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Key Parameters Controlling Dynamic Modulus of Crushed Reclaimed Asphalt Paving-powdered Rock-Portland Cement Blends

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Key Parameters Controlling Dynamic Modulus of Crushed Reclaimed Asphalt Paving-powdered Rock-Portland Cement Blends

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of crushed reclaimed asphalt paving–powdered

rock–Portland cement blends

Nilo Cesar Consoli, Eduardo Pasche, Luciano Pivoto Specht & Mateus Tanski

To cite this article: Nilo Cesar Consoli, Eduardo Pasche, Luciano Pivoto Specht & Mateus

Tanski (2017): Key parameters controlling dynamic modulus of crushed reclaimed asphalt

paving–powdered rock–Portland cement blends, Road Materials and Pavement Design, DOI:

10.1080/14680629.2017.1345779

http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=trmp20

Road Materials and Pavement Design, 2017

https://doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2017.1345779

asphalt paving–powdered rock–Portland cement blends

Nilo Cesar Consolia∗ , Eduardo Paschea , Luciano Pivoto Spechtb and Mateus Tanskib

a Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil

b Department of Transport, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil

In order to minimise the impact on the environment of reclaimed asphalt paving (RAP) dis-

posal, a policy was established in Brazil determining that such residue should be recycled and

used in roadways whenever possible. Mixing RAP with powdered rock and Portland cement

to be used as a base/sub-base of pavements has been experienced with interesting results.

Though, there is a lack of studies on the mechanical properties (unconﬁned compressive –

qu and split tensile – qt ) and the viscoelastic behaviour (dynamic modulus – E* and phase

angle – δ) of RAP – powdered rock – Portland cement blends. The present research aims at

quantifying the inﬂuence of amounts of Portland cement (C) and the eﬀect of the porosity (η)

of the compacted blend in improving qu , qt and E* of the mixtures. This paper advances in the

understanding of the key parameters controlling strength and stiﬀness of compacted RAP –

powdered rock – Portland cement mixtures by quantifying the inﬂuence of porosity/cement

index (η/Civ ) on qu and qt strengths and mainly on the viscoelastic behaviour (E* and δ),

including the eﬀect of frequency (F) and the testing temperatures (TT). A single qt /qu rela-

tionship equal to 0.17 was found, being independent of the η/Civ . On the other side, it is shown

that η/Civ is an appropriate parameter to assess both the E* and the qu of the RAP – powdered

rock – Portland cement mixtures studied. The phase angle (δ) of the compacted mix is not

aﬀected by η/Civ , being slightly inﬂuenced by F and TT. It varies from a minimum of 3° at

low testing temperatures and high frequency to a maximum of 14°.

Keywords: reclaimed asphalt paving; Portland cement; strength; complex modulus; porosity/

cement index

Introduction

Previous studies of soil–cement (e.g. Catton, 1962; Clough, Sitar, Bachus, & Rad, 1981; Moore,

Kennedy, & Hudson, 1970) have shown that its behaviour is complex, and aﬀected by many

factors (e.g. the size and shape of the soil particles, the amount and type of binder, the poros-

ity and curing time period). The ﬁrst rational dosage methodology for establishing unconﬁned

compressive strength (qu ) of granular soils treated with Portland cement was developed by Con-

soli, Viana da Fonseca, Cruz, and Heineck (2009) considering the porosity/cement ratio (η/Civ ),

deﬁned as the porosity of the compacted mixture (η) divided by the volumetric cement con-

tent (Civ ). The porosity/cement ratio plays a fundamental role in the assessment of the target qu

because it takes into account both compaction and cementation levels. This means one can apply

higher compaction energy or add more cementitious agent to reach a speciﬁc value of strength.

