure that the project will have a positive

result as indication of their active participation in planning management of literacy-

related activities and to realize that literacy and education are the responsibility of all

sectors of society. Barangay Council might allocate funds for the ALS implementers

in their barangay for the mass reproduction of the ALS modules for use by the ALS

learners since it is evidenced in this study that the respondents had their self-study and

self-review using the modules until they passed the test and succeed.

Policy makers will be benefited through the findings of the study because it

will lead them to make decisions that will further enhance the sustainability of the

program and that will boost the morale of the ALS Implementers. This may help them

encourage other agencies to participate/take part in the program and realize the value

of education into their constituents, their participation in the ALS programs and their

future goals.
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Future Researchers will also benefit from the findings of this study which will

serve as material for their future researches. Likewise, it will guide them in

conducting another investigation toward making ALS as an instrument in the

attainment of the basic quality education for OSYs, out-of-school adults and out-of-

school children.

Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined both operationally and conceptually to

facilitate understanding of this study:

Accreditation and Equivalency Program is a certification of learning for OSY

and Adults aged 15 years and above who are unable to avail of the formal school

system, or who have dropped out of formal elementary or secondary education.

(www.deped.gov.ph)

Accreditation & Equivalency Test (A & E Test) is a standardized norm-

referenced paper-and-pencil test which covers the five learning strands. It is a

recognized alternative pathway to Elementary and Secondary Level certification for

OSY and adults. It is composed of standardized multiple-choice tests and an essay. It

is designed to measure the competencies of those who have neither attended nor

finished the formal elementary or secondary education. (www.deped.gov.ph)

Alternative Learning System (ALS) is a parallel learning system that provides a

viable alternative to the existing formal education instruction. It encompasses both the

non-formal and informal sources of knowledge and skills. (www.deped.gov.ph)


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ALS Accreditation and Equivalency Test Passers are those who obtained at least

100 in the Standard Score in the Multiple Choice Test and the rating for Essay is at

least 2 or the Standard Score of the Overall Score is 95-99 and the rating for Essay is

3 or 4 during the ALS A & E Test given in a regular testing center.

(www.deped.gov.ph)

ALS Beneficiaries are learners/completers/passers enrolled in the ALS

programs who are OSYs, out-of-school adults and out-of-school children and

thosewho are unable or do not wish to attend formal schools.

Basic Literacy Program is an intensive community-based training for illiterate

out-of-school youth and adults, who are willing to learn basic literacy skills.

(www.deped.gov.ph)

Career path taken refers to the options selected related to acquiring source of

income or finishing a course after passing the ALS A&E Test which include -

entering secondary formal school system, attending college/university, completing

technical-vocational training programs, and entering/re-entering the world of work.

Personal characteristics include informants’ age, gender, birth order, civil status,

educational attainment of parents, parents’ and spouse’s occupation.

Present Career status refers to their present work which is their source of

income

Professional characteristics refer to the highest educational attainment of the

informants before they enrolled to the ALS.

Success stories refer to the narration of events that led the ALS A&E Test

Passers be able to have a stable income which can sustain and support family needs.
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Survival Strategies are the solutions or ways resorted to by the ALS A&E

TestPassers to overcome the problems they encountered to reach their present career

status.
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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents the different literature and studies reviewed which have

bearing on this study.

Related Literature

The 1987 Philippine Constitution provides for the recognition and promotion

of other forms of education other than formal education. Article XIV, Section 2,

Paragraph (1) declares that the State shall establish, maintain, and support a complete,

adequate and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people and

society; and paragraph (4) concisely encourages non-formal, informal, and indigenous

learning systems as well as self-learning, independent and out-of-school study

programs particularly those that respond to community needs.

Teaching and learning are no longer confined in the classroom or the school.

There are many technologies that can offer a great deal of flexibility in when, where,

and how education is distributed. Distance education is rapidly becoming a strategic

alternative delivery mechanism in the global educational landscape. It provides

learning opportunity to individual learners and groups that may not have the chance

and time to attend formal schooling or face-to-face instruction due to physical

disabilities, ailment, work, early marriage, etc. Distance Education is learner-

centered. It is focused on the needs of the learner with the end goal of facilitating

independent and self-paced learning. It is indeed that Distance Education is an

alternative learning mode of delivery. (Lapingcao, 2012)


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The Governance Act for Basic Education, otherwise known as the Republic

Act 9155, stipulates the establishment of the Alternative Learning System (ALS) to

provide out-of-school children, youth, and adults population with basic education.

The ALS Programs are carried out by ALS Mobile Teachers and District ALS

Coordinators in the 17 regions of the country. They are DepEd employees and hold

regular teacher items. Mobile Teachers are “specialized” teachers who live among the

people in remote barangays of the country to conduct the BLP for illiterate out-of-

school children, youth and adults who are willing to learn basic literacy skills and

proceed to Continuing Education program: Accreditation and Equivalency (A&E) for

those who left formal school system or have no access to schools. The District ALS

Coordinators are primarily designated to harmonize ALS initiatives in a district.

However, just like the Mobile Teachers, they also serve as learning facilitators in the

delivery of the different ALS programs/projects. Learning sessions take place at the

Community Learning Center or at any place convenient to the learners. Teaching and

learning may also take place at the homes of the learners, under the shades of trees,

inside a church or mosque, playground and any other available space and venue.

(http://www.deped.gov.ph/als)

Tuibeo (2014) defined Non-formal Education as one of the general aims of the

Philippine Education as stated in the Education Act of 1982 with the aim to accelerate

the development of middle-level manpower required by economic recovery and

sustainable growth as well as enhance their employability, productivity and self-

reliance and to provide non-traditional educational alternatives to schooling outside

the formal school system.


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Alarcon (2000) emphasized that alternative education is a re-entry for out-of-

school children and youth for the Home Study Program. The Home Study Program is

an alternative and flexible learning system that utilizes a formal education curriculum

program outside of the traditional school structure. It responds to certain educational

needs of our youth who are currently not in the mainstream of poor traditional formal

school. The Home Study Program has been called a variety of names - home-based

study program, self-learning/self-study program, distance education, independent

study program, etc. The common feature of the programs is the fact that learners

study at their own time and pace, and are not required to be physically present in the

school.

ALS has proven to be giving a new hope to various beneficiaries. A first year

high school dropout boxing champion, Manny Pacquiao took and passed the ALS

A&E Exam under the ALS program. He was presented a high school diploma,

making eligible to pursue college. He was then named as the DepEd’s Ambassador

for the ALS and People’s Champ for Education. According to Education Secretary,

JesliLapus, “Manny is an excellent model for all out-of-school children, youth, and

adults who are determined to learn and are able to gain functional literacy skills

outside of formal schooling”. (www.deped.gov.ph)

In an article posted in the Department of Education website, a high school

dropout topped the latest Licensure Exam for Teachers (LET) in the secondary level.

In an interview with DZMM, Michael Prince del Rosario, who got 92% in the LET,

said that he was not able to graduate from high school due to his addiction with an

online game. "Hindi po ako grumaduate ng valedictorian, hindi nga po ako


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grumaduate ng high school," del Rosario said. Del Rosario remembered that his

obsession with an online game started when he was in first year high school. He

became so fascinated with the game that he decided not to attend his classes, and he

eventually dropped out from school. He further said that while his parents thought

that he was in school, he was spending for computer shop rental the pocket money

that they gave him. Fortunately, del Rosario had a chance to have a high school

diploma through a program of Department of Education (DepEd) called Alternative

Learning System (ALS). He said that he was given a module that he reviewed. He

then took an exam, passed it, and got a diploma to proceed to college. Prior to the

LET, Del Rosario also bagged the eighth top spot in the board exam for nurses.

However, he feels that he is not yet ready to take responsibility for someone's life so

he taught in a review center instead. Now, he plans to teach science subject in a

public provincial secondary school to inspire students with his story.

(http://www.deped.gov.ph/regions/ncr/ regional-stories/dropout-tops-exam-high-

school-teachers)

In a journal article written by Eduardo, et al. (2015), he narrated the story of

Petronio R. Del Rosario, the oldest ALS Passer. Del Rosario was born on March 17,

1926. He is residing at Brgy. Sta. Rita, Jaen, Nueva Ecija, a far flung place more than

20-kms away from the town proper. He was able to pass the ALS A&E Examination

held on October 19, 2008 at Nueva Ecija National High School, with so much joy, he

attended the graduation and received his diploma on June 5, 2009 at San Isidro,

Nueva Ecija. They described him as the “superhero of the Alternative Learning

System”. The authors were overwhelmed to have Mang Totoy as one of the learners
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of ALS Accreditation and Equivalency Program (A&E - Secondary Level) at Sta.

Rita Elementary School Stage. What inspired them was not his presence, but merely

his great enthusiasm to join the session and pursue his studies through ALS program.

One just can imagine an 82 year-old man amidst ALS students who are mostly on

their teen years!

