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Road Materials and Pavement Design

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Key parameters controlling dynamic modulus


of crushed reclaimed asphalt paving–powdered
rock–Portland cement blends

Nilo Cesar Consoli, Eduardo Pasche, Luciano Pivoto Specht & Mateus Tanski

To cite this article: Nilo Cesar Consoli, Eduardo Pasche, Luciano Pivoto Specht & Mateus
Tanski (2017): Key parameters controlling dynamic modulus of crushed reclaimed asphalt
paving–powdered rock–Portland cement blends, Road Materials and Pavement Design, DOI:
10.1080/14680629.2017.1345779

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2017.1345779

Published online: 08 Jul 2017.

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Download by: [University of Connecticut] Date: 08 July 2017, At: 12:41


Road Materials and Pavement Design, 2017
https://doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2017.1345779

Key parameters controlling dynamic modulus of crushed reclaimed


asphalt paving–powdered rock–Portland cement blends
Nilo Cesar Consolia∗ , Eduardo Paschea , Luciano Pivoto Spechtb and Mateus Tanskib
a Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil
b Department of Transport, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil

(Received 10 June 2016; accepted 13 June 2017 )

In order to minimise the impact on the environment of reclaimed asphalt paving (RAP) dis-
posal, a policy was established in Brazil determining that such residue should be recycled and
used in roadways whenever possible. Mixing RAP with powdered rock and Portland cement
to be used as a base/sub-base of pavements has been experienced with interesting results.
Though, there is a lack of studies on the mechanical properties (unconfined compressive –
qu and split tensile – qt ) and the viscoelastic behaviour (dynamic modulus – E* and phase
angle – δ) of RAP – powdered rock – Portland cement blends. The present research aims at
quantifying the influence of amounts of Portland cement (C) and the effect of the porosity (η)
of the compacted blend in improving qu , qt and E* of the mixtures. This paper advances in the
understanding of the key parameters controlling strength and stiffness of compacted RAP –
powdered rock – Portland cement mixtures by quantifying the influence of porosity/cement
index (η/Civ ) on qu and qt strengths and mainly on the viscoelastic behaviour (E* and δ),
including the effect of frequency (F) and the testing temperatures (TT). A single qt /qu rela-
tionship equal to 0.17 was found, being independent of the η/Civ . On the other side, it is shown
that η/Civ is an appropriate parameter to assess both the E* and the qu of the RAP – powdered
rock – Portland cement mixtures studied. The phase angle (δ) of the compacted mix is not
affected by η/Civ , being slightly influenced by F and TT. It varies from a minimum of 3° at
low testing temperatures and high frequency to a maximum of 14°.
Keywords: reclaimed asphalt paving; Portland cement; strength; complex modulus; porosity/
cement index

Introduction
Previous studies of soil–cement (e.g. Catton, 1962; Clough, Sitar, Bachus, & Rad, 1981; Moore,
Kennedy, & Hudson, 1970) have shown that its behaviour is complex, and affected by many
factors (e.g. the size and shape of the soil particles, the amount and type of binder, the poros-
ity and curing time period). The first rational dosage methodology for establishing unconfined
compressive strength (qu ) of granular soils treated with Portland cement was developed by Con-
soli, Viana da Fonseca, Cruz, and Heineck (2009) considering the porosity/cement ratio (η/Civ ),
defined as the porosity of the compacted mixture (η) divided by the volumetric cement con-
tent (Civ ). The porosity/cement ratio plays a fundamental role in the assessment of the target qu
because it takes into account both compaction and cementation levels. This means one can apply
higher compaction energy or add more cementitious agent to reach a specific value of strength.

