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# Theory regarded

## o Blaise Pascal (Arithmetic Machine - 1642)

o Charles Babbage (Difference engine - 1822 & Analytical engine - 1830)
o Chinese abacus
o Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (Step Reckoner - 1671-1673)

## R: Charles Babbage (Difference engine - 1822 & Analytical engine - 1830)

(2 min) Claude Elwood Shannon is considered as the founding father of electronic communications age. He is an
American mathematical engineer, whose work on technical and engineering problems within the communications
industry, laying the groundwork for both the computer industry and telecommunications .In his master's degree he
showed the similarities between electrical switching and:

o Binary mathematics
o Boolean algebra
o Properties of logarithmic functions
o Previous discovered properties of transistors

R: Boolean algebra

## o The numbers of transistors would be doubled at each 18-month interval

o The numbers of transistors would be doubled yearly
o The processing power of computers will be double after each 12-month interval
o The price of computers would be doubled after each two-year

## R: The numbers of transistors would be doubled at each 18-month interval

(2 min) Who is often regarded as the first computer programmer (choose one):

o Ada Lovelace (the only legitimate child of the poet Lord Byron)
o Charles Babbage (a English mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer who originated
the concept of a digital programmable computer)
o Blaise Pascal (a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer who constructed – at not yet 19 - a
mechanical calculator capable of addition and subtraction)

## R: Augusta Ada King-Noel, Countess of Lovelace

(3 min) John von Neumann was was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, and computer scientist. He
made major contributions to a number of fields, including: quantum mechanics, game theory, computing,
statistics, mathematics. His analysis of the structure of self-replication (computing) preceded the discovery of the
structure of DNA. As a consequence of the extensive domination of the von Neumann computer architecture and
parallel programming theory during the past 60 years we have now the following languages (choose 3):

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 C
 Verilog
 Java
 VHDL
 C++

R: C, C++, Java

(1 min) A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. The
first practically implemented device was a point-contact transistor invented by John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and
William Shockley in (choose one):

o 1923
o 1947
o 1969

R: 1947

(3min ) Flynn's taxonomy is a classification of computer architectures, proposed by Michael J. Flynn in 1966.
Connect by arrows the following architectures with their names:

(5 min) Assuming that H is the entropy, X, Y, Z are the events and p is probability, replace the ____ on the
following remarks with suitable symbol (0,1,=,≤, ≠, ≥, <, >, ∞, ±, /, *):

## a) H (p1, p2, …, pn) ___ 0

b) H (p1, p2, …, pn) = 0 only and only pk= ____ for kϵ{1,…,n}
c) H (p1, p2, …, pn) ___ H (1/n, 1/n, …., 1/n) for maximum of entropy
d) H (X1 * X2 * …* Xn) = H (X1) ___ H (X2) ___ ….. ___ H (Xn)
e) H (Y / X) ___ H (Y)
f) H (X ___ Y) ≤ H (X) + H (Y)
g) H (X/Y) = H (Y/X) + H (X) ___ H(Y)

R: ≥ 1 = + …….

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SUPL (5 min) What is the key feature of Gray Code and when should it be used?

R:

• Only one bit in the code group changes when going from one number to the

next.

## • Used when sequence of binary numbers may produce an error or ambiguity

during the transition from one number to the next. For example, gray code

## is utilized in measuring & sensing mechanical movement.

SUPL (5 min) For BCD addition, explain with two examples when and why it is necessary to add

## (6)10=(0110)2 to obtain the correct answer.

R:

The addition of 6 = (0110)2 to the binary sum converts it to the correct digit and produces a carry as required 16-
10=6.

SUPL (5 min) How many different ways signed numbers can be represented in computers? Name them. Explain

why in modern computers signed binary numbers are represented in “2’s complement” format?

R: (longest expl)

## (c) Signed 2’s complement

The sign and magnitude as well as 1’s complement forms have two representations for 0 which is not desirable. The
signed 2’s complement has only 1 representation for 0. Therefore, it is commonly used. Both complement methods
can use adders for performing subtractions which simplify and speedup the arithmetic operations compared to sign
and magnitude representation. However, in 1’s complement subtraction, end-round carry is required which makes
subtraction slower. Therefore, 2’s complement is preferred representation.