In another journal article written by Manahan (2016), in WhenInManila.com

entitled “Uplifting Story of an Ex-Offender Who Finished High School with

Distinction”, stated that in May 2, Mayor Herbert M. Bautista received a special

visitor at his office. He met with one of the topnotchers of the city’s high school

graduates who gained an average of 99 percent in the ALS program equivalency

exam, landing the 4th highest in all Quezon City passers. Victorio Principe, 20, was

once an inmate at the Quezon City Jail. He was jailed in November 2013 after he was

caught working as a courier/ runner for a drug group. Victorio finished his high

school through the ALS program while in prison. He was released in June 2015 and

came back only for the graduation ceremonies. During post interviews with media,

Victorio said that after finishing grade school, he was forced to work in a construction

site to earn a living for the family. He said he saw the ALS as an opportunity to finish

high school and lift his family from poverty. “Hanggang Grade VI lang po kasi

natapos ko at kailangan na huminto kasi kinailangan magtrabaho sa construction

dahil wala na kaming kakainin.” (I only finished Grade VI. I had to stop schooling

because I needed to work in a construction so I could put food on the table). Mayor

Bautista believes that youth offenders like Victorio must be given chances to rectify

their mistakes and become more productive members of their families and
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communities. He gave the young man a full scholarship to a four-year course at the

Quezon City Polytechnic University (QCPU), hoping that his story would serve as an

inspiration to others: that it is never too late to seek change to succeed in life.

Related Studies

Several studies were conducted which have bearing to the present study.

The study of Sanchez (2008) focused on the practices of Alternative Learning System

service providers located in Metro Manila. The study used qualitative method with

the ALS service providers and out-of-school youth and adults as respondents. The

study identified seven practices which include academic development, scholarships,

resource network, holistic training models, mentorship, group mentality, and personal

development. The study concluded that ALS program continues to develop and

expand grass-root organizations serving urban poor communities and see the potential

to implement the program using practices that will yield students to pursue future

education. To deepen the impact of ALS service providers have on students

completing the ALS program, creating a “college going culture” was suggested. It

was also noted that service providers should engage with systemic, community, and

personal level issues to implement the ALS program.

Ruiz (2006) study described the situation of street children in the Philippines

in terms of basic education; analyzed the government policies on basic education and

the implementing mechanisms for national EFA, particularly for out-of-school

children; documented best practices on basic education that promote social inclusion

of street children and identified challenges and gaps related to EFA, particularly for
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out-of-school children, and recommended policies, program, and strategies to address

these. The study used qualitative and quantitative techniques. Respondents were the

street children and out-of-school youths from the selected five (5) schools in the three

(3) main islands of the Philippines. The study yielded findings and conclusions

articulating some of the good practices in planning and implementing non-formal

education program. They revealed some of the practices that need to be reviewed and

changed to make the schools more effectively inclusive, rights-based, gender-

responsive, culture sensitive, participatory, relevant to the needs of disadvantaged

learners, and sustainable. The study concluded that all the schools studied, certainly,

address the EFA goals as they provide opportunities for out-of- school-children

(OSC) to get access to non-formal basic education and get a chance to enter primary

school or reintegrate back to regular school.

The above studies of Sanchez (2008) and Ruiz (2006) focused on the best

practices of ALS service providers to the out-of-school youth/adults and street

children on Basic Education. These studies bear similarity to the present study in the

sense that they have the same respondents, ALS beneficiaries, and both used

qualitative method. They differ on the kind of beneficiaries where the present study

dealt with the successful passers while the respondents of the above studies are the

out-of-school youth/adults and street children.

Mercado (2015) sought to determine the problems encountered in ALS in

Tanauan City. The respondents were the students enrolled in the ALS that belonged to

different grade and year level and they were chosen through random sampling

technique. The researcher tried to determine the possible problems that the students
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encounter or experience in their school and they were asked to assess the extent of the

problem in terms of content and instruction, assessment and evaluation, and the

resources. The researcher concluded that the ALS in Tanauan had minimal problems

in the assessment and evaluation of the ALS program.

The study of Mercado (2015) has similarities with the present study since they

both observed the problems encountered in the implementation of the ALS programs.

On the other hand, while the present study examined the problems encountered by the

informants, the previous study examined the problems encountered in the

implementation of the ALS programs in their respective division.

Fernandez (2013) conducted a study to determine the relationship between

teachers’ competence and learners’ performance in the Competency Based

Examination. Learner-respondents are the ALS learners and the teacher-respondents

are instructional managers (IMs) and mobile teachers (MTs) from the locality of

Dasmariñas in Cavite, Pasay City and Rio Tuba in Palawan. This study used

descriptive survey method. The study revealed that no significant relationship exists

between teachers’ competence and certain socio-demographic profile such as gender

and educational background. While teachers’ years of teaching experience in ALS,

salary and performance rating are found to have significant relationship. Among the

learners, gender and distance of residence from the community learning center had a

significant relationship to their performance. Furthermore, there is no significant

relationship between the teachers’ competence and learners’ performance. Based on

the findings, an enriched instructional program was prepared for the implementation

of the delivery system of ALS A&E Program. As regards teachers’ competence, the
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following weaknesses were identified: manifest a thorough knowledge of the subject

matter; formulate questions to clarify a lesson; usage of various aids to make the

subject matter in the module more interesting to learners; make use of a variety of

teaching strategies to make the lessons in the module more interesting; and provide

challenging task applicable to real life situations.

Pinca (2015) concluded in her study “The Mobile Teachers’ Profile,

Competencies, Performance, and Problems in the Department of Education, Division

of Northern Samar” that the mobile teachers were young adults, majority were males,

educationally qualified, but their formal trainings were inclined towards the conduct

of formal classes. Several mobile teachers have pursued graduate studies geared

towards administration and supervision. All were passers of the Licensure

Examination for Teachers (LET) but were relatively young in service as mobile

teachers. They have higher competence in the conduct of learning sessions, and have

very satisfactory work performance. The performance rating given by the District

Supervisor was used as the basis in determining the work performance of the Mobile

Teachers. Their major problems were lack of community-based instructional

materials, delayed release of travel allowance, and absence of permanent room during

the conduct of the learning sessions. The descriptive evaluative research design was

used. All Mobile Teachers during the conduct of the study served as respondents.

Other sources of information were the ALS Education Supervisor, ALS Specialist, the

District Supervisor, barangay officials, learners, and completers.

The studies of Fernandez (2013) and Pinca (2015) both investigated on the

profile, competence, and performance of Mobile Teachers and the out-of-school


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youths enrolled in the ALS Programs. Similarities were noted wherein both studies

investigated on their respondent’s profile, competence, and performance; they only

differ on their respondents wherein the present study focuses on the successful ALS

A&E Test Passers, while the previous studies investigated on the Mobile Teachers

out-of-school youths.

Azarcon (2014) made a study to evaluate the extent and effectiveness of the

services being rendered by the Bulacan State University Extension Office to the

inmates of the Bulacan Provincial Jail through the ALS Program. Subjects of the

study were the 144 inmates who enrolled in the program at Bulacan Provincial Jail,

City of Malolos, Bulacan. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used in this

study. Findings revolved around five areas: the profile of the inmates; the nature of

the committed offenses; their perception of their being and future life; the inmates’

perception of the quality of services being rendered to them and the efficiency of the

extension agency and services given. Results revealed that there is a significant

relationship between the inmates rating and the perceived extent of services being

rendered to them and in spite of the lower percentage of graduates, it has been

considered as sufficient and efficient enough. Findings provided the basis for the

necessary measures to be undertaken regarding the services being rendered by the

extension office, specifically on the literacy program it provides.

The above-mentioned study bears similarity to the present study in the sense

that they have the same respondents, the ALS beneficiaries, both used qualitative

method. They differ on the kind of beneficiaries where the present study dealt with
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the successful passers while the respondents of the cited study were the 144 inmates

who enrolled in the program at Bulacan Provincial Jail, City of Malolos, Bulacan.

Teope (2013) et al., designed a study on the performance in ALS A&E Test in

Bato East District in the year 2013. Learner-respondents are the ALS Learners

enrolled in the ALS program in the district of Bato East. His findings showed that

majority, 91 or 80%of the respondents, are between 15 to 24 years old, followed by

16 or 14% ,between 25 to 34 and 5 or 4% are between 35-44 years old. There were

114 listed ALS A & E takers, 93 in 2011 and 21 in 2013, in 2011 only 21 or 23%

passed ALS A & E Test. 72 or 74% failed in the same examination. In 2013, there

were 4 or 19% who took and passed the ALS A&E Test. He also concluded that the

passing and failing of the ALS A& E takers is not influenced by the respondents

profile. The ALS A&E Test performance and the respondents profile are significantly

related to each other at 5% level of significance and the overall performance of

learners in the Competency areas is very low in FY 2011 and 2013.

Villenes (2014) investigated a study on non-passers’ reasons for failing the

Accreditation and Equivalency Examination. The study primarily dwelled on

identifying learner’s reasons in failing the A&E exam. It also looked into the accounts

of the initiatives done by the facilitators and the learners in obliterating those reasons,

the suggestions given for future examinees, and the development of action plan for an

enriched intervention and enhanced instruction. The researcher employed qualitative

design. Fifty-one ALS non-passers were included in this study. These are the learners

who re-enrolled in the A&E program and are currently under the face-to-face delivery

mode. Top reasons articulated by the respondents are as follows: lack of required
23

knowledge, not attending learning sessions, failed to be admitted on-time, failed to

finish the test, and examiners retrieved papers before due time.

The above studies of Teope (2013) and Villenes (2014) focused on the

performance of learners-respondents on the ALS A&E examination. They all have

bearing to the present study because their respondents are all ALS beneficiaries; they

only differ as regards to the focus of the study.