*Corresponding author. E-mail: consoli@ufrgs.br

© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


2 N.C. Consoli et al.

Such dosage methodology was extended to tensile strength (qt ) and initial shear modulus (Go ),
in Consoli, Cruz, Floss, and Festugato (2010) and Consoli, da Fonseca, Silva, Cruz, and Fonini
(2012a), respectively. Consoli, Cruz, Viana da Fonseca, and Coop (2012b) found out that η/Civ
is an appropriate ratio to assess stress-dilatancy of the sand-cement mixtures. Using a specific
soil, distinct Portland cement types and curing periods, Consoli, Festugato, Rocha, and Cruz
(2013) suggested a normalisation allowing the prediction of the effect of varying cement content
and porosity with given cement and curing time on compressive strength (qu ). Consoli (2014)
proposed the assessment of the Mohr–Coulomb failure envelope of artificially cemented sands
based on amount of cement, porosity, η/Civ , qt and qu . Consoli and Foppa (2014) have shown the
adequacy of η/Civ in predicting the incremental yield stress and initial bulk modulus of artificially
cemented sand cured under stress. Consoli, Marques, Floss, and Festugato (2017) successfully
normalised both tensile and compressive strength cement-bonded clean granular soils for an
entire range of porosities and cement contents.
Along with that, it has increased the concern about the reuse and recycling of materi-
als. According to the Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA) recycled materials policy
(Wright, 2001): “The same materials used to build the original highway system can be re-
used to repair, reconstruct, and maintain them. Where appropriate, recycling of aggregates and
other highway construction materials makes sound economic, environmental, and engineering
sense”. Regarding the reuse of reclaimed asphalt paving (RAP), Puppala, Hoyos, and Pot-
turi (2011) have studied its stabilisation with cement to evaluate the effectiveness of cement
treatments in enhancing resilient characteristics of RAP aggregates. Avirneni, Peddinti, and
Saride (2016) studied the long-term strength and durability of RAP–virgin aggregates–fly ash
blends activated in an alkaline environment for application as a base course. Hoy, Horpibul-
suk, and Arulrajah (2016) investigated the strength development of RAP–fly ash–liquid alkaline
activator for use as a road construction material. A Brazilian policy was created stating that
RAP should be recycled and used in roadways whenever possible. RAP– powdered rock–
Portland cement blends have been tested as a base/sub-base of highways with encouraging
results.
The reuse of this material through recycling has been the subject of countless research in the
world. In Europe and the United States, the main focus is the use in hot asphalt mixtures (Daniel,
Gibson, Tarbox, Copeland, & Andriescu, 2013; Hajj et al., 2009; Lo Presti, Hassan, Airey, &
Collop, 2013; Mangiafico et al., 2013) and in Brazil this material is underutilised as a granular
layer of roadway levelling or in secondary roads (Pasche, Silva, Pires, Specht, & Echeverria,
2014).
It is possible to launch non-stabilisation techniques for the use of cold milling with addition of
virgin material and/or cement and emulsion (ARRA, 1997; Dalla Rosa, Silva, Brito, & Ceratti,
2015; Pires, Specht, Pinheiro, Pereira, & Renz, 2016; Wright, 2001). Several authors (Arulra-
jah, Piratheepan, & Disfani, 2014; Bilodeau, Sauzéat, Di Benedetto, & Olard, 2012; Bilodeau,
Sauzéat, Di Benedetto, Olard, & Bonneau, 2011; Dong & Huang, 2014; Hoyos, Puppala, &
Ordonez, 2011; Huang, Shu, & Burdette, 2006; Huang, Shu, & Li, 2005; Nguyen et al., 2017;
Pires et al., 2016; Puppala, Saride, & Williammee, 2012) mentioned that the RAP has been suc-
cessfully reused as a construction material, in road bases and sub-bases, as aggregates of asphalt
concrete, slopes and embankments fill.
Moreover, bituminous materials (pure or in mixtures) exhibit strong dependency to loading
time and temperature, and this behaviour cannot be neglected (Di Benedetto & Corté, 2005; Di
Benedetto, Partl, Francken, & De La Roche, 2001). Some works have been done approaching
RAP materials using the linear viscoelastic approach and carrying out different complex modulus
tests, measuring dynamic modulus (or norm of complex modulus) and phase angle; (Bilodeau
et al., 2011, 2012; Dong & Huang, 2014; Nguyen et al., 2017).
Road Materials and Pavement Design 3

The main contribution of this work is the demonstration of the existence of direct relationships
between qu , qt , E* and η/Civ for compacted RAP–powdered rock–Portland cement mixtures.
Besides, important questions for base/sub-base design using compacted RAP–powdered rock–
Portland cement mixes that remain unanswered were: Does this material have viscoelastic
behaviour? Is qt /qu ratio a scalar for the compacted blends evaluated in the present study, being
independent of η/Civ ? Is there any relationship for compacted RAP – powdered rock – Portland
cement mixtures linking dynamic modulus, phase angle with F, TT and η/Civ ? This research also
aims at approaching some of these questions.