2 N.C. Consoli et al.

Such dosage methodology was extended to tensile strength (qt ) and initial shear modulus (Go ),

in Consoli, Cruz, Floss, and Festugato (2010) and Consoli, da Fonseca, Silva, Cruz, and Fonini

(2012a), respectively. Consoli, Cruz, Viana da Fonseca, and Coop (2012b) found out that η/Civ

is an appropriate ratio to assess stress-dilatancy of the sand-cement mixtures. Using a speciﬁc

soil, distinct Portland cement types and curing periods, Consoli, Festugato, Rocha, and Cruz

(2013) suggested a normalisation allowing the prediction of the eﬀect of varying cement content

and porosity with given cement and curing time on compressive strength (qu ). Consoli (2014)

proposed the assessment of the Mohr–Coulomb failure envelope of artiﬁcially cemented sands

based on amount of cement, porosity, η/Civ , qt and qu . Consoli and Foppa (2014) have shown the

adequacy of η/Civ in predicting the incremental yield stress and initial bulk modulus of artiﬁcially

cemented sand cured under stress. Consoli, Marques, Floss, and Festugato (2017) successfully

normalised both tensile and compressive strength cement-bonded clean granular soils for an

entire range of porosities and cement contents.

Along with that, it has increased the concern about the reuse and recycling of materi-

als. According to the Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA) recycled materials policy

(Wright, 2001): “The same materials used to build the original highway system can be re-

used to repair, reconstruct, and maintain them. Where appropriate, recycling of aggregates and

other highway construction materials makes sound economic, environmental, and engineering

sense”. Regarding the reuse of reclaimed asphalt paving (RAP), Puppala, Hoyos, and Pot-

turi (2011) have studied its stabilisation with cement to evaluate the eﬀectiveness of cement

treatments in enhancing resilient characteristics of RAP aggregates. Avirneni, Peddinti, and

Saride (2016) studied the long-term strength and durability of RAP–virgin aggregates–ﬂy ash

blends activated in an alkaline environment for application as a base course. Hoy, Horpibul-

suk, and Arulrajah (2016) investigated the strength development of RAP–ﬂy ash–liquid alkaline

activator for use as a road construction material. A Brazilian policy was created stating that

RAP should be recycled and used in roadways whenever possible. RAP– powdered rock–

Portland cement blends have been tested as a base/sub-base of highways with encouraging

results.

The reuse of this material through recycling has been the subject of countless research in the

world. In Europe and the United States, the main focus is the use in hot asphalt mixtures (Daniel,

Gibson, Tarbox, Copeland, & Andriescu, 2013; Hajj et al., 2009; Lo Presti, Hassan, Airey, &

Collop, 2013; Mangiaﬁco et al., 2013) and in Brazil this material is underutilised as a granular

layer of roadway levelling or in secondary roads (Pasche, Silva, Pires, Specht, & Echeverria,

2014).

It is possible to launch non-stabilisation techniques for the use of cold milling with addition of

virgin material and/or cement and emulsion (ARRA, 1997; Dalla Rosa, Silva, Brito, & Ceratti,

2015; Pires, Specht, Pinheiro, Pereira, & Renz, 2016; Wright, 2001). Several authors (Arulra-

jah, Piratheepan, & Disfani, 2014; Bilodeau, Sauzéat, Di Benedetto, & Olard, 2012; Bilodeau,

Sauzéat, Di Benedetto, Olard, & Bonneau, 2011; Dong & Huang, 2014; Hoyos, Puppala, &

Ordonez, 2011; Huang, Shu, & Burdette, 2006; Huang, Shu, & Li, 2005; Nguyen et al., 2017;

Pires et al., 2016; Puppala, Saride, & Williammee, 2012) mentioned that the RAP has been suc-

cessfully reused as a construction material, in road bases and sub-bases, as aggregates of asphalt

concrete, slopes and embankments ﬁll.

Moreover, bituminous materials (pure or in mixtures) exhibit strong dependency to loading

time and temperature, and this behaviour cannot be neglected (Di Benedetto & Corté, 2005; Di

Benedetto, Partl, Francken, & De La Roche, 2001). Some works have been done approaching

RAP materials using the linear viscoelastic approach and carrying out diﬀerent complex modulus

tests, measuring dynamic modulus (or norm of complex modulus) and phase angle; (Bilodeau

et al., 2011, 2012; Dong & Huang, 2014; Nguyen et al., 2017).

Road Materials and Pavement Design 3

The main contribution of this work is the demonstration of the existence of direct relationships

between qu , qt , E* and η/Civ for compacted RAP–powdered rock–Portland cement mixtures.