Rodriguez (2008) in her study “2008 Education For All (EFA) Global

Monitoring Report Country Case Study: The Philippines”, disclosed that ALS

programs implementation is one of the indicators on the assessment and reviews of

the major policy reforms and programs implemented in connection with its

commitment to Education For All (EFA) 2015. In this study, she revealed that the

number of ALS A&E Test passers has been increasing from 2001 to 2006 and that the

passing rate is improving.

The study of Rodriguez (2008) is parallel with the present study which dealt

on the data of ALS A&E Test Passers. They differ in the purpose since the former

focused on the review and assessment of the major policy reforms and programs

implemented towards EFA Goal 2015 while the latter dealt on the tracking of ALS

A&E Test Passers.

Desulo, et al. (2016) made a study to determine the profile and performance

level in Mathematics of the A&E Test passers in the province of Sorsogon, Fiscal

years 2012-2014. The respondents were 52 A&E Test passers in the province. The

descriptive correlation method of research used survey questionnaire, unstructured

interview and documents to gather the needed data. Profile of the respondents such as
24

age, sex, grade level during the test, status of enrolment and family income were

correlated to their performance level in Mathematics using Chi-square test. The

results imply that most of the A&E Test passers in the province were in Grade V

during the test, male adults belonging to the poorest families and did not enrol after

passing the test. The age of the A&E Test passers was significantly related to their

performance level in Mathematics.

Resemblance to the present study was observed since both studies investigated

the ALS A&E Test Passers profile.

Saculo (2004) conducted a study on the tracking, assessment and evaluation on

the ALS A&E Test passers in Region V, covering the provinces of Masbate,

Catanduanes, Sorsogon, and Camarines Norte divisions. The study revealed that 20

ALS A&E Test passers entered the formal school system, 88 went to the world of

work of which 29 are employed and 59 are self-employed. ALS A&E Test passers

who are still young or belong to age bracket of 15-25 have greater chance to enter/re-

enter the formal school system; while those who are 26 years and above preferred to

go to the world of work; majority of the passers in school are enrolled in vocational

courses in government school, have an average monthly income of P3,500.00 and

above, and being supported by their parents. Majority of the passers in the world of

work are self-employed. The government and privately employed are only casual,

contractual or temporary. They chose the world of work due to economic reason;

majority work more than 8 hours without overtime pay. Employed employees are

satisfied with the job but self-employed are not satisfied. Passers in school, passers in

the world of work, instructors and employers met various difficulties. Alternative
25

measures provided by the instructors and employers helped the passers solved their

problem encountered in their chosen field.

The study of Saculo (2004) is similar to the present one since both of them

track the successful ALS A&E Test Passers as regards to their career path taken.

Apao, et al. (2014) assessed the implementation of the alternative learning

system program along provision of life skills, increased literacy, and quality of living

in Cebu, Philippines. This research study used the qualitative-quantitative research

design involving the schools divisions in the City of Cebu implementing the ALS

A&E Program. The respondents of this study were the mobile teachers (MTs) and

district ALS coordinators (DALSCs), the successful ALS A&E passers, and the

division ALS supervisors (DALSCs). The study revealed that the provision of life

skills was attained to a great extent. The program was able to increase literacy as

evident in the successful passers of the ALS A&E test. After completion of the

program, the ALS passers improved their quality of living by engaging in jobs or

entrepreneurial activities that increased financial stability, participating actively in

community events and social gatherings, cultivating a positive outlook in life and

developing the passion for pursuing higher education. The ALS A&E program in the

Philippines is effective in cultivating the life skills of the recipients. The program has

improve the quality of living of the respondents as they continue their pursuit for

meaning and significance in life.

Similarities of the studies were observed in terms of their respondents, the

successful ALS A&E Test Passers. The present study and the studies reviewed both

track the passers as regards their career path taken.


26

Synthesis of the Related Literature and Studies

The various literature and studies reviewed and examined are all relevant and

significant to the present study. The related and present studies dealt on basic

education through ALS to meet the basic needs in terms of knowledge, skills, and

attitudes and values necessary for the people to improve the quality of their lives.

These gave essential concepts and insights to the researcher, which provided

significant inputs to the current topic.

Topics of the studies and literature reviewed focused on best practices of ALS

providers, (Sanchez, 2008; Ruiz, 2006) competence, and performance of Mobile

Teachers and ALS learners, (Pinca, 2015; Fernandez, 2013) problems encountered on

the implementation of the ALS program, (Desulo, 2016; Mercado, 2015) performance

of ALS learners in the A&E examination, (Teope, 2013; Villenes, 2014) and tracking

and assessing ALS A&E Test passers (Rodriguez, 2008; Saculo, 2004; Apao, et

al.2014

Gaps in the Review Bridged by the Present Study

Although the related studies considered in this current research were similarly

on ALS, it was noted that no study was ever made on the tracking of ALS

Accreditation and Equivalency Test Passers in Catanduanes and no material (articles,

books) was published to feature the successful passers in Catanduanes. This is the gap

that the researcher would like to bridge in this study. It can further be stressed that the

lack of studies on the same topic underlies and establishes the imperative need to

undertake researches on the program since basic education must be made available,
27

acceptable to everyone especially among the poor, depressed, deprived, and

underserved sectors of the society.

Therefore, this research undertaking is worthy to be pursued and a potential

source of credible research topic material.

Conceptual Framework

Using the Input Process Output (IPO) Model, the data on ALS A&E Test

Passers which are the Personal//Professional Characteristics, Reasons for leaving

formal education, Career Path and their Present Career Status, Problems Encountered,

Survival Strategies are being discussed on the Input and these are the needed data to

complete the study. The process used includes Documentation and Interview of ALS

A&E Test Passers. Data gathered were validated from Mobile Teachers, DALSC,

family members, and friends. On the other hand, the Output is a coffee table book of

the Success Stories of the ALS A&E Test Passers.

Figure 1 presents the conceptual paradigm of the study.


28

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

Data on ALS A& E Test  Documentation


Passers: and Interview of
 Personal/Professional ALS A & E Test
Characteristics Passers
 Reasons for leaving Success Stories
formal education  Validation of
(Coffee Table
 Career Path and their responses with
Mobile Teacher, Book)
Present Status
 Problems DALSC, family
Encountered members and
 Survival Strategies friends.
data

Figure 1. Conceptual Paradigm


29

Chapter 3

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

This chapter discusses the research design, sources of data, data-gathering

procedure, and analysis of data gathered.

Design of the Study

This study employed the qualitative method of research. Cristobal (2009)

defined qualitative research as focusing on gaining insights on and an understanding

of an individual’s perception of events. It is concerned with in-depth descriptions of

people or events and the individual’s interpretation of events and circumstances are of

importance. Data are collected through such methods as unstructured interviews and

participant observation. The task of the researcher is to synthesize the patterns and

themes in the data rather than focusing on the testing of the hypothesis. The

qualitative researcher is not limited to existing theories but rather must be open to

new ideas and new theories. The researcher does not have to be concerned with

numbers and complicated statistical analysis. This method is an effective method that

guides the researcher in providing complex textual descriptions of how the

respondents experience a given problem or research issue.

The researcher employed qualitative method of research because it guides the

researcher to collect the needed data to complete the study by using unstructured

interviews and documentation. The gathered data were then sorted, organized,

conceptualized and interpreted in order to gain an understanding of events about

successful ALS A&E Test Passers.


30

Sources of Data

The primary sources of data for this study were the 17 ALS A&E Test Passers

who were selected from the 1,135 ALS A&E Test Passers in 20 districts in

Catanduanes. These informants passed the ALS A&E Test during the period 2002 to

2015. They were selected based on the following criteria:

a. graduated from ALS Program during the period 2002-2015.

b. successful in their chosen career path.

Table 1 shows the sources of data. It can be seen in Table 1 that the highest

number of passers is in the year 2015 and the highest number of successful A&E Test

Passers is in the year 2007 who are mostly passers from the Virac North District. It is

being noted in Table 1 that there are many enrolees yet few informants were selected

from the passers. Not all enrolees took the ALS A&E Test and not all passers met the

criteria set in selecting the informants. Likewise, Mobile Teachers, DALSCs,

informants’ family members and friends also formed part of the respondents. They

were interviewed to validate responses made by the informants of the study using an

interview guide. (Appendix B).

Table 1

Sources of Data

Year No. of Enrolees Total No. of Informa District


BLP A&E Passers nts
2002 646 598 1,244 8 2 Virac North
San Andres East
2003 589 648 1,237 14 0
2004 687 680 1,367 12 0
31

2005 759 468 1,227 16 0


2006 477 614 1,091 18 1 Virac North
2007 490 779 1,269 27 6 Virac North
Virac South
2008 516 879 1,395 56 1 Virac North
2009 594 811 1,405 49 0
2010 685 897 1,582 57 3 Virac North
San Miguel North
2011 543 680 1,223 114 0
2012 392 2,052 2,444 125 1 Caramoran North
2013 1,539 2,134 3,673 112 2 Bato West and
Baras North
2014 695 1, 419 2, 114 188 0
2015 3,666 2,231 5,897 339 1 Virac North
Total 12, 278 13, 471 25, 054 1, 135 17

Data Gathering Procedure

Prior to the conduct of the study, necessary permission (verbally) was sought

from the Education Program Specialist II-ALS of the DepED Division of

Catanduanes. In addition, data regarding list of ALS A&E Test Passers were also

sought from the office of the ALS through the District ALS Coordinators. These were

facilitated because the researcher herself is currently employed as ALS Mobile

Teacher.