Experimental programme
The experimental programme has been carried out in distinct segments. First, tests were per-
formed to characterise the materials used. Next, compaction curves considering three distinct
energies (standard, intermediate and modified) were established. Following, a number of tests
were carried out for RAP – powdered rock – Portland cement blends considering distinct amounts
of cement and dry unit weights to characterise the mechanical properties (qu and qt ) and tests to
determine the complex modulus (dynamic modulus and phase angle) considering a range of both
temperature and loading frequency.

Materials
RAP grain size distribution is presented in Table 1 and in Figure 1. Such recycled aggregate was
reclaimed from BR 290 highway, which connects the city of Porto Alegre (located in southern
Brazil) to the seashore. RAP samples were collected in sufficient amount to complete all tests.
The bitumen content (SBS Modified – PG 70-22S) found in the RAP was about 5.0%, having
been determined according to ASTM (2011a). Specific gravity of RAP for coarse aggregate was
determined according to ABNT (2009b), for the fine aggregate was determined according to
ABNT (2009a) and then relationship between them results in (γ sRAP ) is 2.505. Coarse aggregate
( > 4.76 mm) presents a soundness test (DNER, 1994) result of 0.31% and Los Angeles abrasion
(DNER, 1998) of 10.3%. Fine aggregate presents a sand equivalent (DNER, 1997) of 68.74%.
A volcanic rock (Dacite) crusher plant situated alongside BR 290 highway supply powdered
rock (PR) that was selected for the present study. The grain size distribution is also presented
in Table 1 and Figure 1. Specific gravity of PR grains (γ sPR ) is 2.78 determined according to
ABNT (2009a).
Portland cement of high initial strength (Type III) was used as the cementing agent. The cur-
ing time periods adopted was 28 days. The specific gravity of the cement grains (γ sC ) is 3.15
determined according to ABNT (2001).

Table 1. Particle size distribution of the studied materials.


Sieve opening RAP Powdered rock Blend [70% crushed
Sieve number (mm) (passing %) (passing %) RAP + 30% PR] (passing %)

#2 50.8 100.00 100.00 100.00


#1 25.4 100.00 100.00 100.00
#3/8 9.5 74.13 100.00 81.89
4 4.8 44.94 100.00 61.46
10 2.0 17.14 71.00 33.30
40 0.42 5.00 46.50 17.45
200 0.075 0.11 21.00 6.37
4 N.C. Consoli et al.

Figure 1. Grain size distribution of crushed RAP, powdered rock and RAP–powdered rock–Portland
cement blends, considering 70% RAP – 30% powdered rock proportion.

Distilled water was used both for characterisation tests and tap water for molding specimens
for the mechanical tests.