(3 min) The Unicode Standard specifies the following boundary-related properties (choose 4):

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 Byte
 Doubleword
 Doubleword extended
 Grapheme cluster
 Word
 Line
 Sentence

## (1 min) ASCII was developed from:

 Telegraph code
 Gray code
 Hamming code
 Cyclic code

R: Telegraph code

## (2 min) Write two of the most known binary non-weighted codes:

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

## R: Gray, Excess-3 etc

(2 min) Write down at least four known binary weighted codes (fill the brackets):

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

## R: 8421, 2421, 4221, 5421, 7421 etc

(4 min) Put in the brackets 0, ±∞ or NaN as the result of the following (Hint: IEEE 754/85 floating point standard;
“n” is a nonzero real number):

## a. n/±∞ = (………….) where n is a nonzero real number

b. ±∞ * ±∞ = (…………..)
c. ±0/ ±0 = (…………….)
d. ±∞ * 0 = (…………..)

(4 min) Put in the brackets 0, ±∞ or NaN as the result of the following (Hint: IEEE 754/85 floating point standard;
“n” is a nonzero real number):

## a. n/±∞ = (………….) where n is a nonzero real number

b. ±∞ / ±∞ = (…………..)
c. ±n/0 = (………….)
d. ∞ + ∞ = (………….)
e. ∞ - ∞ = (………….)

(4 min) Put in the brackets 0, ±∞ or NaN as the result of the following (Hint: IEEE 754/85 floating point standard;
“n” is a nonzero real number):

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a. ±∞ * ±∞ = (…………..)
b. ±n/0 = (………….)
c. ∞ - ∞ = (………….)
d. ±∞ * 0 = (…………..)

R: curs pptx

(2 min) The packed BCD from Intel standard has (choose one) the total number of bits

a) 8
b) 32
c) 128
d) 80
e) 16
f) 64

R: d in curs ppt

(4 min) Write the ±∞ according with floating point (single precision) Intel standard. Then transform it in

R: curs

(4 min) The OSI model has Physical, Data link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, Application layers.
Which statement is true:

## a. Data link performs data correction not detection

b. Data link performs error detection not correction
c. Data link performs error detection and correction
d. Transport performs error correction
e. Transport performs decryption on received data
f. Physical layer does not generate errors
g. Presentation layer handless processing as encryption

R: b d g

Which of the following statements is false [Hint: more than one sentence]:

a. The error detection and correction abilities of polynomial codes are determined by the maximum Hamming
distance of the code.
b. cleverly chosen generator polynomials can often be exploited to find efficient error correction algorithms
c. An erroneous message can be detected in a straightforward way through polynomial division by the generator
polynomial resulting in a null remainder.

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d. Assuming that the codeword is erroneous, a systematic code can be decoded simply by stripping away the
last “r” checksum digits, where r is the degree of the generator.
e. An erroneous message can be detected in a straightforward way through polynomial division by the generator
polynomial resulting in a not-null remainder.
f. An erroneous message can be detected in a straightforward way through polynomial division by the generator
polynomial resulting in a null remainder.

Evident c

(2 min) Which layers (OSI model Physical, Data link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, Application )
perform error detection and recovery functions? [Hint: chose 2]

____________________________ ____________________________

## R: Data link and Transport

(2 min) How many bit errors within a single transmission can be corrected by using the Hamming code for error
correction?

a.1

b. 2

## d. as many errors as are present

R: a

(2 min) To correct a character with a bad parity bit (polynomial code), the receiver will

## c. ignore the bad character

d. request that the bad character (and possibly, the rest of the message) be retransmitted

R: d

(4 min) How many Hamming bits are already inserted into a 100 bit message?

a. 6

d. 10

b. 7

e. 128

c. 8

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R: b 7 bits

(4 min) How many Hamming bits are already inserted into a 63 bit message?

a. 6

d. 10

b. 7

e. 128

c. 8

R: a 6 bits

(1 min) Which error detection method consists of just one redundant bit per data unit?

## b. Two-dimensional parity check

c. CRC

d. Checksum

R: obviously a

(2 min) We can divide coding schemes into two broad categories: ________ and ______coding.

a. block; linear

b. linear; nonlinear

c. block; convolution

## d. none of the above

R: c

(1 min) We add r redundant bits to each block to make the length n = k + r. The resulting n-bit blocks are usually
called _________.

a. datawords

b. blockwords

c. codewords

## d. none of the above

R: c

(1 min) The ________ between two words is the number of differences between corresponding bits.