To identify possible informants, the researcher conducted preliminary

interview to the ALS Coordinators and Mobile Teachers using the criteria set,as

follows:

a. graduated from ALS Program during the period 2002-2015.

b. successful in their chosen career path.

After getting a short-list of possible informants, the researcher started

searching for the whereabouts of the informants using social media, personal visit to
32

the informants’ place, and asking friends and former students. Snowballing technique

was used to trace additional informants.

When the researcher was able to identify informants in a certain district,

appointment for interview was sought. During the conduct of interview, the informant

signed a letter of consent (Appendix A) which served as evidence that the informants

have full and prior approval of whatever story they will share, including the

publication of their stories in a coffee table book.

Personal interview with the informant was conducted using voice recorder to

capture every detail. An interview guide (Appendix B) was used to direct the

researcher on the type of questions to be asked. During the interview, the researcher

took pictures to serve as documents. The interview took place in the informant’s

house and workplace for the researcher to have an actual glimpse of their economic

status, as part of the validation.

Aside from the informants’ interview, similar interview was also conducted

with the informants’ former mobile teacher, their family members and friends, as well

as present co-worker, using Interview Guide for the Mobile Teachers and District

ALS Coordinators (Appendix C). Data gathered through the interviews serve to verify

and enhance the information provided by the informants.

Some documents such as diploma and certification of passing served as actual

evidence of information and additional source of data.

Data Analysis
33

The researcher conducted personal interview in accordance with the objectives

of the study. Interviews were personally administered to the informants to complete

the needed data for the study. The interview focused first on the informant’s personal

characteristics: age, birth order, civil status, spouse occupation; on their professional

characteristics, included are: educational attainment before enrolling in ALS, their

reasons for leaving formal education, problems encountered as ALS students and

their solutions to the problems encountered. These data were sorted, organized,

analyzed, and interpreted. The researcher investigated the responses and stories

gathered through a series of interview among respondents, District ALS Coordinators,

Mobile Teachers and superiors. The researcher classified the responses and shared

stories containing similarities and differences. Similar responses were grouped

together to determine the frequency of responses. The data were ranked to determine

the most common response/s.


34

Chapter 4

THE ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM ACCREDITATION AND


EQUIVALENCY TEST PASSERS: SUCCESS STORIES

This chapter aims to feature the ALS A & E Test Passers. Specific topics

included are the following: (1) personal and professional characteristics of ALS A &

E Test Passers; (2) reasons for leaving formal education; (3) career path taken by the

ALS A & E Test Passers and their present career status; (4) problems encountered by

the ALS A & E Test Passers as an ALS Student; (5) solutions/survival strategies

made by the ALS A & E Test Passers to solve the problems they encountered.

Personal and Professional Characteristics of ALS A&E TestPassers

Table 2 summarizes the Personal and Professional Characteristics of ALS A

& E Test Passers. Data show that there are 11 or 65% female successful passers and

six or 35% male passers. Their ages are between 20-40 years old. Majority or 41% of

the informants are the first born child. There are twelve passers who are married,

three are single and two are solo parents. Among the twelve married female passers,

six of them have spouses who are laborers/private employees, one Overseas Filipino

Worker, two plain housewives, one elementary school principal, one security guard,

and a government employee. As to their educational attainment before they were

enrolled in the ALS A & E Program, two passers were elementary graduates, three

were in first year high school, six were in second year, five on their third year, and

one in fourth year.


35

Table 2
Personal and Professional Characteristics of
ALS A&E Test Passers

Personal and Professional Characteristics Frequency Percentage


A. GENDER
Male 6 35
Female 11 65
Total 17 100
B. AGE
20-22 1 6
23-25 3 18
26-28 4 23
29-31 2 12
32-34 4 23
35-37 2 12
38-40 1 6
Total 17 100
C. BIRTH ORDER
First 7 41
Second 2 11
Third 3 18
Fourth 0 0
Fifth 1 6
Sixth 3 18
Seventh 0 0
Eighth 1 6
Total 17 100
D. CIVIL STATUS
Single 3 18
Married 12 70
Solo Parent 2 12
Total 17 100
E. SPOUSE OCCUPATION*
Laborer 6 50
Overseas Filipino Worker 1 8
Plain housewife 2 18
Elementary School Principal 1 8
Government Employee 1 8
Security Guard 1 8
Total 12 100
F. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT BEFORE
ENROLMENT IN ALS)
Elementary graduate 2 12
First year high school 3 18
Second year high school 6 35
Third year high school 5 29
Fourth year high school 1 6
Total 17 100
*only 12 informants are married.
36

Reasons for Leaving Formal Education

As shown in Table 3, the most cited reason for leaving formal education is

early pregnancy, which would mean that this is the main reason why most female

informants dropped-out from their studies. This reason is closely followed by

Poverty/Financial constraints; the third reason is family issues/problems which

include rebellious attitude, product of broken home and physical abuses of family

members; the fourth reason is lack of personal interest/personal issue; and, lastly, bad

influence of friends.

The testimonials of the ALS A&E Test Passers imply that early pregnancy

resulting to early marriage and financial constraints or poverty greatly affected their

studies which resulted to their leaving their formal education. This was evidenced by

their occupations such as farmer, laborer, fisherfolk, plain housewife, and self-

employed. They belong to low income families. The same finding was revealed in the

study of Desulo et al. (2016) that most of the passers belong to the poorest families.

Table 3

Reasons for Leaving Formal Education

Reasons Frequency Rank


1. Family Issues/problems 3 3
2. Early Pregnancy 8 1
3. Poverty/Financial constraints 7 2
4. Bad influence of friends 1 5
5. Lack of personal interest/personal issue 2 4
37

The following excerpts are taken from some accounts of ALS A & E Test

Passers, which confirm the causes of their dropping out from school. The vernacular

statements italics are supplemented with English translation. The full testimonials are

available in the coffee table book which is the output of this study.

1. Early Pregnancy

She had a colourful life when she was young. She shone and excelled in her

elementary school years; she was a consistent honor student and graduated fourth

honors in her class. She decided to pursue her secondary education. However,

“Habang ga eskuwela ako, namidbid ko ang sarong lalaki na namut-an ko. Dai

naawat nagbados ako. Habo ko na mag-eskuwela dahil sa kundisyon ko.” (While

studying, I met the man I fell in love with and eventually got pregnant. I lost interest

in studying and instead focused my attention on my condition).

“Ginaha ako ning magurang ko. Gabos pigtao ninda sako maski halos

nangutang sinda; basta para sa ika-ogma ko. Third year high school ako kang

nabadusan ako ning boyfriend ko. Dai na ako naka eskuwela ta habo na kang

magurang ko. Nagsisi ako ning grabe. (My parents loved me dearly. They provided

me with things I wanted even it would make them borrow money from others, just to

make me happy. I was in third year high school when I got pregnant with my

boyfriend. I wasn’t able to continue schooling because my parents punished me. I

regretted a lot).

She is a daughter of a Broker. Her father died when she was in grade 1. She

studied grades 1 to 5 in two different elementary schools. She spent her secondary
38

studies at a government high school but she transferred to a private school when she

was in third year high school. However, she stopped studying because of unwanted

pregnancy and got married at an early age and did not come back to school again. She

felt so guilty and ashamed to her parents. (Siguro naghahanap ako ng father figure sa

buhay ko. Kasi nga maliit pa ako nang mamatay ang tatay ko. Kaya nang third year

high school na ako minahal ko ang isang lalaki na nagpakita ng care at love sa akin

na humantong sa pagdadalang-tao ko. Hindi pumayag si nanay na di kami

magpakasal; kaya napakabata ko pa nang ako’y mag-asawa. Hindi na ako bumalik

sa aking pag-aaral. Hiyang-hiya ako sa aking mga magulang).

She is the youngest daughter of a simple housewife and a foreman with a

brood of six. When she was a little child, she wanted to be a Nurse to take care of

patients and to be in the field of healthcare. She was about to graduate in high school

when she got pregnant in December (3 months before graduation) when she stopped

schooling. She regretted so much and was so ashamed to her family and friends. (Dai

na ako naka college ta kang December na ito, tolong bulan na sana ang graduation

nimi sa high school, nagtonong ako ta nagbados ako. Nagsisi ako ning grabe ta so

mga ka batch ko nakatapos ning College. Nasupog ako sa pamilya ko pati sa mga

amiga ko).

She was always included in the honor roll and when she graduated from her

elementary education, she was third honors of the class. She became an out-of-school

because she got married early - she was that time a first year high school student.

Mahirap pala maging out-of-school, lalo na kung ang dahilan ay ang pag-aasawa at

pagkaka-anak nang bata pa. Na miss ko yong mga kaklase ko at ang pagiging honor
39

ko sa klase. Inisip ko noon na sana nakinig ako sa pamilya ko. (It’s really hard to be

an out-of-school, especially if the cause is getting married and being pregnant at a

very young age. I’d missed my friends in school and the awards. I should have

listened to my family).

She finished her elementary education and high school in her own town. Dahil

man sa kapobrehan ning pamilya ko, nagtunong ako pag-eskwela; nag agom ako

ning amay; lima na ang aki mi. (Due to poverty, I left my studies, got married at an

early age to a native of another town in Catanduanes and blessed with five children).