Methods
Molding and curing of specimens
All the specimens tested were prepared by mixing the relevant quantities of crushed RAP, PR,
early strength Portland cement and water; the molding points had a moisture content of about
8%. The amounts of crushed RAP and PR were blended in proportions 70%/30%, as indicated on
previous experiences (Pasche et al., 2014; Specht et al., 2013). The results of Proctor compaction
tests, for standard (600 kN m/m3 ), intermediate (1650 kN m/m3 ) and modified (2700 kN m/m3 )
compaction efforts, are shown in Figure 2.
For the strength (unconfined compression and split tensile) tests, cylindrical specimens of
100 mm diameter and 200 mm height were used. For the complex modulus tests, cylindrical
specimens of 100 mm diameter and 150 mm height were used. A target dry unit weight for
a given specimen was then established through the dry mass of RAP–PR–cement divided by
the total volume of the specimen. Porosity (η) is defined as the ratio of voids (in volume)
over the total volume of the specimen (V). As shown in Equation (1) (Consoli, Dalla Rosa,
& Saldanha, 2011), porosity (η) is a function of dry unit weight (γ d ), early strength Portland
cement (C), crushed RAP content and PR content (S). Each material (RAP, PR and cement) has
a unit weight of solids (γ sRAP , γ sPR and γ sC ), which also needs to be considered for calculating
porosity
⎧⎛   ⎞ ⎛  ⎞ ⎛  ⎞⎫
⎨ γd V RAP γd V PR γd V
[ 100
C
] ⎬
100 ⎝ 100γ sRAP
1+ C
⎠ + ⎝ 1001+ C
⎠ + ⎝ 100
1+ C

100 100

⎩ γ sPR γ sC ⎭
η = 100 − . (1)
V
After the crushed RAP, PR and cement were weighed; they were mixed until the mixture
acquired a uniform consistency. Followingly, water was then inserted (in order to reach target
Road Materials and Pavement Design 5

Figure 2. Compaction curve of the crushed RAP–powdered rock (70/30 proportion) considering three
Proctor energies (standard, intermediate and modified).

moisture content), continuing the mixing process until a homogeneous material was created. The
amount of Portland cement for each mixture was calculated based on the mass of dry RAP + PR.
The specimen was then statically compacted in five layers inside a cylindrical split mold, which
was lubricated, so that each layer reached the specified dry unit weight. The top of each layer
was slightly scarified. Twenty-four hours after the molding process, the specimen was extracted
from the split mold and its weight, diameter and height measured with accuracies of about 0.01 g
and 0.1 mm, respectively. The specimens were cured for 28 days in a humid room at 21 ± 2°C
and relative humidity above 95%.

Unconfined compression tests


Unconfined compression tests followed Brazilian standard NBR 5739 (ABNT, 2010), which is
similar to standard ASTM C39 (ASTM, 2010). Before carrying out testing, the specimens were
submerged in a water tank for 24 h for saturation to minimise suction (Consoli et al., 2011).
6 N.C. Consoli et al.

The water temperature was controlled and maintained at 21 ± 2°C. Then, the unconfined com-
pression test was carried out and the maximum load recorded (displacement rate adopted was
1.14 mm/min). Because of the typical scatter of data for unconfined compression tests, for each
point, three specimens were tested. The testing programme was chosen in such a way as to evalu-
ate, separately, the influences of the cement content, the dry unit weight and the porosity/cement
ratio. Based on the compaction test results, the molding points had a moisture content of about
8%, three different dry unit weights (20, 21 and 22 kN/m3 ) and three different early strength Port-
land cement percentages (3%, 5% and 7%). Curing period of 28 days was chosen once about
95% of maximum strengths were already reached.

Split tensile tests


Split tensile tests followed Brazilian standard NBR 7222 (ABNT, 1983), which is in accordance
with standard ASTM C496 (ASTM, 2011b). Curing and submersion issues, as well as testing
programme and molding points were the same as for the unconfined compression tests. The split
tensile test was originally developed by Carneiro and Barcellos (1953) as a tension test for brittle
materials.

Complex modulus tests


Viscoelastic properties of compacted RAP (containing bitumen) – PR – Portland cement blends
are determined according to standard AASHTO T 342 (AASHTO, 2011). Sinusoidal load ampli-
tude was adjusted to obtain axial strains between 50 and 75 μm/m (Linear Viscoelastic Domain).
The molding points had a moisture content of about 8%, three different dry unit weights (20, 21
and 22 kN/m3 ), three different early strength Portland cement percentages (3%, 5% and 7%) and
28 days of curing. The procedure covers a range of both temperature and loading frequency. The
test series consists of testing at 4°C, 21°C, 37°C and 54°C at loading frequencies of 0.01, 0.1,
0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 25 Hz for each temperature.