Besides, important questions for base/sub-base design using compacted RAP–powdered rock–

Portland cement mixes that remain unanswered were: Does this material have viscoelastic

behaviour? Is qt /qu ratio a scalar for the compacted blends evaluated in the present study, being

independent of η/Civ ? Is there any relationship for compacted RAP – powdered rock – Portland

cement mixtures linking dynamic modulus, phase angle with F, TT and η/Civ ? This research also

aims at approaching some of these questions.

Experimental programme

The experimental programme has been carried out in distinct segments. First, tests were per-

formed to characterise the materials used. Next, compaction curves considering three distinct

energies (standard, intermediate and modiﬁed) were established. Following, a number of tests

were carried out for RAP – powdered rock – Portland cement blends considering distinct amounts

of cement and dry unit weights to characterise the mechanical properties (qu and qt ) and tests to

determine the complex modulus (dynamic modulus and phase angle) considering a range of both

temperature and loading frequency.

Materials

RAP grain size distribution is presented in Table 1 and in Figure 1. Such recycled aggregate was

reclaimed from BR 290 highway, which connects the city of Porto Alegre (located in southern

Brazil) to the seashore. RAP samples were collected in suﬃcient amount to complete all tests.

The bitumen content (SBS Modiﬁed – PG 70-22S) found in the RAP was about 5.0%, having

been determined according to ASTM (2011a). Speciﬁc gravity of RAP for coarse aggregate was

determined according to ABNT (2009b), for the ﬁne aggregate was determined according to

ABNT (2009a) and then relationship between them results in (γ sRAP ) is 2.505. Coarse aggregate

( > 4.76 mm) presents a soundness test (DNER, 1994) result of 0.31% and Los Angeles abrasion

(DNER, 1998) of 10.3%. Fine aggregate presents a sand equivalent (DNER, 1997) of 68.74%.

A volcanic rock (Dacite) crusher plant situated alongside BR 290 highway supply powdered

rock (PR) that was selected for the present study. The grain size distribution is also presented

in Table 1 and Figure 1. Speciﬁc gravity of PR grains (γ sPR ) is 2.78 determined according to

ABNT (2009a).

Portland cement of high initial strength (Type III) was used as the cementing agent. The cur-

ing time periods adopted was 28 days. The speciﬁc gravity of the cement grains (γ sC ) is 3.15

determined according to ABNT (2001).

Sieve opening RAP Powdered rock Blend [70% crushed

Sieve number (mm) (passing %) (passing %) RAP + 30% PR] (passing %)

#1 25.4 100.00 100.00 100.00

#3/8 9.5 74.13 100.00 81.89

4 4.8 44.94 100.00 61.46

10 2.0 17.14 71.00 33.30

40 0.42 5.00 46.50 17.45

200 0.075 0.11 21.00 6.37

4 N.C. Consoli et al.

Figure 1. Grain size distribution of crushed RAP, powdered rock and RAP–powdered rock–Portland

cement blends, considering 70% RAP – 30% powdered rock proportion.

Distilled water was used both for characterisation tests and tap water for molding specimens

for the mechanical tests.

Methods

Molding and curing of specimens

All the specimens tested were prepared by mixing the relevant quantities of crushed RAP, PR,

early strength Portland cement and water; the molding points had a moisture content of about

8%. The amounts of crushed RAP and PR were blended in proportions 70%/30%, as indicated on

previous experiences (Pasche et al., 2014; Specht et al., 2013). The results of Proctor compaction

tests, for standard (600 kN m/m3 ), intermediate (1650 kN m/m3 ) and modiﬁed (2700 kN m/m3 )

compaction eﬀorts, are shown in Figure 2.