2. Poverty/Financial constraints

His dreams were remarkable as he even dreamt of becoming a priest and serve

God. His life was full of ups and downs; yet he still persevered and strove. He was

able to finish his grade school. After which, he went to Manila and studied in a

Catholic school administered by nuns, but two years after, he stopped. He still

continued his secondary studies but again decided to stop. Nagtunong ako pag

eskuwela sa madre ta naki-istar man sana ako buda pigasuportahan ning mga amiga,

amigo buda mga relatives ko. Nasupog man ako sainda ta awat pa akong maasa

sainda. Dai ka’ya ning mga magulang ko na paeskwelahon ako. (I stopped studying

as I was just residing and being financed by my friends and distant relatives. My

parents don’t have the means to send him to school)

Nagtonong ako pag-eskwela kang second year high school ako ta ga-tios ang

pamilya mi buda igwang mga problemang pampamilya. (I had stopped studying

while I was a second year high school student due to poverty and some family
40

problems). She went to Manila because she thought she’ll have an easy and exciting

life in the city. Huna ko mari’nas ang buhay ko sa Manila, mas grabe logod.

Natanggap man kutana ako sa trabaho, pero katabang sana sa tindahan ta first year

high school sana ang natapos ko. (I was hired as a store helper because I finished

only first year high school).

He stopped studying when he was in second year high school. He is the third

child in the family of four children. Her mother is a plain housewife and accepts

laundry for their daily living. His father has no permanent job but he is industrious

enough to accept any decent job offered to him just to provide for his family’s needs.

Masakit palan talaga ang pobre ta gusto ko man tana na makatapos pag eskwela

pero kulang pa ngani sa pagkaon nimi ang nakua nila nanay na imo. (It’s indeed very

hard to be poor because although I want to finish my education, our finances won’t

suffice, not even enough for our daily sustenance).

She is the eighth child in the family of 12. Her father is a farmer and her

mother is working hard in taking care of them. She finished her elementary education.

She was second year in the national high school in their barangay when she stopped

studying. Kaipuhan kong magtunong nganing makatrabaho na ako para matabangan

ang mga magurang ko, pati na ang pagpa-eskwela sa mga tugang ko. (I stopped

studying because I wanted to look for a job to help my parents to sustain our living, as

well as the school expenses of my brothers and sisters).

He is the eldest in the brood of five. His mother is a simple housewife. He

finished his elementary grades. Dai na ako nakadagos pag high school ta nagtrabaho
41

ako sa Manila para sa sakong pamilya. (I did not have the chance to enroll in high

school, instead I went to Manila to work to earn a living for my family).

She is the third child of a simple family with a brood of eight, composed of

three girls and five boys. Her father is a farmer and her mother is a plain housewife.

She finished her elementary studies in Albay. Her school was very far from their

home. Third year high school po ako kan magpondo ako pag-eskwela; dai na po kaya

kaya ning magurang ko. Naglipat po kami sa Catanduanes sa paglaom na mas maray

ang buhay digdi. Pero pareho man po palan. (I was already in third year high school

when I stopped studying because my parents could no longer afford my studies due to

financial constraints. In the year 2012, my whole family came to Catanduanes

thinking that we would be better off; but his family found it almost the same life here

in Catanduanes).

He is the youngest in the family of six and a son of an abaca stripper and a

dedicated housewife. Her father died when he was in grade 3. He finished his

elementary grades, but he never had the chance to proceed to high school because of

financial difficulties and he was attending to his nephews and nieces. Dahil tabi kaini,

nawaran tabi ako ning interes mag eskwela ta dai na sako ning masuporta. (Because

of these situations, I lost my interest to study thinking that no one would ever support

and finance my studies.

He is the third child in their family of six. He finished his elementary

education. At his young age, he really felt their poverty that during his elementary

days, he dropped out from school because he was attending to his youngest brother.

When he was able to go to high school, he also stopped twice. Kaipuhan ko tabing
42

magtunong ta kaipuhan man na magtrabaho ako sa uma buda mag atendir sa mga

ngohod kong tugang. I had to stop because I had to work in our farm and at the same

time look after my younger brothers and sisters. But he totally left his high school

studies during his 3rd year. Kaipuhan ko pa pating suportahan ang tugang ko na

makatapos ning college. (I have to support my brother financially who was pursuing a

college degree).

3. Family Issues/problems

She was an adopted daughter of a couple with eight children. Her foster father

was a US Army while her foster mother was a plain housewife. Her biological parents

got separated before she was born. Her mother died while giving birth to her because

of heart disease. She knew that she had been adopted when she was in Grade 1 when

she accidentally read the adoption papers. Her foster parents were kind and they loved

her so much. They raised her well with military discipline. In return, she showed love

and care for them. She was even fond of cuddling them. Her acts drove the youngest

child of her foster parents to be jealous. When she was in grade 3, her foster father

died. It was the start of her problems because the youngest child had the chance to

physically hurt her. Sinaksak nya ako sa kamay ng tinidor. Iyon ang pagkakataon na

nagising ako; ayaw ko nang patuloy pa niya akong saktan. (She stabbed my hand

using a fork and that was an awakening moment for me; I couldn’t take anymore the

physical abuses she was inflicting me). So at the age of 14, she stowed away and lived

by herself. She was in second year high school. She lived in a friend’s house in Virac

and that was the time when she stopped studying.


43

“Naging out-of-school youth (OSY) ako dahil nagkaroon ako ng depresyon sa

buhay noong second year high school ako kasi hindi ko maisip ang dahilan kung

bakit kami iniwan ng papa ko, dahil doon nawalan ako ng ganang mag-aral at dahil

na rin sa problemang pinansiyal naming mag- ina dahil solong nagtatrabaho ang

aking ina para sa aming pamumuhay.” (I became an OSY because I experienced

depression when my father had left and abandoned my mother and me when I was in

second year high school. I couldn’t imagine why my father left us. And because of

that, I lost my interest to study and another reason is our financial inadequacy, since

my mother is the sole provider for both of us).

“Kaawat ko na naging out-of-school youth dahil naki-istar sana ako sa

barkada ko ta broken family kami,” recalled by another informant. (I was an out-of-

school youth for quite a long time because I was a product of a broken home and I

was living with a family friend). He dropped out of school when he was a 3rd year

high school student in Manila. Without his parents’ guidance and support, he lost his

interest and desire to finish his studies. He decided to work as a waiter in a nearby bar

and café. He was 21 years old then. He was a typical young man who went out on

dates, spending as much time with friends rather than staying at home.

4. Bad influence of friends/Attitude

Another ALS A & E Test Passer was sixteen years old when she was first

impregnated by his first boyfriend. She was then rebelling from her parents, so she

married early. Her mother died when she was eight years old. Her father married

again. That was when he started hurting her. Because of that, she started to go with
44

friends who were not good influence to her. At thirteen, she had learned to smoke,

drink, and use drugs. She was also involved in gang riots. Sometimes she would go

home having bruises and some parts of her body swelling. But she embraced such

life because she thought she was happy and contented by doing those things. She

always ran away from home. And the last time that she ran away from home was

when she went away with her boyfriend. Her boyfriend’s parents accepted her in

their house so they lived together as a couple. That was when she got pregnant. But

after a few months, they started fighting and he would always beat her. So her father

decided to get them separated.

Dai ako nagpasige pag eskwela kang first year high school na ako ta grabe

ang supog ako sa klase; nawaran ako ning interes magsige pag eskwela. (I decided

not to pursue my studies when I was in first year high school because I was so shy

and very timid in the class and became uninterested to go to school).

Career Path Taken by the Informants and their Present Career Status

Table 4 presents the career path taken by the informants and their present

career status.

As reflected in the table, most of the informants have attended

college/university and entered the world of work. After they had finished college

studies, they landed a job either in government or in private entities. Some attended

technical-vocational training program and got a National Certificate II (NC II).

Further indicated in the table are two ALS Passers who are employed in the

Department of Education as regular permanent ALS Mobile Teacher; one, a Senior


45

High School Teacher; a LET Passer and an ALS Literacy Volunteer. There are two

Licensed Midwives who are regular/permanent in their respective municipalities, and

the other is employed at the University of the Philippines as Nursing Attendant. There

is one passer who holds a regular/permanent position as a Radio Operator

(Administrative Aide IV) at the Police Provincial Office. One passer is a successful

businesswoman; some are employed in a private or government offices and an

Overseas Filipino Worker.

The informants further recounted of their endeavor after their dropping out

from school. With ALS intervention, their courage and persistence to move on from a

downfall, so to say, are briefly summarized herein by the researcher, as follows:

Those who left school due to Early Pregnancy

“At present, I am an ALS Literacy Volunteer in my own place because I want

to help ALS learners and be an inspiration to them. Next year, I am planning to apply

in the Department of Education to become a full-time teacher, a role model teacher”.

“I had spent my time and kept means with my family as a volunteer

Bookkeeper in various projects. Currently, I am one of the staff at the congressional

office”.

“I worked as a Private Duty Midwife and took care of old people. I also

worked at the Chinese General Hospital. Luckily, I got employed at the University of

the Philippines (UP)-Health Service Department. Although I am a Licensed Midwife,

I was appointed as Nursing Attendant (NA) on February 21, 2010”.