Results
Effect of the cement content and porosity on unconfined compressive and split tensile strength
The unconfined compressive strength (qu ) variation with the amount of Portland (C) is shown in
Figure 3 for a curing period of 28 days. Increasing dry unit weight and increasing cement content
end up increasing qu . A linear function also fits well to the relation qu – C for the three dry unit
weight studied.
The split tensile strength (qt ) variation with the amount of Portland cement (C) is shown in
Figure 4 for a curing period of 28 days. Increasing dry unit weight and increasing Portland cement
content ends up increasing qt . A linear function also fits well to the relation qt – C for the three
dry unit weight studied.

Effect of porosity/cement ratio on unconfined compressive and split tensile strength


Figure 5 presents the unconfined compressive strength as a function of the adjusted poros-
ity/cement ratio η/(Civ )0.41 [expressed as porosity (η) divided by the volumetric cement content
(Civ ), the latter expressed as a percentage of cement volume to the total volume of the RAP–PR–
cement mix (Consoli, Foppa, Festugato, & Heineck, 2007)] for curing period studied (28 days).
A simple observation of Figure 5 suggests that the adjusted porosity/cement ratio is use-
ful in normalising results for RAP–PR–cement blends. Good correlations (R2 = 0.95) can be
Road Materials and Pavement Design 7

Figure 3. Unconfined compressive strength (qu ) versus early strength Portland cement content (C)
considering 28 days as curing period.

observed between η/(Civ )0.41 and qu of the RAP–PR–cement mix studied, respectively for 28
days [Equation (2)] of curing.
 −2.6
η
qu (kPa) = 2.56 × 106 . (2)
(Civ )0.41

The ability of the adjusted porosity/cement ratio to normalise strength of Portland-cement-treated


materials has been shown by Consoli, Foppa, Festugato, and Heineck (2007). These authors
have revealed that rates of change of strength with porosity (η) and the inverse of the volumetric
cement content (1/Civ ) are usually substantially different. A way to make the variation rates of η
and 1/Civ compatible is through the application of a power to one of them. Furthermore, Diambra,
Ibraim, Peccin, Consoli, and Festugato (2017) developed an analytical relation explaining links
between strength of artificially cemented granular soils and the adjusted porosity/cement ratio
parameter.
Observing Figure 6, it could be suggested that adjusted porosity/cement ratio η/(Civ )0.41
is also useful in normalising results for split tensile strength (qt ). Good coefficient of cor-
relation (R2 = 0.96) can be observed between adjusted porosity/cement ratio η/(Civ )0.41 and
8 N.C. Consoli et al.

Figure 4. Split tensile strength (qt ) versus early strength Portland cement content (C) considering 28 days
as curing period.

the split tensile strength (qt ) of the RAP–PR–cement mix studied for 28 days of curing [see
Equation (3)].

 −2.6
η
qt (kPa) = 4.19 × 10 5
. (3)
(Civ )0.41

The results presented in this manuscript therefore suggest that using the adjusted porosity/cement
ratio for the RAP–PR–cement mix, the engineer can choose the amount of cement and the poros-
ity appropriate (within the studied range) to provide a mixture that meets the strength required
by the project at the optimum cost. The best option might change from situation to situation,
depending on time period available, accessibility to equipment to reach a given porosity and cost
of binder.
Another analysis of the results can be carried by comparing Equations (2) and (3), in which
both qu and qt have a direct relationship with [η/(Civ )0.41 ]−2.6 and only a scalar differs regarding
the effects of type of test (unconfined compression or split tensile).
Road Materials and Pavement Design 9

Figure 5. Variation of unconfined compressive strength (qu ) with adjusted porosity/cement ratio for
28 days of curing.