For the strength (unconﬁned compression and split tensile) tests, cylindrical specimens of

100 mm diameter and 200 mm height were used. For the complex modulus tests, cylindrical

specimens of 100 mm diameter and 150 mm height were used. A target dry unit weight for

a given specimen was then established through the dry mass of RAP–PR–cement divided by

the total volume of the specimen. Porosity (η) is deﬁned as the ratio of voids (in volume)

over the total volume of the specimen (V). As shown in Equation (1) (Consoli, Dalla Rosa,

& Saldanha, 2011), porosity (η) is a function of dry unit weight (γ d ), early strength Portland

cement (C), crushed RAP content and PR content (S). Each material (RAP, PR and cement) has

a unit weight of solids (γ sRAP , γ sPR and γ sC ), which also needs to be considered for calculating

porosity

⎧⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞⎫

⎨ γd V RAP γd V PR γd V

[ 100

C

] ⎬

100 ⎝ 100γ sRAP

1+ C

⎠ + ⎝ 1001+ C

⎠ + ⎝ 100

1+ C

⎠

100 100

⎩ γ sPR γ sC ⎭

η = 100 − . (1)

V

After the crushed RAP, PR and cement were weighed; they were mixed until the mixture

acquired a uniform consistency. Followingly, water was then inserted (in order to reach target

Road Materials and Pavement Design 5

Figure 2. Compaction curve of the crushed RAP–powdered rock (70/30 proportion) considering three

Proctor energies (standard, intermediate and modiﬁed).

moisture content), continuing the mixing process until a homogeneous material was created. The

amount of Portland cement for each mixture was calculated based on the mass of dry RAP + PR.

The specimen was then statically compacted in ﬁve layers inside a cylindrical split mold, which

was lubricated, so that each layer reached the speciﬁed dry unit weight. The top of each layer

was slightly scariﬁed. Twenty-four hours after the molding process, the specimen was extracted

from the split mold and its weight, diameter and height measured with accuracies of about 0.01 g

and 0.1 mm, respectively. The specimens were cured for 28 days in a humid room at 21 ± 2°C

and relative humidity above 95%.

Unconﬁned compression tests followed Brazilian standard NBR 5739 (ABNT, 2010), which is

similar to standard ASTM C39 (ASTM, 2010). Before carrying out testing, the specimens were

submerged in a water tank for 24 h for saturation to minimise suction (Consoli et al., 2011).

6 N.C. Consoli et al.

The water temperature was controlled and maintained at 21 ± 2°C. Then, the unconﬁned com-

pression test was carried out and the maximum load recorded (displacement rate adopted was

1.14 mm/min). Because of the typical scatter of data for unconﬁned compression tests, for each

point, three specimens were tested. The testing programme was chosen in such a way as to evalu-

ate, separately, the inﬂuences of the cement content, the dry unit weight and the porosity/cement

ratio. Based on the compaction test results, the molding points had a moisture content of about

8%, three diﬀerent dry unit weights (20, 21 and 22 kN/m3 ) and three diﬀerent early strength Port-

land cement percentages (3%, 5% and 7%). Curing period of 28 days was chosen once about

95% of maximum strengths were already reached.

Split tensile tests followed Brazilian standard NBR 7222 (ABNT, 1983), which is in accordance

with standard ASTM C496 (ASTM, 2011b). Curing and submersion issues, as well as testing

programme and molding points were the same as for the unconﬁned compression tests. The split

tensile test was originally developed by Carneiro and Barcellos (1953) as a tension test for brittle

materials.

Viscoelastic properties of compacted RAP (containing bitumen) – PR – Portland cement blends

are determined according to standard AASHTO T 342 (AASHTO, 2011). Sinusoidal load ampli-

tude was adjusted to obtain axial strains between 50 and 75 μm/m (Linear Viscoelastic Domain).

The molding points had a moisture content of about 8%, three diﬀerent dry unit weights (20, 21

and 22 kN/m3 ), three diﬀerent early strength Portland cement percentages (3%, 5% and 7%) and

28 days of curing. The procedure covers a range of both temperature and loading frequency. The

test series consists of testing at 4°C, 21°C, 37°C and 54°C at loading frequencies of 0.01, 0.1,

0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 25 Hz for each temperature.

Results

Eﬀect of the cement content and porosity on unconﬁned compressive and split tensile strength

The unconﬁned compressive strength (qu ) variation with the amount of Portland (C) is shown in

Figure 3 for a curing period of 28 days. Increasing dry unit weight and increasing cement content

end up increasing qu . A linear function also ﬁts well to the relation qu – C for the three dry unit

weight studied.

