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Friction stir welding of dissimilar materials statistical

analysis of the welding data

Thesis report Submitted to Raajdhani Engineering College,Bhubaneswar in Partial


Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of

Bachelor of Technoloy

In

Mechanical Engineering

By

PRAJNAPTA PRADHAN

1501294292

Under the Guidance of

PROF. (DR.) K. MOHAPATRA

Mechanical Engineering Department


Raajdhani Engineering College
Bhubaneswar

Department of Mechanical Engineering


Raajdhani Engineering College Bhubaneswar
– 751017, Odisha SESSION-2018-19
Friction stir welding of dissimilar materials statistical
analysis of the welding data

Thesis Report Submitted to Raajdhani Engineering College,Bhubaneswar in Partial


Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of

Bachelor of Technoloy

In

Mechanical Engineering

By

PRAJNAPTA PRADHAN

1501294292

Under the Guidance of

PROF. (DR.) K. MOHAPATRA

Mechanical Engineering Department


Raajdhani Engineering College
Bhubaneswar

Department of Mechanical Engineering


Raajdhani Engineering College
Bhubaneswar – 751017, Odisha
SESSION 20178-19
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project report entitled “Friction Stir Welding Of Dissimilar
Materials Statistical Analysis Of The Welding Data” submitted by TULSI KUMAR
YADAV (Registration Number-1501294287) to the Rajdhani Engineering College,
Bhubaneswar, Odisha for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology, in
Engineering, is an authentic record of research work carried out by him under my guidance
and supervision. To the best of my knowledge, the work incorporated in this thesis has not
been submitted to any other University or Institute for the award of a degree or diploma.

III
IV
DECLARATION

I declare that this written submission represents my ideas in my own words and where others’
ideas or words have been included, I have adequately cited and referenced the original sources.
I also declare that I have adhered to all principles of academic honesty and integrity and have
not misrepresented or fabricated or falsified any idea/ data/ fact/ source in my submission. I
understand that any violation of the above will be cause for disciplinary action by the Institute
and can also evoke penal action from the sources which have thus not been properly cited or
from whom proper permission has not been taken when needed.

Tulsi Kumar Yadav


1501294287
Date:

V
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is a great pleasure to express my gratitude and indebtedness to my supervisor Prof.

(Dr.) K. Mohapatra, Head of Mechanical Engineering Department, for his guidance,

encouragement, moral support and affection through the course of my work.

VI
CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL

The foregoing thesis is hereby accepted as a credible study of an engineering subject carried
out & presented in a manner satisfactory to warrant its acceptance as a prerequisite to the
degree for which it has been submitted. It is understood that by this approval the undersigned
do not necessarily endorse or approve any statement made, opinion expressed or conclusion
drawn therein, but approve the thesis for the purpose for which it is submitted.

1.........................................................

2.........................................................

(Signature of Examiners)

VI
I
ABSTRACT

Friction stir welding (FSW) is a patented joining process, which was invented at TWI ten
years ago]. A wear resistant rotating tool is used to join sheet and plate materials such as
aluminium, copper and lead. In laboratory experiments, aluminium based metal matrix
composites, magnesium alloys, zinc, titanium alloys and steels have also been friction stir
welded. The welds are made below the melting point in the solid phase. The excellent
mechanical properties and low distortion are attributed to the low heat input and the absence
of melting. As it is a solid phase process, FSW permits joining of materials that cannot be
welded with conventional fusion welding processes.
In the aerospace industry, large tanks for launch vehicles are being produced by FSW from
high-strength aluminium alloys, and a Delta II rocket with a friction stir welded Interstage
Module has successfully been launched in August 1999. In the shipbuilding and rolling stock
industry several companies now exploit the process, e.g. for the production of large
prefabricated aluminium panels, which are made from aluminium extrusions. The automotive
industry uses FSW now in the high-volume production of components (e.g. light alloy wheels
and hollow aluminium extrusions) and considers the use for making tailored blanks,
suspension parts and components of aluminium space frames. Research and production FSW
machines are commercially available and include installations for welding up to 16m lengths.

This paper reports the results of statistical analysis conducted on the weld data obtained from
friction stir welding of aluminium and copper. The welds were produced by varying the
process parameters; the rotational speed was varied between 600 to 1200 rpm and the
welding speed varied between 50 and 300 mm/min. The Statistical (version 9.0) statistical
analysis software package was used to generate the scatter and surface plots relative to the
experimental results obtained from the tensile testing and the FSW data. Regression analysis
was also done on the weld data. It was found that the downward vertical force has a
significant effect on the Ultimate Tensile Strength of the weld and a strong relationship exist
between the heat input into the welds and the measured electrical resistivities of the welds.