For the RAP–PR–cement mix studied herein, it can been shown that the qt /qu relationship
(named ξ ) is unique [ξ = 0.17 – see Equation (4)] being independent of the porosity/cement
ratio. Further studies are required expanding tests to other materials, binders and curing time
periods in order to check the possibility of generalisation of the present findings.
 −2.6
η
qt 4.19 × 105
(Civ )0.41
ξ= =  −2.6 = 0.17 (4)
qu
2.56 × 106 (C η)0.41
iv

Effect of the cement content, porosity and porosity/cement ratio on dynamic modulus
considering 4 distinct curing testing temperatures and 10 loading frequencies
The dynamic modulus (E*) variation with the amount of Portland cement (C), considering three
distinct dry unit weights (20, 21 and 22 kN/m3 ), testing temperature (TT) of 21°C and cyclic
loading frequency (F) of 10 Hz is shown in Figure 7. Such study was extended to the other three
10 N.C. Consoli et al.

Figure 6. Variation of split tensile strength (qt ) with adjusted porosity/cement ratio for 28 days of curing.

TT (4°C, 37°C and 54°C) and other nine F (0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 20 and 25 Hz). In all
cases increasing dry unit weight and cement content ends up increasing E*. In all cases, a power
function fits reasonably to the relation E* – C for the three dry unit weight studied.
A similar analysis to the one carried out above for qu and qt was done for dynamic mod-
ulus (E*) as a function of the adjusted porosity/cement ratio (Figure 8) considering three
amounts of Portland cement (3%, 5% and 7%), three distinct dry unit weights (20, 21 and
22 kN/m3 ), testing temperature of 21°C and cyclic loading frequency of 10 Hz. A simple obser-
vation of Figure 8 suggests that the adjusted porosity/cement ratio is useful in normalising E*
results for compacted RAP–PR–Portland cement blends. A suitable coefficient of correlation
(R2 = 0.75) can be observed between η/(Civ )0.41 (with the same exponent on Civ as for the
strength analysis – 0.41) and E* of the blends studied, respectively for 28 days [Equation (5)] of
curing.

 −1.5
η
E ∗ (MPa) = 4.9 × 105 (5)
C0.41
iv
Road Materials and Pavement Design 11

Figure 7. Dynamic modulus (E ∗ ) versus early strength Portland cement content (C) considering three
distinct dry unit weights (20, 21 and 22 kN/m3 ), testing temperature of 37°C and cyclic loading frequency
of 10 Hz.

The assessment of the dynamic modulus of the compacted RAP – PR – Portland cement
blends considering the other three TT (4°C, 37°C and 54°C) and additional nine F (0.01,
0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 20 and 25 Hz) have shown similar results as presented in Equation
−1.5
(5). According to such results, E* has a direct relationship with [η/C0.41
iv ] for all stud-
ied TT and F and only a scalar differs regarding the effects of TT and F. Equation (5) can
be spread for each of the four studied TT {4°C [see Equation (6) with R2 = 0.99], 21°C
[see Equation (7) with R2 = 0.94], 37°C [see Equation (8) with R2 = 0.95] and 54°C [see
Equation (9)] with R2 = 0.68}, once a logarithmic relationship is found between E* and the
frequencies (F) for each TT, as shown in Figure 9(a)–(d) for TT of 4°C, 21°C, 37°C and
54°C, respectively. It is possible to observe in Figure 9(a)–(d) that the studied blends have
viscous effects once E* (for each studied TT) has a strong dependency of F (mainly at low
frequencies).

 −1.5
η
E ∗ (MPa) = [0.25 ln F + 5.3] (6)
C0.41
iv
12 N.C. Consoli et al.

Figure 8. Variation of dynamic modulus (E*) with adjusted porosity/cement ratio considering testing
temperature of 37°C, cyclic loading frequency of 10 Hz and 28 days of curing.

 −1.5
∗ η
E (MPa) = [0.25 ln F + 4.1] (7)
C0.41
iv

 −1.5
η
E ∗ (MPa) = [0.25 ln F + 2.3] (8)
C0.41
iv

 −1.5
η
E ∗ (MPa) = [0.25 ln F + 1.8] (9)
C0.41
iv

Further elaborating with the variables, through the insertion of TT [see Figure (10)], a unique
relationship can also be achieved linking E* with η, Civ , TT and F, as presented in Equation (10).
 −1.5
η
E ∗ (MPa) = [0.25 ln F − 0.075TT + 5.55] (10)
C0.41
iv
Road Materials and Pavement Design 13

Figure 9. Logarithmic relationships found between E* and the frequencies (F) for each temperature.

