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Knitting design process by using SDS-ONE CAD system

and Shima Sheiki Automatic Knitting Machine

Md. Asrafuzzaman
Junior Officer

Date: 29-April 2015

Basic conception about Shima Machine and Knitting
Some basic knitting construction.

Fig: Difference in yarns path for basic (a) woven (b) weft-knit (c) warp-knit.

Fig: Graphic representation of knit design and knit process (yarn path).

Fihgure-1: Fundamental weft knit structure and Knitting Notation.

1. Rib and Purl structure.

Figure-2: 1*1 Rib Figure-3: Purl structure.

Figure-4: Weft and Warp Knitting.

Figure-4: Various types of Rib and links-links structure.

2. 3D design.

Figure-5: 3D knit fabrics created Figure-6: A 3D knit design created on Shima Seiki
Rib and Purl structure. SDS- by using ONE CAD system.
Figure-7: 3D Knit shapes by use of Rib and Purl structure.

3. Some Fashion garments.

Figure-9: Fashion garments.

4. Knitting classification.

Figure-: A Knitting Classification Diagram for machinery type.

Comparison of knitting machinery.
Stitch formation, Knit, tuck and float loop.

Source: Spencer, D. (2001). Knitting Technology, a Comprehensive Handbook and

Practical Guide (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited, p. 95, p. 97.
Shima Seiki Automatic Knitting Machine

The Shima Seiki Company invented the WholeGarment® machine and introduced the
commercial complete garment knitting (SWG-V machine) in 1995 at the ITMA-E
(International Textile Machinery Association – Exhibition) (Millington, 1996). Since the
beginning of WholeGarment® machine production, about 3500 WholeGarment® machines
have been manufactured and sold worldwide (Hunter, 2004e).

The seamless garment machines of Shima Seiki have a different range of gauges from 3 to 15
gauge and knitting widths ranging from 50 inches to 80 inches. Shima Seiki produces a
number of versions of the WHOLEGARMENT® machine that can produce one piece of
three-dimensional complete garment with no stitching, linking or sewing process.

Figure: SWG-𝑉 𝑡𝑚 machine

 Shima Seiki Knitting System and Its Operating Process

5. Knitting machine component and SDS-ONE knit paint construction.

Shima Seiki SES Colour No. List:

Key Elements of Flat bed machine:

1. The needle
2. Needle bed
3. Racking mechanism
4. Carriage and cam
5. Yarn carriers
6. Takedown
7. Yarn threading mechanism
8. Sinkers
9. Stitch presser

Needle type:

Difference between the needle movement between Latch and Compound needle.

Fig: Needle bed of standard 2 bed knitting machine.

Fig: Needle bed position.

Fig: Racking.

Fig: Carriage and placement of cams and simplified diagram of the rising and lowering CAMs.
Fig: Carriage and yarn carriers.

Fig: Takedown.

Yarn threading mechanism.

Fig: Tension device and digital stitch control system.

Fig: Sinker system

Fig: stitch presser.

Figure-: Knitting action of latch needle though cam track.

Source: Raz, S. (1991). Flat Knitting : The New Generation. Germany: Meisenbach Bamberg, p. 35.
Figure-: Knitting machine systems on flat V-bed machine.

Source: Shima Seiki. (2004). Shima Seiki Instruction Manual – Shimatronic WholeGarment®
Machine SWG-V. Wakayama, Japan, p. 1-4.

Figure-: Yarn carriers, carriage and take-down rollers.

Source: Raz, S. (1991). Flat Knitting : The New Generation. Germany: Meisenbach Bamberg, p. 36-

Figure-: A latch needle on Shima Seiki machine.

6. Cut and Sew and complete knitting garments.

1) Cut and Sew Production

2) Fully-Fashioning

Figure-: Two-piece fully fashioned knitting.

Source: Knitting International. (2004e). Stoll Launches Flexible All-Rounder,

111(1321), p. 15.
7. Some knitting process.

Figure-: Narrowing process by loop transference on flat V-bed machine.

The above picture depicts the Shima Seiki knitting machine system and its operating process.
In general, knit patterns can be created on the CAD (Computer-Aided Design) system. After
a knit pattern is designed on the CAD system, the possibility of knitting on the machine can
be evaluated throughout the computerized simulation system. All data for knit structures and
garment designs can be saved to a diskette. The saved data can then be transferred to the
Shima Seiki knitting machine; and the machine can be operated. Finally, one complete three-
dimensional garment can be knitted on the machine.
 Shima Seiki CAD System:

The Shima SDS ONE® CAD system is an integrated knit production system that allows all
phases of product production including planning, design, evaluation and production of knitted
fabrics and garments. Specifically, the loop simulation program permits a quick estimation of
knit structures without any actual sample making (Hunter, 2004b). The program provides an
opportunity to see knit problems and to try out varied knit structures on the computer system
before beginning knitting. In the Shima CAD system, each different type of knitting loop is
represented by different colored squares (see Figure 15). For example, as can be seen in
Figure 15, color number 1 (red) indicates a jersey (face loop) and color number 2 (green)
indicates a reverse jersey (rear loop). Thus, the following red colored figure demonstrates
how a single jersey structure and the 1X1 rib structure can be displayed on the fully-
fashioned software in the CAD system of the Shima Seiki machine. It is also noted that the
user may designate the color that they may prefer to repeat stitch structures.

Figure-15: Knitting CAD design.

Comb: A comb on the V-bed knitting machine is used to set up a yarn selected to knit. The comb
hooks the set-up yarn at the beginning of knitting process, and moves up and down, pulling down the
set-up yarns connected with a knitted garment.

Option lines: Option lines are used to control the data, including carriers, loop lengths, takedown
tensions et cetera, for a knit structure on the CAD system. For example, the right side of option line
number 1 (R1) is utilized to decide repetition of a pattern area.
The bottom figure () depicts a single course notation of the tubular-formed knitting. In Figure
2.28, the first row indicates front bed knitting (color number 1) and the second row indicates
back bed knitting (color number 2). Accordingly, continuous knitting in a lateral direction
between the front and back needle beds forms a tubular-typed fabric. Figure 16 shows how
loop transference for complete garment knitting can occur and how it can be displayed on the
CAD system. The empty needles thus can be used for the loop transference. For the loop
transference on complete garment knitting, at least two loops are transferred in a right or a
left direction due to alternate needle selection such as Below Figure. Note that only even
number of loops can be transferred for seamless knitting on V bed Knitting machine.

Figure-16: Stitch notation for seamless knitting and CAD design on the Shima Seiki CAD system.

Figure-17: Loop transference on the front bed for complete garment knitting.

By means of the principle of the alternate stitch notation, a two-dimensional design can be
created on the CAD system as can be seen in Figure 17. This represents a three-dimensional
tubular typed garment. Figure 17 displays a whole garment designed on the Shima Seiki
CAD system. In this complete garment design, garment shapes, styles and knit structures can
be created and modified. Standard sizes in the Shima Seiki CAD system may be adjusted to
fit. Data input from the body scanner can be utilized to adjust the dimensions of the knitted
garment. All data for a body size can be input into the CAD system. According to the data for
the body sizes, yarn counts for knitting, and machine gauges, dimensions of a garment can be
manually or automatically accomplished.
A complete knitting CAD design garments.
Figure-18: Design for a complete garment on Shima Seiki CAD system.