The split tensile strength (qt ) variation with the amount of Portland cement (C) is shown in

Figure 4 for a curing period of 28 days. Increasing dry unit weight and increasing Portland cement

content ends up increasing qt . A linear function also ﬁts well to the relation qt – C for the three

dry unit weight studied.

Figure 5 presents the unconﬁned compressive strength as a function of the adjusted poros-

ity/cement ratio η/(Civ )0.41 [expressed as porosity (η) divided by the volumetric cement content

(Civ ), the latter expressed as a percentage of cement volume to the total volume of the RAP–PR–

cement mix (Consoli, Foppa, Festugato, & Heineck, 2007)] for curing period studied (28 days).

A simple observation of Figure 5 suggests that the adjusted porosity/cement ratio is use-

ful in normalising results for RAP–PR–cement blends. Good correlations (R2 = 0.95) can be

Road Materials and Pavement Design 7

Figure 3. Unconﬁned compressive strength (qu ) versus early strength Portland cement content (C)

considering 28 days as curing period.

observed between η/(Civ )0.41 and qu of the RAP–PR–cement mix studied, respectively for 28

days [Equation (2)] of curing.

−2.6

η

qu (kPa) = 2.56 × 106 . (2)

(Civ )0.41

materials has been shown by Consoli, Foppa, Festugato, and Heineck (2007). These authors

have revealed that rates of change of strength with porosity (η) and the inverse of the volumetric

cement content (1/Civ ) are usually substantially diﬀerent. A way to make the variation rates of η

and 1/Civ compatible is through the application of a power to one of them. Furthermore, Diambra,

Ibraim, Peccin, Consoli, and Festugato (2017) developed an analytical relation explaining links

between strength of artiﬁcially cemented granular soils and the adjusted porosity/cement ratio

parameter.

Observing Figure 6, it could be suggested that adjusted porosity/cement ratio η/(Civ )0.41

is also useful in normalising results for split tensile strength (qt ). Good coeﬃcient of cor-

relation (R2 = 0.96) can be observed between adjusted porosity/cement ratio η/(Civ )0.41 and

8 N.C. Consoli et al.

Figure 4. Split tensile strength (qt ) versus early strength Portland cement content (C) considering 28 days

as curing period.

the split tensile strength (qt ) of the RAP–PR–cement mix studied for 28 days of curing [see

Equation (3)].

−2.6

η

qt (kPa) = 4.19 × 10 5

. (3)

(Civ )0.41

The results presented in this manuscript therefore suggest that using the adjusted porosity/cement

ratio for the RAP–PR–cement mix, the engineer can choose the amount of cement and the poros-

ity appropriate (within the studied range) to provide a mixture that meets the strength required

by the project at the optimum cost. The best option might change from situation to situation,

depending on time period available, accessibility to equipment to reach a given porosity and cost

of binder.

Another analysis of the results can be carried by comparing Equations (2) and (3), in which

both qu and qt have a direct relationship with [η/(Civ )0.41 ]−2.6 and only a scalar diﬀers regarding

the eﬀects of type of test (unconﬁned compression or split tensile).

Road Materials and Pavement Design 9

Figure 5. Variation of unconﬁned compressive strength (qu ) with adjusted porosity/cement ratio for

28 days of curing.

For the RAP–PR–cement mix studied herein, it can been shown that the qt /qu relationship

(named ξ ) is unique [ξ = 0.17 – see Equation (4)] being independent of the porosity/cement

ratio. Further studies are required expanding tests to other materials, binders and curing time

periods in order to check the possibility of generalisation of the present ﬁndings.

−2.6

η

qt 4.19 × 105

(Civ )0.41

ξ= = −2.6 = 0.17 (4)

qu

2.56 × 106 (C η)0.41

iv

Eﬀect of the cement content, porosity and porosity/cement ratio on dynamic modulus

considering 4 distinct curing testing temperatures and 10 loading frequencies

The dynamic modulus (E*) variation with the amount of Portland cement (C), considering three

distinct dry unit weights (20, 21 and 22 kN/m3 ), testing temperature (TT) of 21°C and cyclic

loading frequency (F) of 10 Hz is shown in Figure 7. Such study was extended to the other three

10 N.C. Consoli et al.

Figure 6. Variation of split tensile strength (qt ) with adjusted porosity/cement ratio for 28 days of curing.