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a. Hamming code

b. Hamming distance

c. Hamming rule

## d. none of the above

r: b

(1 min) To guarantee correction of up to 5 errors in all cases, the minimum Hamming distance in a block code must
be ________.

a. 5

b. 6

c. 11

## d. none of the above

R: d

SHANNON

(5 min) Let us consider a pack of 32 playing cards (7, 8, 9, 10, king, qeen, jack and ace each one of clubs, diamonds,
hearts and spades) one of which is drawn at random.

a) Calculate the amount of uncertainty of the event E = {The card drawn is the king of hearts}.

b) Calculate the amount of uncertainty of the event E = {The card drawn is a heart}.

R: a) 5

B) 3

SUPL (5 min) In a game, a player chooses an ordered sequence of four pieces. The pieces are of the same shape
and may be of different colors. Eight colors are available, so that the chosen sequence may consist of one, two,
three or four colors. What is the average amount of uncertainty in the sequence chosen by the player? (any
sequence has the same probability of being chosen)

## R: total choices (8 colors taken by 4) 84=212 H(X) = 12

(8 min) Let X be a discrete random variable taking on three different values X1, X2, X3 and the following distribution
of probabilities (p1=a+z p2=a+y p3=z). Find the values for a, z, y when the system has:

a) A maximum entropy
b) A minimum entropy

## NOTE For others p1=2a+z p2=a+y p3=z and maximum entropy

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HAMMING

(8 min) A 12-bit Hamming code word containing 8 bits of data and 4 parity bits is read

from memory. What was the original 8-bit data word that was written into memory if the

## 12-bit word read out is as follows:

a) 000011101010

b) 101110000110

c) 101111110100

R: a)

C1(1,3,5,7,9,11) = 0,0,1,1,1,1 = 0

C2(2,3,6,7,10,11) = 0,0,1,1,0,1 = 1

C4(4,5,6,7,12) = 0,1,1,1,0 = 1

C8(8,9,10,11,12) = 0,1,0,1,0 = 0

## (because Data-bits are 3 5 6 7 9 10 11 12)

R: b)

C1(1,3,5,7,9,11) = 1,1,1,0,0,1 = 0

C2(2,3,6,7,10,11) = 0,1,0,0,1,1 = 1

C4(4,5,6,7,12) = 1,1,0,0,0 = 0

C8(8,9,10,11,12) = 0,0,1,1,0 = 0

ECC = 0010= (2)10 Error in bit 2 ( it is a Parity bit) => Corrected 8-bit data = 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0

## R: c) ECC = 0000 No Error 8-bit Data = 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0

A message, 10010011000 coded using hamming (11,7) was received by PC X. What is the original data sent?

Test if these code words are correct, assuming they were created using an even parity Hamming Code . If one is
incorrect, indicate what the correct code word should have been. Also, indicate what the original data was.

010101100011

111110001100

000010001010

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BINARY OPERATIONS and conversions

(8 min) Convert the following number from “excess-3” code to “BCD” code.:

## (1011)e-3: 1011 – 0011 = 1000 = 8

=> (0111 1001 1011) excess-3 = ( 4 6 8 ) BCD = (0100 0110 1000) BCD

a) (10110.0101)2
b) (16.5)16

a) 1.11010

b) 1110.10

R:

## (b) 1110.10 = 1110.1000 = E.8 = 14+8/16 = 14.5

(14.5 = 8 * 1.8125, Reason is that 1110.10 is the same as 1.11010 shifted left 3 times; i.e.

multiplies by 23=8.)