46

Table 4
Informants ‘Career Path Taken and Present Career Status
Res
po
Program Course
n Career Path Taken Eligibility Present Career Status
Enrolled Taken
De
nts
Accreditation &
Nursing Attendant -University of
Equivalency (A & Attendedcollege/university;
1 Midwifery Registered Midwife the Philippines
E) Secondary Entered the world of work
(Regular/Permanent)
(Sec.)
Attended college/university; Midwife -LGU San Andres
2 A & E Sec. Midwifery Registered Midwife
Entered the world of work (Regular/Permanent)
Bachelor of Licensure
Attended college/university; ALS Mobile Teacher of San Miguel
3 A & E Sec. Elementary Examination for
Entered the world of work South District (Regular/Permanent)
Education Teachers (LET)
Bachelor of
Attended college/university; Staff/Clerk at the Congressional
4 A & E Sec. Science in
Entered the world of work none Office-Cong. Cesar V. Sarmiento
Commerce
Successful Businesswoman-owner
of Yoshihira Beauty Center; Silver
5 A & E Sec. Attended college/university Midwifery none
Associate member of Max
International
Entered technical-vocational Hotel and
National Certificate Supervisor/Manager of a Cafeteria
6 A & E Sec. training program Restaurant
(NC) II at Catanduanes Bazaar Restaurant
Entered the world of work Services (HTI)
Bachelor of Licensure Senior High School Teacher at San
Attended college/university;
7 A & E Sec. Secondary Examination for Andres Vocational School
Entered the world of work
Education Teachers (LET) (Regular/Permanent)
Radio Operator (Administrative
National
Attended college/university; Computer Aide IV) at Camp Francisco
8 A & E Sec. Telecommunications
Entered the world of work Programming Camacho, Catanduanes Provincial
Commission (NTC)
Office- (Regular/Permanent)
Supervisor at Virac Lucky
9 A & E Sec. Entered the world of work none none
Supermart
Bachelor of Licensure
Attended college/university; ALS Literacy Volunteer at
10 A & E Sec. Elementary Examination for
Entered the world of work Danicop, Virac, Cat.
Education Teachers (LET)
Bachelor of
Attended college/university; Science in Staff at Provincial Veterinary
11 A & E Sec.
Entered the world of work Office none Office, Provincial Capitol Building
Administration
Shielded
Entered technical-vocational National Certificate Waiter at Kemji Resort and
12 A & E Sec. Welding Arc
training program (NC) II Restaurant
Metal (TESDA)
Bachelor of
Attended college/university; Credit Counselor at Equalshare
13 A & E Sec. Elementary
Entered the world of work none Credit Corporation
Education
Bachelor of
Attended college/university; Science in Billing Clerk at the Immaculate
14 A & E Sec.
Entered the world of work Computer none Heart of Mary Hospital
Science
Cashier (Probationary employee) at
15 A & E Sec. Virac Town Center
Entered the world of work Not applicable none
(To be permanent by May 2017)
Overseas Filipino Worker (OFW)
16 A & E Sec. Entered the world of work
Not applicable none Salesman at Carrefour, Dubai, UAE
Driver (Probationary employee) at
17 A & E Sec. Entered the world of work Not applicable none Ficelco
(To be permanent by April 2017)
47

“I am a regular permanent Midwife at the Rural Health Unit of the LGU, San

Andres, Catanduanes”.

“Now a Billing Clerk at a private hospital in the province, I have now a stable

job to sustain and help my family from starving. I shall be able to support my family

to have a better life”.

Those who left school due to Poverty/Financial Constraints

“I passed the ALS A & E in 2006 and got into college and earned a degree in

Bachelor of Elementary Education in a private College. I earned my way to the top

when I passed the Licensure Examination for Teachers and was appointed as an ALS

Mobile Teacher”.

“I am now a permanent Radio Operator at the Police Provincial Office”.

“Since 2012, my appointment in an electric cooperative has been on

probationary employee status. But in March 2017, I shall be given my permanent

appointment because of my ALS Diploma”.

“Thirty five years old now, I manage and supervise a small cafeteria entrusted

to me by an owner of a restaurant because I had the skills, knowledge, and certificate

which I acquired from studying in a TESDA accredited school in the province”.

“I was promoted as a Supervisor in my work and had increased my salary,

more enough to support my family. I am now helping his family; I am able to send

my brothers and sisters to school and help my mother who is a solo parent”.
48

“Having been a Cashier at a local mall under probationary status, I shall be in

a regular/permanent status because of the ALS Diploma. I can now help and sustain

my family because I am earning enough for them. And, I will no longer be a house

helper”.

“Luckily, I got a job in Dubai. I am employed as a Salesman in one of the

largest companies in the Middle East. I love and enjoy my work there. I am able to

support my family, parents, and my child who is sick”

“I passed the screening of a Credit Corporation and luckily I was employed. I

am now enjoying a high salary in my job as Credit Counselor”.

The above findings are congruent to the findings of Rodriguez (2008). His

study revealed that their achievements served as one of the indicators on the

assessment and reviews of the major policy reforms and programs implemented in

connection with the commitment stated in Education for All (EFA) 2015. Likewise,

the findings on the career path taken by the ALS A& E Test Passers are similar to the

findings of Saculo (2004). In her study, A & E Test Passers entered formal school

system, were employed in government and private institutions and others are self-

employed. The study of Apao, et al. (2014) also supports the findings of the present

study. The researcher concluded that the program was able to improve the quality of

living by engaging in jobs or entrepreneurial activities that increase financial stability,

participating actively in community events and social gatherings, cultivating a

positive outlook in life and developing the passion for pursuing higher education. The
49

Alternative Learning System A& E program in the Philippines is effective in

cultivating the life skills of the recipients The program has improved the quality of

living of the informants as they continue their pursuit for meaning and significance in

life.

Problems Encountered as an ALS student

The problems encountered by the ALS A & E Test Passers when they were

still ALS students are reflected in Table 5. It can be gleaned from the table that

among the problems encountered by the ALS Accreditation and Equivalency

TestPassers as an ALS student, No enough time to attend ALS Class because they are

attending to their children at home or their spouses are working; followed by no

enough time to attend ALS Class because they prioritized their source of living

instead of attending ALS class. Next problem was shyness, timidity, lack of self-

confidence to join in the ALS learning session and lastly find difficulties in some

lessons, lack of required knowledge and fear of being bullied by her own classmates

and friends in formal school.

Table 5

Problems Encountered as an ALS Student

Problems Encountered Frequency Rank


1. Insufficient time to attend ALS Classes (attending to his/her 8 1
children)
2. Fear of being bullied for enrolling in ALS 1 4
3. Difficulties in some lessons due to lack of required knowledge 1 4
4. Conflicting priorities (has to earn a living first before ALS 5 2
classes )
5. Shyness, timidity, lack of self-confidence to participate in the 2 3
ALS learning sessions
50

Herein are the brief descriptions of the accounts of the respective ALS A&E

Passers on their problems encountered as ALS Student, revealed during the interview:

“Not enough time to attend ALS Classes because I was attending to my

children at home while my spouse is working.”

“I did not pass in the first ALS A& E Test because I had no proper

concentration on ALS lessons; I have four children to attend to and have family

problems.”

“Not enough time to attend ALS Classes because I prioritized earning a living

for my family instead of attending ALS classes.”

“I could not attend and cope to the agreed learning schedule of my ALS

classes due to my work schedule. I was working from Monday to Friday as a Driver

in an electric company and during Saturdays and Sundays I was working in my

machine shop to have additional income for my family.”

“I was so shy and timid; I lacked self-confidence to participate in the ALS

learning session.”

“I felt I lacked self-confidence and I was uncomfortable talking to other

people. I was a very shy man. I was ashamed to mingle with other learners.”

“I found difficulties in some lessons; I lacked the required knowledge and I

feared of being bullied by my own classmates and friends in the formal school.”

“I honestly revealed that I found some lessons difficult to understand

especially in Mathematics that made me failed on the first exam.”

“I feared of being bullied by my classmates/friends from the formal school

with my great desire to achieve my dreams in life and to be freed from poverty.”
51

Solutions and Survival Strategies

Table 6 presents the solutions and survival strategies made by the ALS A& E

Test Passers. It is revealed that their solutions and survival strategies include:

borrowed modules and reviewers to have their self-study and self-review, for the

same reasons that they are having hard time/ cannot attend/cannot cope up to the

greed learning schedule to some reasons, as also cited in the study of Mercado (2015).

Table 6

Solutions and Survival Strategies

Solutions Frequency Rank


1. Borrowed modules and reviewers to have
14 1
self-study and self-review.
2. Opted to enroll ALS in other district 1 3
3. Sought help from a friend (one-on-one
1 3
tutorial)
4. Appealed to his ALS Teacher to have ALS
1 3
classes during night time.

The accounts of the ALS A&E Passers on their solutions and survival

strategies to problems encountered as ALS students are presented in the paragraphs

that follow.

“Gasobre ako ning modules and reviewers nganing mag self-study and self-

review. I was having hard time to attend or cope up to the agreed learning schedule

for some reasons”.

“My wife as an advocate of education, (a school principal) helped me on my

self-study and self-review while attending to my children at home”.


52

“Determinado akong mag-eskwela. So, I just had my self-review. I borrowed

modules and reviewers to be studied”.