The phase angle (δ), which assesses the viscous and the elastic portions of the deformations of
the compacted RAP – PR – Portland cement blends, is obtained during the testing to acquire
the dynamic modulus, considering specimens with distinct amounts of cement, dry unit weights,
subjected to distinct frequencies and testing temperatures. Results have shown that the phase
angle (δ) barely changes with the porosity/cement ratio for each specific frequency and testing
temperature. Looking at the effect of testing temperatures δ varies in the range 3°–6° to high
frequencies and 6°–9° to low frequencies, considering testing temperature of 4°C. Increasing the
testing temperature to 21°C causes an increase of δ from 5°–8° to high frequencies and 10°–12°
to low frequencies. For testing temperature of 37°C, δ ranges from 10°–14° to all frequencies.
Finally, for the highest testing temperature of 54°C, δ changes from 10°–13° to high frequencies
and 7°–10° to low frequencies. Knowing that δ = 0° for completely elastic behaviour and 90° for
only viscous behaviour, it can be said that, in all cases, the studied compacted RAP–PR–Portland
cement blends have some viscous part, presenting a minimum phase angle of 3° at low testing
temperatures and high frequencies to a maximum phase angle of 14°. Typical values of phase
angles of bituminous mixtures change from 2° to 50° considering the same range of temperatures
and frequencies.
14 N.C. Consoli et al.

Figure 10. Linear relationship between scalar Z in Equations (6) to (9) and temperature (TT).

Figure 11 shows the Black’s curve – phase angle (δ) versus dynamic modulus (E*) –
considering dry unit weight of 21 kN/m3 and Portland cement amount of 5%. The result is typ-
ical, showing an increase in the phase angle with a reduction of the dynamic modulus up to a
certain testing temperature increase (from 4°C to 37°C), followed by a decrease of the phase
angle with reduction of the dynamic modulus for larger testing temperature.

Concluding remarks
From the data presented in this manuscript, the following conclusions can be drawn:

• The dynamic modulus (E*) for the studied compacted RAP (containing bitumen) – PR –
Portland cement blends is affected by the porosity/cement ratio (η/Civ ), loading frequency
(F) and testing temperature (TT) and the viscoelastic properties are captured in a unique
relationship [see Equation (10)].
• The compacted RAP – PR – Portland cement blends have viscous behaviour, varying the
phase angle from a minimum of 3° at low testing temperatures and high frequency to a
maximum of 14°.
Road Materials and Pavement Design 15

Figure 11. Phase angle versus dynamic modulus – Black’s curve – for a dry unit weight of 21 kN/m3 and
5% of Portland cement.

• The porosity/cement ratio (η/Civ ) has been shown to be an appropriate index parameter to
assess qu and qt of the compacted RAP–PR–Portland cement blends studied herein;
• The qt /qu ratio is a scalar (0.17) for the compacted RAP–PR–Portland cement blends
evaluated in the present study, being independent of porosity/cement ratio. As a conse-
quence, dosage methodologies based on rational criteria can concentrate either on tensile
or compression tests, once they are interdependable.

Acknowledgements
The authors wish to express their gratitude to PRONEX FAPERGS/CNPq 12/2014 and CNPq (Brazilian
Research Council) for the financial support to the research group.

Disclosure statement
No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.

Funding
This work was supported by CNPq (PRONEX-FAPERGS) [grant number 16/2551-0000469-2].

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18 N.C. Consoli et al.

Notation
C cement content (expressed in relation to mass of dry materials)
Civ volumetric cement content (expressed in relation to the total specimen volume)
E* dynamic modulus
F frequency
PR powdered rock
qu unconfined compressive strength
qt split tensile strength
R2 coefficient of determination
RAP reclaimed asphalt paving
TT testing temperature
V total volume of specimen
δ phase angle
ξ qt /qu
η porosity
η/Civ porosity/cement ratio
γd dry unit weight
γs unit weight of solids
w moisture content