## (5 min) Convert the decimal number 345 to binary in two ways:

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(a) convert directly to binary;

## R: Results of repeated division by 2: quotients are followed by reminders:

a) 345/2 = 172 (1); 86(0); 43(0); 21(1); 10(1); 5(0); 2(1); 1(0); 0(1)

## b) Results of repeated by division by 16(much shorter):

345/16 = 21(9); 1(5); 0(1) answer = 159 (hex) = 0001 0101 1001 = 101011001 (bin)

(5 min) Obtain the 1’s and 2’s complements of the following binary numbers:

a) 11101010

b) 01111110

c) 00000001

d) 10000000

e) 00000000

## e) 1’ comp. = 11111111; 2’s comp. = 00000000

(5 min) Perform subtraction on the following unsigned binary number using 2’scomplement

of the subtrahend. Where the result should be negative, 2’s complement it and affix a minus sign.

a) 11011 – 11001

b) 110100 – 10101

c) 1011 – 110000

d) 101010 – 101011

## b) 110100 – 10101 = 110100 + 101011 = 011111 (52 –21 = 31)

c) 1011 – 110000 = 011011 -> 100101 (11 –48= –37) (No Carry implies negative.)

## d) 101010 – 101011 = 111111 -> - 000001 (42 –43 = -1)

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Shall be split or the decimal to be smaller :

## (8 min) Represent decimal number 6027 in

a) BCD

b) excess-3 code,

c) 2421 code,

d) Gray code

e) binary double-word

R: 6 0 2 7

## (1000 1011 0101) 8421

(3 min) What are three different ways of representing a signed number? Assume 8 bit

R:

## Signed & 2’s Complement 11110001

(5 min) Calculate B-A using 1’s complement subtraction. Both B and A are in unsigned

## binary format. Express your answer in sign and magnitude form.

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Given A=1101010 B=0110101

## Take 1’s complement for A: 0010101

1001010
0010101
0110101
The answer is in 1’s complement form: 1001010

## Signed and magnitude: -1110101 = (-53)10

(5 min) Find (-17)10 – (30)10 using 8-bit signed 2’s complement form. Express you answer

11101111 +

11100010

111010001

## (normalized 10101111 obviously means -47)

(5 min) Find (-75)10 – (20)10 using 8-bit signed 2’s complement form. Express you answer

## (-20)10 = (11101100) in Signed and 2’s complement

10110101

11101100

110100001

Discard the carry, the final answer is 10100001 in signed 2’s complement format.

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(7 min) Convert following number from one radix to another

## a. (12.75)10 to radix 2 (signed word format)

b. (0110 1111)2 to radix 16

R:

De rezolvat

## (1 min) Convert to decimal the following hexadecimal number:

A8

R:

(5 min) Perform the following subtraction using binary coded decimal representations:

ff – a4

R:

255-164=91

0110 corectie

## The result has to be -91=(1001 0001)BCD

OBS:

(8 min) Perform the following subtraction and briefly explain all steps:

(f)H – (d)H

## a. using binary coded decimal representations

b. using 2’s complement

(5 min) Perform the following binary subtraction using the suitable binary method:

(15)10 – (64)10

R:

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(2 min) Resolve the follow BSD addition. Transform the result in decimal:

0101 + 0110

R:

Resolve the follow subtraction using the 2’s complement of subtrahend. Convert the result in 16 radix.

## 0010 0110 – 0101 0001

R:

What is the first thing you must do in order to solve the subtraction problem (15)10 – (63)10 using 2's complement
representation? Solve it using both 1’s and 2’s complement.

R:

The first thing you should do to solve this problem is convert (11)10 and –(44)10 to binary using 1's or 2’s complement
representation. The rest is obviously

Solve each of the following 5-bit subtraction problems using 1's complement representation. Convert your answers
to decimal to check your work.

a. 001102 - 001012

b. 011002 - 010102

c. 001002 - 001012

d. 010012 - 010112

e. 000112 - 011002

f. 001102 - 010012

For each of the following problems convert the subtrahend to an 8-bit 2's complement representation and

001111112 - 7810

001100102 - 12310

010010012 - 11110

000001112 - 3510

## Find the two’s complement for

a. 11

b. 43

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c. 123

Subtract 72 from 23, as a computer would, using binary code 2’s complement.

Which is the least significant bit of the following (fill the brackets):

## 1110 0001 LSB (……….)

Which is the most significant bit of the following (fill the brackets):

10011010

10000111

converter.htm

11101111

11001101

## R: the general rule has to be known from https://ncalculators.com/digital-computation/binary-gray-code-

converter.htm

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Fill the cells (4 digits per cell) with the binary representation (IEEE 754/85 – single precision floating point
representation) of the following:

a. (-0.5)10
b. (-1.5)10
c. (-5)10
d. (-0.75)10
e. (1.01)2
f. (-1.011)2

Write 28.125 in floating point single precision format. Convert the result in hexadecimal.