“I opted to attend ALS classes in Virac instead of the ALS class in my own

place for fear of being bullied (by my classmates/friends from the formal school). I

travelled 15.7 kilometers to attend my ALS classes but was able to endure this for

almost a year. I was also pregnant then, however, survived”.

“I sought help from a friend on having a one-on-one tutorial in Mathematics

subject”.

“Nakimahelak ako sa sakuyang ALS teacher na i- night class nya ako because

from Monday to Friday, I was working as a driver of a private entity and during

Saturday and Sunday, I was working in my machine shop.”

The findings somehow corroborate with the findings of Villenes (2014) which

disclosed the initiatives done by the ALS teachers and the learners in obliterating

those problems encountered by the ALS A & E Test Passers, specifically the one who

appealed to his ALS teacher to have ALS classes during night time since he is

working on weekdays and during Saturdays and Sundays, he is working in his

machine shop.

The findings imply that ALS is a program established to provide the OSY the

chance to have access to and complete basic education in a mode that fits their

distinct situations and needs, thus learning can take place anytime, anywhere.
53

Chapter 5

SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of the study, findings, conclusions, and

recommendations offered.

Summary

This study aimed to track and feature the ALS A&E Test Passers in

Catanduanes. Specifically, this study aims to feature the success stories of the ALS A

& E Test Passers with the objectives of determining their:

1. personal and professional characteristics;

2. reasons for leaving formal education;

3. career path taken and their present career status

4. problems encountered as an ALS student;

5. solutions and survival strategies made to solve the problems they

encountered.

The qualitative method of research was utilized in this study. Using

unstructured interview guide, the researcher conducted personal interview to the

successful ALS A& E Test Passers. Data gathered were validated through an

interview conducted to the informants’ former mobile teachers, district ALS

Coordinators, informants’ family members and friends.

Findings

The following are the results of the study:


54

1. Personal and Professional Characteristics.

In terms of personal characteristics, among the 17 successful ALS A&E Test

Passers, 11 or 65% are female and 6 are male, with ages between 20-40 years old,

41% are first born child, 70% are married, and 50% had spouses who are labourers.

As to educational attainment before enrolment in ALS, the highest number, 6 or 35%,

was second year high school. This is closely followed by 5 or 29% who were third

year high school; 3 or 18%, first year high school; and 1 or 6%, fourth year high

school.

2. Reasons for Leaving Formal Education

Ranking first among the reasons for leaving formal education was early

pregnancy; this was followed by family issues/problems, financial constraints, lack of

personal interest/personal issues and bad influence of friends.

3. The Career Path Taken by the Informants


and their Present Career Status

3.1 As to the career path taken, most of the informants had attended

college/university, entered the world of work and entered technical-vocational training

program.

3.2 As to their present career status, two of the ALS Passers got employed in

the Department of Education as regular permanent ALS Mobile Teacher, a Senior

High School Teacher and the other is a LET Passer and an ALS Literacy Volunteer.

There are two Licensed Midwife who are regular/permanent in her municipality and

the other is employed at the University of the Philippines as Nursing Attendant. There
55

is one passer who holds a regular/permanent position as a Radio Operator

(Administrative Aide IV) at the Camp Francisco Camacho, Catanduanes Police

Provincial Office. One passer is a successful businesswoman. Some were employed in

private and government offices or an Overseas Filipino Worker.

4. Problems Encountered by the ALS Passers as ALS Students

4.1 Majority of the problems encountered as ALS Students by the ALS A&E

Passers cannot attend and cope up to the agreed learning schedule of their ALS class

due to work schedules. The other is Fear of being bullied by her own classmates and

friends in formal school and did not pass in the first exam due to no proper

concentration on ALS class.

5. Solutions and survival strategies made by the ALS


Passers to solve the problems they encountered

5.1 Due to the schedule of the informants that they cannot attend to the

scheduled learning session, instead they just made an agreement with their ALS

Implementers on having independent study and self-review but still going to take the

examination. They chose to borrow modules and bring them to their homes for self-

study and self-review. Someone who appealed to his ALS teacher to have his class on

night time and with the help and support of his ALS teacher, he passed. One passer

was being helped and supported by her wife (an elementary school principal) on his

self-study and self-review while attending to their children at home. One passer also

honestly revealed that she find difficulties in some lessons, especially in Mathematics,

she seek help from a friend on having a one-on-one tutorial on Mathematics subject.
56

Conclusions

The following conclusions are drawn based on the findings of the study:

1. A typical ALS A& E Test Passer is a female, 20-40 years old, a first born

child of the family, married to a laborer. She was a dropped out second year high

school when she enrolled in ALS.

2. Early Pregnancy is the main reason of the ALS A& E Test Passers for

leaving formal education followed by financial constraints; family issues like parents’

separation/ broken homes, parent’s remarriage to an abusive step-parent, and physical

abuse of family member. Lack of self- confidence, shyness, timidity being a loner

bad, and influence of friends due to peer pressure lead to lack of personal interest to

study.

3. The ALS A & E Test Passers are now in different agencies, e.g. at the

Department of Education as regular permanent ALS Mobile Teacher, a Senior High

School Teacher, a LET Passer,or an ALS Literacy Volunteer. There are Licensed

Midwives who are regular/permanent in a municipality and at the University of the

Philippines as Nursing Attendant. There is one passer who holds a regular/permanent

position as a Radio Operator (Administrative Aide IV) at the Provincial Police

Provincial Office. One passer is a successful businesswoman. Some are employed in

private and government offices or an Overseas Filipino Worker.

4. As ALS Students, ALS A & E Test Passers encountered problems such as

cannot attend and cope up to the agreed learning schedule of their ALS class due to

work schedules; fear of being bullied by classmates and friends from formal school,

and did not pass in the first exam due to no proper concentration on ALS class.
57

5. The ALS A & E Test Passers Solutions and survival strategies made by the

ALS Passers to solve the problems they encountered include: Due to the schedule of

the informants that they cannot attend to the scheduled learning session, instead they

just make an agreement with their ALS Implementers on having independent study

and self-review but still going to take the examination. They chose to borrow modules

and bring them to their homes for self-study and have their self-review. Someone

appealed to his ALS teacher to have his class on night time and with the help and

support of his ALS teacher, he passed. One passer was being helped and supported

by her wife (an elementary school principal) on his self-study and self-review while

attending to their children at home. One passer also honestly revealed that she finds

difficulties in some lessons, especially in Mathematics, she seek help from a friend on

having a one-on-one tutorial on Mathematics subject.

6. This study traced the status of ALS A & E Test Passers in their present

status/work/success today. The program of the Department of Education through the

ALS was able to increase literacy as evident in the testimonials of the successful ALS

A & E Test Passers of the ALSA& E Test. They improved their quality of living by

engaging in jobs or entrepreneurial activities that increase their financial stability,

participating actively in community events and social gatherings, cultivating a

positive outlook in life and developing the passion for pursuing higher education.

Civil Service Commission (CSC) also recognized the ALS A& E Secondary

Certificate of the three ALS Aand E Test Passers as valid documents for their

permanent appointment as a licensed Midwife, a Nursing Attendant and a Radio

Operator, provided other requirements they have met.


58

7. Among the problems encountered by the ALS A and E Test Passers as an

ALS student were having a hard time and insufficient time to attend ALS classes

followed by failure to pass on the first try on the ALS A & E Test and fear of being

bullied by her own classmates and friends in formal school in enrolling in ALS.

8. The solutions and survival strategies made by the ALS Passers to solve the

problems they encountered were they borrowed modules and reviewers to have self-

study and self-review, appealed to his ALS Teacher to have ALS classes during night

time, opted to enrol ALS to other district and seek help from a friend (one-on-one

tutorial).

Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusion, the following recommendations are

offered:

1. Given that the successful female passers are more than male, it is

suggested that ALS Implementers should coordinate with partner agencies to frame

programs and plans to implement other practices to equip students especially females

for future education development. The practices may include academic development,

scholarship opportunities, available resource network, holistic training models,

mentorship, and personal development to equip them to pursue future education and

to uplift their moral and spiritual values.

2. Since Early Pregnancy ranked first on the reasons for leaving formal

education and on their second year high school level, there is a need to enhance the

guidance and counseling programs in secondary schools that will focus on the impact
59

and consequences of early pregnancy. This program should be given attention on the

risks on health, economic and psychological impact of the unintended pregnancies,

and too-early childbearing among high school students, as well as mentoring and

giving advices on students having personal and family problems.

3. For the successful implementation of the ALS A & E Program, there is a

need to enhance the sustainability of the program. The ALS A and E Test Passers

must be supported by the DepEd by giving them scholarship grants/programs until

they finished college studies. Since most of the successful ALS A & E Test Passers

are able to have source of income because of a certificate or an eligibility earned

having finished a degree, the ALS A & E Test Passers must be supported by DepED

by providing them scholarship in college studies.

4. The DepEd through the ALS officials and administration should address

the problems encountered by the ALS learners. They should allocate more funds for

the training-workshops for the learners. Mobile Teachers, ALS District coordinators,

parents, the community, and other stakeholders should encourage and provide

assistance to the A & E test passers to continue their quest for education.