TT (4°C, 37°C and 54°C) and other nine F (0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 20 and 25 Hz). In all

cases increasing dry unit weight and cement content ends up increasing E*. In all cases, a power

function ﬁts reasonably to the relation E* – C for the three dry unit weight studied.

A similar analysis to the one carried out above for qu and qt was done for dynamic mod-

ulus (E*) as a function of the adjusted porosity/cement ratio (Figure 8) considering three

amounts of Portland cement (3%, 5% and 7%), three distinct dry unit weights (20, 21 and

22 kN/m3 ), testing temperature of 21°C and cyclic loading frequency of 10 Hz. A simple obser-

vation of Figure 8 suggests that the adjusted porosity/cement ratio is useful in normalising E*

results for compacted RAP–PR–Portland cement blends. A suitable coeﬃcient of correlation

(R2 = 0.75) can be observed between η/(Civ )0.41 (with the same exponent on Civ as for the

strength analysis – 0.41) and E* of the blends studied, respectively for 28 days [Equation (5)] of

curing.

−1.5

η

E ∗ (MPa) = 4.9 × 105 (5)

C0.41

iv

Road Materials and Pavement Design 11

Figure 7. Dynamic modulus (E ∗ ) versus early strength Portland cement content (C) considering three

distinct dry unit weights (20, 21 and 22 kN/m3 ), testing temperature of 37°C and cyclic loading frequency

of 10 Hz.

The assessment of the dynamic modulus of the compacted RAP – PR – Portland cement

blends considering the other three TT (4°C, 37°C and 54°C) and additional nine F (0.01,

0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 20 and 25 Hz) have shown similar results as presented in Equation

−1.5

(5). According to such results, E* has a direct relationship with [η/C0.41

iv ] for all stud-

ied TT and F and only a scalar diﬀers regarding the eﬀects of TT and F. Equation (5) can

be spread for each of the four studied TT {4°C [see Equation (6) with R2 = 0.99], 21°C

[see Equation (7) with R2 = 0.94], 37°C [see Equation (8) with R2 = 0.95] and 54°C [see

Equation (9)] with R2 = 0.68}, once a logarithmic relationship is found between E* and the

frequencies (F) for each TT, as shown in Figure 9(a)–(d) for TT of 4°C, 21°C, 37°C and

54°C, respectively. It is possible to observe in Figure 9(a)–(d) that the studied blends have

viscous eﬀects once E* (for each studied TT) has a strong dependency of F (mainly at low

frequencies).

−1.5

η

E ∗ (MPa) = [0.25 ln F + 5.3] (6)

C0.41

iv

12 N.C. Consoli et al.

Figure 8. Variation of dynamic modulus (E*) with adjusted porosity/cement ratio considering testing

temperature of 37°C, cyclic loading frequency of 10 Hz and 28 days of curing.

−1.5

∗ η

E (MPa) = [0.25 ln F + 4.1] (7)

C0.41

iv

−1.5

η

E ∗ (MPa) = [0.25 ln F + 2.3] (8)

C0.41

iv

−1.5

η

E ∗ (MPa) = [0.25 ln F + 1.8] (9)

C0.41

iv

Further elaborating with the variables, through the insertion of TT [see Figure (10)], a unique

relationship can also be achieved linking E* with η, Civ , TT and F, as presented in Equation (10).

−1.5

η

E ∗ (MPa) = [0.25 ln F − 0.075TT + 5.55] (10)

C0.41

iv

Road Materials and Pavement Design 13

Figure 9. Logarithmic relationships found between E* and the frequencies (F) for each temperature.