In a block of memory we have (85610000)H. What would be the value in decimal if the hexadecimal number is a
floating point representation.

We have a codeword 1100101 and it’s generator G(X)=X3+1. Check if the codeword is already corrupted.

Reminder DRAFT:
IEEE 745/85 theory and exercises – more have to be added

A) 2

B) 0

C) 1

A) degree

B) generator

C) redundancy

## The _______ of a polynomial is the highest power in the polynomial.

A) range

B) degree

C) power

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D) none of the above

A) 1111

B) 1101

C) 1000

## D) none of the above

Encodings, Inc. specializes in codes that use 20-bit transmit blocks. They are trying to design a (20, 16) linear block
code for single error correction. Explain whether they are likely to succeed or not.

R: A single error correcting code must be able to uniquely identify n + 1 patterns (n error patterns and one without
any errors). So 2 n-k must be ≥ n+1. That is not true when n=20 and k=16.

Suppose the blood pressure (BP) for tomorrow can take on one of N ≥ 3 possible distinct values, V1, V2, . . . , VN ,
whose respective probabilities are p1 ≥ p2 . . . ≥ pN > 0, with ∑𝐍
𝐢=𝟎 𝐩 𝐢 = 𝟏 Call this distribution D.

a. Write the expression for the entropy of D in terms of the quantities defined above.
b. The cardiologist, who is never wrong, announces that the blood pressure tomorrow is
guaranteed to be one of three distinct values.

b.1 What set of three values for tomorrow’s blood pressure will convey the most information?

b.2 How much information about tomorrow’s blood pressure has the cardiologist given you if the
three values are the most informative ones that you specified in Part b.1? Give both the expression
and the units in which this information is expressed.

N
R: a. Solution: From the definition of entropy, H(D) = − sum i=1 pi log2 pi .

b.1 The less probable the event, the more informative it is to be told the event will occur. The event {Vi or Vj or Vk}
for distinct i, j, k has probability pi+pj +pk ~ 1, since the outcomes Vi, Vj and Vk are mutually exclusive. Hence the most
informative event is {VN−2 or VN−1 or VN }, i.e.,, the three BP are VN−2, VN−1 and VN .
b.2 The corresponding information is − log2(pN−2 + pN−1 + pN ) bits.

reminder

## Hamming & polinomial – more have to be added … plus some theory

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Sketches and “for translating” or “to be resolved” things :

## 4. (1p) Să se determine parametrii a, b, c reali astfel încât entropia evenimentului

 x x2 x3 
X   1 
să fie minimă.  a  b b  c a  c 

5. (1p) Verificaţi şi corectaţi, în ipoteza unei singure poziţii eronate, mesajul 0111001, ştiind că a fost codificat
folosind codul Hamming. 0010011

## 1. (2p) Reprezentarea numerelor în virgulă mobilă.

4. (1p) Fie mesajul binar 110010; să se codifice folosind polinomul de generare G(X) = X3 + X2 + 1.

## 5. (1p) Să se efectueze în BCD 1967 + 2914

Assuming that a computer uses 8 bits to represent numbers, show how the numbers (-21)10

and (-33)10 would be represented in the computer using the signed 2’s complement binary number

system. Perform the operation { (-21)10 - (33)10 as it would occur in this computer using 8-bit

signed 2’s complement binary arithmetic, converting the answer to signed magnitude binary and

decimal numbers.

Given A = (0111 0001)2 and B = (0101 0101)2; Perform B - A operation using 1’s complement

## (a) (0101 0110 1000)BCD to radix 2

(b) (15d)H to BCD (!!! shall be there because of tricky steps)
(c) (1E.F)16 to 10 trough 2 ???

Or

## (1E.F)16 =(1*161) + (14*160) + (15*16-1) = 30 + 15/16 = (30.9375)10

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Assuming that we use 8 bits to represent binary numbers. For given numbers A and B,

perform (B-A) operation using 2’s complement arithmetic. Show all steps.