VII
CONTENTS

List of figures
List of tables
List of symbols and abbreviations
CHAPTER-I

1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.1.1 DEFINATION OF WEALDING-----------------------------------------1

1.1.2 HISTORY OF WEALDING--------------------------------------------2-4

1.2 TYPES OF WEALDING

1.2.1 COLD WEALDING-----------------------------------------------------5-7


1.2.2 DIFFUSION WEALDING------------------------------------------------8

1.2.3 EXPLOSION WEALDING---------------------------------------------8-9

1.2.4 FORGE WEALDING-------------------------------------------------10

1.2.5 HOT PRESSURE WEALDING -----------------------------------------10-13

1.2.6 ROLL WEALDING-------------------------------------------------------14

1.2.7 ULTRASONIC WEALDING---------------------------------------------14

1.2.8 FRICTION WEALDING--------------------------------------------------14

CHAPTER-2

2.1 Friction Welding-----------------------------------------------------------------------15


2.2. History-------------------------------------------------------------------------------16

2.3. Metal Techniques

2.3.1. Spin welding-------------------------------------------------------------17

2.3.2. Linear friction welding-------------------------------------------------17

2.3.3. Friction surfacing------------------------------------------------------17

2.4. Thermoplastic technique

2.4.1. Linear vibration welding-----------------------------------------------18

2.4.2. Orbital friction welding-------------------------------------------------18

2.4.3. Seizure resistance------------------------------------------------------18-20

VIII
2.5. Friction Stir Welding-------------------------------------------------------21

2.6. Dissimilar friction stir welding----------------------------------------------------22

2.7. Principle of operation--------------------------------------------------------------23

2.8. Micro-structural features-----------------------------------------------------------24

2.9. Important Welding Parameters

2.9.1. Tool design-----------------------------------------------------------------25

2.9.2. Tool rotation and traverse speeds----------------------------------------26

2.9.3. Tool tilt and plunge depth------------------------------------------------26

2.10. Welding forces---------------------------------------------------------------------27

2.11. Flow of material-------------------------------------------------------------------27-28

2.12. Generation and flow of heat-----------------------------------------------------29-30

2.13. Typical Characteristics

2.13.1. Hardness-----------------------------------------------------------------------30

2.13.2. Microstructure---------------------------------------------------------------30

2.13.3. Tensile specimen-------------------------------------------------------------31

2.13.4. Imcs---------------------------------------------------------------------------31

2.13.5. Tensile Strength--------------------------------------------------------------31

2.13.6. Formation of composite structure----------------------------------------32

2.14. Challenge-------------------------------------------------------------------------------32

CHAPTER-3

3.1. EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP

3.1.1. Analysis of surface plots---------------------------------------------------------34-37

3.1.2. Regression analysis-------------------------------------------------------------38-40

3.1.3. Analysis of scatter plots-----------------------------------------------------40-41

3.1.4. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)--------------------------------------------42-48

IX
3.2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.2.1. Regression analysis-----------------------------------------------------49

3.2.2. Analysis of scatter plots-----------------------------------------------49

3.2.3. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)--------------------------------50

CHAPTER-4

4.1. Advantages-------------------------------------------------------------------50-53

4.2. Advantages and limitations------------------------------------------------54

4.3. Advantage of friction stir wealding over friction wealding disadvantages of friction
stir wealding----------------------------------------------------------------------------------55

4.4. Applications------------------------------------------------------------------------56-65

4.4.1. Shipbuilding and offshore

4.4.2. Aerospace

4.4.3. Automotive

4.4.4. Railways

4.4.5. Fabrication

4.4.6. Robotics

4.4.7. DEVELOPMENT OF FSW SPECIFICATIONS

4.5. RECOMMENDATIONS

4.5.1. DEVELOPMENT OF FSW SPECIFICATIONS---------------------------66

4.5.2. SHARED DATABASES--------------------------------------------------------66

CHAPTER-Ⅴ

5.1. SUMMARY--------------------------------------------------------------------67-69

CHAPTER-VI

6.1. Conclusion---------------------------------------------------------------------------70-72

CHAPTER-VII

7.1 References----------------------------------------------------------------------------74-83

7.2 Appendix-----------------------------------------------------------------------------84-90