The phase angle (δ), which assesses the viscous and the elastic portions of the deformations of

the compacted RAP – PR – Portland cement blends, is obtained during the testing to acquire

the dynamic modulus, considering specimens with distinct amounts of cement, dry unit weights,

subjected to distinct frequencies and testing temperatures. Results have shown that the phase

angle (δ) barely changes with the porosity/cement ratio for each speciﬁc frequency and testing

temperature. Looking at the eﬀect of testing temperatures δ varies in the range 3°–6° to high

frequencies and 6°–9° to low frequencies, considering testing temperature of 4°C. Increasing the

testing temperature to 21°C causes an increase of δ from 5°–8° to high frequencies and 10°–12°

to low frequencies. For testing temperature of 37°C, δ ranges from 10°–14° to all frequencies.

Finally, for the highest testing temperature of 54°C, δ changes from 10°–13° to high frequencies

and 7°–10° to low frequencies. Knowing that δ = 0° for completely elastic behaviour and 90° for

only viscous behaviour, it can be said that, in all cases, the studied compacted RAP–PR–Portland

cement blends have some viscous part, presenting a minimum phase angle of 3° at low testing

temperatures and high frequencies to a maximum phase angle of 14°. Typical values of phase

angles of bituminous mixtures change from 2° to 50° considering the same range of temperatures

and frequencies.

14 N.C. Consoli et al.

Figure 10. Linear relationship between scalar Z in Equations (6) to (9) and temperature (TT).

Figure 11 shows the Black’s curve – phase angle (δ) versus dynamic modulus (E*) –

considering dry unit weight of 21 kN/m3 and Portland cement amount of 5%. The result is typ-

ical, showing an increase in the phase angle with a reduction of the dynamic modulus up to a

certain testing temperature increase (from 4°C to 37°C), followed by a decrease of the phase

angle with reduction of the dynamic modulus for larger testing temperature.

Concluding remarks

From the data presented in this manuscript, the following conclusions can be drawn:

• The dynamic modulus (E*) for the studied compacted RAP (containing bitumen) – PR –

Portland cement blends is aﬀected by the porosity/cement ratio (η/Civ ), loading frequency

(F) and testing temperature (TT) and the viscoelastic properties are captured in a unique

relationship [see Equation (10)].

• The compacted RAP – PR – Portland cement blends have viscous behaviour, varying the

phase angle from a minimum of 3° at low testing temperatures and high frequency to a

maximum of 14°.

Road Materials and Pavement Design 15

Figure 11. Phase angle versus dynamic modulus – Black’s curve – for a dry unit weight of 21 kN/m3 and

5% of Portland cement.

• The porosity/cement ratio (η/Civ ) has been shown to be an appropriate index parameter to

assess qu and qt of the compacted RAP–PR–Portland cement blends studied herein;

• The qt /qu ratio is a scalar (0.17) for the compacted RAP–PR–Portland cement blends

evaluated in the present study, being independent of porosity/cement ratio. As a conse-

quence, dosage methodologies based on rational criteria can concentrate either on tensile

or compression tests, once they are interdependable.

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to express their gratitude to PRONEX FAPERGS/CNPq 12/2014 and CNPq (Brazilian

Research Council) for the ﬁnancial support to the research group.

Disclosure statement

No potential conﬂict of interest was reported by the authors.

Funding

This work was supported by CNPq (PRONEX-FAPERGS) [grant number 16/2551-0000469-2].

References

AASHTO. (2011). Determining dynamic modulus of hot-mix asphalt concrete mixtures. Washington, DC:

AASHTO T 342.

ABNT. (1983). Mortar and concrete – test method for splitting tensile strength of cylindrical specimens.

Rio de Janeiro: NBR 7222 (in Portuguese).

ABNT. (2001). Portland cement and other powdered material – determination of density. Rio de Janeiro:

NBR NM 23 (in Portuguese).

ABNT. (2009a). Fine aggregate – determination of the bulk speciﬁc gravity and apparent speciﬁc gravity.

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Notation

C cement content (expressed in relation to mass of dry materials)

Civ volumetric cement content (expressed in relation to the total specimen volume)

E* dynamic modulus

F frequency

PR powdered rock

qu unconﬁned compressive strength

qt split tensile strength

R2 coeﬃcient of determination

RAP reclaimed asphalt paving

TT testing temperature

V total volume of specimen

δ phase angle

ξ qt /qu

η porosity

η/Civ porosity/cement ratio

γd dry unit weight

γs unit weight of solids

w moisture content

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