## A = (0000)2 and B = (10111001)2

Assuming that a computer uses 8 bits to represent numbers, show how the numbers (-21)10

and (-33)10 would be represented in the computer using the signed 2’s complement binary number

system. Perform the operation { (-21)10 - (33)10} as it would occur in this computer using 8-bit

signed 2’s complement binary arithmetic, converting the answer to signed magnitude binary and

decimal numbers.

Given A = (0111 0001)2 and B = (0101 0101)2; Perform B - A operation using 1’s complement

## 1. Attempt all problems.

2. If information appears to be missing make a reasonable assumption, state it and proceed. If you find a question
ambiguous, please be sure to write down any assumptions you make. Please

be neat and legible. If we can’t understand your answer, we can’t give you credit! And please

show your work for partial credit. Please write your answers legibly in the spaces provided. You can use the backs of
the pages if you need extra room for your answer or scratch work. Make sure we can find your answer! Partial credit
will only be given in cases where you show your work and (very briefly) explain your approach.

3. Calculators or mobile phones are not needed and are not allowed.

## 4. No additional material is allowed.

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5. Show all steps

## 6. Cheating would not be a feasible solution.

Attempt all problems. Show all work. If information appears to be missing make a reasonable assumption, state it,
and proceed. Calculators (or mobile phones) are not needed and are not allowed. Papers (blank or not), books, e-
readers, computers etc. are not allowed. Cheating would not be a feasible solution.

## The start hour 7:30 sharp

Please write your name/surname and group CLEARLY in the space at the top of each page. NOW, please!

“A channel requires spatial or temporal distance between the sender and the receiver. Energy is necessary to
transmit the message from the sender to the receiver. For Shannon, a channel is defined by a set of conditional
probabilities that a certain message is received given what was transmitted. In cases where there is no noise, the
conditional probability that a message is received given what was transmitted is simply the unconditional probability
that the message is received. In noisy environments, what is transmitted is not always what is received.”

Teaching Policies

I am collecting, in this page, a number of policies that I abide by in the teaching of classes. Over the years I have
experimented with different choices, but have now settled down to what you see here. I am sure that I have not
covered every possibility, and should you need to know something that is not here, please let me know and I will add
it. What you see here are my implementations of those rules and my predilections in those cases where I have free
choice.

Appeal Procedure

In any situation where you believe you have been unjustly dealt with, the first thing to do is to talk with me. If we
can not resolve the issue the second appeal would be at the professor Zota. Further a 3rd appeal can be made the
chair of the IE (or the designee of the chair). If this does not lead to a satisfactory resolution, an appeal can be made
to the Dean of CIE. Appeals to the Dean are final!

Cheating

If I suspect a student of cheating on any material submitted for a grade, but have a doubt about it, I will generally
give a stern warning that this is not tolerated. A second instance, or a first instance where there is no doubt, will
result in punitive measures, i.e., a grade of 0 on the material, and a form letter will be issued. Any further activity of
this sort will result in an "1" for the entire course. If two or more students are involved, for instance, someone
copying from another's exam, then all students involved are considered liable for the infraction and all will receive
the same treatment.

I expect all students to abide by the Student Conduct Code. This means that any material handed in for grading must
be the result of the individual student's efforts. Collaboration, plagiarism and other forms of cheating on take-home
exams or home works submitted for grades will not be tolerated. You have a duty to report to me any instances of
this that you are aware of.

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Extra Credit

Although I will from time to time provide opportunities to regain points lost on an exam (but not always), I do
believe in extra credit (max 5% of final). I require a student to demonstrate mastery of the material covered in a
course and labs. If this can not be done, then showing me that you have mastered some other material is of little
consequence.

Civility

Turn off beepers and cell phones during class. My commitment is to create a climate for learning characterized by
respect for each other and the contributions each person makes to class. I ask that you make a similar commitment.

Late Assignments

You should make every effort to hand in work when it is due, however if you miss a deadline you should get the work
to me as soon as you can. I will normally accept late work without penalty until the time I am finished grading the
assignment. After that point, a grade penalty will be imposed. As I make an effort to grade material and return it as
soon as I can, this does not give you much leeway. I will not accept late assignments after I have returned the graded
material to the class.

God, grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, courage to change the things I can, and wisdom to
know the difference. Learning is the way to achieve that wisdom, learning a lot should limits the acceptance of what
cannot be changed, being intelligent without learning is eventually the deathend of the courage.

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