5. DepEd through the ALS should provide additional modules for District

ALS Coordinators, Mobile Teachers, and Barangay Literacy Volunteers for use by

their ALS students. They should also coordinate and exert intensive linkaging to

government partner agencies, especially to the Department of Social Welfare and

Development Office for the allocation of their budget to ALS Programs and Projects

by giving cash assistance to the ALS & E Test Passers until they finish college
60

studies. The department should also allocate more funds especially for the training

programs for the ALS students.

Moreover, the following topics may be considered for research:

a. Reasons for the ALS passers (Secondary Level) for not pursuing tertiary

level.

b. A correlational study on the performance of ALS learners with the

performance of the ALS Implementers in the Division of Catanduanes.

c. Performance of the ALS learners in ALS A& E Test (number of the

enrolment compared to the number of passers).


61

REFERENCES

Administrative Order 116, Mandating All Concerned Government Agencies and


Local Government Units to Support the NFE A & E System.

Apao, L. T. (2014). Alternative Learning System Accreditation and Equivalency


(ALS A & E) Program: Quality of Life beyond Poverty. Cebu Normal
University.

Alarcon, R. (2000). EPIKEIA. The Interdisciplinary Journal of Alternative Education


and Formation. Quezon City.

Azarcon, R. O. (2014). Education Behind Bars: An Analysis of the Alternative


Learning System Program of the Bulacan State University Extension
Services Office. Bulacan State University.

Cristobal, A. (2009). Guidebook in Research Writing. Quezon City: C & E Publishing


Inc..

Desulo, R. J. (2016). Profile and Performance Level in Mathematics of the A & E


Test Passers in the Province of Sorsogon, Philippines. Sorsogon State
College, School of Graduate Studies, Sorsogon City, Philippines.

Eduardo, E. J. (2015). Inspiring Stories.. The ALS Success. Retrieved from


http://www.deped-ne.net/?page=news&action=details&code01= AI13060003

Fernandez, R. M. (2013). Teachers’ Competence and Learner’s Performance in the


Alternative Learning System Towards an Enriched Instructional Program.
http:/www.deped.gov.ph

Lapingcao, N. V. (2012). Special Topics in Education. Quezon City. Lorimar


Publishing, Inc.

Manahan, M. (2016).WhenInManila.com. Retrieved from http://www.when


inmanila.com/read-uplifting-story-of-an-ex-offender-who-finished-high-
school-with-distinction/

Mercado, I. B. (2015). “Problems Encountered In The Alternative Learning System in


Tanauan City. Centro Escolar University, Makati Campus.

Patoza, S. Q. (2016). Retrieved from http://news.pia.gov.ph/


article/view/941470985850/25-aklan-inmates--recognize-as-als-a-e-passers.
62

Philippine Constitution

Pinca, E. C. (2015).The Mobile Teachers’ Profile, Competencies, Performance and


Problems in the Department of Education, Division of Northern Samar.

Republic Act 9155

Rodriguez, R. C. “2008 Education For All (EFA) Global Monitoring Report Country
Case Study: The Philippines”.

Saculo, E. A. (2004).“Tracer Study of the Nonformal Education Accreditation and


Equivalency (NFE A & E) Passers in Region V”, University of Saint
Anthony, City of Iriga.

Sanchez, E. (2008). “Non-Formal Education Among Out-of-School Youth: Case


Studies of Service Providers of the Philippines Alternative Learning
System”. Azusa Pacific University.

SANTA ISABEL COLLEGE (2013). Empowering Communities Building Futures.


Retrieved from http://www.santaisabel.edu.ph/ academics/faqs_
alsprogram.php

Teope, M. D., et al. (2013). Performance in ALS A & E Test Among Learners in Bato
East District. Undergraduate Thesis, Catanduanes State University.

Tuibeo, A. G. (2014). Philosophy of Education (A New Perspective). Pateros, Metro


Manila: Grandbooks Publishing Inc. Kanluran,

Villenes, R. M. (2014). Non-Passers Reasons for Failing the Accreditation &


Equivalency (A & E) Examination: Basis for Enriched Intervention &
Enhanced Instruction. DepED Quezon.
63

APPENDICES
64

APPENDIX A

Informed Consent for Participation in a Research Interview

“THE ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM ACCREDITATION


AND EQUIVALENCY TEST PASSERS: SUCCESS STORIES”

Ako si ___________________________________, na may edad na_______


taong gulang, nakatira sa ______________________________________ ay kusang
loob na pumapayag na magpa interview sa isinasagawang research ni Maria Rita SR.
Tablate ng Catanduanes State University,Virac, Catanduanes na may pamagat na
“The Alternative Learning System Accreditation and Equivalency Test Passers:
Success Stories”
Ang pagsali sa interview na ito ay walang ano mang kapalit na kabayaran.
Ang gawaing ito ay malinaw na ipinaliwanag sa akin. Ito ay isang malayang pag-
uusap para maging inspirasyon ang aking kwento sa ibang tao at maipalaganap ang
kahalagahan ng programang Alternative Learning System ng Department of
Education. Ako ay sumasang-ayon na isulat at i-record (audiotaped) ang lahat na pag-
uusap na magaganap sa interview na ito para mkuha ang lahat na impormasyon na
sasabihin ko. Batid ko na bibigyan ng tamang proteksyon at respeto ang lahat na
impormasyon na ibibigay ko at may permiso ako na mailathala ang aking kuwento sa
isang libro bilang output ng pananaliksik na ito.
Alam ko na malaya kong sasagutin at sabihin ang aking opinion o pananaw.
Ang mga impormasyon na sasabihin ko sa research na ito ay gagamitin lamang ayon
sa layunin ng research na ito.
Kung meron man akong mga katanungan, Malaya kong gamitin ang mga
numero ng researcher na nakasulat sa papel na ito. Naiintindihan ko ang lahat na
impormasyon na nakasulat sa consent na ito at itatago ko ang isang kopya nito na
ibibigay sa akin.

Ako ay kusang loob na lumagda bilang patunay na ako ay hindi pinuwersa at


kusang loob na magpa interview ngayong ika ___ ng buwan at taon ng
________________sa barangay ________________ sa harap ng researcher.

______________________________ _________________
(Pangalan at Pirma ng Informant) Petsa

MARIA RITA SR. TABLATE _________________


(Pangalan at lagda ng Researcher) Petsa

Mobile No. 09497479620


65

APPENDIX B

INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR THE INFORMANT

1. Please give your age, gender, birth order, civil status, educational attainment, and
your spouse/parents’ occupation, before enrolling in ALS.

2. Please give your reasons for leaving formal education. When did you stop
studying? What did you do when you left formal education? How many years did
you stay at home or land a job? Where did you work? What did you feel as an
OSY while your friends/classmates are studying in formal school?

3. What was your career path after passing the ALS A& E Test? Who influenced
you to choose your career? Where are you employed at present? What is your
tenure of employment? Are you happy now with your present status?

4. What are your problems encountered as an ALS Student? From the following
problems cited, which struck you most?

5. What are your solutions/survival strategies to solve the problems you


encountered? Did your parents/guardian, spouse or your friends support and
helped you on the problems? How did you overcome the problems? What
solutions and strategies did you use?
66

APPENDIX C

INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR THE MOBILE TEACHERS AND


DISTRICT ALS COORDINATORS

1. Please give your name, designation, and your district.

2. What is the age, gender, birth order, civil status, educational attainment of the
informant upon enrolling in ALS? In what year did the informant enroll in the
ALS in your district? What is the performance of the informant as an ALS
learner? What is the schedule of your ALS class sessions?

3. What is the reason of the informant for enrolling in ALS and for leaving
formal education?

4. What are the problems encountered by the informant as an ALS Student?

5. What are the solutions and survival strategies made by the informant to solve
the problems encountered?How did you help the informant as his/her teacher?
Did the informant’s parents/guardian, spouse or friends support and help in
solving the problems? How did the informant overcome the problems? Being
the informant’s teacher, what solutions and strategies did you use?
67

CURRICULUM VITAE

MARIA RITA SAN ROQUE -TABLATE


Mobile Number: 09497479620
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PERSONAL INFORMATION
Age : 36
Birth Date : July 13, 1980
Birth Place : Virac, Catanduanes
Civil Status : Married
Name of Spouse : Jasper L. Tablate
Name of Children : Aubrey Jewel
AyenJarell
Home Address : Lot 20 Block 10 Oceanview Subdivision
San Isidro Village, Virac, Catanduanes

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Graduate Studies : Master of Arts in Educational Management


March 2017

Tertiary : Bachelor of Secondary Education


Catanduanes College
2011

Bachelor of Science in Accountancy


Catanduanes State Colleges
2001

Secondary : Catanduanes National High School


Virac, Catanduanes
1997

Elementary : Manambrag Elementary School (Intermediate)


Manambrag, San Andres, Catanduanes

Virac Central Elementary School (Primary)


Virac, Catanduanes
1987-1993
68

WORK EXPERIENCE

June 3, 2013 to present ALS Mobile Teacher


DepED ALS VIRAC NORTH DISTRICT

June 2, 2005-June 2, 2013 Clerk I (Administrative Aide III)


DepED Division Office

October 23, 2003- May 31, 2005 Casual Clerk


DepED Division Office

February 2003-October 22, 2003 Bookkeeper


Catanduanes State Colleges Multi-Purpose
Cooperative, CSC Compound

ELIGIBILITY

Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) MARCH 2012

Career Service Sub professional Examination MAY 2000